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Nootropics for Newbies

Nootropics for Newbies

Note: _][_The information provided in this guide was thoroughly researched and referenced. That said, MensPleasures.com are NOT doctors and you should not take any of this advice or anything we say in this e-Book as medical advice. It is always best to consult with your physician prior to taking any nootropic or supplement per se.

 

Updated: Version 3 24/03/16

Author: Rob Carmichael

 

Chapter 1

An Introduction into Nootropics

So what are Nootropics?
5 Criteria a Nootropic Must Meet
Those who most use Nootropics
Shattering the Illusion
[Difference between Smart Drugs and Nootropics
++]

Chapter 2

3 Key Nootropic Families

1. Racetam Family
2. Eugeroic Family
3. Cholinergic Family
[Vitamins, Minerals & Nutrients for Cognitive Enhancement
++]

Chapter 3

Nootropic Benefits: The Studies

1. Piracetam Study
2. Toxicity Trials
3. Stroke, Dementia & Brain Trauma Studies
[Why our brain needs Choline
Why our brain needs Vitamins & Supplements]
[Vitamin B7 supplements
++]

Chapter 4

Science behind Racetams

1. Increasing Membrane Fluidity
2. Increasing Mitochondrial Function
Aniracetam Efficacy

Chapter 5

Nootropics Medicinal Benefits

Nootropics for Depression & Anxiety
Nootropics for ADD and ADHD
5 Nootropics for Increasing Sex Drive
[3 Nootropics for Pain Relief
++]

Chapter 6

[Nootropics Vs Prescription Drugs
++]

Chapter 7

Nootropic Side Effects

[8 Steps to Lower Risk of Adverse Nootropic Reaction
++]

Chapter 8

Art of Stacking Nootropics

Piracetam & Choline
L-Theanine & Caffeine
Oxiracetam, Aniracetam & Piracetam
Aniracetam & CDP Choline (Citicoline)
Piracetam & Vasodilator Drug (Cinnarizine)
Racetam, Modafinil & Essential Vitamins
Choline & Huperzine A
Phenibut & a Stimulant
Aniracetam, Vinpocetine, Alpha GPC (or CDP Choline) & Centrophenoxine
Aniracetam, Bacopa & L-Theanine
Phosphatidyl Serine, Bacopa & Phenibut
[L-Theanine, Phenibut, Centrophenoxine, Vitamin B6 & B1 + Pramiracetam
++]

Chapter 9

Nootropics Common FAQ’s

[How should I decide which nootropic to take?
Can I start stacking right away?
What’s the best way to track my cognitive function when using nootropics?
Is it safe to use prescription drugs with nootropics?
Alcohol & nootropics?
I feel great; do I have need for nootropics?
If I stop taking nootropics, will I experience withdrawals?
How long do nootropics take to kick in?
How much should I begin with?
Modafinil for narcolepsy?
Are Nootropics legal in my country?
++]

Chapter 10

[How to choose the right Nootropic
++]

Chapter 11

[3 Reliable Suppliers
++]

Chapter 12

Summary – 1st [+ Choice: Nootropic, MOA & Standard Dose +]

 

 

_*References* _

Chapter 1

An Introduction into Nootropics

A Complete Newbies Guide

 

[
__]As a complete novice to nootropics, you may be wondering where one should kick off when trying to understand which type of nootropic to take that would be most beneficial for you.

 

Questions that arise: What are the effects nootropics have on the conscious mind such as “improved attention span” or the “perceived clarity of mind”?

 

Potential side-effects such as incorrect dosage or half-life information are also what a beginner might be interested in, plus the neurological aspects: Which receptors do they bind to or modulate, what neurotransmitters do they increase or decrease, inhibit or enhance?

 

How far can I up my performance and will I know when to back-off, reduce my dosage or stop completely, and what are the tell-tale signs that they may be inducing cognitive harm or are nootropics just hyped up placebo pills that simply don’t stack up?

 

There are so many underlying questions when it comes to the ever evolving world of nootropics that by the time one eBook’s released, it will soon be outdated.

So for the benefit of this Nootropics for Newbie’s new eBook, let’s try and be transparent, succinct and concise and give you the most relevant info for 2016, before donning that noot jacket (noot – a keyboard term coined for nootropic users) and diving into the world of memory, mood and cognitive enhancers.

 

So what are Nootropics?

 

To be clear, nootropics are both synthetic and natural compounds that provide your human brain with cognitive benefits or improvements or enhancements.

 

It’s difficult to properly clarify the exact correct term as to how they help you in the cognitive department as each experience is personal and subjective but in reality, saying that nootropics promote cognitive functions that also have anti-stress and sleep support properties is a fair description.

 

Coined by Dr. Cornelius E. Giurgea, in order for a supplement to qualify as a true nootropic, he explains that such a substance must meet 5 criteria with the objective of shielding and not harming the brain.

 

5 Criteria a Nootropic must meet:

 

1. Increase learning & memory capabilities

2. Strengthen efficiency of neuronal mechanisms upstairs

3. Assist brain in operating under stressful conditions i.e electroconvulsive shock & hypoxia

4. Safeguard brain against physical/chemical injuries inflicted from barbiturates & scopolamine

5. Free of typical pharmacology found in other psychotropic drugs with few side effects plus extremely low levels of toxicity [1]

 

When labeling a supplement a nootropic, there isn’t a mandatory rule when it comes to releasing a new supplement on to the cognitive health market, but the general consensus is that if the manufacturer is using premium, clinically backed nootropic ingredients that adhere to a strong safety profile with zero to little toxicity then GRAS as the FDA like to refer to them – generally regarded as safe – seems to fit their profile.

 

Those who most use Nootropics

 

[_ It may not be surprising that men make up 92% of the nootropic market with the average age of 25  according to an online survey_] , with the two biggest online noot communities leading the cause over at Reddit and LongeCity.

 

However, of the 162 people this survey reached out to, not all responded so this can hardly be called a large pool and this doesn’t therefore concur that the majority of nootropic users are in their 20’s, far from it.

Just scrolling through the reddit/nootropic threads you can see and read that there are some quite high flyers there and esteemed academic’s that are clearly in their 30’s or 40’s plus.

While students, teachers, corporate people, athletes and work from home individuals just to name a few, use nootropics to help sharpen their mental firepower, concentration, memory and learning skills, nootropics are also used by those in their silver years to help treat brain diseases such as dementia, Alzheimers and trauma.

 

Shattering the Illusion

 

Straight off the bat let’s clarify that nootropics do not make us more intelligent or upgrade our IQ.

They are cognitive enhancers which is very different. They instead heighten your mental capability, specifically (depending on your choice of nootropic) either memory, attention span and/or recall.

 

This can result in improved productivity and your ability to concentrate more easily.

They won’t transform you from a regular debater into a brilliant polemicist overnight but they can help you get more things accomplished throughout the day by sharpening your focus and heightening your baseline productivity level.

They also don’t always demonstrate noticeable effects or sometimes may deliver unwanted desired effects like feeling a boost in productivity at 1am in the morning when you’d hope to get some shut eye.

Each subjects experience will all boil down to overall body chemistry, state of mind, physical health, weight, current sleeping pattern and diet.

For first time noot’s, effects can in fact – although rare – take over a week to kick in while many nootropic newbies often report very little in terms of return after their first dose.

But do hang on in there as once you get your correct formula right, the experiences can be quite profound based on multiple online reports blogged by thousands of avid noots across the net.

 

Difference between Smart Drugs and Nootropics

[There’s no harm in referring to nootropics as smart drugs but there is a medicinal distinction.
__]

[Prescription drugs like Ritalin and Adderall used to treat mental or cognitive disorders like ADHD for example are “smart drugs”.
__]

Smart drugs in short contain stimulants that may boost energy and focus, increase the body’s dopamine and norepinephrine levels, first off having a positive effect on mood, but later creating dependency, tolerance, affecting heart rate, appetite, stress levels and mood health in a negative manner. [3]

Not dissimilar to caffeine or amphetamines, the effects are short lived and peaks are often followed by troughs – Nootropics are different.

Nootropics are non-prescription synthetic compounds that contain mostly natural ingredients designed from herbs, minerals, vitamins, amino acids, bacosides and phospholipids.

As stated at the beginning of this article, there are 5 prerequisites that in essence allow a supplement to market itself as a nootropic of which the cardinal role is to safeguard cognitive function and enhance cognitive behavior without detrimental effects.

Chapter 2 

The 3 Key Nootropic Families

 

 

It can get confusing trying to get your head around the different types of nootropics there are out there but once you start digging a little deeper, you’ll soon discover that there are really just a handful of nootropic “families” derived from certain ingredients and that’s how you will come to understand them here.

 

Each “family” therefore performs a certain function for example cognitive enhancement, wakefulness or an increase in memory.

 

Here we will break them down into 3 families.

To kick off let’s begin with the Mother of all Nootropics – the “Tams”.

 

1. Racetam Family

 

[Function: Cognitive enhancement
__]

These include:

[Piracetam
Aniracetam
Nefiracetam
Levetiracetam
Pramiracetam
Oxiracetam
Phenylpiracetam
Noopept]

[Patented by Russia in 1982, Piracetam was the very first racetam to be developed and by just doing a quick skim of the popular online noot forum’s you will see that piracetam gets its fair share of attention.
__]

The birth of piracetam spawned many sister tams, but they essentially have the same chemical structure that promote cognitive enhancement and improve one or more aspects of mental function.

