Basics of Radiology

A Complimentary Beginner’s Guide to Imaging




BMA Award Winning Author and Editor:

Professor (Dr.) Sanjay Gandhi


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The aim of the Basics of Radiology – Complimentary Beginner’s Guide is to explain the fundamentals of imaging in an easy to understand manner. The main emphasis of this introductory book is on the radiographic techniques and normal anatomical appearances of chest and abdomen.

This textbook is suitable for medical students and interns. However, first-year postgraduate trainees in radiology, medicine and surgical specialities and accident and emergency staff, radiographers, physiotherapists and nurses will find this useful.

This ‘Complimentary Beginner’s Guide’ has been published exclusively for the students and all other associates of Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College, Kolar, and Sharda University and School of Medical Science & Research, Greater Noida, India.

ISBN: 9781310120695

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Over the past fifteen to twenty years, there have been a number of developments in diagnostic imaging. In spite of the increasing use of Ultrasound, CT and MRI scans, plain radiograph still remains one of the most important radiological investigations for patients.

The chest and abdominal radiographs are the most commonly performed radiological examinations in the majority of hospitals and probably the most complex plain films to interpret. A basic knowledge of normal radiographic appearances is essential for all medical students, intern, foundation training doctors, registrars in medicine and surgery, accident and emergency physicians (ED/ER staff), as well as for those radiographers and nurses who interpret X-rays.

Failure to keep to a system will lead to crucial signs being missed. There are many different structures, which are superimposed over one and another. For these reasons, a systematic approach is essential.

From a practical point of view, a chest or abdominal X-ray is also the most likely radiograph to appear in a medical exam or assessment.

An international award winning team of experienced tutors has brought this concise textbook to help you understand radiographic techniques and normal X-ray appearances of the chest and abdominal radiographs. Our Radiology Series Editor, Professor (Dr) Sanjay Gandhi has provided this textbook as a compliment.

This book is dedicated to Mr Mohan Mundasad, FRCS (Edin), CRS (Eur), FRCOphth (Lon), DORCPS, (Dub), DOMS and Professor PF Kotur, MD (Anaesth) PhD (Med.Edn), FICA, two great educationalists.

We take this opportunity to thank Dr Hugh Davies and Dr David Wilson, Dr Mahesh Baj, Dr Jonathan Rodrigues and Dr Garry Pettet, for their contributions to our previous textbooks from which some of the text and radiographs have been used to produce this textbook. More detailed versions of our award-winning chest and abdominal imaging books are available on Amazon for those who would like to gain further expertise in interpretation of these exams. Please register your copy by sending us an email so that you can enjoy the free update to any new editions in the future.

We hope you will enjoy this beginner’s guide to the basics of radiology.

With best wishes

JMD and the West of England Books Team

[email protected]

How to get this book: You can download it from the book distributor’s website Shakespir.com. Please click BUY and at the next stage at the checkout you can select whatever you like to pay (even $0.00) and download the FULL VERSION of the book.

Please note that you will need to register once with Shakespir to be able to get the Full Version . Without registration, the distributors Shakespir only allow 20% sample of books.

For best reading experience please choose in mobi format for Kindle.

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You must know the fundamentals in order to use them”


~ Benjamin Felson, MD

Famous Chest Radiologist, 1913-1988.



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Disclaimer and Copyrights ©:

List of Abbreviations:


The Chest Radiograph:

Basic principles:

Basic densities on X-ray:


Interpreting the Chest Radiograph:

Systematic Approach:]


Technical factors – PA Film:

Self-Assessment Anatomy Test:

The Lateral View:


Extra objects:

Areas of interest and review areas:

Key Reference Chest Imaging Books:

Basic Abdominal X-Ray Projections:

Interpreting Abdomen films:]

Normal Gas Pattern

Limitations of Abdominal X-Rays:


Suggested Reading For Abdominal Imaging:


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[Our Radiology Series Editor:

Professor (Dr) Sanjay Gandhi


Fellow of the Higher Education Academy, UK

For more than two decades, Professor Gandhi has been modernizing the healthcare and shaping the future of higher education. His distinguished 30 years medical career spans across the UK, India, and the USA, during which he has won several national and international academic excellence awards.

