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Linguistic Perspectives on Encoding and Compression Systems in the Quran

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Linguistic perspectives on numerical expressionsLinguistic perspectives on numerical expressionsLinguistic perspectives on numerical expressions

Linguistic Perspectives on Encoding and Compression Systems in the Quran

Copyright © 2016 by Al-Amin Ali Hamad

Cover design © 2016 by Al-Amin Ali Hamad

ISBN: 9781370310593

First Edition

Contents

General Preface

Preface

About The Author

Dedication

Introduction

Introduction to Numbers

Algebra and Letters

Geometry, shapes and letters

Encoding and Compression: Computer System

Encoding and Compression: Quran

Conclusion

General Preface

The reader should take time to understand and meditate the Quranic Ayaat, and if possible, my advice is to get the copy of Quran in any preferable language of your choice and learn. If you find anything not clear it doesn’t mean that Quran is wrong but it’s because our knowledge is not enough to understand the book and we need the teacher and from my opinion the best teacher is The book “Quran” itself (As an Ayat on the same subject from one chapter may be clarified by another Ayat from another chapter) and Hadiths or Traditions of Prophet Muhammed (which gives more light on the understanding of Quran) from volumes by Sahih Muslim and Sahih Al-Bukhariy known as Sahihayn (Sahih means genuine or authentic or sound and in Arabic Sahihayn means double authentic referring to the volumes written by these two scholars, the authentic volumes of Al-bukhariy and Muslim) and all these are now available online which requires only internet and search engine such as Google.If you find any error in this small eBook then it’s from me and not Quran and I ask forgiveness from the creator. We should also remember that human beings are not exempted from errors and this is one of the human weaknesses as only the creator “Allah” is perfect.

Preface

In the name of Allah, the Gracious, the Merciful.

Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds.

The Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

Master of the Day of Judgment.

It is you we worship, and upon you we call for help.

Guide us to the straight path.

The path of those you have blessed, not of those against whom there is anger,

Nor of those who are misguided

My Lord, expand for me my breast [with assurance]

And ease for me my task

And untie the knot from my tongue

That they may understand my speech.

Indeed, Allah confers blessing upon the Prophet, and His angels [ask Him to do so].

O you who have believed, ask [Allah to confer] blessing upon him and ask [Allah to grant him] peace.

There has certainly been for you in the Messenger of Allah an excellent pattern

For anyone whose hope is in Allah and the Last Day and [who] remembers Allah often.

I ask my Lord Allah to accept my prayers to Prophet Muhammad.

I also ask him to assist me to accomplish this small humble task.

As always we are required to start all our activities with a prayer praising Allah;

In the name of Allah, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful.

***

Ayat Number 82 Chapter An-Nisa (The Women)

Then do they not reflect upon the Qur’an? If it had been from [any] other than Allah, they would have found within it much contradiction.

French Translation

Ne méditent-ils donc pas sur le Coran? S’il provenait d’un autre qu’Allah, ils y trouveraient certes maintes contradictions!

Ayat Number 53 Chapter Fussilat (Explained in Detail)

We will show them our signs in the horizons and within themselves until it becomes clear to them that it is the truth. But is it not sufficient concerning your Lord that He is, over all things, a Witness

French Translation

Nous leur montrerons Nos signes dans l’univers et en eux-mêmes, jusqu’à ce qu’il leur devienne évident que c’est cela (le Coran), la Vérité. Ne suffit-il pas que ton Seigneur soit témoin de toute-chose?

***

 

 

About The Author

Bachelor of Arts Degree from Al-Azhar University (Egypt-Cairo). Master of Arts Degree from International Institute of Khartoum for Arabic Language (Sudan-Khartoum) Master of Philosophy from INALCO (France-Paris). Business Studies and Certifications in IT Engineering (UK-England)

 

Dedication

I dedicate these few pages to my parents, my family, my wife and her family And to all brothers and sisters who strive in the way of the Creator (Allah)

 

 

Introduction

This eBook introduces three aspects; Encoding of Arabic Numerical values, Scientific Facts and Compression of Data in the Quran. There are more aspects to cover on the coming series. I have also presented a bonus on brief introduction on the language of Algebra, Geometry and Computer System.