Now for the part which to most of us makes little sense: All racetams share a 2-pyrrolidone nucleus and being derivatives of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) – this means that they are not naturally occurring; rather they are synthesized through a chemical process. [4]

However, despite piracetam being the most popular of racetams, it’s not the fastest acting or most powerful.

Three of its sister tams rank higher on these scales, with aniracetam, oxiracetam and pramiracetam next on the popularity scale.

Of these, oxiracetam is perhaps the daddy here, considered highly potent and the fastest acting.

Alternatively, pramiracetam is rated 30 times stronger than piracetam, while noopept is considered on par with pramiracetam, where the recommended dosage is as low as 10 to 20 milligrams, 1 to 3 times a day.

Racetams while available over-the-counter – OTC – in some countries should be used with caution. They are used as prescription medicines worldwide as neuro-enhancement agents for those with impaired intellectual abilities.

Most racetams are not approved in the U.S for medical use and in 2015 the accounts of Amazon and EBay nootropic suppliers were shut down. [5]

There is just one racetam however that has received due respect and delivers essential treatment to epileptics helping them control their seizures through the use of an anticonvulsant known as Keppra, which harnesses the racetam levetiracetam. [6]7

Other than Keppra, you’ll be hard pressed to get your hands on any racetam nootropics in the U.S OTC, which is why their sales are potentially flourishing online.

 

2. Eugeroic Family

 

[Function: Stimulants, wakefulness, alertness
__]

These include:

[Modafinil
Adrafinil
Armodafinil]

[The eugeroic family behave more like smart drugs, where modafinil and adrafinil for example install a sense of wakefulness, promoting a prolonged state of alertness, allowing you to stay up longer and temporarily abstain from sleep.
__]

Unlike smart drugs though they do not display significant spikes in heart rate or a boost in blood pressure nor do they encourage the propensity for abuse or the addiction for the euphoric state, however there is always room for abuse, so modafinil in this case should be treated with respect. [8]

The word “eugeroic” which has its roots in Greek meaning “good arousal”, is a good definition for this family of nootropics as they are designed for you to avoid sleep and induce a wakefulness that will help facilitate productivity.

Very useful if your attention span’s waning during an important class or a monotonous task or you simply lack the get up and go to crack on with your work at home job.

Unlike Dexedrine, Ritalin and Adderall, all compounds that are in some way a cacophony of amphetamine salts, Modafinil and Adrafinil are two of the more popular eugeroic nootropics, where side effects are rare however not unheard of so while adrafinil can be purchased in most countries OTC, modafinil normally requires a prescription as it does in the U.S.

 

3. Cholinergic Family

 

Function: Memory

 

These include:

[Lecithin
Choline
DMAE
Alpha-GPC
CDP choline
Galantamine
Donepezil
Huperzine A]

The cholinergic families are perhaps the most talked of in terms of the nootropics.

They work on 2 fronts:

a) A cholinergic of which Choline, Alpha-GPC, CDP Choline and DMAE are some of the more well-known, is the precursor to acetylcholine, acetylcholine being the key neurotransmitter for memory function.

While your own body produces acetylcholine it is often not always enough hence a cholinergic booster will increase levels of acetylcholine in the grey matter department.

b) Cholinergic’s also block the production of acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme responsible for reducing acetylcholine levels.

Galantamine, Huperzine A and Donepezil are popular cholinergic nootropics that both inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase while replenish acetycholine stocks in the brain.

 

Vitamins, Minerals & Nutrients for Cognitive Enhancement

 

Function: Mood, cognitive health

 

These include:

[Vitamin B
Vitamin D
Omega-3 fatty acids]

[So there you have the 3 families of nootropics but getting a decent diet is also important for neurological enhancement.
__]

While there is much jiggery-pokery in the field of alternative health, there is also rock solid evidence to support vitamin intake for brain health, specifically for mood, motivation, clarity and alertness.

Vitamin B stands above the rest for influencing mood in a positive manner, whereas low levels of Vitamin D in the brain may impair cognitive function. [9]

Omega-3 fatty acids may help protect you from the onset Alzheimer’s and dementia plus help lower your risk of heart disease and cancer. [11]

However, don’t overdo it when it comes to taking your multi-vits, just because most assume that they’re all natural, this doesn’t mean you can’t over-supplement yourself.

Too much vitamin B or D will cause physiological toxicity and/or neurotoxicity, while an excessive omega-3 intake that has to be consumed through food or supplements as we are unable to produce it ourselves may lead to risky levels of mercury in the blood, which is an anti-nootropic if you like as it impairs cognitive health.

Chapter 3

Nootropic Benefits: The Studies

 

[It easy to just reel off a list of a cognitive benefits but where’s the actual proof you may ask and that’s more than understandable.
__]

[While you sadly won’t perform like Bradley Cooper in Limitless, in order to be persuaded that these are not just a stack of quackery supplements, a little verification will help.
__]

So here follows details of the following nootropic studies that have lead the discovery and science of cognitive supplements.

 

1. Piracetam Study 

[
**]Source: [11]

A small study was performed at University College in Cardiff in 1976 by 2 researchers on the effects piracetam may have on normal subjects.

Participants: 16 healthy 2nd & 3rd year students – 12 male/4 female.

Dosage: 4.8 grams/day of piracetam or placebo for 2 weeks followed by 4 weeks of placebo and cognitive testing.

Objective: To learn a series of words presented as stimuli on a memory drum.

Results: First 7 days no effects / Verbal learning increased after 14 days as observed through cognitive testing. Paper and pencil tests and computerized tests were carried out to measure perceptual motor reactions.

Research demonstrated piracetam has greater effects on performance than placebo with clear evidence for improvement in verbal learning attributed to piracetam intake.

Published Study: Results of the study were summarized in the influential and provocatively titled paper “Increase in the Power of Human Memory in Normal Man through the Use of Drugs”.

 

2. Toxicity Trials

 

Source: [12]

Nootropics are argued to be the lowest and safest substances to man when it comes to their toxicological level.

Humans as well as rats, mice, goldfish, rabbits, guinea pigs, cats, dogs and monkeys have all endured the toxicity testing of nootropics as far back as piracetam was conceived hence it is with this nootropic where the majority of the early studies lie.

Of which, one noticeable piracetam study took place on mice for 6 months where they were fed 100mg to 1000 mg of this racetam a day, while dogs were fed 10’000 mg of piracetam for a whole year through intravenous means.

No slightest teratogenic levels which cause birth defects or toxicity were detected.

3. Stroke, Dementia & Brain Trauma Studies

 

Source: [13]

The study of nootropics in particular on brain diseases such as Alzheimer’s and dementia as well as on strokes and brain injury has resulted in many positive results.

 

a) Nootropic Aphasic Stroke Trials

Aphasia affects one’s ability to converse either through a slow degenerative disease such as a tumor or more commonly through a brain injury or a stroke.

Speech and language therapy is normally the first step however piracetam studies on the recovery of aphasic stroke sufferers has proved beneficial.

Of which one study of 50 aphasic patients underwent a piracetam trial.

Subjects:  24 were given 4.8g of piracetam, 26 placebo where both groups experienced similar symptoms. Neither included sufferers of mild aphasia and all had been 100% healthy prior to their stroke or brain injury.

Trial: 10 1 hour intensive language therapy sessions.

Results: Piracetam had both favorable effects on written language sub-test and on the communicative ability with improvement also on spontaneous speech while a reduction in the severity of the subjects’ aphasia was observed.

 

b) Nootropic Dementia Trials

Dementia is not a disease as such rather a term used to describe a collective range of symptoms that causes an irreversible decline in memory, speech, movement and other critical thinking skills, with Alzheimer’s being the most widespread form of dementia.

Your hydrocarbon core fluidity will be significantly lower from someone your same age if you have Alzheimer’s however a study involving the in-vitro administration of piracetam on dementia patients showed that hydrocarbon core fluidity went up to an equal level of those without dementia.

In the 1999 study, membrane fluidity went up on average 60.9% compared to those treated with placebo of 32.5%.

Why membrane fluidity went up 32.5% when treated with a placebo supplement is unclear, but its sibling tam aniracetam has also demonstrated membrane fluidity improvement in medical trials where it also displays anti-anxiety properties.

In fact aniracetam may be more effective than piracetam when it comes to treating dementia as one trial demonstrated, where for 6 months a group of men and women between the ages of 68 to 80 with mild to moderate cognitive decline in motion were split into 3 groups with each receiving separate doses.

The first were given 1500mg of aniracetam daily, the second 2400mg of piracetam and the third a placebo pill.

Results demonstrated that the aniracetam group while experiencing minimal to zero side effects proved the most effective treatment, more than piracetam, with the placebo groups mental health continuing to decline during the trial.

 

[[c) Nootropic Brain Injury Trials
]]

Prescribed to Russian astronauts to heighten their mental and physical strengths while in orbit, Phenylpiracetam when taken orally is incredibly fast acting, more so than when compared with piracetam to treat cognitive injury.

This nootropic compound has helped improve cognition scores of those who’ve undergone a brain injury like a car crash or bullet wound or those who’ve experienced depression following encephalopathy – when disease, damage or malfunction of the brain manifests itself through an altered mental state.

Ukrainian studies (Malykh & Sadaie, 2010) [14] have concluded that in terms of restoring memory loss in patients suffering from mild cranium and cerebrum trauma – pramiracetam is superior to piracetam, while Italian research has yielded that pramiracetam is also effective in reducing amnesia-related effects caused by scopolamine intoxication – this is where scopolamine that is used to relieve nausea, vomiting, dizziness, motion sickness or anesthesia recovery from surgery sometimes causes adverse and serious side effects. [15]

 

Why our brain needs Choline

 

Source: [16]

[In 1998 the Institute of Medicine ruled that choline was integral to maintaining health where a deficiency can increase DNA impairment.
__]

As explained in Chapter 2 under the Cholinergic Family, choline is the precursor to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine responsible for memory function.