Dr. Gandhi is a senior consultant radiologist at the largest teaching hospital and regional trauma unit in the South West England. He has received consistently excellent ratings for providing high-quality patient care.

He is actively involved in teaching undergraduate and postgraduate trainees at the University of Bristol and the University of West of England for over 17 years. As Visiting Professor, he also teaches at Commonwealth Universities.

Dr. Gandhi has co-authored and edited 8 medical textbooks and won the prestigious British Medical Association Highly Commended Book Editor award.

Professor Gandhi has been involved in numerous research projects and clinical trials. He has published several research papers and serves on the Editorial Boards of 4 peer-reviewed Journals. Sanjay has been a frequently invited speaker and moderator at major international conferences.

His special expertise is in the Healthcare-IT and Innovations. As an adviser to a number of medium to large international healthcare organization, Professor Gandhi has helped in the development of innovative solutions. He established a new University programme to teach Tele-Health and Computer Aided Detection

He is a prolific contributor to the Royal College of Radiologists’ Fellowship Exam Questions and contributed to the development of the National Imaging Guidelines for the UK. He is the Regional Vice Chairman of the British Institute of Radiology.

Dr. Gandhi is always willing to share his knowledge and expertise widely through conference lectures, textbooks, articles and editorials. His vast academic contributions have been widely recognized at national and international levels, for example, Dr. Gandhi received the Academic Excellence Award from the British Association of Physicians of Indian Origin in 2013 and the Global Indian of the Year – Academics, UK Award from Times Now at NRI of the Year Awards in 2016. With more than two decades of extensive teaching and training, clinical research, multiple award-winning textbooks, eLearning tools and other healthcare innovations to his credit, Professor Gandhi is considered one of the most prolific Radiologists of the present generation.

With best wishes

JMD and the West of England Books Team


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Each textbook written by Dr. Sanjay Gandhi has enjoyed international success and became a bestseller in their category. These books have won a number of academic awards. A small sample of reviews published in reputed British and American Journals and on Amazon are as below:

Published reviews of the BMA Award Winning Book: ‘Radiology for Anaesthesia and Intensive Care’, published by Cambridge University Press: 

  • ‘Excellent book…it provides examination candidates with an excellent system for interpreting radiological investigations, uses clinical examples to test core knowledge, and discusses the implications of providing an anaesthetic service in radiological departments.’ This review was published in the British Journal of Anaesthesia, 2003.

  • ‘It is certainly a valuable addition to my bookshelf’. This review was published in the American Journal Anaesthesia, 2003.
  • ‘..an excellent resource for all anaesthetists, of whatever grade, who are involved with radiological procedures’. This review was published in the British Journal of Anaesthesia, 2010.


Book Reviews for ‘Emergency Radiology – A&E and Trauma Teaching Files’

  • 5 out of 5 Stars. It is a Great book for radiology in ED. Very easy to read and digest, would be a very good guide to junior doctors in ED…….Amazon UK, 5 Feb 2012.

  • 5 out of 5 Stars. Comprehensive with excellent examples. A brilliant work, Emergency Radiology made easy!!…… Amazon UK, 3 Feb 2012.

