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The World Famous Genghis Khan was a Kyrgyz






Begish Amatov






Дүйнөнү дүңгүрөткөн Чынгыз хан кыргыз болгон



The World Famous Genghis Khan was a Kyrgyz



Гремевший на весь мир чингисхан был кыргызом








УДК 94(47) ББК 63.3 (2 Ки) А 61 Аматов Б. А 61

Дүйнөнү дүңгүрөткөн Чынгыз хан кыргыз болгон. – Б.: 2016. – 127 б.

ISBN 978-9967-15-419-3






Bishkek, 2016




The All-Powerful Genghis Khan was a Kyrgyz



Since Kyrgyzstan gained independence, its official history hasn’t changed. However, several scholars interested in history have found and collected a number of materials deserving of further systematization and comprehensive study. One subject that still presents much confusion and difficulty is the time of the Mongol expansion, which is exactly what propelled this careful study of the available historical sources on Genghis Khan (or Chinghis Khan, ‘Universal Ruler’).




Historical Sources on Genghis Khan


The Secret History of the Mongols, the oldest surviving literary work by an anonymous author – or, rather, its Chinese translation found in Peking (Beijing), – was made known to the world thanks to the Russian scholar Pyotr I. Kafarov (1817–1878), better known by his monastic name Palladius. As the head of the Russian Orthodox Mission, Palladius visited China several times; he found the manuscript in 1866 and made its Russian translation. Later, the book was translated into English, Russian, French, German, Spanish, Czech, Bulgarian, and modern Mongolian.

There is a claim that The Secret History was launched by order of Genghis Khan and finished in 1240, under his third son Ögedei. However this dating is questionable, and there are reasons to believe that the work may not have been finished until 1264. In any case, this invaluable manuscript on Genghis Khan, his ancestors and descendants is widely recognized as a primary historical source. Other important sources used in this study are the classic Russian translation of The Secret History, originally made by S. A. Kosin in 1941 and re-published as Genghis Khan, The Secret History of the Mongols. The Great Yassa in 2009; the Russian translation of the great Compendium of Chronicles by Rashid al-Din (1301–1311); the Uzbek text of The History of Four Uluses by Tamerlane’s grandson Ulugh Beg (1431); and the Kyrgyz text of Genealogy of the Turks by Abu al-Ghazi Bahadur (1605–1664). All these have been acknowledged as authoritative historical sources. In addition, the author has studied works by Muhammad Haidar Dughlat Beg as well as many Kyrgyz, Russian, and foreign scholars.




Bringing Historical Findings to the Kyrgyz People


The first edition of this book, The Almighty Genghis Khan was a Kyrgyz, was published in 2015, by Turar Publishers in Kyrgyzstan, with the print run of 1,000 copies. Originally, the work started with an article in Kyrgyz, published in Zhany Ordo, a popular independent newspaper, as well as in Erkin Too, the official paper of the Kyrgyz Republic, and Zhetigen magazine; a Russian translation of the article also ran in the Kyrgyz weekly The Money and Power. The article was discussed in two different programs on Kyrgyz Public Radio and Television. In February 2016, its author, historian and activist Begish Amatov, presented his findings at the conference held under the aegis of the Kyrgyz Academy of Sciences and its current President Abdygany Erkebayev. The discussion was joined by twenty-five leading Kyrgyz scholars, and after a heated debate and many controversial opinions, the Kyrgyz Academy of Sciences recognized Mr. Amatov’s research as a contribution to public service, dedicated to the Kyrgyz people. It was another important step in researching and disseminating historical data.




The Kyrgyz as an Ancient People


Scholars agree that the Kyrgyz are one of the most ancient peoples in Central Asia. In fact, they were mentioned as Gekun (or Ko-kun) or Jiankun (or Chien-kun) in Chinese records of the Han period as early as 201 B.C.

Since then, history has seen many great events. As for the Kyrgyz, according to available sources, in 840 A.D. they created their own Great Kyrgyz Khaganate. In the 950s, the Karakhanid dynasty came to power in Central Asia, and the early 1200s saw the arrival of Genghis Khan on the world scene.




Genghis Khan and His Origins


Recently, many Eurasian nations – and the Kyrgyz people among them – have tried to claim Genghis Khan as their own, linking their ancestry to him and thus seeking to elevate the status of their national histories. However, the Kyrgyz claim seems to have the most solid foundation, substantiated by reliable historical sources and sound scholarly arguments. Russian orientalist Evgeniy Kychanov (1932–2013) along with a number of other scholars studied Genghis Khan’s origins and concluded that he was of Kyrgyz background. However, since neither Dr. Kychanov nor the others left any specific records of which of the Kyrgyz tribes Genghis Khan belonged to, this problem now must be resolved by modern Kyrgyz historians.

Typically, people trace their origin by looking at their genealogy and by studying the ethnic background of their ancestors. We will do just that: look at Genghis Khan’s genealogical lineage and try to determine and prove that he does indeed belong to the Kyrgyz ethnic group. Let’s take up these arguments one by one.




Alan Gua’s Ancestors: The Khori (Khori-Tumat) Clan


According to Evgeniy Kychanov’s book The Life of Temüjin Who Sought to Conquer the World, Genghis Khan’s biological male ancestor eleven generations back was ‘Maaligq Bayaudets’ (P. 40), described by the author as ‘a red-haired and blue-eyed Yenisei Kyrgyz.’ Dr. Kychanov was unable to determine which clan Maaligq Bayaudets belonged to, but some information can be gleaned from the biography of Alan Gua, the legendary proto-grandmother of Genghis Khan who lived eleven generations before him. The Secret History of the Mongols states that after the death of her husband Dobun Mergen, his widow Alan Gua gave birth to triplet sons whose father was Maaligq. Dr. Kychanov based his conclusions on this data.

Now, let look at the history of Alan Gua according to the Russian translation of The Secret History by S. A. Kosin:


“[Duua Soqor] spoke saying, ‘At the forefront of one black cart in the midst of those people which, journeying, are drawing nigh, one maiden is good. If she has not yet been given unto a man, I shall request her for you, my younger brother, Dobun Mergen.’ He sent his younger brother Dobun Mergen to see her. When Dobun Mergen came to those people, he saw that verily it was a maiden, beautiful and good, whose fame and name were great, named Alan Gua, and which has not yet been given unto a man. Alan Gua’s father was Quorilartai Mergen, the chief of the Qori Tumad, and her mother Bargujin Gua. Alan Gua was born at Arig Usin (Usun) in the land of the Qori Tumad. Her mother was the daughter of Bargudai Mergen, Lord of Köl (Uluu) Bargujin Hollow, whose lands lie far away. As for the people Alan Gua was journeying with were thus from the clan of her father, Quorilartai Mergen.” (Genghis Khan, The Secret History of the Mongols. The Great Yassa, P. 12).


Here Tumats are called ‘Tumads’. We can also see that Alan Gua’s mother belonged to the Kyrgyz Bargy clan.

Let us now turn to The Compendium of Chronicles by Rashid al-Din: “The dwelling place of that clan (Tumat) was near the aforementioned land of Bargujin-Tokum. That clan was a branch of the Bargut people” (P. 122). Thus Tumats can be called Bargy since they were one of the offshoots of the Bargy.

The same can be seen in the Kyrgyz Sanzhyra (genealogy). In his book Alimbek Khan, Zhapar Kenchiev, a well-known Kyrgyz historian and Sanzhyra expert, writes this about the Kyrgyz Bargy: “Bargykhan was born to Adigine; to him was born Satyke, then Myrzake; then to the latter was born Bokoi khan, to him then Bakal baatyr and Bai Boochon, and Bai Boochon had four sons: Olzhoke, Tileke, Kokcho, and Zhamgyrchi. Kokcho then had Tuumatai (Tumatai)” (P. 200).

