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the truth and reconciliation commission of south africa

 

The Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa

A summarised version for grade 12 learners

Jennifer Kgaogelo Mahloko

University of johannesburg

[++]

This book was published by a second (2nd) year student at the University of Johannesburg, who majors in Psychology and Historical Studies. It was published with the intention of summarising the Truth and Reconciliation Commission for Grade 12 learners.

Please note: It is illegal to photocopy any pages from this book without the written permission of the publisher.

First Edition 2016

Contents Page

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p<{color:#000;}. How to use this book

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p<{color:#000;}. Subject

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p<{color:#000;}. Topic

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p<{color:#000;}. Lesson Outcomes

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p<{color:#000;}. Introduction to Truth and Reconciliation Commission

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p<{color:#000;}. Activity 1

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p<{color:#000;}. The process of reconciliation

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p<{color:#000;}. Activity 2

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p<{color:#000;}. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission Structure

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p<{color:#000;}. Activity 3

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p<{color:#000;}. Interesting Facts- Mr P.W Botha

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p<{color:#000;}. Activity 4

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p<{color:#000;}. Conclusion

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p<{color:#000;}. Rubrics

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p<{color:#000;}. Summative Assessment Opportunity[++]

How to use this book?

This Truth and Reconciliation Commission series is designed to help you develop all the skills that will allow you to deal confidently with sources, which are the basic tools of all History studies. There is one topic to discuss, and it has been divided into four (4) units. Each unit is designed so that you will find it easy to deal with the information. This is how the book has been arranged.

Text

This is the information about the topic or events. You need to read the text carefully and make notes, for example a spider diagram.

Pictures and Cartoons

These set the scene and provide a historical background and insights. You need to examine them carefully and discuss them thoroughly.

Sources

These follow the information and expand on their issues dealt with in the text. Many of the sources are primary sources written at the time of the event. Each source includes a reference to where the source comes from and who produced it. It is important that you read this carefully as it allows you to assess the reliability of the source.

Activities

Source-based questions

All activities have a mark allocation. These will be used for assessment. The questions which follow the sources test your ability to:

*
p<{color:#000;}. Extract information

*
p<{color:#000;}. Organise information logically

*
p<{color:#000;}. Identify different perspectives within sources

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p<{color:#000;}. Draw conclusions about the reliability and usefulness of sources

Extended writing

Each activity requires that you write a paragraph, letter OR essay. Your response will demonstrate your ability to:

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p<{color:#000;}. Gather information from a variety of sources and the text

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p<{color:#000;}. Organise the information into a logical and relevant form

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p<{color:#000;}. Plan and construct an original and well-balanced argument

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p<{color:#000;}. Reach a conclusion supported by evidence

Subject

What is History?

History is the study of change and development in society over time. The study of history enables us to understand how past human action affects the present and influences our future, and it allows us to evaluate these effects. So, history is about learning how to think about the past, which affects the present, in a disciplined way. History is a process of enquiry. Therefore, it is about asking questions of the past: What happened? When did it happen? Why did it happen then? What were the short-term and long-term results? It involves thinking critically about the stories people tell us about the past, as well as the stories that we tell ourselves.

The study of history also supports citizenship within a democracy by:

• upholding the values of the South African Constitution and helping people to understand those values;

• reflecting the perspectives of a broad social spectrum so that race, class, gender and the voices of ordinary people are represented;

• motivating civic responsibility and responsible leadership, including raising current social and environmental concerns;

• promoting human rights and peace by challenging prejudices that involve race, class, gender, ethnicity and xenophobia; and

• preparing young people for local, regional, national, continental and global responsibility.

Topic

This topic focuses on the debates around the negotiating process between the ANC and the government; the stalemate in the struggle (in the context of the end of the Cold War); the compromises made on both sides; the need for reconciliation; the context of violence that threatened the negotiating process and the success of the negotiations, which was not the work of one person but rather a team effort on both sides. It concludes with the choices made in the process of coming to terms with the past, and includes investigating:

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p<{color:#000;}. Why South Africa chose the TRC process and,

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p<{color:#000;}. A consideration of its alternatives.

This section includes: The Truth and Reconciliation Commission.

