Teaching Methodology





This short book explains effective

teaching methodologies, and describes

the effects of these methods on the

mind, attitude, and life of the students.


“Teaching methodology” expresses the effective teaching methodologies and describes the effects of these

teaching methods on the mind, attitude, and life of the students. It is an important topic of discussion, because teachers make the nation. While, teaching methodology

represents the personality of a teacher. In a society, there are different teaching methods, and teachers of different temperaments. This is a general discussion about

teaching methodology, and how they may help the

people of nation, and the teachers of future.


Choudhry Ghulam Murtaza Gujjar




All the ideas written in this book, are those I have

learned from my teachers. My teachers have helped me

to reach this stage. Their work, struggles, affection, prays, and appreciation, alongside the prays, blessing and efforts of my parents, have brought me this far in writing this book.

Also, my friends, Bilal Ahmad Cheema (BAC) and

Zoaheb Mohammed have helped greatly in the design

and editing of this book.

Special Thanks to

My Teachers, My Parents

And My Friends

Bilal Ahmad Cheema (BAC)

Zoaheb Mohammad


 Teacher and teaching

 The temperament of teachers

 Knowledge and teaching

 The attitude of students

 Teaching methodology

 Teaching methods

 Psychology of students

 Simple and easy lectures

 Control the attention of students

 Examples of effective teaching methodology

 Psychological factors and teaching methodology

 Affection

 Expressions

 General Psychology of students

 Mental Psychology of students

 Student Memory

 Appreciation and reward

 Punishment

 Frank behaviour

 Strict behaviour

 Fear

 Depression

 Confidence

 Psychological cautions

 Student and teaching methodology

 Respect of teacher



A person who teaches others is a teacher. While

teaching means to impart on someone knowledge, that

maybe specific or common. Teaching may be about

religion, science, mathematics, social life, economics, or anything else. In fact, even a person who tells you

something new, which you do not know before, is your


Teaching is a good profession. However, teaching is

as rewarding a profession, but also a difficult a profession.

This is because effective teaching requires guts, and a number of special qualities. These attributes are not

found in everyone, and as such, it is no small feat to

teach. This means, that individuals require multiple

impressive, and rare qualities, to make good teachers.



Different teachers have different temperaments.

o Some teachers are strict. Their strictness is due to

their own attitude and lifestyle. They do not like to

engage in causal talk with students, and maintain

strict environment of study.

o Some teachers have soft attitude, and an easy

temperament. However, they do not bear any

disturbance by students in their own presence. They

pay their duties, deliver lectures, and leave the class.

Generally, they do not interfere with student

matters. Usually, such attitude is due to their

consistent work routine.

o The teachers of other type of temperament do not

bear any disturbance created by students.

Sometimes, they disgrace the students, and force

students to leave the class. While other times,

teachers are compelled to leave the class, because of

the students’ behaviours not meeting their


o Other teachers are causal with students, but do not

bear any disturbance in class. They may lose temper


o A few teachers are friendly with students, and reward the students for paying attention, by their own lovely


o Many teachers are cool, and have such amazing

affection for their students, that the students cannot

create any disturbances during classes.

o Some teachers place pressure on students. They do not punish, but rather, their attitude, temperament,

teaching methods, and lifestyle creates respect, out

of fear, in the mind of students.

o Many teachers, in primary classes, use punishment to

discipline their students. This leaves students

confused and stressed during classes.

o Several teachers have cool behaviour, and follow

punishment and reward style. They deal student

according to their behaviour, and life style.

o Some teachers follow their own mood. When they

are angry, they punish the students. Yet, when they

are happy, they show kind behaviour, and follow

appreciation and reward style.



Knowledge is necessary for teaching. One should

have full mastery of the subject, one wants to teach. To obtain more detailed knowledge about specific topic, with the intension of delivering a concept to students, every teacher consults books and other sources of knowledge.

