U. S. THIRD REPUBLIC II: AN ESSAY
Edward E. Rochon
Edward E. Rochon on Shakespir
U. S. Third Republic II: An Essay
Copyright © 2016 by Edward E. Rochon
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Some Other Works by the Author
[U. S. Third Republic: An Essay
The State & Statecraft: An Essay
Totalitarianism: An Essay
Plan RD: An Essay
Super Intelligence: An Essay
The JU Engine]
Number Bases & Digits: An Essay
Seven Month Pregnancy: An Essay
Table of Contents
Having spent some time considering the creation of new languages, I note that no matter how you try to make a well constructed language, another construction has certain advantages and disadvantages over any you might care to devise. So you always sacrifice some advantages. This is good reason to oppose one universal language for humanity. Better to be multilingual and endure the problems of translation otherwise. Well constructed languages are much easier to learn and translate at any rate. The current crop of languages were meant more to confuse than enlighten, taking the Tower of Babel story at face value.
In my antecedent essay of the same name less the two I’s, I realized that the fear of ‘that man of sin’, the pall of overweening autocracy is a great challenge. The autocrat invariably falls under the sway of a corrupt and evil oligarchy. This fear is strong in America. And we are accustomed to the ‘separation of powers’ concept to impede this. Taking this into view, I surmise here a third republic that goes one better at separation while at the same time giving the chief executive the necessary powers to do what needs to be done. This is the body of the second essay on the subject.
Chapter 1: The Fourth Branch
Aristotle notes that things come in threes in nature: solid, liquid, gas; past, present, future; three dimensions of space; left, right, middle; etc. But there is also the fourth element. We must add time to the three component substances of the universe, and also to their extension. Time is a flow and motion follows from it, or the other way around. We have the Trinity of the Godhead, and divine Wisdom as a female consort. In keeping with this, why not a fourth branch of government? Why? To the matter:
Ballot stuffing, fraudulent miscounts are the bane of democracy. You may know the claims. Kennedy stole the election from Nixon with help from Mayor Daley. Truman was elected to Congress with the help of Prendergast ballot stuffing. The scandal of ballot stuffing plagues the reputation of LBJ in his demise. The notorious plebiscite votes in dictatorships always claimed to be rigged. What is the point of democracy if the opposition is murdered or denied election through ballot fraud? OK, let us make a separate branch of government to control the ballot box.
Chapter 2: Parliaments
My original work lambasted parliaments and government by them. On the other hand, my work upheld democracy and the sovereignty of the people. Is not the voice of the people a type of parliament? Derived from the French word: to speak, the original intent in England and elsewhere was not so much to rule the state, but give the broader spectrum of society a say in how much should be collected in taxes.
Edward II and other kings could derive some advantages from a parliament. Oppressive taxation is a major complaint against autocrats. Putting a body between the prince and the taxpayer has some advantages in dissembling and deflecting such criticisms. It deflects anger against his court as well. A court is a kind of parliament within the palace, at any rate.
The chief executive must have the power to effect changes, and therefore to make legal precepts and regulations to do this effectively. But government costs money, and the procurement of this was the major object of parliaments in the Middle Ages.
Now we also want democracy. A direct democracy is burdensome, doomed to all manner of trouble, and I believe the great masses of the people do not really want it, taking up too much of their time. It is needful only to check abuses by the ballot box and to vote on momentous matters.
But since the electorate is a type of parliament of sorts, we might make occasion to ask a bit more of them without burdening them too much, thereby giving the chief executive the powers needed to make efficient government. Why not have plebiscite and the usual ballot box act as mediators between the branches of government, particularly Congress and Executive? I propose four parallel branches of government kept in balance and agreement by the electorate.
Chapter 3: Parallel Government
THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH: The executive controls the administrative arms of government and the laws that make the government run with the exception of law enforcement, putting a barrier between him and the charge of police state. He would control the prisons that convicts go to as well as have the power of pardon. Judicial enforcement is a problem for upright princes. The judges should therefore control the police, their activity subject to court decrees as it is now. By removing lawmaking from Congress, it ceases to be a legislature but remains a parliament in the original sense of budgetary considerations.
THE CONGRESSIONAL BRANCH: The Congress must raise funds for all reasonable expenses required and demanded by the Chief Executive as a matter of constitutional requirement. Since reasonable is a part of the mandate, they are allowed review of all expenses and reasons for the expenses. If they find them unreasonable they may cut back on those unreasonable expenses. The executive can concede the point and live within the ‘reasonable’ expenses procured, or demand a plebiscite in two forms; He can ask for a blanket raise in the overall expenses on the ballot question, or he may ask for a vote on a more detailed itemized ballot question that is summarized to some reasonable amount of time for the voter to digest and review. A time limit can be made constitutional, as this is an important matter. Alternately, if Congress desires, it can demand an itemized ballot question, whether asked by the executive or not, and place it on the ballot. If the ballot question passes in favor of the executive, Congress must arrange taxation to provide the funds. The Executive Branch has no say over how taxes are to be raised. Congress is voted into office by the usual means for some period of time. I prefer a unicameral body.