Thus, Tumatai here is stated to be of Bargy descent. And as we pointed out before, the Khori belong to the Tumats and are called the Khori-Tumat.



The Kyrgyz Lineage


Incidentally, there is another intriguing fact. In Rashid al-Din’s Chronicles four clans are named as Kyrgyz (P. 150): the Bargy, the Tumat, the Qori (Khori) and the Bajaut (Qonurat). In the section “Kyrgyz Lineage” from On Turkic Clans which had its own Ruler or Chief (P. 150-151) we read:


“Kyrgyz and Kem-kemdzuit are two regions that are very similar and have one government (mamlakat). Kem-kemdzuit is a big river. On one side it touches the Mongol (Moghulistan) territory, and another border creates the Selenga river, where are the Tajdzit lineages; one side borders with the territory belonging into the basin of a big river, named Ankara-muren till to the Ibir-Sibir territory. Kem-kemdzuit borders on one side with territory and mountains, where lives the Najman lineage. The Qori [related to Tumats], Bargu [the Bargy], Tumat [a Bargy branch] and Bajaut [related to Qonurat], some of them are, strictly speaking, the Mongols and they are living on the Bargujin-Tokum territory. … There are many cities and villages and many nomads in these areas. Title of each their ruler – even if he has another name – is inal, and the lineage name of that people, which have respect is idi. The name of second region is Edi-Orun and the name of local leader was Urus-inal.

In the year of tolaj, which was the hare year and corresponded to the year 603 [1205 – 1207], Genghis Khan sent his two emissaries Altan and Bukr to these two rulers with an appeal to submit to him. They sent back their three emirs Urut-Utudju, Elik-Timur and Akytrak together with the emissaries, and also a white falcon as respect expression of younger against the older and submitted to him. After twelve years, in the year barsa, when one of the Tumat lineages in Bargujin-Tokum and Bajluk rose up, the Mongolians asked from the Kyrgyz, who were near, a military help (tcharyk) against the rebels, which the Kyrgyz refused. Therefore Genghis Khan sent soldiers against the Kyrgyz. The soldiers were under the command of his son Jochi. Commander of the Kyrgyz was Kurlun, among the Mongols, an emir named Noka led the front lines, and he turned back the Kyrgyz and came back from the eighth river. When Jochi came there, Kem-kemdzuit was covered by ice, he came on the ice, defeated and submitted the Kyrgyz and came back.”1


These events have been extensively studied by many scholars, so we won’t focus on them and instead turn our attention to the two clans that lived close to Genghis Khan, the Bargu and the Tumat. Historical evidence demonstrates that Bargus and Tumats lived close together in Bargujin-Tokum. Undoubtedly, the Bargu are the Bargy which still remains one of the major Kyrgyz clans. But “after twelve years” the Tumat rose up against Genghis Khan. “Tumats were one of the branches of the Barga,” we read in The Chronicles by Rashid al-Din (P. 122). “That clan lived near the aforementioned [territory of] Bargujin-Tokum. It also was an offshoot from six relations and a branch of the Barguts (Bargy).” Thus, we can confidently conclude that the Tumats were originally part of the Bargy clan.

There are Tumat people in the Alai area of Kyrgyzstan, where there is also a eponymous territory called Tumatai. And in the Zhyluu-Suu territory, near the Alai Chyrchyk Pass, one can find representatives of the Qonurat clan and among them many Tumats who still consider themselves to be Qonurat. But if in Genghis Khan’s time the Tumats lived close to the Bargu, why do they now live among Qonurats? Rashid al-Din gives us a reliable answer:


“In Genghis Khan’s time, there was one honored emir by the name of Alchu Noyon. He had a son called Shinku-gurgen. Genghis Khan gave him four thousand men from other Khongirad clans and gave him also his daughter Tumalun, who was older than Tuluj-Khan, and then sent him to the region of Tumat where his descendants live until this day” (P. 162).


Thus, we see that after his oldest son Jochi crushed the Tumat rebellion, Genghis Khan gave an army of four thousand Qonurat warriors to his son-in-law Shinku-gurgen, charging him to keep control over the rebels. That’s how the Tumat mingled with the Qonura. The following words of the outstanding Russian scholar E. G. Grumm-Grzhimaylo reliably confirm that the Bargy clan was of Kyrgyz origin:


“It is certain that at one time the Buruts [a Dzungar name for the western Kyrgyz] used to live very closely with the Buryats in the area called Barga, Bargujin-Tokum. Their neighbors had an alliance with the Kyrgyz (Kergut) … It is evidenced by the name Barga which still belongs to one of the primary Qara-Kyrgyz clans.”




How did the Barga Establish Bargujin-Tokum?


Let’s take a look at the history of the Buryat people (taken from: www.buryatia.org):


[1]Excerpts from Rashid al-Din’s Chronicles in the English translation are partly quoted from The Kyrgyz – Children of Manas. Кыргыздар Манастын балдары by Petr Kokaisl, Pavla Kokaislová (P. 23-26).


“The Bargut clan is one of the most ancient in the Trans-Baikal region. The earliest historical documents to mention Barguts were ancient Turkic and Chinese manuscripts of the 7–10th cent. During the Turkic Khaganate (5–7th cent.) the Bargut clan was called the Bajerku. Originally they were part of the Turkic-Teles clans and led a nomadic lifestyle on the territory of the present-day Mongolia, later moving to that of the present day Buryat Republic and the Trans-Baikal region. Barguts are mentioned in Turkic sources; their chief is called the Great Irkin (Ekhe Erkhen). The Secret History also states that the daughter of the Bargut chief Bargudai Mergen was the wife of Qoridoi Mergen – whose daughter was Alan Gua, the legendary mother of the Mongol people.”

“The Barguts used to live in the territory of what is now the Barguzin basin, in the north of the Buryat Republic. After the defeat of the Kurykans, their southern neighbors were the Merkits and the Khori-Tumats. In the 9–13th cent., the Barkuts ousted the Kurykans, now comprising the primary population of the Trans-Baikal region.”

“The Barguts were the originators of the Bargujin-Tokum clan alliance, which was located on the eastern shores of Lake Baikal and boasted primitive forms of nationhood. The Barguts were a major player in the alliance, which is reflected in Khori legends where Barga Bator figures as the father of Burjadai and Qoridoi, i.e. of the Buryats and the Khori respectively.”

“In the 13th century, the Barguts supported Genghis Khan’s efforts to unite the clans of Central Asia and made a significant contribution to the establishment of the Mongol Empire. People from Bargujin-Tokum enjoyed Genghis Khan’s trust, served in his personal guard, and held high military and government positions. After the fall of the Mongol Empire, the Barguts were scattered, so by the time the first Russian explorers arrived at Lake Baikal, there remained only a very few Barguts clans living on these territories.”

Quite a few points here merit special attention. Alan Gua’s story is again reliably confirmed. We see more evidence that she was a granddaughter of King Uluu Bargy Bargudai Mergen, born to his daughter Bargudjin Goa. Her father’s name, Qorilartai Mergen, is here rendered as Qoridoi Mergen. At the same time, Qoridoi Mergen’s father is Barga (Bargy) Bator, the head of the alliance between the Buryats and the Qorilars (the Khori-Tumats), or, rather, Bargy Bator is considered to be the father of Burjadai and Qoridoi, which means that the Qorilars (the Khori-Tumats) also have Bargy origins.