There is also another different ideology about this

point. This ideology is that: every teacher is always more qualified than their students. So, this means, a teacher is qualified person. As everyone knows, that qualified

person must have knowledge. When a teacher is

qualified, of course, they have knowledge. Those who

have any problems, must consult sources of knowledge.

After this ideology, it is clear, that it is not only

knowledge, but many other important factors, that have

greater effect on teaching. By understanding these

factors, teaching can be improved.



Each and every student has different attitude.

o Some students sit on first bench, see to the teacher, show full expressions of attention, but they are not

present in class mentally. They are present physically, but they are thinking some other things in mind.

o Some students show that they are busy in writing in

notebook, when actually, they are not listening to the

lecture, and are writing something else in their


o Some students, with their head down, are asleep.

They are present in class physically but not mentally.

o Some students talk, through gestures, with other

students, and do not pay heed to lecture.

o Some students feel bored during lecture, and do not

pay attention.

o A few students believe that they will study at home,

after the lecture.

o Those students who are interested in extracurricular

activities, remain busy about their activity during

lecture, and cannot pay heed to study.



Teaching methodology is a process, by which

different ways are adapted to improve teaching style, and to teach in convenient way.

Teaching methodology includes all the factors that

affect teaching. It also determines the impression of the teacher on students. Teaching methodology helps in

clearing the concepts to the students. It is also a measure of how much is memorized by students during lecture. In this way, it expresses the personality, and ability of a teacher.

Teaching methodology includes countless ways of teaching, but not all of these ways are impressive. In fact, some methods do not leave good impression on students.

Good teaching methods have good effects for students.

There are different the most important factors

included in teaching methodology:

o Control the attention of students.

o Understanding the psychology of students.

o Make the lecture simple and easy.

o Leaning of psychological factors affects students

o Control the attitude of students.

_ _

_ _

_“To control the attention of students _

[_is the most important of these.” _]


Every teacher has their own teaching method.

Usually, teachers have very effective, and impressive

teaching methods. However, some teachers have normal

teaching methods. There are different teaching methods

found in teachers.

o Start of a lecture and end of a lecture. Lecture ends in short time. In some case, students understand well

but in other cases, students are sitting blank.

o Some teachers observe the different movements of

students, but do not care about, what are they doing,

what are they thinking, or if are they paying

attention. They just deliver the lecture.

o Sometimes teachers are experts, and they just call the names of those students who are not paying

attention, and control the attention of students.

o Some teachers make diagrams, and write whole

lecture on board, and students found it easy to

understand the lecture.

o Some teachers advise their students to write notes

during the lecture.

o In some situations, teachers create fear, and then

students are forced to focus on the lecture.

o Some teachers just use their own energy, and their

energy helps the students in memorizing the lecture.



It is necessary for a student to pay attention for

understanding lectures. Usually, a few full mature

students try to pay attention on lecture but others don’t.

Sometimes, the continuous speak of teacher diverts

student attention from lecture. In teaching methodology, hard and very important factor is to control the attention of student. When students will pay attention, they will understand the whole lecture. So, understanding

psychology of students and adopting amazing methods

for controlling psychology of students leads to control of the attention of students.



In teaching methodology, it is very important that

lecture should be simple and easy. In fact, simple and

easy lectures, attract the attention of students.

Furthermore, simple and easy lecture also consumes less time.

There are following key points in making the lecture

easy and simple:

o Draw sketch diagrams. Sketch diagram creates a

sketch in the brain of students, and helps to

memorize in short time.

o Draw simple diagram, and label different things related to the topic.

o Make flow charts as they help in making the concept

of lecture.

o Arrange the lecture in story form, because stories are easy to memorize, and understand.

o Students learn more easily by watching videos.

o Create amazing and easy mnemonics.

o Express lecture in simple and easy words.



Teaching is not only to teach the students (just

deliver the lecture), and leave. Teaching includes,

delivering of lecture in such a way that each, and every student should learn, and memorize the lecture. This is possible, only by effective teaching methodology.

