Basics of Radiology
A Complimentary Beginner’s Guide to Imaging
BMA Award Winning Author and Editor:
Professor (Dr.) Sanjay Gandhi
MBBS, MD, DNB, FRCR, FHEA
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The aim of the Basics of Radiology – Complimentary Beginner’s Guide is to explain the fundamentals of imaging in an easy to understand manner. The main emphasis of this introductory book is on the radiographic techniques and normal anatomical appearances of chest and abdomen.
This textbook is suitable for medical students and interns. However, first-year postgraduate trainees in radiology, medicine and surgical specialities and accident and emergency staff, radiographers, physiotherapists and nurses will find this useful.
This ‘Complimentary Beginner’s Guide’ has been published exclusively for the students and all other associates of Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College, Kolar, and Sharda University and School of Medical Science & Research, Greater Noida, India.
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Over the past fifteen to twenty years, there have been a number of developments in diagnostic imaging. In spite of the increasing use of Ultrasound, CT and MRI scans, plain radiograph still remains one of the most important radiological investigations for patients.
The chest and abdominal radiographs are the most commonly performed radiological examinations in the majority of hospitals and probably the most complex plain films to interpret. A basic knowledge of normal radiographic appearances is essential for all medical students, intern, foundation training doctors, registrars in medicine and surgery, accident and emergency physicians (ED/ER staff), as well as for those radiographers and nurses who interpret X-rays.
Failure to keep to a system will lead to crucial signs being missed. There are many different structures, which are superimposed over one and another. For these reasons, a systematic approach is essential.
From a practical point of view, a chest or abdominal X-ray is also the most likely radiograph to appear in a medical exam or assessment.
An international award winning team of experienced tutors has brought this concise textbook to help you understand radiographic techniques and normal X-ray appearances of the chest and abdominal radiographs. Our Radiology Series Editor, Professor (Dr) Sanjay Gandhi has provided this textbook as a compliment.
This book is dedicated to Mr Mohan Mundasad, FRCS (Edin), CRS (Eur), FRCOphth (Lon), DORCPS, (Dub), DOMS and Professor PF Kotur, MD (Anaesth) PhD (Med.Edn), FICA, two great educationalists.
We take this opportunity to thank Dr Hugh Davies and Dr David Wilson, Dr Mahesh Baj, Dr Jonathan Rodrigues and Dr Garry Pettet, for their contributions to our previous textbooks from which some of the text and radiographs have been used to produce this textbook. More detailed versions of our award-winning chest and abdominal imaging books are available on Amazon for those who would like to gain further expertise in interpretation of these exams. Please register your copy by sending us an email so that you can enjoy the free update to any new editions in the future.
We hope you will enjoy this beginner’s guide to the basics of radiology.
With best wishes
JMD and the West of England Books Team
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“You must know the fundamentals in order to use them”
~ Benjamin Felson, MD
Famous Chest Radiologist, 1913-1988.
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Disclaimer and Copyrights ©:
List of Abbreviations:
The Chest Radiograph:
Basic densities on X-ray:
Interpreting the Chest Radiograph:
Technical factors – PA Film:
Self-Assessment Anatomy Test:
The Lateral View:
Areas of interest and review areas:
Key Reference Chest Imaging Books:
Basic Abdominal X-Ray Projections:
Interpreting Abdomen films:]
Normal Gas Pattern
Limitations of Abdominal X-Rays:
Suggested Reading For Abdominal Imaging:
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[Our Radiology Series Editor:
Professor (Dr) Sanjay Gandhi
MBBS, MD, DNB, FRCR, FHEA
Fellow of the Higher Education Academy, UK
For more than two decades, Professor Gandhi has been modernizing the healthcare and shaping the future of higher education. His distinguished 30 years medical career spans across the UK, India, and the USA, during which he has won several national and international academic excellence awards.
Dr. Gandhi is a senior consultant radiologist at the largest teaching hospital and regional trauma unit in the South West England. He has received consistently excellent ratings for providing high-quality patient care.
He is actively involved in teaching undergraduate and postgraduate trainees at the University of Bristol and the University of West of England for over 17 years. As Visiting Professor, he also teaches at Commonwealth Universities.
Dr. Gandhi has co-authored and edited 8 medical textbooks and won the prestigious British Medical Association Highly Commended Book Editor award.
Professor Gandhi has been involved in numerous research projects and clinical trials. He has published several research papers and serves on the Editorial Boards of 4 peer-reviewed Journals. Sanjay has been a frequently invited speaker and moderator at major international conferences.
His special expertise is in the Healthcare-IT and Innovations. As an adviser to a number of medium to large international healthcare organization, Professor Gandhi has helped in the development of innovative solutions. He established a new University programme to teach Tele-Health and Computer Aided Detection
He is a prolific contributor to the Royal College of Radiologists’ Fellowship Exam Questions and contributed to the development of the National Imaging Guidelines for the UK. He is the Regional Vice Chairman of the British Institute of Radiology.
Dr. Gandhi is always willing to share his knowledge and expertise widely through conference lectures, textbooks, articles and editorials. His vast academic contributions have been widely recognized at national and international levels, for example, Dr. Gandhi received the Academic Excellence Award from the British Association of Physicians of Indian Origin in 2013 and the Global Indian of the Year – Academics, UK Award from Times Now at NRI of the Year Awards in 2016. With more than two decades of extensive teaching and training, clinical research, multiple award-winning textbooks, eLearning tools and other healthcare innovations to his credit, Professor Gandhi is considered one of the most prolific Radiologists of the present generation.