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p<{color:#000;}. Reasons for the TRC;

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p<{color:#000;}. Various forms of justice: retributive justice and the Nuremberg trials in post-War Germany; restorative justice and the TRC hearings;

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p<{color:#000;}. The debates concerning the TRC: – positive aspects: TRC as an instrument of reconciliation; – amnesty provisions and problems with amnesty; – focus on human rights of 1980s and ignoring institutional violence and the human rights abuses of Apartheid; and – reparations; and

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p<{color:#000;}. Responses of political parties and reasons for the responses to the TRC and the final report of the TRC: National Party, Inkatha Freedom Party and African National Congress.

Lesson Outcomes

Learners should also be able to:

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p<{color:#000;}. Bloom’s Level 1:

Name the three committees that sat at the Truth and Reconciliation Committee (TRC) hearings

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p<{color:#000;}. Bloom’s Level 2:

Explain what is meant by ‘Human Rights Violation’

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p<{color:#000;}. Bloom’s Level 3:

Identify the two main leaders of the TRC

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p<{color:#000;}. Bloom’s Level 4:

Distinguish between Reparation and Rehabilitation

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p<{color:#000;}. Bloom’s Level 5:

Assess the success or failures of the TRC

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p<{color:#000;}. Bloom’s Level 6:

Propose different ways which they could have conducted the processes differently

The Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa

(TRC)

Introduction

The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) of South Africa was set up by the Government of National Unity to help deal with all that had happened during apartheid. The conflict during this period had resulted in violence and human rights abuses from all sides. No section of society was to escape these abuses.

“…a commission is a necessary exercise to enable South Africans to come to terms with their past on a morally accepted basis and to advance the cause of reconciliation.”

Mr Dullah Omar, Former Minister of Justice.

The TRC was based on the Promotion of National Unity and Reconciliation Act, No 34 of 1995.
p<{color:#000;}.

The TRC effected its mandate through 3 committees: the Amnesty Committee, Reparation and Rehabilitation (R & R) Committee and the Human Rights Violations (HRV) Committee. The register of reconciliation gave members of the public a chance to express their regret at failing to prevent Human rights violations and to demonstrate their commitment to reconciliation.

Ms Mary Burton, the TRC Commissioner who proposed the establishment of the register, explains:

The register has been established in response to a deep wish for the reconciliation in the hearts of many South Africans—people who did not perhaps commit gross violations of human rights but nevertheless wish to indicate their regret for failures in the past to do all they could have done to prevent such violations; people who want to demonstrate in some symbolic way their commitment to a new kind of future in which human rights abuse, will not take place..

‘[_ We know that many South Africans are ready and eager to turn away from a past history of division and discrimination. Guilt for wrongdoing needs to be translated into positive commitment to building a better society- the healthiest and most productive form of atonement.’ _]

Activity 1

Follow this link to complete your first activity online.

[+ https://www.onlinequizcreator.com/history-grd-12-trc-activity-one/quiz-215474+]

The process of reconciliation

Making sense of the past

It was discovered that many communities had to go through this process:

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p<{color:#000;}. Ireland- the IRA vs Loyalist conflict

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p<{color:#000;}. Bosnia- The Bosnian vs Serb conflicts

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p<{color:#000;}. Liberia- The struggle after the Civil War

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p<{color:#000;}. Many fester for a long time

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p<{color:#000;}. Some are still unsolved, such as Rwanda, Congo and Sudan.

Architecture of the peace process

The peace process was structured in a way which was thought to be useful in bringing peace to a society once torn apart by whichever reasons, and in this case, racism and discrimination, as well as serious human rights violations. It consisted of three steps: Conflict management, Conflict resolution and Conflict transformation.

table<>. <>. |<>.
#
p<{color:#000;}. Conflict management

 

|<>. # p<{color:#000;}. Conflict resolution |<>. # p<{color:#000;}. Conflict transformation | <>. |<>. p((<{color:#000;}. The pre-negotiation phase

 

|<>. p<{color:#000;}. The negotiation of a political settlement |<>. p<{color:#000;}. The post-conflict phase | <>. |<>. p<{color:#000;}. Acts to break out of tit-for-tat cycle of violence on the ground and move toward a mutual ceasefire. |<>. p<{color:#000;}. Acts to change the reality of the conflict through new political arrangements that remove causes of conflict. |<>. p<{color:#000;}. Addresses problems of implementation of the negotiated settlement. Transforms the relationship between former enemies through political healing. |

During this process of reconciliation, it was mandatory that remembrance and reconciliation were inclusive. Unfortunately, it was a long term process. It was also a deep process that came to terms with imperfect reality demanding changes in beliefs, attitudes and emotions. Also, it applied to everyone and the whole community- not just the victims who suffered directly or the ex-combatants who inflicted the suffering.