I have used throughout this booklet the name of God as Allah (As Allah has no gender or number as you can do with the word God), the word Ayat instead of (Plural Ayaat) as Ayat (means signs) has deeper meaning than .

I have also used the initials PBUH (peace be upon him) after the title “prophet” or name “Mohamed” or both “Prophet Mohammed” as requested all of us to do whenever one of these are / is mentioned.

Introduction to Numbers

It is difficult to imagine counting without numbers, but there was a time when written numbers did not exist. The earliest counting device was the human hand and its fingers, capable of counting up to 10 things; toes were also used to count in tropical cultures. Then, as even larger quantities (greater than ten fingers and toes could represent) were counted, various natural items like pebbles, sea shells and twigs were used to help keep count.

Merchants who traded goods needed a way to keep count (inventory) of the goods they bought and sold. Various portable counting devices were invented to keep tallies. The abacus is one of many counting devices invented to help count large numbers. When the Hindu-Arabic number system came into use, abaci were adapted to use place-value counting.

It is important to distinguish the early abacuses (or abaci) known as counting boards from the modern abaci. The counting board is a piece of wood, stone or metal with carved grooves or painted lines between which beads, pebbles or metal discs were moved. The abacus is a device, usually of wood (romans made them out of metal and they are made of plastic in modern times), having a frame that holds rods with freely-sliding beads mounted on them. Both the abacus and the counting board are mechanical aids used for counting; they are not calculators in the sense we use the word today. The person operating the abacus performs calculations in their head and uses the abacus as a physical aid to keep track of the sums, the carries, etc.

The introduction of the Arabic numbering system in Western Europe stopped further development of counting boards from the Ancient, Middle and Modern times. Throughout the history of human kind people have been using different ways to represent numbers. For example Around 3000 BCE (Before Current Era) The Egyptians used Hieroglyphics for numbers such as a stroke or staff for one a hill bone for ten a coil of rope for 100 a lotus flower for 1000 and so on.

When the Quran was revealed, 14 centuries ago, the numbers known today did not exist. A universal system was used where the letters of the Arabic, Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek alphabets were used as numerals. The number assigned to each letter is its value.

The Roman numeral, as far as we know, was the only written numbering system used in Ancient Rome and Europe until about 900 AD, when the Arabic Numbering System, which was originated by the Hindu’s, came into use. (The Arabic Numbers are the ones we use today 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9).

Roman Numerals do not have a zero (0) and have 7 digits (I, V, X, L, C, and M) in our number system, Arabic numbers, we have ten digits (from 0-9) and we can make as big a number as we want with these

The modern system of numeration (designation by the use of numbers) is derived from the Hindu-Arabic system. It uses a place-value system with 10 as the BASE. This system began in India around the 6th century, developed in the Arabian countries, and progressed into Europe and the rest of the world. Today all science and international trade use this system. The exact shape of the numerals has changed substantially over the years, but the introduction of printing has led to a standardization of shape.

The Prophet Muhammed who was a successful Merchant in his early life, has to know the Arabic Alphabets to work in trade, since all the numbers that he had to use were Alphabets. The discovery of the Mathematical Miracle of the Quran showed us a sophisticated system where every letter, word, and Sura in the Quran is mathematically composed in addition to its most beautiful literal structure. The system is so sophisticated, no human being can, even with the assistance of the computers we have today, write such a beautiful literature that is mathematically composed as well.

Algebra and letters

Algebra is the fundamental language of math. However, with a firm grasp of algebra there is nothing to fear in learning calculus because you can learn it in the same way that you learned algebra. The history of algebra is split into two basic kinds of algebra. One is called Classical Algebra (finding unknown numbers represented by Alphabets) and another is called Modern, or Abstract Algebra (studying rings, fields-space & time). 

Muslims made immense contributions to almost all branches of sciences, but mathematics appear to be their favourite subject. For example the scholar al-Khowarizmi (c770-c840 CE) wrote Al-Kitab al-mukhtasar fi Hisab al-gabr wa’l-muqabala, (The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing) and from this title we take the word ‘Algebra’ from ‘al-jabr’, meaning ‘setting back in its place’, or ‘restoring’. Al—Khowarizmi’s name also gives us the words ‘algorithm’ or ‘algorism’.