A choline deficiency can cause both cognitive decline, DNA damage and according to the Linus Pauling Institute, a fatty liver.

In one study conducted on 57 subjects, 77% of the men, 80% of the postmenopausal women and 44% of the premenopausal women who all had either muscle damage, a fatty liver or liver damage, were all fed a dose of choline daily.

Results were comprehensive, whereby each of these three ailments were reversed.

This is attributed to their specific intake of Huperzine A which is a member of the cholinergic family, which is also argued to improve learning, memory and energy expenditure levels.

Many of the current nootropics for 2016 will contain not just Alpha-GPC which is a choline supplement but also Huperzine A – an additional member of the cholinergic family so you get more for your buck as the science improves.

 

Why our brain needs Vitamins & Supplements

 

Vitamin B is the king of vitamins when it comes to cognitive health where they are incredibly abundant in “whole processed foods” that are nutrient dense as opposed to “processed foods” which are energy dense.

 

[[Thiamine – Vitamin B1
]]

Stacked with fiber, vitamins and minerals with low added fat and sugar verses high calorie bad foods, packed with calories with little to no value to your body, whole processed foods include: fresh lean meats, fresh fish/shellfish, eggs, fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, frozen vegetables, frozen fruits, unsalted nuts, low-fat milk or skimmed milk at 1%, plain yogurt, low-fat cheese and cottage cheese.

Buried within these whole foods are an array of vitamin B’s: B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9 and B12, where any deficiency in either of these may cause health complications.

A lack of B1 (Thiamine) for example will cause an irregular heart rate, aching limbs and cognitive dysfunctions such as a jaded memory, unusual sporadic coordination and deteriorating vision.

Drinkers, smokers, caffeine addicts and substance abusers are all more susceptible to developing a B1 deficiency.

 

[[Folic Acid – B9
]]

A reduction in B9 foods such as black eyed peas, lentils, spinach, asparagus, lettuce, avocado, broccoli, tropical fruits, oranges and wheat bread all contribute to a B9 deficiency.

This may result in birth defect if the mother doesn’t consume enough of these foods during pregnancy, while increasing symptoms of depression and an impaired mental function in later life if they are not part of your staple diet.

 

[[Pyridoxine – B6
]]

The following B6 rich foods: tuna, turkey, beef, chicken, salmon, sweet potato, sunflower seeds and bananas are integral to helping relieve depression, reducing memory issues, improving peripheral neuropathies – damaged peripheral nerves that can cause tunnel vision – and especially reducing a woman’s chance of developing macular degeneration – the leading female cause of vision loss.

Vitamin B7 supplements

 

[[Biotin – B7
]]

The world’s healthiest Biotin foods: peanuts, almonds, sweet potato, eggs, onions, oats, tomatoes, carrots, walnuts and salmon all play a crucial role in again – peripheral neuropathy and where a deficiency may lead to anorexia, vomiting, a slow metabolism, bad skin and an unhealthy cognitive development.

 [[
Brahmi
]][
Source:] [17]

You can of course take vitamin B supplements to counteract your lack of “whole processed” vitamin B packed foods.

An alternative B7 (Biotin) supplement is Bacopa Monierri (brahmi), one of the best, all-around tonic herbs that promotes brain, kidney and liver health.

Ayurvedic medicine also teaches us that it will help treat anxiety and importantly for the purpose of this eBook – improve cognitive intellect.

Brahmi compounds have shown to influence regeneration of brain tissue, where long term supplementation in combination with bacosides on animals demonstrated a therapeutic value against the degenerative symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease.

 

 

 

 

[[Sulbutiamine
]]

The nootropic sulbutiamine may be considered the ultimate Thiamine nootropic, where it has a more advanced ability to cross the blood-brain barrier – the filtering mechanism of the capillaries that carries blood to the brain and spinal cord tissue – helping to treat asthenia – a lack of energy – and improve impaired memory.

More to come on sulbutiamine.

 

Chapter 4

Science behind Racetams

 

[Having established that nootropics can enhance normal cognitive behavior and assuage certain medical conditions, it’s time to move on from the studies and take a look at the science behind nootropics, specifically the “tams”.
__]

The tams are the most extensively researched of the nootropics, where the term nootropic originates from the effects piracetam’s mechanisms have in enhancing neural function.

This nootropic – piracetam – and its derivatives achieve this through two means:

[[1.  Increasing membrane fluidity
]]

2. Increasing mitochondrial function

 

 

 

 

 

1. Increasing Membrane Fluidity

 

[Glutamate Receptors[
]]

[Being the main neurotransmitter that instructs excitement in the central nervous system, L-Glutamate works through two types of receptors.
__]

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Iontropic – Ligand gated ion receptors

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Metabotopic – G-protein coupled receptors

 

Both iontropic and metabotopic receptors are the glutamate highways, allowing this neurotransmitter to affect cell excitability.

Glutamate then binds to the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor or NMDA and the A-amino-3-Hydroxy-5-Methyl-4-Isoxazolepropionic acid receptor, also known as AMPA receptor, importantly activating them both, which causes positively charged ions to flow through the cell membrane.

Piracetam’s sister aniracetam actually led to this discovery, which has spawned the development of a new set of smart drugs known as ampakines.

Where’s all this leading to you may ask?

Well not all but some of the tams perform similar results as the new ampakines do – potentially enhancing alertness and attention span, notably piracetam and phenylpiracetam. [18] [19]

h2<>{color:#f30;background:#fff;}.

h2<>{color:#f30;background:#fff;}.

2. Increasing Mitochondrial Function

[[
Cholinergic Receptors]]

 

[The past two to three decades of collated data strongly indicate that piracetam and its siblings play a significant role in the cholinergic functioning within the central nervous system – CNS.
__]

The cholinergic receptors contain a molecular structure that responds to acetylcholine – a neurotransmitter.

Acetylcholine is produced by neurons and is referred to as a cholinergic neuron which functions as a neurotransmitter integral to motor and memory function.

Cholinergic receptors fall into two divisions of receptors that are linked to the activity of acetylcholine:

[[1. Nicotinic receptors
]]

These are neuron receptor proteins that respond to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

[[2. Muscarinic receptors
]]

Differing from nicotinic receptors, muscarinic receptors are responsible for detrusor smooth muscle contraction or the process of urination. Muscarine is also an alkaloid derived from certain toxic mushrooms.

These two cholinergic receptors respond to acetylcholine activity that influences our ability to preserve memory and ability to focus.

Where do the racetams fit in you may ask?

Research indicates that cholinergic agents such as choline and DMAE combined with piracetam (a popular nootropic stack) can protect you from anticholinergic drugs – drugs that can destroy acetylcholine, in this instance your muscarinic receptors.

Therefore the use of cholinergic agents may well have a significant impact on both cholinergic function and memory enhancement.

 

Aniracetam’s Efficacy

By facilitating the activity of AMPA receptors, Aniracetam is considered the grand-daddy of ampakines and has served as a model for the many newer and more powerful AMPA modulators.

Aniracetam does have its shortcomings though as it has a rather short half-life of roughly 2 to 3hours and is almost entirely metabolized when taken orally which reduces its original strength.

However, while aniracetam’s cognitive enhancing effects aren’t well documented and remain unproven, on a reddit/nootropics for beginners thread, aniracetam is described to specifically propagate unique mood enhancing effects and is fairly well tolerated. [20] [21] [22] [23]

In summary:

The science remains unclear but if you are to go by several decades of accumulated research and multiple hundreds of online nootropic reviews, introducing these types of nootropics that interact with glutamate and cholinergic receptors, it seems contribute to:

[Mitigating stress-induced structural changes in the brain
__
Enhanced mood
__
Enhanced intellectual performance over short-time spans]

Piracetams are just a small part of the nootropic market, however when deciding what is right for you in terms of what part of you, you would like to improve – this is solely your call.

For example – as it stands, a condensed version of nootropics that have a history of safe use with positive results most probably looks like this for 2016:

#
p<>{color:#000;}. [L-theanine with caffeine for focus and attention
__]

#
p<>{color:#000;}. [Bacopa monnieri for memory
__]

#
p<>{color:#000;}. [Creatine for reasoning
__]

#
p<>{color:#333;background:#fff;}. [Ashwaganda for anxiety mitigation
_ _]

#
p<>{color:#000;}. [Modafinil for wakefulness
__]

Chapter 5

Nootropics Medicinal Benefits

 

Nootropics for Depression & Anxiety

Obviously meditation, aerobic exercise like jogging, swimming or cycling to help expend serotonin release and making sure you maintain a regular sleep schedule are essential for peace of mind, but that said how do exercise when you can’t walk 200 yards through constant fatigue, how do you naturally get more sleep when you’re taking heavy tranquilizers and passing out 15 hours straight or how do you improve your staple diet when fruit and burgers are indistinguishable in taste?