Sample book Reviews for the ‘Chest Radiology: Exam Revision Made Easy’:

  • 5 out of 5 Stars, Excellent must read. Amazon USA, 26 Nov. 2015


  • 5 out of 5 Stars, Wonderful book, Amazon USA, 4 Dec. 2015

This book was used for me to train my CNP daughter. It is a great book for that purpose and worked out very well. Amazon USA, 4 May 2016


>>>>>> <<<<<<



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[] Disclaimer and Copyrights ©:


Important Notice:

Please note that this book is intended for use of Medical Professionals only. Although the authors, editor and JM Digital Media Pvt. Ltd. have made every possible effort to provide accurate information at the time of publication, however, errors and omissions are still a possibility due to human nature and/or new developments. Neither the authors/editor nor the JMD warrants that the information contained herein is in every respect complete or error free and readers must confirm the information with other sources. This is an introductory guide, written with the aim to help the candidates with the Exam. We do not recommend on deciding your clinical decisions just based only on the images or discussion in this book. The lists, causes and conditions described in this book should be used as a starting point towards learning. The scope of Radiology and Medicine is very wide and this book makes no claim to include all conditions. No single book can guarantee success in exams, and this book makes no such claim. This is not a reference textbook. A list of reference books has been provided under Suggested Reading section. These should be used to help you develop a complete understanding of this subject. With regards to exam books, success in the Exam depends on many factors, most important of these is your knowledge and preparation. We hope that with guidance on the Exam from Tutors and past trainees, you will find it easier to prepare for the Exam. However, neither this book nor any author can provide you any guarantees or warranties in relation to the Exam.

Neither the publisher nor the authors can give any guarantee for information about drug dosage or application thereof contained in this eBook. In each individual case, the respective user must check its accuracy by consulting all pharmaceutical literature relevant to drug, medication or apparatus. Furthermore, with respect to any pharmaceutical products or drug identified, readers are advised to check the most up to date information by the manufacturer of each product to be administered, to verify the recommended dose, as well as formula, the method, route and duration of administration, and each contraindication. It is the sole responsibility of healthcare professional / medical practitioners to take all appropriate safety precautions. All complex cases and other potentially life threatening conditions should be discussed with an experienced member of your team such as Attending Staff or a Consultant.

To the full extent of the law, neither the Publisher nor Contributors, Authors, or Editors assume any liability for any damage or injury to persons or property as a matter of products liability or negligence otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, ideas or instructions contained in the material herein. As a common industry practice, rather than put a trademark symbol after every occurrence of a trademarked name, we use names in an Editorial fashion only, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. All trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners.


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Errors & Omissions Excepted (E & O E). Under no circumstances shall the authors, editors or the JMD Books Club be liable for any indirect, special, incidental, consequential or similar damages that result from the use of or inability to use this publication. Application of the knowledge and information in a particular clinical situation remains the sole professional responsibility of the medical practitioner. If you decide to use any external website or external link from this book then please be aware of data download limit of your internet plan as you might incur a charge for internet access. You may prefer to visit website(s) on a Wi-Fi network. Under no circumstances shall the authors or the JMD Books Club be liable for any indirect, special, incidental, consequential or similar data download roaming or any other charges you might incur. The book makes no guarantee or warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, except that the book sold shall be of readable quality. Our liability shall never be more than the price of the book you paid. This does not affect your statutory rights. In the first instance, you should try to resolve customer service related issues with the bookseller or the website, which sold this book to you.

By continuing to use this book further, you are agreeing to the terms and conditions. Any reference to the external websites and links was deemed reliable at the time of publishing of this book. The contents or quality of information might have changed with since publication of this book and might not be relevant anymore. The authors and the West of England Books /JM Digital Media Books cannot take responsibility for the contents or accuracy of material on the external links. If you decide to use any external website then it will be your sole responsibility to check accuracy of information from a reliable source. It will be your responsibility to assess the terms and conditions of the external website and links you might use.


Copyrights ©:

The contents of this publication are protected under international copyright© laws.