Geometry, shapes and letters

The branch of mathematics concerned with the properties and relations of points, lines, surfaces, solids, and higher dimensional analogues. Geometry relies on Alphabets for naming Geometrical shapes such as Angles of the Triangle or Rectangle etc.

The words and symbols of geometry are used to describe specific spatial ideas and relationships accurately and succinctly.

Geometry’s origins go back to approximately 3,000 BC in ancient Egypt. Ancient Egyptians used an early stage of geometry in several ways, including the surveying of land, construction of pyramids, and astronomy. Around 2,900 BC, ancient Egyptians began using their knowledge to construct pyramids with four triangular faces and a square base.

The next great advancement in geometry came from Euclid in 300 BC when he wrote a text titled ‘Elements.’ In this text, Euclid presented an ideal axiomatic form (now known as Euclidean geometry) in which propositions could be proven through a small set of statements that are accepted as true. In fact, Euclid was able to derive a great portion of planar geometry from just the first five postulates in ‘Elements.’ These postulates are listed below:

(1) A straight line segment can be drawn joining any two points.

(2) A straight line segment can be drawn joining any two points.

(3) Given any straight line segment, a circle can be drawn having the segment as radius and one endpoint as center.

(4) All right angles are congruent.

(5) If two lines are drawn which intersect a third line in such a way that the sum of the inner angles on one side is less than two right angles, then the two lines inevitably must intersect each other on that side if extended infinitely.

Euclid’s fifth postulate is also known as the parallel postulate.

The next tremendous advancement in the field of geometry occurred in the 17th century when René Descartes discovered coordinate geometry. Coordinates and equations could be used in this type of geometry in order to illustrate proofs. The creation of coordinate geometry opened the doors to the development of calculus and physics.

In the 19th century, Carl Friedrich Gauss, Nikolai Lobachevsky, and János Bolyai formally discovered non-Euclidean geometry. In this kind of geometry, four of Euclid’s first five postulates remained consistent, but the idea that parallel lines do not meet did not stay true. This idea is a driving force behind elliptical geometry and hyperbolic geometry.

Encoding and Compression: Computer System

So how does coding work, really? The short answer is that writing code tells the computer what to do, but it’s not quite that simple.

So here’s the longer answer. A computer can only understand two distinct types of data: on and off. In fact, a computer is really just a collection of on/off switches (transistors) anything that a computer can do is nothing more than a unique combination of some transistors turned on and some transistors turned off.

Binary Code is the representation of these combinations as 1s and 0s, where each digit represents one transistor. Binary code is grouped into bytes, groups of 8 digits representing 8 transistors. For example, 11101001. Modern computers contain millions or even billions of transistors, which means an unimaginably large number of combinations.

But one problem arises here. To be able to write a computer program by typing out billions of 1s and 0s would require superhuman brainpower, and even then it would probably take you a lifetime or two to write. This is where programming languages come in.

Thousands of different programming languages make it possible for us to create computer software, apps and websites. Instead of writing binary code, they let us write code that is (relatively) easy for us to write, read and understand. Each language comes with a special program that takes care of translating what we write into binary code.

Because different languages are designed to be used for different purposes – some are useful for web development, others useful for writing desktop software, others useful for solving scientific and numeric problems, and so on.

Programming languages can also be low-level or high-level.

Low-level languages are closer to the binary code a computer understands, while high-level languages bear a lot less resemblance to binary code. High-level languages are easier to program in, because they’re less detailed and designed to be easy for us to write.

Nearly all of the main programming languages in use today are high-level languages.

A computer doesn’t actually understand the phrase ‘Hello, world!’, and it doesn’t know how to display it on screen. It only understands on and off. So to actually run a command like print ‘Hello, world!’ it has to translate all the code in a program into a series of ons and offs that it can understand.

To do that, a number of things happen:

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p<>{color:#000;}. The source code is translated into assembly language

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p<>{color:#000;}. The assembly code is translated into machine language

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p<>{color:#000;}. The machine language is directly executed as binary code

The coding language first has to translate its source code into assembly language, a super low-level language that uses words and numbers to represent binary patterns. Depending on the language, this may be done with an interpreter (where the program is translated line-by-line), or with a compiler (where the program is translated as a whole).