Hence, here we are dealing with one part of the Bargy clam which lived closer to the beginning of the Onon River. It is stated here that both father and mother of Alan Gua come from the Barga clan – or, rather, that Bargy Bator was Alan Gua’s grandfather. In any case, the text clearly shows that by that time the Bargy clan had noticeably increased in size and tells a convincing story of how the Bargy earned Genghis Khan’s trust.

Let us now turn to the history of the Turkic Khaganate which provides some details of the Bargy clan’s life on the territory of the present day Mongolia, back in the 5 and 6th cent.




The Splitting of the Xiongnu (the Hünnü / the Huns)


This history includes several tragic events which cannot be overlooked:


“In 93 A.D., the coalitions of China, Xianbei, Dingling, and Jushi (inhabitants of the Turpan Oasis) defeated the Xiongnu in the battle of Ikh Bayan, and in 155 the Xianbei chief Tyanshihuai crushed the Xiongnu, after which the ethnic group was dismembered into four branches. One branch mingled with the triumphant Xianbei, the second migrated to China, the third remained in the wooded mountains of Tarabatai and the Black Irtysh, and the forth (the Xiongnu) retreated, fighting its way to the west and by the year 158 reaching the Volga and the lower Don. During the retreat, about a quarter of their total number – the Yueban tribes or the so called ‘weak Xiongnu’ – stayed behind on the territories of the Zhetysu region and Western Siberia, which lead to the emergence of the Yueban State (160 – 490)” (Source: Wikipedia).


For the Turkic-speaking Xiongnu (the Huns) these events were truly tragic, as historians well know. However, there are some details here that deserve thorough investigation. According to historical evidence, later the Yueban tribes joined the third branch of the Xiongnu. The Bargy, as part of the Xiongnu clan, migrated to the north-east, towards Lake Baikal, eventually establishing Bargujin-Tokum. Some historians identify Modu, the fourth known Xiongnu ruler and the founder of the Xiongnu Empire, with the legendary Oghuz Khagan. Meanwhile, in his Chronicles Rashid al-Din plainly states that Genghis Khan’s roots can be traced to the people of Oghuz Khagan. Thus, if Modu and Oghuz Khagan are one and the same person, the story of the Xiongnu (Huns) is part of the history of the Kyrgyz (the Bargy).

We also have historical evidence that shows that Genghis Khan’s ancient ancestors, fleeing from destruction, took refuge in the Ergenekon valley, settling there until 450. Later, one of their rulers was Borte Chono (Börte Çina), Genghis Khan’s male ancestor twenty-two generations back (The Secret History, P. 308).





The Qorilar or the Gorlos (the Qyan):

the Clan of Genghis Khan’s Ancestors


Let’s now turn back to Alan Gua. Her father Qoirilatai Mergen was the chief of the Tumats, one of the branches of the Barga clan. Later, the people that submitted to him, became the clan of Qorilar. Here is what The Secret History has to say:


“Qorilartai Mergen departed from the land of the Qori Tumad because the people had forbidden unto one another their land having sables, squirrels, and wild beasts. Displeased with their neighbors, Qorilartai Mergen and his people started to live separately and took the clan name Qorilar after their Noyon” (P. 12).


Thus Alan Gua’s origins become clear: the Qorilar clan of her father’s can be traced back to the Tumats, one of the branches of the Bargy.

Writing about the Qorilar in Chapter 2 of Book I of The Chronicles, Rashid al-Din says that “Alan Gua was from the Gorlos clan” (See The Secret History in A. Melekhin’s translation in Genghis Khan. The Secret History of the Mongols. The Great Yassa. Moscow, 2013, P. 309). The 2013 edition of The Secret History also includes The Genealogy of the Turks by Abu al-Ghazi Bahadur which states that Borto Chono was from the Qian clan, from the Gorlos tribe (P. 308).

We have already seen that Borte Chono was Genghis Khan’s male ancestor of twenty-two generations back (The Secret History, P. 308). Besides, we know that he was a ruler of the Qyan people which originated from the Gorlos (Qorilar) clan. It is also obvious that the Gorlos and the Qorilar are one and the same people. Rashid al-Din says that Dobun Mergen (Genghis Khan’s male ancestor of eleven generations back) and Alan Gua come from the Gorlos people, while The Secret History identifies Alan Gua’s ancestry as the Qorilar.

Incidentally, later Rashid al-Din calls the Qorilar by their Farsi name, the Gorlos. Abu al-Ghazi Bahadur also calls them by that name, although the root word ‘Qor’in the name ‘Qorilar remains unchanged. Let us again remind ourselves that in Genghis Khan’s genealogy Dobun Mergen is his ancestor eleven generations back and Borto Chono – twenty-two generations back. Both of them are identified as rulers, and all the other male ancestors in between them are named with great accuracy:


“The origin of Genghis Khan. There was a bluish wolf (Borte Chono) who was born by the favor of All-High Tengri [in 758, according to H. Perlee] and his wife was a fallow doe (Qoo Maral). They came passing over the river Tenggis. They encamped at the head of the Onan River, at Mount Burqan Qualdun, and there was Batachi-Khan born to them [born in 786]. The son of Batachi (Batachy) Khan was Tamacha [born in 828]. The son of Tamacha was Qorichar Mergen [which means ‘Qorichar the Sure Shot’]. The son of Qorichar Mergen was Aujam Boro’ul [born in 847]. The son of Aujam Boro’ul was Sali Qacha’u; the son of Sali Qacha’u was Yeke Nidün [born in 873]. The son of Yeke Nidün was Sem Söchi [born in 891]. The son of Sem Söchi was Qarchu [born in 908]. The son of Qarchu was Borjigidai Mergen. The son of Borjigidai Mergen was Torodljin Bayan [which means ‘Rich Man (bai) Torodljin’]. The sons of Torodljin Bayan were the twain, Duua Soqor [which means ‘Duua the Blind’] and Dobun Mergen [born in 945]” (The Secret History, P. 11).


They ruled the Qorilar (the Qyans) who traced their roots to the Tumats, one of the branches of Uluu Bargy. We have already seen historical evidence that the Tumats and the Bargy lived together in Bargujin-Tokum. Since the Qorilar come from the Tumats and, according to The Secret History, that was the clan of Genghis Khan’s origin, we conclude that the ancestors of Genghis Khan, the Qorilar (the Qyan) clan are, in their origin, the Kyrgyz of the Bargy clan.




A yellow dog wagging his tail”


Let’s continue reading Alan Gua’s story in The Secret History:


“Alan Gua, coming unto Dobun Mergen, bore two sons. They were named Bügünütei and Belgünütei. After that, one day Dobun Mergen went out of a hunt upon Toqochai Heights and in the forest met a person of the Uriangqad, who having killed a deer of three years, was roasting his ribs and inwards. Dobun Mergen came up to him and said, ‘One is truly a friend when he shares his game with you. Friend, give me some of your roasted meat!’ The hunter of the Uriangqad took for himself the head with the lungs and the heart, and all the rest of the flesh gave to Dobun Mergen.”

When Dobun Mergen was close to home, carrying on his beast of burden that deer of three years old, on his way he met a poor man, who was leading his son by the hand. ‘What manner of person are you?’ asked Dobun Mergen. ‘I am a Ma’alig Baya’ud,’ answered the man. ‘I am hungry and exhausted. Give me a morsel from the flesh of that wild beast. And then I will give you my son as a servant.’

Dobun Mergen, at that word, broke off a single thigh of the deer and gave it to the poor man, and bringing the child with him, employed him in his tent.” (P. 13 in S. Kosin’s book)2.

The story of the boy Ma’alig Baya’ud (Maaligq Bayaudets) starts with this incident described in the primary sources. Dobun Mergen acquired him in return for a piece of venison and took him along, making him his servant. This is where all the confusion lies.