Firstly, we recommend you read this thread at reddit or this one if depression or anxiety is a major concern plus this one at Longecity entitled “Treating anxiety safely and effectively”; but to summarize, if you’re looking for a decent pick-me-up, you could try any of the following nootropics (not in order of potency plus there is debate as to whether Tianeptine and Modafinol are true nootropics due to their propensity for abuse):

 

[Myo-inositol
Tianeptine
CDP-choline
Sulbutiamine
Serotonin sources: 5-HTP or L-tryptophan
Uridine + omega 3s
Phenibut
Aniracetam
Afobazole
Noopept
Bacopa and/or L-theanine
Bacopa and/or St. John’s Wort
Passionflower
Ashwagandha
Valerian root
Tryptophan
Magnesium
Chamomile
Vitamin B6, B12 and fish oil
Lavender Oil
Modafinil
Green tea extract
Gingko biloba
Gurana]

Hint: After extensive online research, Noopept and St. John’s Wort receive a lot more hits than misses although they do have their fair share of critics.

In Russia, phenylpiracetam is medicinally prescribed to treat depression while piracetam has shown promise in trials at treating depression stemming from chronic cerebrovascular disorders.

Nootropic Antidepressant Advantages

 Little to no side effects

 Can be stopped without unpleasant withdrawals

 Positive non-invasive cognitive help

 Help improve baseline mood after you come off them

 Often provide additional cognitive clarity

Nootropic Antidepressant Disadvantages

 

 Hit & miss

 Be careful with Phenibut, Modafinil & Tianeptine

 

Prescription Antidepressant Advantages

 

 Effective when part of a multi-faceted strategy for reversing depression

 Will provide motivation to tackle other unhelpful habits

 Reduces activity levels

 Help with disturbed sleep patterns

Prescription Antidepressant Disadvantages

 

 Withdrawal symptoms

 Zombified under influence

 Permanent cognitive side-effects

 Cardiovascular side effects like hypertension

 Adderall may worsen anxiety

 Become a crutch

 

Nootropics for ADD and ADHD

 

Without carrying the risk of addiction, dependence or withdrawal, Nootropics are proving a popular and safer alternative treatment for ADD and ADHD.

 

Adderall – the amphetamine/dextroamphetamine and Ritalin methylphenidate – are the 2 classic stimulants that parents are prescribed to give their kids often with the usual side-effects: nervousness, dizziness, restlessness, headache, stomachache, decreased appetite, trouble sleeping and/or a dry mouth.

Nootropics therefore provide a somewhat refreshing take on the treatment of what is believed to be caused by both genetic and environmental factors – such as a stressed family environment/parents from a low educative background or children with excessive academic expectations or moreover being brought up in an abusive and violent household, where boys are three times more likely to develop ADHD according to a 2002 study published in the September issue of the journal Mayo Clinic Proceedings. [24]

Listed below are the following nootropics therefore being used by noots (nootropic users) to treat their ADD or ADHD as of 2016.

Note: these are just examples of their recommended dosage. Always consult a medical professional for qualified advice.

[1. Noopept – 7mg twice day sublingual – May take a few doses to kick in.
__]

[2. Oxiracetam – 500mg  – For focus and mental processing speed.
__]

[3. Aniracetam – 750mg – For anxiousness and social situations.
__]

4. Phenylpiracetam – 125mg – For motivation.

 

[5. Phenylpiracetam Hydrazide – 50mg sublingual – For a cleaner feel than Phenylpiracetam.
__]

[6. Caffeine - 100mg +  [*L-Theanine *]– 200mg – For mood and energy boosts while l-theanine negates the jitters.
__]

[7. Fasoracetam – 15mg sublingual – A confidence booster but may reduce sex drive.
__]

[– Either administered through a nasal spray or inject subcutaneously. Quite expensive but a lot of noise coming out for these new types of nootropics with regards to treating ADHD.
__]

9. Modafinil – Finally modafinil shouldn’t be snubbed at. Here’s an excellent thread where modafinil turned around an ADHD guy’s life – literally.

 

However modafinil is not for everyone as it is in fact is a smart drug – not officially a nootropic due to it being a stimulant, an opioid (not opiate) and may deliver mild side effects yet unlike any adderall or amphetamine salts display.

The upside to taking nootropics to treat ADHD is that they can help you concentrate better, study harder and finish projects as one the guy reports in his opening post, but also at some costs.

5 Nootropics for Increasing Sex Drive

 

While nootropics are described as having little to no known side-effects by even reputable manufacturers, many nootropic users will speak differently when it comes to some of the treatment effects they’ve encountered in the bedroom department.

 

Notably while using Fasoracetam, where orgasms are described as pitiful with your libido waning for roughly three days after quitting fasoracetam.

Still, to counteract these side effects or moreover for guys and girls looking to increase their sexual appetite, there are a number of nootropics out there currently being used to up the tempo in the sack.

 

 1. Phenibut

 

Phenibut is described by many as fantastic for sex. It said to increase your desire, stamina, making sensations more pleasant, where it is strangely also argued to increase the listening quality of low playing music.

Phenibut is an anxiolytic supplement which can help relieve stress and promote a positive mood, but when it comes to orgasms, users have spoken of experiencing “full body orgasms with waves of profound euphoria”. [25]

If you’re a male, phenibut is described to increase your sexual pleasure, sensation, emotion, some argue making it easier for you to talk due to its cognitive enhancing qualities giving you the feeling you’re getting more attention from females under it. The long term combination of racetams + phenibut has shown to produce more testosterone and growth hormones using a standard dosage of 750mg per day.

 

2. Schizandra Berries

[
Popular with women, schizandra berries taken slowly should build up the intensity of orgasms daily, leaving you feeling healthier, with longer lasting orgasms with more emission.]

 

3. Sulbutiamine

[
There are multiple forum threads online where men especially are diarizing their daily intake of sulbutiamine in combination with their sexual performance expenditure or lack of.]

Sulbutiamine is a vitamin B1 or thiamine derivative that crosses the blood-brain-barrier quicker than thiamine.

Sulbutiamine is said to up-regulate the reticular activating system which regulates arousal so it makes sense that it could affect libido.

When noots are stacking their nootropics it’s difficult to pinpoint which of each of the nootropics are affecting where, but generally there appears to be a strong correlation to when people start taking sulbutiamine to when there becomes a noticeable gain in sexual arousal.

 

4. Raw Maca Powder

Not really thought of as a nootropic but great for a man and woman’s libido. Argued to enhance gratification and just a table spoon each morning should leave you with a nice edge for the day.

 

5. Selegiline + Cabergoline

[
Taking selegiline with cabergoline seems to have positive synergistic qualities. Selegiline, used to help control symptoms of Parkinson’s increases the action of dopamine in the brain by inhibiting the enzymes that break it down.]

Cabergoline is a potent dopamine receptor agonist and is used to treat a hormone imbalance when there is too much prolactin in the blood.

The two together pack a powerful punch so be wary of potential side-effects.

That said this combo seems to raise dopamine levels and taking 1 to 2.5mg of selegiline in the evening is argued to help with the following mornings performance.

Taking cabergoline and tadalafil together are also said to offer a promising almost immediate surge of libido.

In summary,

Taking either phenibut, sulbutiamine or the selegiline + cabergoline combo that raises dopamine and lowers prolocatin – may all help your libido but it’s strongly recommended getting a full hormone panel carried out prior to choosing your nootropic libido fix.

3 Excellent Nootropics for Pain Relief

Nootropics can also trigger an analgesic effect. This is where nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen are used to treat acute pain. Taking a 400mg to 1200mg per day is estimated to be the analgesic ceiling.

 

Taking nootropics which trigger a dopamine release – the neurotransmitter released when your brain wants to condition an affinity for something – also produces an analgesic effect, so it makes sense that they are being used for pain relief, especially as they don’t carry the side-effects, notably depression and anxiety that many pain relief prescription pills do.

Take back pain for example – There is a theory that in general it may be caused by too much nervous system depression or fatigue/tension/anxiety leading supporting/stabilizing muscles to not be controlled properly by the brain.

Supplementing nootropics which boost brain function or remove anxiety can click the brain into a new mode of thinking where it has fuller control of the body.

 

1. Tianeptine

[
Tianeptine has nootropic tendencies in that its MOA (mechanism of action) is really very different to prescription pain relievers or antidepressants as it has the potential to quell anxiety, depression and pain without impairing cognition.]

Standard antidepressants may impair cognitive health so something that can help without any treatment effects like Tianeptine may offer an alternative course of action plus there is evidence from user experience online that Tianeptine is both a well-tolerated effective anxiolytic and fast acting antidepressant, that can improve cognition in afflicted patients, so it may help when stress and anxiety levels go through the roof.

Back to tianeptine as a pain reliever though, it is not an opiate but an opioid, in that it binds to the opiate receptor and may make a potent painkiller in sufficient dose. One word of caution though is that it does hold a propensity for abuse so follow the guideline dosage carefully.

 

2. Noopept

[
Some nootropics work by stimulating the release of dopamine from the pre-frontal cortex, subsequently increasing dopamine levels and more often enhancing your mood.]

Noopept as evidence supports is a potent anxiolytic and an excellent nootropic. Two hundred times more potent than aniracetam, lasting up to 5 or 6 hours, 2 to 3 hours more than aniracetam, noopept is a peptide piracetam derivative that increases serotonin and dopamine levels in the brain.

Noopept though has a mixed response from users online so it may work better in a stack when it comes to relieving pain.

 

3. Alpha GPC & Piracetam

[
Alpha-GPC seems to increase the brain chemical acetylcholine – important for memory and learning functions – and is used in the treatment of dementia, stroke and mini-strokes.]