The coding language then sends off the assembly code to the computer’s assembler, which converts it into the machine language that the computer can understand and execute directly as binary code.

Isn’t it amazing to think that something as deceptively simple and primitive as binary code can create things as complex as what goes on inside a computer?

Your screen, operating system, photos, videos, the Internet, Facebook, your online bank account, and this website – all these things can be constructed from nothing but 1s and 0s. It’s a real symbol of human achievement.

There are thousands of coding languages in existence today.

Coding languages aren’t like our languages – there are no vocabularies or alphabets. They’re more like codes – special commands, abbreviations and ways of arranging text.

All software is written in some kind of coding language. And every coding language is unique, designed with a certain operating system, platform, coding style and intended use in mind.

In computers, encoding is the process of putting a sequence of characters (letters, numbers, punctuation, and certain symbols) into a specialized format for efficient transmission or storage. Decoding is the opposite process -- the conversion of an encoded format back into the original sequence of characters. Encoding and decoding are used in data communications, networking, and storage. The term is especially applicable to radio (wireless) communications systems.

The code used by most computers for text files is known as ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange, pronounced ASK-ee). ASCII can depict uppercase and lowercase alphabetic characters, numerals, punctuation marks, and common symbols. Other commonly-used codes include Unicode, BinHex, Uuencode, and MIME. In data communications, Manchester Encoding is a special form of encoding in which the binary digits (bits) represent the transitions between high and low logic states. In radio communications, numerous encoding and decoding methods exist, some of which are used only by specialized groups of people (amateur radio operators, for example).

The oldest code of all, originally employed in the landline telegraph during the 19th century, is the Morse code

The terms encoding and decoding are often used in reference to the processes of analog-to-digital conversion and digital-to-analog conversion. In this sense, these terms can apply to any form of data, including text, images, audio, video, multimedia, computer programs, or signals in sensors, telemetry, and control systems. Encoding should not be confused with encryption, a process in which data is deliberately altered so as to conceal its content. Encryption can be done without changing the particular code that the content is in, and encoding can be done without deliberately concealing the content.

Compression is a reduction in the number of bits needed to represent data Compressing data can save storage capacity, speed file transfer and decrease costs for storage hardware and network bandwidth.

Compression is performed by a program that uses a formula or algorithm to determine how to shrink the size of the data. For instance, an algorithm may represent a string of bits, or 0s and 1s, with a smaller string of 0s and 1s by using a dictionary for the conversion between them, or the formula may insert a reference or pointer to a string of 0s and 1s that the program has already seen.

Text compression can be as simple as removing all unneeded characters inserting a single repeat character to indicate a string of repeated characters, and substituting a smaller bit string for a frequently occurring bit string. Compression can reduce a text file to 50% or a significantly higher percentage of its original size.

For data transmission, compression can be performed on the data content or on the entire transmission unit, including header data. When information is sent or received via the Internet, larger files, either singly or with others as part of an archive file, may be transmitted in a ZIP, gzip or other compressed format.

Types of Compression:

Lossless Compression

Lossless Compression basically works by removing redundancy.

An Example:

fffffffuuuuuuuuuuuu Can be “compressed” to: f7u12

This is only one method of lossless compression, of course, but it points to how this is possible. Other math tricks are used, but the main thing to remember about lossless compression is that while space is temporarily saved, it is possible to reconstruct the original file entirely from the compressed one. If you see three bricks with numbers you know exactly how to make the stack. No information is lost, just as the name lossless implies.

Programs like WinZip are based on lossless compression. They remove this redundant information when you compress (or “zip”) the file and restore it when you “unzip”, Nothing is lost.

In the image world, PNG files also use lossless compression. This is why they offer a smaller file size for images with lots of uniform space: that redundant information is represented using instructions.

Lossy Compression

Of course, there’s only so much you can accomplish using only lossless methods. Happily they’re not the only option: you can also simply remove information. This is called lossy compression, and it’s not as crazy as it sounds; in fact, you probably have many files on your computer made using lossy compression.

An MP3, for example. If you’re like most people your computer stores thousands of them for you, but did you know they don’t contain all of the audio information the original recording did? Some sounds, which humans cannot or can barely hear, are removed as part of the compression. The more you compress a file the more information is removed, which is why an overly compressed file will start to sound muddy.