Let’s look at another important piece of information. In his Chronicles, Rashid Al-Din writes: “Bajaudai-Qarbatan belongs to them [the Qonurat] and comes from those parts. Bajaudai from the Olkunut tribe which is one of the branches of the Qongirat” (P. 162). As we can see, according to the author, both Ma’alig and Qarbatan belong to the Bajagudai (Bajaudai) clan. The Bajaudai (Bayaut) clan is part of the Olkunut tribe which is one of the branches of the Qongirat. Thus we can see that Maaligq Bayaudets (Ma’alig Baya’ud) belonged to the Qongirat clan.




What did Dobun Mergen’s Sons Say?

Let’s continue reading The Secret History:


“Meanwhile, Dobun Mergen passed away. After Dobun Mergen passed away, his widow Alan Gua, without a husband, then, bore three sons. They were named Bugu Khadagi, Bugatu Salji, and Bodonchar Mungqag (or Munkhag) [the latter was born in 970], which means ‘Bodonchar the Dupe.’

Her sons Bügünütei and Belgünütei, who had been born in the days of Dobun Mergen’s health, spoke to each other in secret from their mother Alan Gua saying thus: ‘Although out mother is without brothers or kinsmen or without a husband, she has born these three sons, our brothers. And yet there is only one man within the tent: the servant from the clan Ma’alig Baya’ud. These three sons must be of him.’”


Those were the suspicions of Alan Gua’s two older sons, born to Dobun Mergen. We know that at the time of Dobun Mergen’s death, his heirs were still quite young, and Alan Gua took over as the ruler of the people. Here is how she responded to her sons’ doubts and displeasure:

“Having learned that her sons were saying such things about her behind her back, one day in the spring, while boiling the dried meat of a sheep, Alan Gua made her five sons – Bügünütei, Belgünütei, Bugu Khadagi, Bugatu Salji, and Bodonchar Mungqag – sit in a row and gave them each a single arrow, saying ‘Break it!’ Of course, they all easily broke their single arrows. Then she bound five arrows together in a bundle and gave such a bundle to each of them saying, ‘Now break this!’ None of them could break the bundle of five arrows.

Then she said, ‘Bügünütei, Belgünütei, you are my two sons who, doubting of me, talk with each other saying, ‘She has born these three sons. How is it, and whose sons are they?’ And your doubting is right. What you don’t know is this, and this is the truth: every night a bright yellow man sent from Heaven entered by the light of the hole on the top of the tent, and the shining around him entered me… When the moon was about to go down and meet the sun, he would slink away like a yellow dog wagging his tail, and the light would stream behind him.




[2]See analogous passages in English. Chapter 1, p. 2-3: http://altaica.ru/SECRET/cleaves_shI.pdf

Must I say anything else? Your brothers are the sons of Heaven.’ And they lived like this together, until their mother Alan Gua passed away.”


The day came when Alan Gua passed away too. She was a wise woman and had a good grasp of history, religion, and the Sanzhyra genealogy of her time. Despite her sons’ claims and doubts, she left her descendants (Ma’alig the servant’s offspring who later split into many branches) the greatest ideology: the Story of the Sons of Heaven.

Actually, we should look at Alan Gua’s story from two points of view.

Firstly, we hear about the heavenly light that comes from above, a very mysterious circumstance. The conception and birth of the three boys echo the conception and birth of Jesus Christ (the Prophet Isa in Islam), when Mariam gave birth to Prophet Isa without a husband, by God’s will.

Secondly, Alan Gua’s oldest sons Bügünütei and Belgünütei suspect that it is all about “the servant from the clan Ma’alig Baya’ud. These three sons must be of him.’” We know that Alan Gua gave birth to the triplets a few years after the death of her husband, Dobun Mergen. Thus the Chingissids’ claims that they were “born of the light, and their ancestors are descendants of Borte Chono,” are supported by the story, and Alan Gua says so herself: “A bright yellow man sent from Heaven entered by the light of the hole on the top of the tent, and the shining around him entered me…”

If you look at the story carefully, “the light of the hole on the top of the tent” and “the dog with the bright yellow tail” carry deep meaning. “The light” is a ray of sunshine and a reference to the religious faith of the Xiongnu (the Huns). “The dog” is a totem of “the wolf,” and the Blue Wolf was a totem of Blue Turks. From here we can conclude that Alan Gua claims her triplet sons to be the descendants of the rulers of Xiongnu and the Blue Turks. Maaligq Bayaudets who “came from nowhere” was immediately married off to another woman. Yet history shows that his descendants, in all their clans and branches, remained Chingissids’ servants and slaves both during Genghis Khan’s life and afterwards.




The Story of the Four Ulus’


Alan Gua’s story about a bright yellow man who “when the moon was about to go down and meet the sun, would slink away like a yellow dog wagging his tail,” is told in a slightly different fashion in Mirza Ulugh Bek’s Story of the Four Ulus: “Alankuva looked and behold! the radiant and handsome warrior turned into a homely grey quail and flew away.”

Ulugh Bek was Tamerlane’s grandson and heir to his grandfather’s throne. Tamerlane’s roots also go back to Alan Gua, so he is also of Kyrgyz origin. Tamerlane’s clan originated in Tyumenhan’s son Kachuul (‘kachu’ul!’ means ‘Run away, my son!’). Kachuul and Kuvul were twins, but Kachuul was the older of the two. It’s understandable that Ulugh Bek was reluctant to connect his lineage to “a yellow dog with a wagging tail” as it was certainly beneath his dignity and unworthy of his kingly honor. A quail seemed a better and more dignified choice, so instead of “the dog slinking away” in his book he wrote about “the quail flying away” (P. 41).




The Kyrgyz Held High Posts in the Empire


Here are a few more examples proving that the Kyrgyz helped the Chingissids rule the Empire, holding high official posts. Before his death, Genghis Khan bequeathed his empire to his four ‘main’ sons: the four great countries of the Golden Horde, the Ilkhanate, Moghulistan, and Uluu Zhurt (the latter under Kublai Khan (Xubilaĭ) was the center of Peking known as Qubilai, and later became the Great Yuan). For instance, Rashid al-Din, a polyglot and a scholar, served as the Grand Vizier (equivalent to the modern Prime Minister) of the Ilkhanate. In his Chronicles, under the heading of “The Clans of Bargut, Khori and Tulas: the Tumats are one of their Branches,” he writes:


“From the Bargut [Bargy] clan in that kingdom [i.e. in Iran] there was Dzurdzagan, atabek (atalyk) Argun-Khana. His wife [was] Bulgan, and his sons were Tautai and Buralgi-Kukeltash. Saltamysh, the son of Buralgi, was the oldest and the most respected emir at the time of Islamic statehood.”


No comments are necessary here: it is obvious that the Kyrgyz were right there with the Chingissids, helping them rule the world.




The Amazing Adventures of Bodonchar Mungqag


According to The Secret History, two songs of Dobun Mergen and Alan Gua were the forefathers of two clans: Belgünütei gave rise to the clan of Belgunud, and Bügünütei to the clan of Bugunud (Bugu). At the present time, no one disputes that the Bugu clan is Kyrgyz.

Bugu Khadagi, the oldest of the triplet sons born of the servant boy Maaligq Bayaudets, originated the clan of the Qatagin (Qatagan); the middle son Bugatu Salji started the Saljut clan, and the youngest Bodonchar Mungqag – the clan of Qyat Bordjigin Munguch. In Kyrgyz “qyat” means “a flood” or “mud streams.” Therefore, based on The Secret History, the Qatagan, the Saljut, and the Munguch clans are related to the Kyrgyz.