Piracetam increases cerebral blood flow so repairing the PNS (Peripheral Nervous System) as opposed to Central Nervous System damage is more achievable as the brain can repair itself to some extent, so when faced with back pain or joint pain, while nootropics won’t directly fix the problem; Piracetam seems to target the neuropathic pain. [26]

Piracetam is probably best served though to treat neuro-disorders as mentioned plus for neuro-protection and brain aging.

Nootropics for Joint Pain

 

Many athletes often take a Ginkgo supplement to ease chronic muscle and joint pain and Cissus Quadrangularis normally referred to as simply “cissus” holds anti-inflammatory properties and is used for joint pain along with SAM-e – S-adenosyl methionine which also stimulates an analgesic effect like ibuprofen.

 

 

Chapter 6 

Nootropics Vs Prescription Drugs

h1={color:#f30;background:#fff;}.

 

One key criteria a nootropic must meet is for it to be “free of typical pharmacology found in other psychotropic drugs with few side effects plus extremely low levels of toxicity”.

 

Obviously prescription drugs don’t adhere to these criteria, where dependency, depression and/or anxiety, low fatigue and impaired cognition may prevail through long-term use.

 

Tianeptine Vs MAOIs (for depression)

 

Tianeptine as talked about in the previous chapter is probably most efficient in raising mood without prescription drug side-effects, however Phenylpiracetam in Russia is also used to treat depression.

Phenylpiracetam is a short acting stimulant, it does have some effects on mood insofar as it increases drive, but its most beneficial effect seems to be promoting physical characteristics such as strength and endurance.

With regards to tianeptine though, abusive habits can arise so word of caution when taking this opioid tianeptine, although unlike any of the dependency, fatigue and deep depression lows that can arise from continued antidepressant use.

There are no dietary restrictions to adhere to also with Tianeptine, unlike antidepressants or MAOIs (Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors prescribed for the treatment of depression), which may cause a dangerous spike in blood pressure unless you stick to foods high in tyramine.

 

Winner – Tianeptine

 

Aniracetam Vs Benzodiazepines (for anxiety)

 

Benzodiazepines like alprazolam, diazepam, lorazepam and clonazepam are used as sedating agents, whether for inducing sleep or warding off panic attacks, however their downfall is that they lead to physical and psychological dependence.

Aniracetam, considerably more potent than piracetam is a fat soluble molecule used for memory, cognitive function, concentration, anxiety, depression, treating Alzheimer’s disease and cognitive decline.

There are no known addictive qualities concerning aniracetam, except the occasional headache or bout of insomnia that have been voiced on online reviews.

Still, without any physical and psychological dependent side-effects, aniracetam wins hands down over benzodiazepine. [27]

 

Winner – Aniracetam

 

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h2<>{color:#f30;background:#fff;}.

h2<>{color:#f30;background:#fff;}.

Modafinil Vs Adderall /Amphetamine Salts (for drive & wakefulness)

Amphetamine salts or amphetamine is basically the Holy Grail when it comes to stimulants, maybe methamphetamine is more powerful but more toxic, however amphetamine is neurotoxic too.

It goes without saying that you shouldn’t take illegal drugs, that street amphetamine will likely be impure, plus dicing with amphetamine is playing with fire.

There is no neurotoxicity when it comes to modafinil but at the same time it will be much milder albeit it causes a steady release of dopamine and noradrenaline.

If you have never experimented with an illegal street amphetamine then modafinil may cause considerable wakefulness; however if you’re versed in amphetamine intake, then the nootropic effects may be mild.

Those with severe ADD and ADHD may voice little positive feedback from modafinil alone but when taken with reduced levels of Adderall (which are amphetamine salts) – they report positive results plus you will reduce toxicity levels and dependency issues.

Modafinil is in fact a prescription drug in the US and is marketed as a “wakefulness” smart drug and is used to treat narcolepsy in patients, however it seems effective in boosting memory and focus with alternative nootropics.

It has been described on one forum as “enhancing sight while blanketing out sound”– keeping you more visually focused.

For safe, non-toxic, with very little risk of addiction but a milder wakefulness stimulant, modafinil has to be the best legal alternative to amphetamine salts.

 

Winner – Modafinil

Chapter 7 

Nootropic Side Effects

 

As Dr. Cornelius E. Giurgea argued, 2 of the 5 criteria a supplement must meet in order to be coined a “nootropic” are that they should “safeguard the brain against physical/chemical injuries inflicted from barbiturates & scopolamine” and “be free of typical pharmacology found in other psychotropic drugs with few side effects and with extremely low levels of toxicity”.

While research demonstrates this to be the case with most nootropics where their toxicity is next to nothing and they are generally regarded as all-round safe, there are a few which you should treat with caution.

Second to this there have been no long-term studies carried out on any one particular nootropic on humans – bar perhaps piracetam – for example there are no studies which have explored:

 

[a) The continued use of one or more cognitive enhancement supplement
__]

[b) The dosage being consumed
__]

[c) Their Mechanisms of Action’s
__]

[d) Their interaction with other prescription or non-prescription drugs
__]

e) How often they should be consumed

Critically, the brain is not fully developed until one’s mid 20’s. In the Encyclopedia of Psychopharmacology, there are some fundamental implications in the use of cognitive enhancers, especially therefore with regards to the underdeveloped brains of children and adolescents.

In most countries one is considered an adult at 18, in terms of the grey matter department however, this is closer to 25 or 30. [29]

Most people in their mid-30’s or older will realize that “true neurological adulthood” didn’t begin until their mid to late 20’s – although women tend to mature younger upstairs.

Reviews are thus mixed on how long-term use of nootropics might affect the brain. One school of thought is that high amounts of certain types will improve brain development. Other speculate dependency issues might arise.

From the perspective of treating your brain with respect however, some nootropics deserve certain consideration.

Take modafinil, often quoted as a nootropic it is in fact a smart drug, it is a stimulant that increases dopamine levels and thus it has mild addictive qualities.

It stimulates – albeit through non-amphetamine based compounds – a part of the brain that can develop substance addiction.

As nootropics can be so effective, there are many folk who end up taking them long term and it’s difficult to know how this long term usage might affect the brain and whether a dependency or tolerance has built up.

That said, if you were to start out with what’s regarded as the quintessential “starter nootropic” for first-time users, purely based on its safe and not too potent cognitive enhancing capability, for long-ish term use, then Piracetam fits the bill.

Based on the extensive research that’s surrounded this nootropic over the last three decades, Piracetam does not prove detrimental to the brain, rather the opposite, when it comes to continued use.

Regarding piracetam’s overall side effects, based on one study [28] – less than 5% of the of the subjects experienced agitation, nervousness, anxiety, irritability and sleep interruptions when taking 2.4mg or more a day, although reducing the dosage reduced the symptoms.

Each person reacts differently to any one or more than one (AKA stack) nootropic. You should therefore assume that not all nootropics are side effect free.

When researching online, obviously it’s impossible to verify every review, although those left on places like reddit.com with efficient moderating and little room for making financial gain (except through donations), it bears noting that in most cases, users experience mild to zero side effects, where the most common appear to be a headache, occasional anxiety, confusion, a dry mouth or gastrointestinal upset.

Further examples of clinical trial side effects include:

1. Racetam trials on human patients who experienced side effects were able to adjust dosage without leaving the trial.

2. A study of 84 healthy subjects who received Bacopa administration, only one patient withdrew due to gastrointestinal problems.

8 Steps to lower risk of adverse nootropic reactions:

However, by taking the following 8 steps, you can lower the risk of adverse reactions:

[1. Don’t start taking nootropics until you’re 25 or plus
__]

[2. Always research your nootropic thoroughly
__]

[3. Have a solid reason for wanting to start taking them
__]

[4. Keep your dosage level low and build up only if you need
__]

[5. Use nootropics sparingly (although other noots may disagree)
__]

[6. Give nootropics a break periodically (also known as “cycling”)
__]

[7. Important: Take choline if you’re on a “tam” to avoid “the headaches”
__]

8. If you encounter side effects simply lower your dose or stop, there are always alternative types of nootropics which serve one particular function, ie mood, wakefulness, focus.

 

In summary, while nootropics are generally safe, always exercise with caution.

Chapter 8

Art of Stacking Nootropics

 

Stacking is common practice in the world of nootropics and refers to adding one or more nootropic supplement together to get your desired effect.

 

Stacking brain supplements has become quite an art form over the years where in fact it’s quite rare nowadays to use just one nootropic brain booster on its own, since the benefits may significantly increase when multiple nootropics are combined.

In some cases, stacking multiple supplements can have a synergistic effect, meaning they display more potency together than if they were taken individually.

So taking two or more nootropics together as part of your brain boosting regimen may enhance the effects and benefits you are likely to reap.

Therefore it’s important to know which set of nootropics stack more harmoniously with each other and don’t trigger off negative results, although every individual’s stack will require some tailoring.

But most importantly is what is the desired effect or MOA (mechanism of action) you are looking to achieve: is it to enhance mood, focus, motivation, wakefulness, memory?

If two racetams deliver the same MOA, the common nootropic school of thought is why add them both to the same stack.

This is why for example piracetam and choline have become a popular nootropic combo. The most researched nootropic supplement which delivers a mild boost to brain function seems to match well with the essential vitamin B brain nutrient choline, one of the rare substances that can cross the blood brain barrier.

[
Choline helps relieve any potential headaches piracetam may occasionally cause, while it enhances piracetam’s effects, when taken with the correct dose of choline – roughly 200-500mg/day on its own but with piracetam, it’s advised upping the dose to 800-1600 mg to take into account the additional needs on the brain when using piracetam as one nootropic blogger reports here – where the choline must always be of high quality, like alpha GPC or CDP choline.]