Reconciliation involved the building of a new relationship of understanding through an act of love, compassion or restitution.

Activity 2

Follow the link: https://www.onlineassessmenttool.com/history-grd12-trc-activity-two/assessment-53218

The TRC Structure

The TRC structure was as follows:

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p<{color:#000;}. The Human Rights Violations committee (HRV)

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p<{color:#000;}. The Reparation and Rehabilitation committee (R&R)

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p<{color:#000;}. The Amnesty committee

The HRV

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p<{color:#000;}. Investigated human rights abuses that occurred between 1960 and 1994

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p<{color:#000;}. What is a Human Rights Violation?

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p<{color:#000;}. The commission heard reports of human rights violations and considered amnesty from all sides, from the apartheid state to the liberation forces including the African National Congress (ANC), the South African Democratic Party (SADP), the SAP.

The Reparation and Rehabilitation committee

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p<{color:#000;}. Perpetrators were charged with restoring victims’ dignity and formulating proposals to assist with rehabilitation.

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p<{color:#000;}. What is reparation?

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p<{color:#000;}. What is rehabilitation?

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p<{color:#000;}. How does one repay for human suffering?

The Amnesty Committee

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p<{color:#000;}. Considered applications from individuals who applied for amnesty in accordance with the provisions of the act.

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p<{color:#000;}. What is Amnesty?

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p<{color:#000;}. Empowered to grant amnesty to those who committed abuses

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p<{color:#000;}. 5392 people were refused amnesty, and 849 were granted amnesty.

Activity 3

Follow the link: https://www.onlineassessmenttool.com/activity-three/assessment-53219

Interesting Facts Did You Know???
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p<{color:#000;}. The TRC was founded by Desmond Tutu and Alex Boraine.

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p<{color:#000;}. On Thursday, 21 November 1996, P.W Botha declared that he would never testify before the TRC. He also stated that he would never apologise for apartheid and he called the TRC “the fierce unforgiving assault” on the Afrikaner by the ANC led government.

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p<{color:#000;}. Botha, who had become Prime minister of the republic of South Africa in 1978 and later its president from 1984-89, made his comment in a written statement issued after a private meeting with the chairperson of the commission, Archbishop Desmond Tutu.

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p<{color:#000;}. The meeting was arranged after a series of witnesses had told the commission that Botha had personally ordered state violence during his tenure.

Activity 4

Follow the link for your fourth (4th) online activity.

https://www.onlineassessmenttool.com/activity-four/assessment-53220

Conclusion

It is important to remember the main reason the Truth and Reconciliation Commission came about, who founded it and how this happened. It was a meaningful cause that came after a painful era in South Africa, the Apartheid Era. It was aimed at repairing the indifferences of the past, aimed at bringing peace amongst South Africans, both Black and White.

Therefore, the basic premise in correcting this historical injustice is for South Africans to pay allegiance to, to consolidate and defend the democratic constitution and the human rights culture that it espouses. It is for all citizens to promote and utilise to maximum effect the rights that have been attained, and ensure that open and accountable government becomes a matter of course in our political body. It is for us to promote equal individual rights without regard to race, colour, religion, language and other differences; and at the same time ensure that equal collective rights pertaining to these issues are protected. And it is for us to work together to build a better life for all!

[+ Final Activity- Summative Assessment +]

Follow the link to complete your final activity.

The End!!! https://www.onlineassessmenttool.com/activity-five-summative/assessment-53222
p={color:#000;}. Of An Amazing Story

[++]

Rubrics

Activity 1

table<>. <>. |<>.
p<{color:#000;}.  

|<>. p<{color:#000;}. Excellent 5 points |<>. p<{color:#000;}. Good 3 points |<>. p<{color:#000;}. Poor 2-1 points | <>. |<>. p<{color:#000;}. Facts |<>. p<{color:#000;}. Uses a variety of facts, all correct. |<>. p<{color:#000;}. Cites facts, mostly correct. |<>. p<{color:#000;}. Student uses no facts, or mostly incorrect facts. | <>. |<>. p<{color:#000;}. Analysis |<>. p<{color:#000;}. Insight shows understanding beyond the lesson and illustrates a clear grasp on the subject matter. |<>. p<{color:#000;}. Student has strong analysis; insight shows clear understanding of the topic, based on the lesson |<>. p<{color:#000;}. No analysis; demonstrates little or no understanding or none at all. | <>. |<>. p<{color:#000;}. Writing |<>. p<{color:#000;}. Has no punctuation or spelling errors. Writing style aids the understanding of the analysis |<>. p<{color:#000;}. Shows mostly strong punctuation, writing style furthers assessment. |<>. p<{color:#000;}. Student has little or no punctuation and shows poor spelling abilities. |