According to the available historical evidence, all three trace their origin back to the Bargy. The Tumats separated themselves from Uluu Bargy; the next branch off was Qorilar; them the Qyats (Qyans) and, finally, the Munguch. As we see, Chingissids trace their origin to Bodonchar Mungqag (Munguch). At the time of Genghis Khan, the descendants of the middle son, the Saljuts, rebelled against him but were soon crushed.

In his book Kamus Naame, Kyrgyz scholar Husein Karasayev convincingly proves that the Qatagans which originated from Bugu Khadagi, the oldest of Alan Gua’s triplet sons, were Kyrgyz. He cites examples from The Epic of Manas:


“Qatagan is the name of the largest Kyrgyz clans. The Qatagans used to live in the northern part of Afghanistan. In the 1830-40s, a Qatagan man known as Muratbek lived in the city of Kunduz and ruled the whole country. His domain comprised the territories on both shores along the Amu Darya. Apparently, there is still a province called Qatagan in modern Afghanistan. Much of these data is recounted and analyzed in the works of Wilhelm Barthold, a Russian and Soviet historian of German descent who specialized in the history of Islam and the Turkic peoples. There is also a Qatagan tribe living among the present day Uzbeks and Kazakhs.


In the land where the sun goes down

There is one by the name of Qatagan,

He is certain to live long.

He has lands, Kunduz and Talkan,

He is ruthless in war.войне беспощаден,

He has a people, the Kyrgyz, that comprises five tribes.”

(From The Epic of Manas; P. 401).


If Qatagan was Kyrgyz, then how can his twin brother Munguch be a “Mongol”? Of course, he was also a Kyrgyz. Currently, the Qatagans, the Sayak-Qatagans, are considered one of the largest Kyrgyz tribes.




Mongol” is the Same as Mungush


The Secret History gives Bodonchar the name of ‘Mungqag’. Here the word ‘mungqag’ means the regular Kyrgyz ‘mun-kak’ or ‘mun-gak’ (‘муң-как’ or ‘муң-гак’). Therefore, Mungqag is the regular Kyrgyz word ‘Munguch’ (Муңгуч). The name of the Mungush tribe is still written and pronounced as ‘Munguch’. It must be noted that the words ‘Mogol,’ ‘Mongol,’ ‘Munguch’ (Монол, Монгол, Мунгуч, Муңгуш) all have the same meaning. ‘Mun’ (муң – кайгы) in Kyrgyz means ‘bitterness,’ and the different end-parts are just various endings (‘gqag,’ ‘gol,’ ‘gush,’ and ‘guch’) added to the main root ‘Mon’ or ‘Mun.’ Due to vowel variation, the present day Altai people may still pronounce ‘a son’ (‘uul’) as ‘ool’, and the Mungush tribe is often called ‘Mongush.’ ‘Mun + uul’ or ‘Mun + ool’ became first ‘Monol,’ then ‘Mogol,’ and finally ‘Mongol.’ Since other alphabets do not have the Kyrgyz letter or sound ‘ң,’ in the end, all these names solidified into the short ‘Mongol.’ Reliable information on this score is readily available in many historical sources.

Further light on the issue may be shed by the childhood story of one of Alan Gua’s triplets born of Maaligq. Here is what Mirza Ulugh Bek tells us in his Story of the Four Ulus: “Bodonchar was born weak, with one of his neck bones missing. He continued to be frail and sickly, almost always crying from pain. That’s why they gave him the nickname ‘Mungqag’” (P. 42). As we have shown above, ‘Mungqag’ is the same as ‘mun-gak’, ‘mun-kak,’ ‘munguch.’ and ‘mungush.’ Therefore Bodonchar Mungqag is the same as Bodonchar Munguch.

Despite his frailty and sickliness, Bodonchar grew up into a smart and brave warrior and at the age of fifteen, after the death of Alan Gua, became the khan of his people. The whole story of how Bodonchar Munguch was able to become a khan at fifteen, is recounted in Mirza Ulugh Bek’s Story of the Four Ulus (P. 67).

The great Russian scholar Lev N. Gumilyov wrote: “The ascent of the Mongols on the historical arena begins with Bodonchar taking the throne.” This is exactly when the Mongols enter world history. To see how the name ‘Mongol’ came from the word ‘Munguch,’ we will now turn to Evgeniy Kychanov’s book The Life of Temüjin Who Sought to Conquer the World. He writes: “After establishing their state of Khamag Mongol (lit: ‘Whole Mongol’) in mid-16th cent., Mongols called it ‘Mungu,’ sometimes also written as ‘Mengu.’ According to the commentaries to The Secret History, “in the 12th cent. Mongols were called Manguts” (p. 208), and Chinese sources of the 10th cent. (such as Yi Zhou Shu) feature them as ‘Men-ushi’ or ‘Mengushi.’ Thus it becomes clear that the words ‘Mengu,’ ‘Mungu,’ ‘Manguts,’ and ‘Mangush’ are simply variations and different pronunciations of the Kyrgyz word ‘Mungush.’




Güyük (Kuyuk) Khan’s Letter


Güyük Khan (1206–1248), the eldest son of Ögedei Khan and a grandson of Genghis Khan, once sent a letter to the Pope Innocent IV through the explorer John of Plano Carpini. A line from the Kyrgyz translation of the letter (made by Tyntychbek Chorotegin) reads thus: “Thanks to the Almighty Tengri, the decree of the Oceanlike Khan Ulus the Great Mongol…” (in the original: Yeke Mongyol). The word ‘Yeke’ here is rendered correctly as ‘Great’, but the word ‘Mongyol’ is translated wrongly as ‘Mongol,’ while it actually reads ‘Monguol’ and should have at least been transliterated to maintain faithfulness to the original. In the Altai-Turk language, the word ‘Monguol’ is a compound of ‘Mongu’ and ‘ool’ (or ‘Mongu’ and ‘uul’) – a regular Kyrgyz word denoting ‘the son of Mongu’ or ‘the son of Mongush.’ We can clearly see that in his letter Genghis Khan’s grandson calls himself ‘Mongu uul’ (Mongyol) and not ‘Mongol’. Here the word ‘Mongu’ is the same as ‘Mongush,’ and it is common knowledge that ‘Mongush’ is an Altai name for the Kyrgyz clan of Mungush.




Abu al-Ghazi Bahadur ‘s Comments on the word ‘Mongol’


In the 2013 Russian edition of The Secret History there is a very astute comment by Abu al-Ghazi Bahadur on the word ‘Mongol’:


“The root of the word ‘mongol’ is ‘mung-ul’ (‘mung’-‘uul’). Gradually, the people started slurring the sounds and pronouncing it as ‘mongol.’ The word ‘mun(g),’ known to all Turkic-speaking peoples, means ‘sad’ or ‘glum,’ hence the word ‘mongol’ means ‘a sad one, a glum one’ (муңгуч – муңгак; munguch – mungak)” (A. Melekhin’s translation, P. 309).


This is absolutely correct and corresponds to the conclusion made above that ‘Mongol’ is the same as ‘Mun(g)uul.’ Thus, Mongol is the same as Munguch, someone who is a descendent of Alan Gua’s son Bodonchar Mungqag (Munguch). With time ‘Mungush’ morphed into ‘Mongol’ and entered world history as ‘Mongol’. That’s why all the ‘Mongol’ descendants of Bodonchar and especially of Genghis Khan should be seen as Mungush.