 

And just to reiterate, moderation is key to success with stacking, over doing your dosage may result in developing some side effects as mentioned earlier.

So, let us now dive into more detail with regards to this objective in mind and introduce you to the most popular nootropic stacks that you can make on your own or sometimes come as a pre-made stack depending on your choice of supplier.

 

[[Quick reminder – you should properly ask yourself these questions again before deciding to move forward with nootropics:
]]

*
p<>{color:#333;background:#fff;}. What exactly do I want to take a nootropic supplement for?

*
p<>{color:#333;background:#fff;}. Do I want to increase my focus, ability, concentration, relaxation, wakefulness, memory, motivation or mood?

*
p<>{color:#333;background:#fff;}. Am I currently on any medication or supplements – If yes – will they interfere with any of the nootropics I’m interested in?

*
p<>{color:#333;background:#fff;}. Is it really necessary for me to take more than one nootropic at a time?

 

Quick Tip! Right from the start, in order to help diarize and analyze your cognitive progression and development, jot down your daily intake on an xls, note times of administered dosage and noticeable effects, plus consider signing up to a free cognitive metric platform of which 6 are listed here.

Most Basic Stack: Piracetam & Choline

 

# For cognitive enhancement & memory

 

What better place to start out than with the “tams” to keep things simple. Choosing a mild nootropic like piracetam [– the quintessential starter nootropic – is a recommended starting block to get your feet wet.
__]

And the most basic of nootropic stacks is to combine piracetam with choline. The main reason choline is thrown into the mix is that piracetam can take a while to kick in and choline helps kick start this campaign, allowing both nootropics to speed into action, amplifying their effects allowing higher levels of neurotransmitters to be released.

One additional reason choline and piracetam are a very popular together is as mentioned – that choline will help alleviate headaches that are can arise when piracetam is taken alone.

However, choline also (but not as often) has been attributed to causing mild headaches so it would be in your interest to start off with piracetam on its own and then move onto joining it with choline.

Make sure your choline is bought from reputable and quality source like CDP Choline (citicoline) or Alpha GPC. Alternatively, you can substitute choline with centrophenoxine.

In one trial it was found that piracetam + choline led to enhanced memory retention – excelling piracetam on its own.

Various animal studies have also concluded that the racetam family when paired with a source of choline can produce optimal results. [30]

 

More Interesting Stack: L-Theanine and Caffeine

[[
# For mood & energy boost
]]

The L-theanine and caffeine stack is quite an interesting combo that has been gaining popularity of late.

[Its increasing following seems to be twofold: one that it’s mild enough to take each day and two: that it additionally provides a boost in mood and energy.
__]

This is why perhaps this stack is proving very popular among students looking to enhance their focus, concentration and improve their cognitive ability to study.

Argued to be exceptionally safe and while caffeine isn’t strictly a nootropic, its stimulant properties help elevate focus and energy while L-theanine should remove any of the anxiety, irritability and/or increased blood pressure that is often a result of a heightened caffeine intake.

Essentially, the L-theanine appears to neutralize the side effects of caffeine, negating the jitters while enhancing attention span.

Many experienced nootropics consider this combination a necessity, rather than a stack.

 

More Advanced Stack: Oxiracetam, Aniracetam & Piracetam

[[
# For memory, logical thinking & boosting mood]]

[
Triple stacking like this is more for those au-fait with their physiology, their neurological make-up, their general understanding of their previous experience with either one of these “tams”.
__]

So for those starting out this is perhaps a stack further down the road.

Either way, it works as follows:

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Oxiracetam is taken to help improve memory and logical thinking ability; however it’s not that effective at improving mood.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Alternatively, Aniracetam is an excellent mood enhancer and reinforces Oxiracetam’s lack of mood boosting strength, but its effects are relatively short-lived, roughly 2 to 3 hours.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Piracetam, while milder than Aniracetam at mood enhancing displays longevity and will last throughout the day.

 

Compared to the more expensive nootropics like Noopept or Pramiracetam, its popularity might be in part due to Piracetam, Aniracetam & Oxiracetam all being relatively cheap, plus doubling up with just two out of the three for example, Oxiracetam and Aniracetam, Oxiracetam and Piracetam or Aniracetam and Piracetam for solely mood boosting properties are all popular alternatives.

 

Additional Stacks:

Aniracetam & CDP Choline (Citicoline)

[[
# For anti-anxiety and therapeutic mood]]

The anxiolytic effects of aniracetam and the therapeutic function of citicoline combine to inhibit anxiety like Benzodiazepines but without the prescription meds side-effects.

 

Piracetam & Vasodilator Drug (Cinnarizine)

[[
# For improved mental ability
]]

Vasodilation refers to the widening of blood vessels, therefore a vasodilator drug does just this, where cinnarizine in this case which is used to prevent motion sickness is combined with piracetam, which in studies on multiple sclerosis patients when administered  piracetam paired with cinnarizine improved mental abilities even more than piracetam alone.

Patients with encephalopathy – a disease in which the functioning of the brain is affected by an outside agent – increased activity levels and mood when given piracetam and a vasodilator drug.

 

A Racetam, Modafinil or Adrafinil & Essential Vitamins

[[
# For cognitive health and wakefulness]]

It’s always important to get your fair share of essential vits and in this case as spoken of in Chapter 2, for cognitive enhancement that’s Vitamin B, Vitamin D and Omega-3 fatty acids.

Piracetam or aniracetam with modafinil or the cheaper alternative adrafinil are quite an effective mix, promoting cognitive health and wakefulness.

 

Choline & Huperzine A

[[
# For concentration and maintaining memory]]

A quality choline source such as Alpha GPC with the standard dose of 200mg to 1000mg per day combined with Huperzine A – standard dose of 100mcg, as can be found in collective stacks like NooCube and Nootrobrain, when merged seems to enhance concentration and there is evidence to suggest that choline alone may slow down age related memory loss.

 

Phenibut & a Stimulant

[[
# For treating anxiety and installing wakefulness]]

There is perhaps more caution shown to Phenibut than is needed according to a recent 2016 survey. [31] However people react to Phenibut – what some dispute is an actual nootropic – in very different ways.

It’s said to help combat anxiety, insomnia, stress, fatigue, PTSD, alcoholism and depression, as well as boost general cognitive enhancement with the surprising side effect (for some) of boosting libido.

When combined with a stimulant like Adderall which is an amphetamine not a nootropic, studies suggest [32] that phenibut counters the effects, where the benefits of both drugs are negated yet amplified through a different MOA.

Phenibut was discovered by Russian scientists nearly 30 years ago and is a central nervous system depressant and has shown in clinical studies to produce feelings of calm and euphoria.

Still, Phenibut may be completely ineffective for some, wildly off the chart with others or be just the right tempo so be careful with phenibut.

In a number of personal experiences detailed online [33], when phenibut is used with a nootropic stimulant such as Modafinil, phenibut in “low” doses – 500 mg or less, spread out – appears to create an opposite effect to the stimulant in use.

It’s not a hyper, jittery feel; rather it appears more like a clean amphetamine ride, but performs in a very controlled, deliberate, smooth and calming manner.

Some say it’s a “focus and concentration gold mine”.

If you’ve ever used Adderall with Phenibut, some say the euphoria, laser focus, insane concentration and overall good mood is practically replicated.

Specifically, it’s recommended you merge a quality source of Phenibut with either Phenylpiracetam, Modafinil or Noopept to mirror these effects.

 

Further additional stack formula’s

Aniracetam, Vinpocetine, Alpha GPC (or CDP Choline) & Centrophenoxine

[[
# For improving memory, faster recall, increasing mental energy & boosting mood]]

 

Aniracetam, Bacopa & L-Theanine

[[
# For mild anxiety, depression and mood]]

 

Phosphatidyl Serine, Bacopa & Phenibut

[[
# For deep anxiety]]

 

L-Theanine, Phenibut, Centrophenoxine, Vitamin B6 & B1 +Pramiracetam

[[
* # For hard training, intense workouts and a recovery stack + Pramiracetam for motivation *]]

 

 

[[Food for thought for nootropic beginners,
]]

You may wish however to buy an all-in-one collective-stack like Nootrobrain, Optimind or NooCube that are much more suited to the nootropic starter if you like.

Nootrobrain contains aniracetam, citicoline, bacopa leaf and vitamin B6, whereas Noocube contains alpha GPC choline, bacopa leaf, huperzine-A, L-theanine, L-tyrosine, cats claw and oat straw – both are a milder but more balanced introduction into the world of nootropics.

But having said that you will never fully appreciate the intimacy of each individual nootropic, thus obscuring your ability to tailor/stack further down the line.

Stacking can be a fun, experimental and a beneficial process, but it’s not for everyone.

[Always monitor your progress carefully and refrain from pushing it to excess – no matter how easy or tempting.
__]

Chapter 9

Nootropics Common FAQ’s

h1={color:#f30;background:#fff;}.

h1={color:#f30;background:#fff;}.

How should I decide which nootropic to take?

[
First you need to decide what part of you you would like to improve i.e.:]

 

[Attention
Memory
Anxiety
Reasoning
Wakefulness]

For nootropic beginners, based on current research [34] of 2016 – the following are recommended:

L-Theanine + Caffeine for attention[
__]Bacopa Monniera for memory[
__]Ashwaganda for anxiety mitigation[
__]Creatine for reasoning[
__]Modafinil for inducing wakefulness, ameliorating sleep deprivation induced cognitive deficits (functioning without enough sleep).