Lossy compression tends to mostly be used for media files – pictures, sound and video. Using lossy compression for a text file would be problematic, as the resulting information would be garbled. It’s not always necessary for media files to include all the information, however.

Another example of lossy compression is the JPEG image. Generally speaking images seen on the web do not need to be as high-quality as images intended for printing. As such, you can remove a lot of redundant information in a web image, even if doing so would look awful printed.

Of course, repeatedly compressing a file using lossy methods decreases the quality – every time you do it more data is lost.

It’s important to remember that files compressed using lossy methods actually lose data, meaning you cannot recreate the original file from one compressed using lossy methods. It’s obvious when you think about it, but many printing projects have been ruined for lack of understanding this key point.

Compression vs. data deduplication

Compression is often compared to data deduplication, but the two techniques operate differently. Deduplication is a type of compression that looks for redundant chunks of data across a storage system or a file system and replaces each duplicate chunk with a pointer to the original. Compression algorithms reduce the size of the bit strings in a data stream that is far smaller in scope and generally remember no more than the last megabyte or less of data.

File-level deduplication eliminates redundant files and replaces them with stubs pointing to the original file. Block-level deduplication identifies duplicate data at the sub-file level. The system saves unique instances of each block, uses a hash algorithm to process them and generates a unique identifier to store them in an index. Deduplication typically looks for larger chunks of duplicate data than compression, and systems can deduplicate using a fixed or variable-sized chunk.

Deduplication is most effective in environments that have a high degree of redundant data, such as virtual desktop infrastructure or storage backup systems. Compression tends to be more effective than deduplication in reducing the size of unique information such as image, audio, video, database and executable files. Many storage systems support both compression and deduplication.

Tools/technologies that use compression

Compression is built into a wide range of technologies, including storage systems, databases, operating systems and software applications used by businesses and enterprise organizations. Compressing data is also common in consumer devices such as laptops, PCs and mobile phones.

Many systems and devices perform compression transparently, but some give users the option to turn compression on or off. Compression can be performed more than once on the same file or piece of data, but subsequent compressions result in little to no additional compression and may even increase the size of the file to a slight degree, depending on the algorithms.

WinZip is a popular Windows program that compresses files when it packages them in an archive. Archive file formats that support compression include ZIP and RAR. The bzip2 and gzip formats see widespread use for compressing individual files.

The main advantages of compression are a reduction in storage hardware, data transmission time and communication bandwidth, and the resulting cost savings. A compressed file requires less storage capacity than an uncompressed file, and the use of compression can lead to a significant decrease in expenses for disk and/or solid-state drives a compressed file also requires less time for transfer, and it consumes less network bandwidth than an uncompressed file.

Encoding and Compression: Quran

I learned from other sources some Quranic Ayaat decoded by Arabic Alphabet Values

My Curiosity and Wish to learn more on this great book “The Glorious Quran” is the reason which pushes me every second to try and understand this new science.

I understand that Quran requires people of various specialized disciplines as there are Ayaat on various fields of Sciences such as Psychology, Physiology, Philosophy, Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Geology, Embryology, Medicine to mention but few but to my surprise even a layman can swim into this Ocean not only specialists.

Quran is not a book of science but “signs” and scientific facts are not explained straight forward as these “signs” deal with delivering the divine guidance but some may carry a scientific value and that’s why when we recite Quran we should meditate and also ask Allah to help us understand his book.

Only Allah knows why he has chosen Arabic language to be the media for the revelation of his message as he says in his glorious book Quran:

And when a sign comes to them, they say, “Never will we believe until we are given like that which was given to the messengers of Allah.” Allah is most knowing of where He places His message. There will afflict those who committed crimes debasement before Allah and severe punishment for what they used to conspire (Quran 6:124)

Here Allah says he is most knowing of where He places His message.

I think one of the reasons (Allah knows best and I ask forgiveness if this interpretation is wrong) concerning the choice of this language to deliver his message is its capability to compress data and at the same time keep this message clear and of high style.