Genghis Khan’s Ancestors


Let is now look at the branches of Alan Gua’s descendants born of Maaligq Bayaudets (Bayaudai) according to Mirza Ulugh Bek’s Story of the Four Ulus:


‘The oldest son Burkhun Khatagi had Oabakai and Qatagan. The middle son Busungur had Sabakhi and Saljiut. The youngest son Bodonchar Munguch had Bukha Khan, who had Dutumun Khan, who had Khaidu Khan, who had Baisunqar (Baishinkhor) Khan, who had Tumen Khan, who had Kuvul Khan, who had Qubilai Khan, who had Bartan Baghatur (Batyr) Khan, who had Yesugei Bator, who had Genghis Khan.”


Thus we have enumerated Genghis Khan’s ancestors starting from Dobun Mergen or Maaligq Bayaudets, the “secret biological fore-father” eleven generations back. Along with Evgeniy Kychanov, other scholars have also stated that Maaligq was a Kyrgyz. For instance, prominent Russian Orientalist Ilya N. Berezin claimed that “Alan Gua’s three sons were born of a Kyrgyz.” This claim has been supported by the German Orientalist P. Rachnevsky.

An even weightier argument in support of this conclusion can be found in Rashid al-Din’s Chronicles, where he plainly writes that the origins of the Mongols (the Munguch) of Genghis Khan’s time go back to Turkic-speaking groups: “In ancient times, Mongols were a people that belonged to Turkic tribes” (P. 99). If that is not enough, let’s read further: “Ancient Mongolse nфсшщуте

were (just) one of the many Turkic tribes of the steppes” (P. 103). As we see, prominent Orientalists of the world have weighed in on this argument with convincing evidence in support of this claim. In the face of all this, how can we then deny the fact that Genghis Khan was indeed a Kyrgyz? Should we not trust the reliable historical sources? In all of them the Kyrgyz are called “Turkic tribes of the steppes.” “The one tribe” – i.e. the Mungush (NOT the modern Mongols!) – is none other than the Kyrgyz.

Chingissids, however, have always sought to hide the fact that their forefather was the house servant Maaligq – for which self-respecting dynasty would confess to having a humble slaveich

as its original ancestor? In contrast, they have always claimed to have been born of “the ray of light,” citing Alan Gua’s famous story. The nuclear tribe of the clan that brought forth Genghis Khan is the Qorilar (the Qyan) which traces its origin back to Tumats, one of the major branches of the Kyrgyz Bargy clan. That’s what the historical sources say. We have already demonstrated that later this clan received the name of ‘Mongols’ after the name of Bodonchar Mungqag (or Munguch) – or, to be more precise, that the Mongol (or Mogol or Monol) people come from the Kyrgyz tribe of Mungush.

All this means that the ‘Mongols’ of Genghis Khan’s time were not the modern Mongols but the Munguch. Now we have evidence that “Genghis Khan was buried in the Mongush land or in Bargujin-Tokum,” and this evidence didn’t just appear without any reason or support.




Genghis Khan was Kyrgyz, and Modern Mongols

were Oirats and Khalkhas (Kalmyks)


A deeper look into this issue demonstrates that the name “Mongol,” which became popular because of Genghis Khan, was later given to many ethnic groups. It is a whole other subject which deserves a separate discussion and investigation. For instance, here is what Dmitry D. Pokatilov writes in his monograph The History of Eastern Mongols at the Time of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1634) about the origin of the modern Mongols:


“Esen Taishi (1407–1454) was an Oirat Taishi, the oldest son and heir to Toghan Taishi, and a self-proclaimed great khan of the Mongol Empire (1453-1454). He was not descended from Genghis Khan but came from the Choros clan. He fought against Moghulistan and claimed many victories over the Moghul ruler Uwais Khan (Ways Khan) capturing him twice. In 1439, after the death of his father Toghan Taishi, Esen Taishi became the leader of the Oirat clan alliance.”

“In the 1440s, Esen Taishi repeatedly raided the territories of the Tokmok Kyrgyz, many of whom chose to flee from his devastating attacks to Moghulistan, north of the Tian Shan mountain range. In 1453, having put to death the Mongol Taysun Khan (who was a Chingissid) and his younger brother Agbarjin, Esen Taishi proclaimed himself the Great Khan of the Mongol Empire and concluded a peace treaty with the Ming Dynasty” (See the Runivers website: http://www.runivers.ru/lib/book4282/42893/).


That’s how some events from the Kalmyk khan Esen Taishi are described in the epic of Manas. In his book Kamus Naame, Kyrgyz scholar Husein Karasayev gives a brief history of the Oirot-Kalmyk that gave birth to the modern Mongolia:


“The name ‘Oirat’ goes back to the 13th century; it is the common name of ethnic groups that comprise the Mongolian clan. In the middle of the 15th century the Oirats created their own state on the territories between Balkhash, Altai, and the Tian Shan. By the 17th century, it had become the Khanate of Dzungaria. Among its rulers were Karakul and Kontaazhy. The Khanate of Dzungaria ceased to exist in 1758” (P. 593).


After the disintegration of Dzungaria – or, rather, after the Chinese army defeated the Dzungars putting to death about one million Kalmyks – the Russian Tsarist administration forced about 40,000 families to migrate to the territory of the modern Kalmykia. The rest of the Kalmyks formed the state of Mongolia. There were very few, if any, Kyrgyz people among them. Hence, we can see that there is a great difference between modern Mongols and the Kyrgyz. Contemporary historians trace the origins of Mongols (the Khalkha, the Oirat) back to the Donghu and the Xianbei people.




The Lions of Moghulistan


As we know from history, the territories where the Kyrgyz lived were called “Moghulistan.” Since Moghulistan was Kyrgyz land, it’s no wonder that in his works Muhammad Haidar calls the Kyrgyz “the Lions of Moghulistan.” We have already demonstrated the historical evidence that allows us to conclude that Genghis Khan was a Kyrgyz. Much has been said about his “hidden” male genealogy that goes back to the Kyrgyz clan of Qonurat and his genealogy on his mother’s side which goes back to the Bargy clan. In truth, Chingissids originate from the Qorilar-Tumat tribe and their ruler Uluu Bargy. Only Maaligq Bayaudets, the biological male ancestor of Genghis Khan eleven generations back, remained “hidden and unknown.” Yet, in The Secret History the very sons of Dobun Mergen, Bügünütei and Belgünütei, let it slip that their mother “has born these three sons our brothers from the servant from the clan Ma’alig Baya’ud.”

In the genealogy of The Secret History, Genghis Khan’s lineage includes Dobun Mergen as his male ancestor in the eleventh generation. Dobun Mergen was from the Bargy clan which originated from the Gorlos (Qorilar)-Tumats, and Alan Gua was a daughter of Quorilartai Mergen, the Noyon of the Qori Tumat. We have already said that the Tumats were one of the branches of the Uluu Bargy. Thus, since both Dobun Mergen and his wife Alan Gua trace their lineage to a Kyrgyz tribe, Genghis Khan also belongs to the Bargy clan, with Maaligq Bayaudets remaining only an accidental male ancestor eleven generations back, this being his only link to the Qonurat.

That’s what history tells us. As stated earlier, in The Secret History lists all Genghis Khan’s ancestors, from Yesugei back to Dobun Mergen (eleven generations back) and further to Borte Chono (twenty-two generations back), while Maaligq Bayaudets was shown up by Dobun Mergen’s own children, Bügünütei and Belgünütei. This story would have been completely forgotten, had not Russian scholar Evgeniy Kychanov unearthed Maaligq Bayaudets from The Secret History. But Maaligq’s “whole history” begins and ends with this one fact: he accidentally became one of Genghis Khan’s male ancestors eleven generations back.