Can I start stacking right away?

 

If you want to start stacking straight off the bat, it’s advised that you allow at least one week or more before you begin taking your second nootropic alongside your first so you can best analyze the negative or positive reactions.

What’s the best way to track my cognitive function when using nootropics?

 

These resources are excellent platforms for tracking cognitive results using their free cognitive metrics:

Cambridge Brain Sciences
Cognifit 
Cognitive Fun
Dual N-Back 
Gbrainy
Quantified Mind

 

Is it safe to use prescription drugs with nootropics?

 

Good question. The answer is usually yes but always checks with your physician. [35] [36]

Alcohol & Nootropics?

Not advisable. A study has shown taking piracetam along with alcohol has shown to increase blood flow to the brain, which could intensify injury and intoxication.

I feel great; do I have need for nootropics?

Totally up to you. Racetams, with their low toxicity have shown to have positive results across the age spectrum, plus they can be great alternatives to prescription meds, but there are occasionally potential side effects when it comes to some nootropics so it’s advised that you only introduce them into your life on an as-needed basis.

If I stop taking nootropics, will I experience withdrawals?

One of the five criteria a nootropic must meet in order for it to be deemed a nootropic is that it should not cause any withdrawal symptoms or create any dependency issues.

To clarify however and as previously stated, some nootropics which some feel shouldn’t be classed as nootropics do possess such tendencies according to user feedback posted online – these are:

Phenibut – Tolerance to phenibut may be quick, dosage tapering required.

Piracetam – Although very rare, withdrawal may occur, gradually reduce the amount of piracetam by 1 gram every 2-4 days.
Tianeptine – Potential opiate withdrawal, tapering required.
Modafinil – An opioid so dial down dosage.

Aside from withdrawal symptoms which only phenibut, piracetam, modafinil and tianeptine appear guilty of, another side effect you may experience is that your cognitive abilities will probably return to “baseline”.

If you’ve been taking aniracetam and then you stop, you might find that your enhanced memory recall will return to how it was prior to taking it.

How long do Nootropics take to kick in?

Each are very different. Taking a collective stack for example like NooCube, well their website states 30 to 40 minutes, but if you go by the racetam trials previously discussed, specifically the piracetam study, significant results were observed 12 plus weeks into the trials.

So with piracetam try taking regular doses for 3 to 4 weeks and measure your progress through one of the cognitive metric platforms listed above. Choline can help speed up the rate at which you start experiencing the effects and also amplify results.

With racetams in general, typically the longer you take them the better their efficacy, however there is no sufficient evidence to prove their effects get greater when taken long term.

“Cycling”, a term used to describe taking nootropics in phases may be the best way to proceed, or at least use in moderation.

How much should I begin with?

There will always be a “standard dosage” when you buy from a reputable seller so best to start there.

Nootropics are both capsule and powder based.

You will need a digital weighing scale and a special measuring spoon for powder based nootropics. They are relatively cheap online. Do not cut back here, especially if you are taking the antidepressant, analgesic and neuroprotective sodium salt such as Tianeptine. It’s critically important you do not exceed your dosage here.

Modafinil for Narcolepsy?

If you have an extreme tendency to fall asleep whenever you’re in a relaxing surrounding, Modafinil is prescribed for this exact purpose in the US and is one of the few nootropics FDA approved.

It has a long half-life modafinil so best to take earlier on in the day. [37]

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Are Nootropics legal in my country?

 

This you will have to research your end. Many online distributors ship worldwide but it may be illegal to possess or import certain types of nootropics so always check your country’s laws.

 

Hopefully these questions have addressed most of your pressing concerns. If you still have any additional queries then most definitely search online, speak with your physician and consult your legal bureau if you’re concerned about their legality in your country. [38]

 

Chapter 10

How to exactly choose the right Nootropic?

 

If you’ve consumed the whole 10’000 words up till this point then firstly congrats! Your head must be spinning with complete data overload!

[
Especially with the sheer volume of nootropics on offer, although we hope that as you’ve progressed through the chapters you will have felt yourself whittling them down, whether consciously or not, depending on which cognitive function you’re looking to enhance.]

Much like enrolling in a new course, you might find a few weeks in that it’s not for you and you want to change but the money’s gone and the time’s now lost. The same can be applied for choosing the right nootropic.

With nootropics many say you will have to experiment before you arrive at your true destination, but by engaging in a little research, self-analysis and being introspective with yourself, this will help you make the right choice from the get-go.

[Therefore, below are a set of 6 questions. Please ask yourself these questions and answer truthfully; as this way you can ensure that you point yourself in the right direction.
__]

Question 1:

[[
][Do you find it hard staying awake even when performing your favorite hobby, whether at school, university, work or at home?
]]

If you answered yes then Modafinil to be the perfect fit, however while it is available only through prescription in the U.S it is difficult to pick up online if outside the U.S

[_Disclaimer:  Now Modafinil is an illegal, schedule IV prescription drug. Adrafinil on the other hand, is a legal alternative that is argued to be 99% as effective as Modafinil. _]

Modafinil costs at least $450 for twenty 200mg capsules at any pharmacy in the U.S. Adrafinil the alternative is vastly cheaper than U.S Modafinil as it avoids U.S medical pricing laws.

As recommended by Reddit.com as a Reliable Supplier [39], you can acquire Adrafinil here by visiting Absorb Health:

Try Adrafinil at Absorb Health

 

 

[Question 2:
**]

[[Are you looking for an alternative to Adderall to treat attention related issues?
]]

[Not keen on the addictiveness, dependency and negative side effects it may have on your mood when trying to treat attention?
Try Huperzine-A, or NooCube which contains L-Tyrosine, Huperzine-A and Bacopa – all natural alternatives to enhancing focus and concentration.]

Try Huperzine-A at Absorb Health

 

Additionally, the[* popular combo-stack*] _][+L-Theanine+] ][[*and *]Caffeine is also used by many noots as an alternative to Adderall._
__]

More Interesting Stack: L-Theanine and Caffeine

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|<>. p<>{color:#000;background:transparent;}.   |<>. p>{color:#000;background:#fff;}. Try L-Theanine at Absorb Health

  |

Question 3:

[[Are you looking to enhance your cognitive abilities, particularly with regards to memory & concentration over an extended period of time?
]]

Try a racetam such as Aniracetam, as discussed at some length – one of the more powerful cognitive enhancers – a fat-soluble which easily crosses the blood-brain-barrier – or Bacopa which is present in NooCube. Use a superior choline supplement such as CDP Choline _][_with the racetam to gain significant effects more rapidly.

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Most Basic Stack: Piracetam/Aniracetam & CDP Choline

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+ |<>.
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| <>. |<>. p<>{color:#000;}. Try Aniracetam at Absorb Health

 

|<>. p<>{color:#000;}.   |<>. p>{color:#000;}. Try CDP Choline at Absorb Health

 

|

 

 

[Question 4:
**]

[[Have you experienced brain trauma or injury of some sort and want to improve your learning scores as you recover?
]]

Piracetam and Aniracetam are especially beneficial in this area, particularly when it comes to encephalopathy and brain surgeries. Unfortunately Absorb Health do not stock Piracetam as yet but an alternative and well respected supplier are Peak Nootropics. You may additionally wish to go through them for Aniracetam.

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Cognitive Injury: Piracetam & Aniracetam

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__]

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+ |<>.
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__][] | <>. |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. Try Piracetam at Peak Nootropics

 

|<>. p<>{color:#000;background:transparent;}.  
<>.
p>{color:#000;}. Try Aniracetam at Peak Nootropics

 

Question 5:

 

[[Are you suffering from anxiety or depression and are in need of some mood boosting?
]]

Included in a desiccant packet, Tianeptine Sodium Salt from New Mind is an anxiolytic compound that is primarily used for its mood boosting and anti-anxiety properties. This substance also has nootropic abilities in regards to individuals whose cognition is negatively impacted by mood disorders. It also has the ability to improve focus and concentration in individuals who have poor attention spans.

Try Tianeptine at NewMind

[Question 6:
**]

Is your diet rich in vitamins and minerals? Have you seen your doctor recently about your overall health?

 

If your body is short on vitamins, this is an easy fix, but make sure you know whether your multi-vits and minerals are “fat” or “water” soluble. [40]

This is important as fat soluble vitamins dissolve in fat and are stored in your body tissue. Not a problem unless you absorb too much fat from this type of vitamin, making it an unwanted surplus in your system.

Water soluble vitamins tend to be more beneficial as they dissolve in water and your body is in constant need of these.

Although that doesn’t mean they can’t accumulate also. An excess in both water and fat soluble vitamins can be a problem as can a deficiency.

Nausea, weakness, fatigue, lack of focus, bad skin, dermatitis are all attributed to a poor vitamin stock. Whenever in doubt, see your physician to ensure that your diet is healthy.

The penultimate chapter includes 3 recommended retailers as listed on Reddit.com as reliable nootropic stores.

 

Chapter 11

3 Reliable Suppliers

 

 

[Not all Nootropic outlets are created equal. Before you purchase from any store, always do a little digging or post a question in a Nootropics forum simply asking if these guys are legit.
__]

[The info should be easy to harness as most nootropics users or noots are a pretty vocal bunch online always looking to share their shopping experiences whether good or bad.
__]

[So it’s vital that you buy from a store that has an excellent reputation for selling high grade Nootropics that are great value for money and deliver stellar customer service.
__]

[Finding all-3 can be frustrating at the start but from our own research, personal testing and valuable user reviews left online, we’ve ground the list down to just 3.
__]

Note: All 3 online stores below are listed as “reliable suppliers” on reddit.com [41] – the world’s biggest online nootropics community.