There are some important points related to effective

teaching methodology, and in controlling the attention of students. Actually, there are side techniques employed by the teacher during the lecture that make the teaching

effective. These include:

o Judge the movement of students.

o Observe all the students.

o Understand students’ mental psychology.

o Ask question during lecture.

o Keep test on next day of lecture.

o Repeat the lecture many time, ask questions


o Show such expression that every student should feel

that teacher is looking me.

o Ask the students for making notes of lectures.

In fact, all the factors included in teaching

methodology, like understanding mental psychology of

students, understanding effects of psychological factors on students, learning easy and simple lecture techniques, attention gaining simple techniques, etc., helps in

controlling the attention of student. So, “to control the attention of students” is necessary for effective teaching methodology.




Many teachers of mine have shown amazing teaching

methodology. There are a few examples that are

imprinted in my brain. These examples will reveal

impressive and effective teaching methodology, and the

best personality and best attitude of teachers.

o Khursheed Ahmed Malik, my teacher during Matric

classes, has amazing teaching methodology. He

makes flow charts, and says to students to write the

lecture in their notebooks. During his lecture, every

student learns and memorizes.

o Doctor Ashraf Hussain, my old biology teacher, has the most effective teaching methodology. Students

are compelled to pay attention during lectures. He is

very cool and causal with his students. His teaching

methodology is that he starts lecture by starting a

story, as the story ends, lecture is also complete. So, he teaches whole the lecture in story, and everyone

learns. Sometimes, he uses a second method, he

writes lecture on board, and tells the students to

write in their notebooks. Then, explains the written

lecture in a few minutes, and everyone learns his

lecture. He used a third method, according to the

topic, that was to make a diagram, and complete the

whole lecture simply.

o Khalid Hussain: the teacher of English, would set a

test for day after the lecture. During test, only those students who have learnt the lecture, would come

first. He just ignored the other students; those

students that cheated from book. Then Sir, wold say

that “I will listen from everyone individually”. Then everyone tries to memorize the written question.

Now, everyone has memorized the lecture.

o Muhammed Irfan Khan: the teacher of Chemistry. He

controlled the attention of students, by asking

questions suddenly, during the lecture, and utilizes

his own energy by repeating again and again. This

ensured that every student had memorized the


o Doctor Lubna: the teacher of Biotechnology, has

amazing way of teaching. She spoke softly, slowly and

with pauses. She judged the mental psychology of

student, and called the name of students to paying

attention. In this way, she retrieves the attention of

student. Everyone payed attention to the lecture.

o Professor Shazia Ali: the professor of Physiology. She speaks in normal frequency. Her effective teaching

methodology is that she reads the mental psychology

of students. She asks questions during lecture, and

also on the next day of lecture. So, each and every

student is compelled to listen her lecture.

Furthermore, she emphasizes on flow charts and

diagrams. Simple and easy lectures are memorized by

students in a short time.

o Iqbal Khan: the teacher of Chemistry, tells the

students to note the lecture, and he speaks with

pauses. Furthermore, he is expert in judging the

psychological factors of students.

o Majeed Ahmed: the teacher of Mathematics, is

expert in teaching with easy methods. He teaches by

solving the questions in different simple methods and


o Iftakhar Hussain: the teacher of Physics. He takes the verbal test on the next day of lecture with

punishment. So, every student pays attention in the






This is a list of factors that affects the attention of students, and so, affects the teaching methodology.

o Affections

o Expressions

o General Psychology of students

o Mental Psychology of students

o Student memory

o Appreciation and reward

o Punishment

o Causal behaviour

o Strict behaviour

o Fear

o Depression

o Confidence


Sometimes, affection with students motivate them to be

attentive in lectures, and also compels them to study well in order to maintain that affection. But some students

become over confident, due to a lot of affection and

waste their time in other activities. They do not pay heed to the lectures and studies. They pass their time without paying attention.


Some teacher express special expressions. These

expressions usually have the feelings of strictness.