This includes all the text, lists, tables, X-rays and Illustrations. No part of this book may be reproduced or distributed in paper including Fax and photocopying, or any electronic form or by any other means, or stored in a database, server or a retrieval system, without the prior explicit written permission of the editor. Posting of files, images or the material contained in this publication or providing unofficial download links or file sharing of this publication is an offense. Distribution of copyright material without written permission may lead to legal action against you. There are a number of people who have contributed to this book. Their work is fully recognized in the ‘Acknowledgments’ section. JM Digital Books has made a good faith effort to include a very small number of images, which appear to be in the public domain. All externally sourced images have been used either with permission from the sources (listed under the acknowledgements) or from sources, which place their images in the public domain or abandon their copyright, or have expired copyrights. Copyright laws may differ in each country or jurisdiction. If you are aware of any image, which should not be in the public domain, please contact us and we will remove the image at our earliest possible. We strive to ensure no copyrighted images are used without permission. Any references throughout this book to trademarks, service marks or otherwise copyrighted material, whether registered or not are the property of their respective companies or owners. Material has been used under fair use policy. Illustrations accredited to external sources have been used under the creative commons CC0 public domain dedication. The external links have been provided in good faith. If you or your organization would like us to remove these links or references then please contact us and we will remove these at our earliest possible.



All radiographic images have been fully anonymised in accordance with Privacy Guidelines set by the General Medical Council (GMC), UK and the Department of Health (DoH) and International Guidelines.


This ‘Complimentary Beginner’s Guide’ contains copyrighted teaching material taken from two of our bestselling textbooks listed below and JMD would like to fully recognise this contribution.

Basics of Chest Radiology – A Beginner’s Guide to Chest Imaging, Publisher: JMD Publishing, 2011, ASIN: B005CYWM7S


Co-authors / Contributing authors:

Dr. Hugh Davies, MBChB, MRCGP

Dr. David Wilson, MA, MB, BChir (Cantab), FRCR


Dr. J K Yadav, MBBS, DTM&H (UK), MD


Basics of Abdominal Radiology – Essential Guide to X-ray Abdomen:

Authors/ Contributing authors: Dr Jonathan Rodrigues and Dr Garry Pettet, Editor: Dr Sanjay Gandhi-

Our special thanks for proofreading of the manuscript are due to

Mrs. Ila Gandhi, BSc , PG Diploma (Clin Pharm), GPhC





This ‘Complimentary Beginner’s Guide’ is provided free to the students of the designated University listed above. However, in order to use it beyond trial period, you must register this copy by sending email to: [email protected]

Anyone found using or distributing this book illegally in paper, electronic or any other format will risk being reported to the authorities. Illegal distribution on any eBook on websites, file sharing sites or via email leaves a permanent record of such activity and may lead to legal action against you. Illegal distribution of this copyright protected material may also harm your professional reputation.


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JMD Books


Note: You can use this book on up to four devices registered under one Kindle account . In order to benefit fully from our high quality digital teaching films, we suggest that you should first use this book on a Good or High-resolution screen of an iPad, or Kindle Fire HD. For revision on the ward or ‘Practice on the go’, later you can use this book on other devices such as Android Tablet, Kindle Fire etc. The book can be used on the Laptop, Mac or PC also using Kindle App.

We suggest White Page Background setting for enhanced reading experience. On touch screen devices, you can Zoom and Pan X-rays and illustrations by double tapping the image (please see further detail under the Suggested Kindle Settings).

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Technical Details and Suggested Settings

This section will help in selecting optimum settings for the text and radiographs on Kindle. If you have previously used JMD Books and are familiar with the optimal settings to get the best out of our Radiology eBooks then you can skip this section.

JMD books are optimized for Kindle Apps. As you would know, the Kindle allows a range of different background color settings White, Sepia and Black).

For the best reading experience, we suggest White Background.

You can change this under Settings > View > Color Mode (White, Sepia, Black) to White


Or by clicking on the toolbar icon Aa


Visit: http://www.Shakespir.com/books/view/645108 to purchase this book to continue reading. Show the author you appreciate their work!


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  • Author: radtutor
  • Published: 2016-06-22 00:35:10
  • Words: 13084
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