JUDICIAL BRANCH: The judiciary controls the police, interprets laws as made by the executive branch, and conducts trials. The Chief Executive picks chief magistrates with the consent of Congress, and the chief magistrates choose lesser magistrates and administrative personnel. Congress must provide all reasonable expenses to the judicial branch with review of expenses. If a dispute arises, the ballot box will decide what is reasonable. The Chief Executive must have power to remove judges with or without cause given, but either the judicial or the congressional branch, or the two in tandem, can challenge removals when deemed corrupt, as an impeachable offense, by demanding a plebiscite.
THE ELECTORAL BRANCH: Electoral governors will be elected by the people. The Congress must supply all reasonable funds to the electoral branch with review. Disputes on finances are decided by plebiscites. Running elections in a timely manner is its only duty. No governor can be removed except by plebiscite. Congress, the Chief Executive or Chief Magistrates may request a plebiscite under some agreed manner. Double jeopardy for the same charge is not permitted. However a plebiscite for the same offense repeated on a different occasion is subject to plebiscite removal.
So the object is to have four parallel branches of government that do not interfere with one another unless suspicion of sedition or malfeasance is in question. Ultimately, the electorate will decide. This is reasonable in a democracy. Any attempt to weigh the electorate down with excessive and frivolous elections should be viewed in a dim light by the electorate. They will be at liberty to take action. This will surely produce larger voter turn out and, I hope, smoother more efficient government.
Chapter 4: Government Today
I recently heard that George Washington gave our present constitution no more than twenty years to survive. Clearly, he did not think much of it. Neither Alexander Hamilton nor James Madison were happy with it, but settled for the best that could be arranged under the circumstances. Jefferson and the more radical republicans most certainly did not like the present constitution. This was especially true in the South, and was a major incitement to the Civil War and the several crises that led up to it.
My objections are at variance with all of the above founders. However, let us not dote on this not very good constitution of ours. Look what the founders truly thought of it. I call it the seditious rag.
This second attempt at another republic takes more notice of the electorate as a parliamentary body of sorts, and by giving it more say by plebiscite, while not descending into the abyss of direct democracy that neither I nor the above mentioned founders evidently want. An attempt is made to further reduce the fear of despotism while providing efficient administration of the administrative branch.
Other Works by the Author
Elements of Physics: Matter
Elements of Physics: Space
Elements of Physics: Time
Unified Field Theory: An Essay
Golden Age Essays
Golden Age Essays II
Golden Age Essays III
Golden Age Essays IV
Golden Age Essays V
My current biography and contact links are posted at . My writings include essays, poetry and dramatic work. Though I write poetry, my main interest is essays about the panoply of human experience and knowledge. This includes philosophy, science and the liberal arts. Comments, reviews and critiques of my work are welcome. Thank you for reading my book.
A preface explains that any form of government like any language has certain advantages as a general rule. To avoid fear of autocratic despotism, that man of sin, and to conform to the current separation of powers current in the US, that purports to inhibit despotism, I offer a second option of reform. Chapter 1 notes that ballot stuffing and electoral fraud undermine democratic government. It also notes that voters are a type of parliament. Why not put the ballot box in a separate branch that only conducts elections. The other three branches would note and bring to the voter attention any ballot stuffing by that branch in its own favor. But conducting elections would be its only job. Chapter 2 notes the original power of the English parliament was largely to have a say in taxation. Congress becomes a revenue raising arm of the government. It must provide funds for all reasonable requests for executive action and the ballot box decides in case of disputes. Chapter 3 lays out the basic powers of the branches. The executive branch makes laws and runs the government, but is stripped of police powers while keeping control of prisons and power to pardon. The congressional branch controls revenue raising and is required to provide all reasonable funds to the executive. Reasonable means oversight and potential rejection and curtailing of funds. The executive may appeal to the people to overrule by plebiscite. The executive has no power over how to raise revenue otherwise. The judicial branch has chief magistrates chosen by the executive with consent of congressional review. Minor magistrates and administrative personnel are chosen by chief magistrates. The executive has power to remove chief magistrates, but Congress, the Judiciary may cry foul and appeal to a plebiscite vote for corruption and impeachment of the executive. The judicial branch controls the police, interprets laws and conducts trials. Congress must meet all reasonable judicial requests for funds with review. Conflicts will be decided by plebiscite. The electoral branch will be chosen and removed only by the electorate, with the other three branches free to cry foul, should that branch rig elections or engage in other malfeasance. The electorate will remove governors of the electoral branch as required. So the object is to have the branches run in parallel to each other. The electorate should take a dim view of too many calls for elections to settle disputes. People should be elected who can get along with each other. Chapter 4 notes that neither Washington, Hamilton, Madison nor Jefferson were enthusiastic about the present constitution for various reasons. It is not a sacred text. We can do better.