Genghis Khan’s Grandmother was a Daughter of the Bargy Clan


We know from history that both Hoelun, Genghis Khan’s mother, and Borte’s wife were from the Olkhunut clan, from the Qonurat tribe. Historical evidence convincingly demonstrates that at the time the Qonurat lived close to Tatars, in the vicinity of Buir Lake and Kulun Lake (Hukun Lake or Dalai Lake). Genghis Khan’s grandmother and the wife of his grandfather Bartan Baghatur (Bator) was a daughter of Bargy Khan. Here is what The Secret History has to say about this:


“Bartan Baghatur was Genghis Khan’s grandfather. The Mongolian name for ‘grandfather’ is ‘ebuge.’ His first wife was Sunigil-Fujen from the Bargud tribe; she gave him four sons” (P. 344).


Here ‘Sunigil’ is a variation of a regular Kyrgyz female name ‘Sonogul.’ One of the four sons was Genghis Khan’s father, Yesugei Bator. Sunigil’s children had blue eyes and red hair: they had the physical characteristics of the “sons of Heaven” spoken of by Alan Gua. Genghis Khan’s clan, from Yesugei to Qyat Borjigin, had the nickname of “blue-eyed.” Also, since the time of Khabul Khan, the name “Borjigin” came into frequent usage again. It may be worth noting that, as we know from 9th cent. Chinese historians, the Kyrgyz (including the Bargy) were white-skinned, blue-eyed, and red-haired. Sunigil (or Sonogul), the first wife of Genghis Khan’s grandfather Bartan Baghatur, had blue eyes, so both her son Yesugei Bator and his children, Genghis Khan and Khasar, had blue eyes as well. They were also, as all the Kyrgyz, tall, white-skinned, and handsome.




The Bargy’s Close Kinship with the Qonurat


In his Genealogy of the Turks, Abu al-Ghazi Bahadur remarked on the close kinship of the Kyrgyz tribes – the Bargy and the Qonurat: “The Qureilit of the Bargut tribe are closely related to the Qonurat; their ancient clan will always be together” (Vol. 1 of The Kyrgyz, P. 35). According to the Kyrgyz genealogy, Nûḥ (Noah) had Yafith (Yapheth); Yafith’s oldest son was Turk; Turk had Khan; Khan had Elchi Khan; Elchi Khan had Bakhu Khan; Bakhu Khan had Kuyuk Khan; Kuyuk Khan had Alenche Khan; Alenche Khan had Tatar and Mogol Khans. Mogol Khan had Qara Khan; Qara Khan had Oghuz Khan; Oghuz Khan had six sons: Gün Khan, Ay Khan, Yildiz Khan, Gök Khan, Dağ Khan, and Deniz Khan. Gök Khan had Zhete who then gave birth to Qonurat. Dağ Khan’s son was Kyrgyz Khan. Thus, the genealogy shows that the Kyrgyz and the Qonurat people have the same roots, since Dağ Khan and Gök Khan were brothers. Kyrgyz Khan, however, is considered to be the oldest, since, firstly, he was a khan and, secondly, he was a peer of Zhete, Qonurat’s father. Qonurat is Gök Khan’s grandson, but the genealogy doesn’t call him a khan. From here we can also see that the Qonurat were considered a Kyrgyz people.






Genghis Khan’s Respect for the Qonurat


Genghis Khan treated the Qonurat with great respect. Here is what we read about it in The Secret History:


“Here is the law that Genghis Khan made regarding imperial marriages: ‘When girls are born to the Khonigrad tribe, they shall become empresses, from generation to generation; when boys are born, they shall marry princesses, from generation to generation. They shall continuously marry, from generation to generation, and this decree shall be proclaimed in the first moon of each of the four seasons of each year.”


Such was the esteem that Genghis Khan had for the Qonurat. In producing this decree, he must have had in mind his mother Hoelun and Borte’s wife, who were both from the Olkhunut clan of the Qonurat tribe, that lived near the Dalai (Kulun) Lake.

Incidentally, here we mustn’t forget “Maaligq the Qonurat.” Even though he was the father of the “luminous triplets,” he and his descendants, nevertheless, always remained Chingissids’ slaves. That’s why Chingissids never allowed anyone to say that their progenitor was Maaligq Bayaudets. As their ancestors they claimed Borte Chono (their progenitor in the twenty-second generation) and Dobun Mergen (that of the eleventh generation), saying of themselves: “We are the descendants of Tumat – the Qorilar, the Qyan, the Mongush, conceived of the rays of light.” It follows that Chingissids are the Kyrgyz and also the Bargy. To this day the Kyrgyz call themselves ‘the Pure People,’ ‘the Luminous People.’

Let us now look at The Secret History where Genghis Khan gives his estimation of the Kyrgyz (the Bargy):


“Every boy born in Bargujin-Tokum (the land of the Bargy) will be a smart, courageous, and strong warrior, knowledgeable and ingenious without any direction or instruction. Every girl born there will be beautiful without any elaborate hairstyle or adornment” (P. 293).


It’s not accidental that Genghis Khan speaks so of the Bargy Kyrgyz. It clearly indicates that he knew them well. Based on all the data cited above, we can confidently conclude that Genghis Khan’s hidden biological male lineage goes back to the Kyrgyz tribe of Qonurat and his female lineage – to the tribe of Bargy. And it is only his genealogy. His people were the Qorilar that his ancestors had ruled. Therefore, they were the Qyan that traced their roots back to the tribe of Uluu (Great) Bargy.




How did the Munguch Become Tribes?


Even though it was the Qorilar that brought Genghis Khan’s ancestors to the world scene after Alan Gua’s youngest son Bodonchar Munguch and his four older brothers subdued the peoples that lived in the Onon Valley and “had no rulers,” it was the Munguch people that “rapidly increased in number” and brought forth the Mungush-‘Mongol’ tribe (as The Secret History states on P. 15). All this took place in the late 10th century.

Thus the Mungush (‘Mongols’) became a separate people group. They never forgot, however, that their ancestors were of the Bargy tribe and always maintained a peaceful relationship with the Bargy. The Qorilar retained their Uluu Bargy roots. The history of this kinship and like-mindedness goes back many centuries. Let’s look, for instance, at Rashid al-Din’s Chronicles:


“The Qurlaut tribe as well as the Qungirat, Eljigin, and Bargut tribes are closely related and connected with each other. They have the same tamga [seal], adhere to the requirements of kinship, and maintain [the exchange] of sons-in-law and daughters-in-law. These tribes have never been at war with Genghis Khan and never were his enemies, and he never separated them from each other and prevented others from doing that, because they were not his enemies. Genghis Khan justly gave them high posts in his country. During his lifetime, they all followed the way of brotherhood and intermarriage, all belonged to Jida Noyon’s keshig [personal guard, lit.: ‘brotherhood of concord’]. Even to this day, their descendants remain part of the keshig.”


All this clearly shows that Genghis Khan had a great deal of trust for the Bargy and the Qonurat as his own people.





The Twelve Атаs (Clans) of the Bargy


In Kyrgyzstan, the Bargy clan has always been called the Bargy of Twelve Ata (clans), which include Khan Bargy, Myrza Bargy, Uluu Bargy, Taz Bargy, Qara Bargy, Sary Bargу, and others. At the present time, the Bargy live primarily in the Osh region of Kyrgyzstan, and their ethnic group comprises about 1 million people. In the Alai district of the Osh region there is a territory called Qorul, and the local experts of Sanzhyra (Kyrgyz genealogy) translate its name as “the warrior son” which corresponds to what we know of the Qorilar (the Khori-Tumats) from The Secret History. We have already seen that “Qoirilatai Mergen was the chief of the Tumat hunters, of what later became the Qorilar tribe (named after him), one of the branches of the Barga clan.” Thus we have clearly demonstrated from historical sources that the Qorilar trace their origin to the Uluu Bargy clan. And that’s exactly what the Bakal clan of the Bargy tribe – who live in the village of Qorul in Alai district – call themselves even to this day.