[1^st^ choice: [
]]

[*Absorb Health: *] One of the oldest online nootropics retailers [2011], with hardly any customer complaints and a lower than a 1% refund rate.

Absorb Health have established a solid customer base with perhaps the most value for money nootropics sold online.

Popular for its low cost high grade Alpha GPC, its other top rated products include phosphatidylserine – for increasing mental calculations and Tyrosine for mood and cognitive function.

Visit Absorb Health

______________________________________________________________________

 

[2^nd^ choice:[
]]

[*Peak Nootropics: *]Peak Nootropics sell a wide variety of nootropics and stock most of the racetams: piracetam, aniracetam, oxiracetam, phenylpiracetam and pramiracetam.

They also run a forum on their site which is quite active and is a good place to introduce yourself if you may have any beginner questions etc. 

A Canadian owned company launched in 2012, they ship from the U.S and provide a proper Certificate of Analysis with each of their supplements showing the purity of the compound and authentication of quality.

Visit PeakNootropics

 

3rd choice:

[*Newmind: *]Newmind stock what most Nootropic stores don’t, specifically Tianeptine Sodium Salt – the antidepressant, analgesic and neuroprotective nootropic which in fact, because of its strength as an antidepressant has its fair share of naysayers due to people abusing it which can lead to subsequent withdrawal.

That said, when treated with respect Tianeptine Sodium Salt is a fantastic antidepressant and is regarded much safer than prescription antidepressants SSRIs or MAOIs. This substance also has nootropic abilities with regards to individuals whose cognition is negatively impacted by mood disorders.

It has the ability to improve focus and concentration in individuals who have poor attention spans as well. NewMind also stock most of the “tams” plus Monoaminergics, Gabaergics and Peptides.

Visit NewMind

______________________________________________________________________

 

 

 

 

Chapter 12

Summary - 1st Choice: Nootropic, MOA & Standard Dose

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Sadly, all books must come to an end, but before we close you may again be scratching your head trying to recall which nootropic does what, what their MOA’s are again, which ones come recommended and what the standard dosage should be.

So, for the purpose of clarifying, we have broken them down into 5 groups.

______________________________________________________________

 

Group 1 

MOA: [Focus & Attention[
]]

1^st^ Choice: _][+L-Theanine+] with_] [[Caffeine
++]][
__][_200mg L-theanine with 100mg caffeine

[______________________
__
__]Aniracetam[
__][750mg twice a day
__]Acetyl L-Carnitine[
__][1,000mg once or twice a day
__]Ginseng[
__][Unclear – ask retailer
__]Pregnenolone[
__]Unclear – ask retailer

Group 2

MOA: [Memory[
]]

1^st^ Choice: _][+Bacopa Monnieri+_
++]][
__][_Standard dose : 300mg assuming 50% bacosides once in the morning or 750mg assuming 20% bacosides _]

[______________________
__
__]Alpha GPC/Choline[
__][100-1000mg
__]Huperzine A[
__][100mcg daily
__]Galantamine[
__][Unclear – ask retailer
__]Vinpocetine[
__]Unclear – ask retailer

______________________________________________________________

 

Group 3

MOA: [Reasoning[
]]

1^st^ Choice: _][+Creatine+]_][
__][[++
Standard dose]: 5 grams once in the morning with plenty of water]

 

______________________

 

Only creatine is argued most beneficial nootropic for reasoning.

Group 4

MOA: [Anxiety mitigation/Mood[
]]

1^st^ Choice: _][+Ashwaganda+]_][
__]

: Unclear – ask retailer

______________________

[[++
++]5-HTP/Tryptophan
Unclear – ask retailer
__]L-Theanine[
__][200mg L-theanine with 100mg caffeine
__]Rhodiola Rosea[
__][Unclear – ask retailer
__]Tyrosine[
__]2 grams on an empty stomach

______________________________________________________________

Group 5

MOA: Wakefulness/Alertness

 

1^st^ Choice: _][+Adrafinil+]_][
__]

: 300-900mg once in the morning

______________________

[Modafinil
200mg once in the morning]

Armodafinil[
150mg once in the morning]

 _____________________________________________________________________

 

Thanks so much for reading.

Hopefully we have increased your knowledge and awareness into the fascinating world of these delightful compounds called Nootropics.

We wish you all the success in finding your perfect brain supplement or nootropic stack,

Bon voyage!

 

[[References
]]

With special thanks to SupplementCritique.com

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corneliu_E._Giurgea

[2] http://slatestarcodex.com/2014/02/16/nootropics-survey-results-and-analysis/

[3] http://www.bengreenfieldfitness.com/2014/11/smart-drugs-vs-nootropics/

[4] http://www.medsafe.govt.nz/profs/class/agen53Racetams.pdf

[5] http://nootriment.com/piracetam-amazon/

[6] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15335297

[7] http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1517/14740338.6.3.241

[8] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3662139/

[9] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23362497

[10] http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/supplement/omega3-fatty-acids

[11] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/826948

[12] http://www.anti-aging-today.org/medicine/anti-aging/nootropics.htm

[13] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3435530/

[14] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20166767

[15] https://examine.com/supplements/pramiracetam/

[16] http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/other-nutrients/choline

[17] http://www.globalhealingcenter.com/natural-health/9-facts-brahmi-bacopa-monnieri

[18] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NMDA_receptor

[19] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8234409

[20] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3137602

[21] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7301036

[22] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10338103

[23] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11412837

 

 

 

[24] http://www.mayoclinicproceedings.org/article/S0025-6196(11)62594-9/fulltext

[25] https://www.reddit.com/r/Nootropics/comments/3dje2h/nootropics_and_sexual_function/

[26] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24831122

[27] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11412837

[28] https://www.pharmaoffshore.com/index.php?cPath=207

[29] http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=141164708

[30] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0079612308606445

[31] http://slatestarcodex.com/2016/03/01/2016-nootropics-survey-results/

[32] http://corpina.com/combine-phenibut-adderall/

[33] http://www.supplementcritique.com/closest-thing-to-adderall-over-the-counter-otc/

[34] https://www.reddit.com/r/Nootropics/wiki/faq

[35] https://www.erowid.org/smarts/piracetam/piracetam_faq.shtml#4.2

[36] https://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/medicine/27470#CONTRAINDICATIONS

[37] http://www.nationalmssociety.org/Treating-MS/Medications/Provigil

[38] http://www.nationalmssociety.org/Treating-MS/Medications/Provigil

[39] https://www.erowid.org/smarts/piracetam/piracetam_faq.shtml%234.2

[40] http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-and-supplements/nutrition-vitamins-11/fat-water-nutrient?page=2

[41] https://www.reddit.com/r/nootropics/wiki/beginners

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Nootropics for Newbies

Chapter 1 An Introduction into Nootropics So what are Nootropics? 5 Criteria a Nootropic Must Meet Those who most use Nootropics Shattering the Illusion Difference between Smart Drugs and Nootropics Chapter 2 3 Key Nootropic Families 1. Racetam Family 2. Eugeroic Family 3. Cholinergics Family Vitamins, Minerals & Nutrients for Cognitive Enhancement Chapter 3 Nootropic Benefits: The Studies 1. Piracetam Study 2. Toxicity Trials 3. Stroke, Dementia & Brain Trauma Studies Why our brain needs Choline Why our brain needs Vitamins & Supplements Vitamin B supplements Chapter 4 Science behind Racetams 1. Increasing Membrane Fluidity 2. Increasing Mitochondrial Function Aniracetam Efficacy Chapter 5 Nootropics Medicinal Benefits Nootropics for Depression & Anxiety Nootropics for ADD and ADHD 5 Nootropics for Increasing Sex Drive 3 Nootropics for Pain Relief Chapter 6 Nootropics Vs. Prescription Drugs Chapter 7 Nootropic Side Effects 8 Steps to Lower Risk of Adverse Nootropic Reaction Chapter 8 Art of Stacking Nootropics Piracetam & Choline L-Theanine & Caffeine Oxiracetam, Aniracetam & Piracetam Aniracetam & CDP Choline (Citicoline) Piracetam & Vasodilator Drug (Cinnarizine) Racetam, Modafinil & Essential Vitamins Choline & Huperzine A Phenibut & a Stimulant Aniracetam, Vinpocetine, Alpha GPC (or CDP Choline) & Centrophenoxine Aniracetam, Bacopa & L-Theanine Phosphatidyl Serine, Bacopa & Phenibut L-Theanine, Phenibut, Centrophenoxine, Vitamin B6 & B1 +Pramiracetam Chapter 9 Nootropics Common FAQ’s How should I decide which nootropic to take? Can I start stacking right away? What’s the best way to track my cognitive function when using nootropics? Is it safe to use prescription drugs with nootropics? Alcohol & Nootropics? I feel great; do I have need for nootropics? If I stop taking nootropics, will I experience withdrawals? How long do Nootropics take to kick in? How much should I begin with? Modafinil for Narcolepsy? Are Nootropics legal in my country? Chapter 10 How to exactly choose the right Nootropic Chapter 11 Our Personal 5 Recommendations Chapter 12 Summary - 1st Choice: Nootropic, MOA & Standard Dose

  • ISBN: 9781311604842
  • Author: Rob Carmichael
  • Published: 2016-03-25 09:05:20
  • Words: 12194
Nootropics for Newbies Nootropics for Newbies