Similarly, such expressions are expressed by teacher, can instil an amazing feeling in student. Each will student feel

that the teacher is watching them. This will insight a feeling to pay heed to lecture. So, facial expressions have amazing role in controlling the attention of students.


General psychology and internal attitude of student is

difficult to understand. But it is very important factor that only a few teachers are experts in understanding the

general psychology of student. If any teacher can judge the psychology of student, he can judge the ways by

which student understand and memorizes well. Then

teacher can deliver lecture in that way.


It’s like brain reading. Teacher judges the student

attention. Sometimes, student looks attentive but student is not paying attention, and is not in class mentally. A few teachers are so experienced in judging the mental

psychology of student, they realize that student is not

attentive. So, in this way attention of the student is controlled by judging their mental level and their thinking.


Some students have better long term memory, and some

have better short term memory. Some have low picking

and reasoning power. A student with short term memory

learns, but cannot memorize immediately. During such

condition, “repeat and repeat” method is best. More

concentration, and repeating lecture method helps in

memorizing the lectures to students.


Appreciation and reward play an important role in

teaching methodology. Teacher can gain the attention of student the attention of student by appreciation and

reward method. However, in a few situations, students

get bad impression of over appreciation and reward and

do not pay attention due to over-confidence.


Punishment is such psychological factor that sometimes

make the student more efficient, but in a few conditions, it leads to one’s failure. Student habituates to

punishment, and do not feel any change.


Due to the frank behaviour of the teacher, some students show good progress, while a few students get bad effect and create disturbances.


Strict behaviour or attitude has different effects on

different students. Mostly, student show good progress, but some students show bad progress. Actually, those

students who have spent most of their time in strict

environment, they are addict of showing progress in strict environment. They will show good progress but others do not.

During developmental period of children, different psychological factors are inculcated in them. By

understanding these psychological factors, the teacher

will be able to control the attention of the student. So, it is necessary to understand these psychological facts.


Fear is other important factor. Fear of failure, fear of parents, fear of teachers, or other things can be

motivation for paying attention towards studies.

However, fear can lead to depression, and therefore must be managed effectively.


A student suffering from depression is confused cannot

pay attention to lectures. Depression can be resolved by psychological treatment. Affection, causal environment, and similar other factors have effect in decreasing

depression of student, and promotes studying and paying attention to lectures.


Under confidence leads to depression in pressurized

environment. So, such a student can be treated by

applying affection, appreciation and frank environment.

While over-confident student needs strictness and reward and punishment rule.



It is seen that those students who are habitual to

strict environment do not pay heed to lectures without

strictness and punishment rule. In fact, they are

accustomed to that condition, because of their similar

past experience.

We should take care of them from their childhood.

There are following important factors that are needed by a child and helps in the grooming of children.

o Frankness

o Love

o Appreciation

o Reward

o Affection

When children pass through such environment, after

that during mature age, they are able to pay heed to

lectures without strictness and punishment.




No doubt, every teacher has different teaching

methodology. Sometimes, students have objection about

the teacher’s methods. The point to be noted, is that if student try to pay attention, they can learn. Further, the teachers are not supposed to memorize the lessons to

students. So, students should try to understand the

attitude of teacher, and should pay attention on the

lectures, and lessons.


As it is, the duty of a teacher to teach the nation.

Similarly, it is also duty of a student to do respect

teachers. It is possible, that a teacher does not have

effective teaching methodology, but there are many

other things that helps the students in coming forward.

The praise of teachers is also a key factor for the success of the students.

It is obligatory for the students, to pay attention

during lecture, keep the silence and peace in class.

Making any kind of disturbance, bad movements, and bad

attitudes create bad impression.

[_“Imagination is _]

_more important _

[_than knowledge.” _]

-Albert Einstein

Teaching Methodology

This book describes the effective teaching methodologies and also reflects the effects of teaching methodologies on the life of a student. It describes the psychology of students.

  • Author: Choudhry Ghulam Murtaza Gujjar
  • Published: 2017-03-08 18:05:08
  • Words: 3250
Teaching Methodology Teaching Methodology