Intriguing Evidence of Chane


In the Alai area of Qara-Kuu district in Osh region of Kyrgyzstan there is Kulun Lake (whose name relates to that of Khulun Nuur Lake). “Chane” in Kyrgyz means “a sleigh.” In his Chronicles, Rashid al-Din writes: “Chane is known on the most of Turkestan and Moghulistan territory, mainly in the Bargujin-Tokum region in Qori, Kyrgyz, Urasut, Telengut and Tumat lineages because on those areas they are especially prone to use this mode of transportation” (Vol. 1, Book I, P. 124).

Let us now turn to the book Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World by Jack Weatherford:


“The most traditional Mongols occupied the central steppes, which became known as Moghulistan and encompassed the modern areas from Kazakhstan and Siberia in the north and across Turkistan in central Asia to Afghanistan in the south. For a while they had some unity under the Ögedei’s and Toregene’s grandson Khaidu, who reigned from Bukhara and served as a counterpoint to the power of the Khubilai Khan, but the area fragmented repeatedly in the centuries ahead.”3


As you can see, the American scholar gives a precise description of where the Kyrgyz lived since after the death of Genghis Khan. What he calls “the most traditional Mongols” (the Kyrgyz) have nothing in common with the modern Mongols.

Much has been written of those ancient events, so we won’t focus on them here but make a summary of what has been said before.



[3] P. 355 in the Russian edition. P. 191 in the original edition (Broadway Books, 2005).





Thus, Genghis Khan, the ‘Universal Ruler,’ was a great credit to his Bargy ancestors (Dobun Mergen in his male lineage and Alan Gua in his female line). He grew up to become a smart and courageous warrior and leader, who made a significant contribution to global history by creating a great empire that shook the whole world.

It seems appropriate to conclude this study by quoting several prominent Russian scholars. Boris Ya. Vladimirtsov, an outstanding 20th cent. researcher of Mongolia, wrote:


“In the 12th century, the aristocratic dynasty of Khabul Khan had the name of Borjigin and received the name of ‘Mongol’ after subduing and uniting several neighboring tribes and clans, thus forming a united whole, one indelible clan, one ‘ulus.’ That ‘ulus’at



Was called ‘Mongol’ (or ‘Mungu’) in memory of some ancient and powerful people or clan.”


It must be noted that all historical sources indicate ‘Mungu’ as being the same thing as ‘Mongol.’ Here we see that the name of Bodonchar Munguch, Khabul Khan’s male ancestor in the sixth generation, is given to another clan, another ‘ulus’ – the Mungu (Mongol) ulus. The Secret History (P. 15) tells is that Bodonchar grew up to be a strong and courageous warrior who subdued “peoples who had no rulers’ and was the founder of the clan or the people named ‘Mongol.’ That’s how the Mungush clan (now a tribe) – or the Mongol (Mungu) people – appeared on the world scene. They used to be called the Qyan and were part of the Qorilar (Gorlos) which traced their roots back to the Tumats. The Tumats, in their turn, originated from Uluu Bargy. All this is proven by historical evidence. Therefore, the Mungush are also the Bargy.

Another researcher of Kyrgyz history and genealogy, prominent Russian Türkologist Nikolai A. Aristov, wrote:


“The names of Mongush, Monqondor (in the Chinese Description of the Western Regions), Monuldyr, Munuldyr, Monyldyr (in Shoqan Walikhanov’s Trip to Kashgar), Monguldar and Moguljar (in Mr. Zagryazhsky’s work), Moldur (in Mr. Severtsov’s writings) seem to be derivatives of ‘Mogol.’ This, coupled with the separation of Mongol and Mongush and the Mongol name forms of two more branches (Kudagachin and Tuleiken) give us enough reason to believe that the Mongush were an alliance of diverse people groups that came together under the leadership of the remaining Chagatai Mongols who chose to retain their nomadic lifestyle and found refuge in the mountains between Kashgar and Fergana (the Alai mountain) after the power of Chagatai Khaganate collapsed in Kashgar. According to the Description of the Western Regions, in 1759 the Chinese found the Mongush (Monqons) on their present territories, about 700 households, under the leadership of Adzi-Byi (Adji-Bii, the son of Tileke Baatyr from the Bargy tribe).”


Here the author reminds u s that after the Chingissid dynasty in Kashgar was overthrown, the Chagatai joined the Mungush to whom they had always traced their roots. It was only appropriate, for where else would these Chingissids go but to their own people, the Mungush? Thus, the Chagatai who had made Kashgar their primary settlement, didn’t disappear: they mingled with the Mungush and reclaimed their ancient original name, discarding the former ‘Mongol.’ Their leader was Adji-Bii from the Bargy tribe. As you can see, the “Mongol” Chingissids (the Kyrgyz, the Mungush, and the Monols) and the modern Mongols living in Mongolia have nothing in common! As experts in genetics tells us, genetically, the modern Mongols are 80-90% Manchu, Qarakitai, and Kalmyk.

Here is what Kyrgyz scholar Sabyr Attokurov writes in his book The Kyrgyz Sanzhyra:


“The Mungush tribe was a new ethnic group which contributed to the secondary shaping of the Kyrgyz ethnos in the Tian Shan region and the Fergana Valley. We have no evidence as to whether it comprised part of the ancient Kyrgyz people before the 10th century.” (1995, P. 89).










This painstaking research, based strictly on reliable historical sources and works by prominent world-renown Orientalists, leads us to the conclusion that Genghis Khan was indeed a Kyrgyz (Bargy – Munguch). In the south of Kyrgyzstan, the Kyrgyz call the Munguch ‘Adigine-Munguch.’ The Bargy tribe was especially instrumental in bringing forth Genghis Khan and his great empire into world history.

We hope and believe that this research proves our main point: the facts and evidence collected from priceless ancient sources and the works by leading Orientalists indeed give us the true story of our people. The challenge of the present day is to continue the work and to bring it to completion, disseminating the findings and conclusions on the international level.


Begish Amatov, former member of the legendary Kyrgyz Parliament, a political activist, a student of history






Researched and written by journalist Azizbek Chamashev


Russian translation by journalist Bakhtiar Shamatov


English translation (based on the Russian translation) by Olga Lukmanova



The World Famous Genghis Khan was a Kyrgyz

The first edition of this book, The Almighty Genghis Khan was a Kyrgyz, was published in 2015, by Turar Publishers in Kyrgyzstan, with the print run of 1,000 copies. Originally, the work started with an article in Kyrgyz, published in Zhany Ordo, a popular independent newspaper, as well as in Erkin Too, the official paper of the Kyrgyz Republic, and Zhetigen magazine; a Russian translation of the article also ran in the Kyrgyz weekly The Money and Power. The article was discussed in two different programs on Kyrgyz Public Radio and Television. In February 2016, its author, historian and activist Begish Amatov, presented his findings at the conference held under the aegis of the Kyrgyz Academy of Sciences and its current President Abdygany Erkebayev. The discussion was joined by twenty-five leading Kyrgyz scholars, and after a heated debate and many controversial opinions, the Kyrgyz Academy of Sciences recognized Mr. Amatov’s research as a contribution to public service, dedicated to the Kyrgyz people. It was another important step in researching and disseminating historical data.

  • ISBN: 9781370417810
  • Author: Begish Amatov, Sr
  • Published: 2017-10-01 17:35:20
  • Words: 10102
The World Famous Genghis Khan was a Kyrgyz The World Famous Genghis Khan was a Kyrgyz