With best wishes
JMD and the West of England Books Team
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Each textbook written by Dr. Sanjay Gandhi has enjoyed international success and became a bestseller in their category. These books have won a number of academic awards. A small sample of reviews published in reputed British and American Journals and on Amazon are as below:
Published reviews of the BMA Award Winning Book: ‘Radiology for Anaesthesia and Intensive Care’, published by Cambridge University Press:
Book Reviews for ‘Emergency Radiology – A&E and Trauma Teaching Files’:
Sample book Reviews for the ‘Chest Radiology: Exam Revision Made Easy’:
This book was used for me to train my CNP daughter. It is a great book for that purpose and worked out very well. Amazon USA, 4 May 2016
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Please note that this book is intended for use of Medical Professionals only. Although the authors, editor and JM Digital Media Pvt. Ltd. have made every possible effort to provide accurate information at the time of publication, however, errors and omissions are still a possibility due to human nature and/or new developments. Neither the authors/editor nor the JMD warrants that the information contained herein is in every respect complete or error free and readers must confirm the information with other sources. This is an introductory guide, written with the aim to help the candidates with the Exam. We do not recommend on deciding your clinical decisions just based only on the images or discussion in this book. The lists, causes and conditions described in this book should be used as a starting point towards learning. The scope of Radiology and Medicine is very wide and this book makes no claim to include all conditions. No single book can guarantee success in exams, and this book makes no such claim. This is not a reference textbook. A list of reference books has been provided under Suggested Reading section. These should be used to help you develop a complete understanding of this subject. With regards to exam books, success in the Exam depends on many factors, most important of these is your knowledge and preparation. We hope that with guidance on the Exam from Tutors and past trainees, you will find it easier to prepare for the Exam. However, neither this book nor any author can provide you any guarantees or warranties in relation to the Exam.
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This includes all the text, lists, tables, X-rays and Illustrations. No part of this book may be reproduced or distributed in paper including Fax and photocopying, or any electronic form or by any other means, or stored in a database, server or a retrieval system, without the prior explicit written permission of the editor. Posting of files, images or the material contained in this publication or providing unofficial download links or file sharing of this publication is an offense. Distribution of copyright material without written permission may lead to legal action against you. There are a number of people who have contributed to this book. Their work is fully recognized in the ‘Acknowledgments’ section. JM Digital Books has made a good faith effort to include a very small number of images, which appear to be in the public domain. All externally sourced images have been used either with permission from the sources (listed under the acknowledgements) or from sources, which place their images in the public domain or abandon their copyright, or have expired copyrights. Copyright laws may differ in each country or jurisdiction. If you are aware of any image, which should not be in the public domain, please contact us and we will remove the image at our earliest possible. We strive to ensure no copyrighted images are used without permission. Any references throughout this book to trademarks, service marks or otherwise copyrighted material, whether registered or not are the property of their respective companies or owners. Material has been used under fair use policy. Illustrations accredited to external sources have been used under the creative commons CC0 public domain dedication. The external links have been provided in good faith. If you or your organization would like us to remove these links or references then please contact us and we will remove these at our earliest possible.
All radiographic images have been fully anonymised in accordance with Privacy Guidelines set by the General Medical Council (GMC), UK and the Department of Health (DoH) and International Guidelines.
This ‘Complimentary Beginner’s Guide’ contains copyrighted teaching material taken from two of our bestselling textbooks listed below and JMD would like to fully recognise this contribution.
Basics of Chest Radiology – A Beginner’s Guide to Chest Imaging, Publisher: JMD Publishing, 2011, ASIN: B005CYWM7S
Co-authors / Contributing authors:
Dr. Hugh Davies, MBChB, MRCGP
Dr. David Wilson, MA, MB, BChir (Cantab), FRCR
Dr. Mahesh Baj, MBBS, MD, FFRRCSI, FRCR
Dr. J K Yadav, MBBS, DTM&H (UK), MD
Basics of Abdominal Radiology – Essential Guide to X-ray Abdomen:
Authors/ Contributing authors: Dr Jonathan Rodrigues and Dr Garry Pettet, Editor: Dr Sanjay Gandhi-
Our special thanks for proofreading of the manuscript are due to
Mrs. Ila Gandhi, BSc , PG Diploma (Clin Pharm), GPhC
This ‘Complimentary Beginner’s Guide’ is provided free to the students of the designated University listed above. However, in order to use it beyond trial period, you must register this copy by sending email to: [email protected]
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Note: You can use this book on up to four devices registered under one Kindle account . In order to benefit fully from our high quality digital teaching films, we suggest that you should first use this book on a Good or High-resolution screen of an iPad, or Kindle Fire HD. For revision on the ward or ‘Practice on the go’, later you can use this book on other devices such as Android Tablet, Kindle Fire etc. The book can be used on the Laptop, Mac or PC also using Kindle App.
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Technical Details and Suggested Settings
This section will help in selecting optimum settings for the text and radiographs on Kindle. If you have previously used JMD Books and are familiar with the optimal settings to get the best out of our Radiology eBooks then you can skip this section.
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