Activity 5

table<>. <>. |<>.
p<{color:#000;}.  

|<>. p<{color:#000;}. Advanced 5 points |<>. p<{color:#000;}. [* Proficient 3- 4 points *] |<>. p<{color:#000;}. Basic 2 points |<>. p<{color:#000;}. [* Poor 1- 0 points *] | <>. |<>. p<{color:#000;}. Introduction |<>. p<{color:#000;}. Explains subject, gives definition, time period, people involved, location. |<>. p<{color:#000;}. Missing one of the components of the Advanced one |<>. p<{color:#000;}. Missing two of the components of the Advanced one |<>. p<{color:#000;}. Student does not have an introduction OR

Introduction could not be identified | <>. |<>.
p<{color:#000;}. Body (at least 3 paragraphs) |<>.
p<{color:#000;}. Each paragraph: -has a topic sentence that correlates to thesis

-Explains reasoning

-provides specific/evidence |<>.
p<{color:#000;}. Missing One of the components of the advanced one |<>.
p<{color:#000;}. Missing two of the components of the Advanced one |<>.
p<{color:#000;}. Student does not have a body OR

Body could not be identified | <>. |<>.
p<{color:#000;}. Conclusion |<>.
p<{color:#000;}. Restates the thesis

-explains the significance of the subject

-encourages deeper interest |<>.
p<{color:#000;}. Missing One of the components of the advanced one |<>.
p<{color:#000;}. Missing two of the components of the Advanced one |<>.
p<{color:#000;}. Student does not have a conclusion OR

Conclusion could not be identified | <>. |<>.
p<{color:#000;}. Logic and Accuracy |<>.
p<{color:#000;}. -Argument is logical, easy to follow, well defended.

-information is accurate

-Borrowed information is cited |<>.
p<{color:#000;}. Missing One of the components of the advanced one |<>.
p<{color:#000;}. Missing two of the components of the Advanced one |<>.
p<{color:#000;}. Paper is a report – no argument is provided | <>. |<>.
p<{color:#000;}. Specifics |<>.
p<{color:#000;}. 0 grammar and spelling errors

-has a title

-correct font/size

-1 inch margins


<>.
p<{color:#000;}. 1-5 grammar/ spelling errors
<>.
p<{color:#000;}. 6-10 grammar/ spelling errors
<>.
p<{color:#000;}. 15 or more spelling or grammar errors

Activity 3

table<>. <>. |<>.
p<{color:#000;}.  

|<>. p<{color:#000;}. Excellent 5 points |<>. p<{color:#000;}. Good 3 points |<>. p<{color:#000;}. Poor 2-1 points | <>. |<>. p<{color:#000;}. Facts |<>. p<{color:#000;}. Uses a variety of facts, all correct. |<>. p<{color:#000;}. Cites facts, mostly correct. |<>. p<{color:#000;}. Student uses no facts, or mostly incorrect facts. | <>. |<>. p<{color:#000;}. Analysis |<>. p<{color:#000;}. Insight shows understanding beyond the lesson and illustrates a clear grasp on the subject matter. |<>. p<{color:#000;}. Student has strong analysis; insight shows clear understanding of the topic, based on the lesson |<>. p<{color:#000;}. No analysis; demonstrates little or no understanding or none at all. | <>. |<>. p<{color:#000;}. Writing |<>. p<{color:#000;}. Has no punctuation or spelling errors. Writing style aids the understanding of the analysis |<>. p<{color:#000;}. Shows mostly strong punctuation, writing style furthers assessment. |<>. p<{color:#000;}. Student has little or no punctuation and shows poor spelling abilities. |

 


the truth and reconciliation commission of south africa

  • ISBN: 9781370110407
  • Author: Jen
  • Published: 2016-10-16 20:20:13
  • Words: 2433
the truth and reconciliation commission of south africa the truth and reconciliation commission of south africa