As mentioned earlier, there are various types of the computer data compression methods and some are better than others. If we compare with computer as analogy we can see that Arabic Language deserve to be considered as one of the best languages to be chosen as the media of the divine message due to several reasons and one of these is its nature to employ few words to convey vast meaning, and also some words have several synonyms, and we find that Quran always choose from these synonyms with precision depending on the context, style etc. and not randomly. There are also data repetitions in the Quran but for some linguistic and rhetoric reasons. Compressions and Repetitions are well balanced in order to deliver the important information which Allah wanted us to be guided. And the Quran has left nothing small or great without mentioning in this book. This book contains everything. As Allah said in his book

And the record [of deeds] will be placed [open], and you will see the criminals fearful of that within it, and they will say, “Oh, woe to us! What is this book that leaves nothing small or great except that it has enumerated it?” And they will find what they did present [before them]. And your Lord does injustice to no one. (Quran 18:49)

If we human beings try to imitate and try to write all the information of this world then it will be not possible to write all in one book but surely it will be encyclopaedias, and this is why Quran is termed “Miracle of Miracles” a book for all centuries, past and future.

The below examples which will assist us clarify the subject of Encoding and Compression in the Quran.

First Example

Does man think that We cannot assemble his bones? (Quran 75:3)

Nay, We are able to put together in perfect order the very tips of his fingers (Quran 75:4)

The 7th Century Arab in the desert understood from this Ayat that those who have doubts that after death the human beings will not be resurrected or Allah is not capable of resurrection then Allah confirms here that he is more capable of creating the same tips of his fingers as before.

The 21st Century scientist understand from this Ayat that those who have doubts that after death the human beings will not be resurrected or Allah is not capable of resurrection then Allah confirms here that he is more capable of creating the same DNA which will produce the same finger print as before when the person was alive.

Here the same Ayat deliver the same message to both;

The Linguistic and Literature Specialists of the 7th Century Arabian desert as Arabs were very eloquent in their language and

Science and Technology Scholars of 21st Century.

The phrase from the above Ayat “The very tips of his fingers” (In Arabic “An Nusawiya Bananah”).

Refers to the genomics system. With only two words we are given the knowledge to be discovered later after centuries as we know that genomics is a new 21st Century Science. Allah does not want to teach us fingerprint technology but to deliver his message.

Only these two words are enough to encode the the Genomics system information and in compressed format. And if we compare the count of words from the above Ayat between English languages with Arabic we can see the differences

In Arabic “Balaa kadiriyna an nusawiya bananah”= One negation particle and 3 words

In English “Nay, We are able to put together in perfect order the very tips of his fingers”=16 words (one negation particle and 5 phrases containing adverbs, verb, nouns and adjectives)

In English we require more words to express the same meaning and this is what I mean by compression

Second Example

And your god is one God. There is no deity [worthy of worship] except Him, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful (Quran 2:163)

“One God” in Arabic “Wahid”

We can replace these 4 letters with the Arabic alphabet numerical values (used previously by Arabs before discovery of the number system which is known as ABGAD system (as on the cover of my eBook) For example “alif” has a value of 1 / “be” has a value of 2 / “jim” has a value of 3 / “dal” has a value of 5 / and so on to the last letter).

For example

“W” with 6,

“A” with 1,

“Hi” with 8

And “d” with 4

Wahid= 4 letters (w + a + hi + d) = 6 + 1 + 8 + 4 = 19

And if we add these values we get number 19 which is given some importance in the Quran in the below Ayat

“I will drive him into Saqar.

“And what can make you know what Saqar is”?

“It lets nothing remain and leaves nothing [unburned]”

“Darkening and changing the colour of man!”

“Over it are nineteen [angels]”

“And we have not made the keepers of the Fire except angels. And We have not made their number except as a trial for those who disbelieve – that those who were given the Scripture will be convinced and those who have believed will increase in faith and those who were given the Scripture and the believers will not doubt and that those in whose hearts is hypocrisy and the disbelievers will say, “What does Allah intend by this as an example?” Thus does Allah leave astray whom He wills and guides whom He wills. And none knows the soldiers of your Lord except Him. And mention of the Fire is not but a reminder to humanity.”(Quran from Ayaat 74:26-31)

Allah chose the number of the keepers to be 19 and we now understand that this number is used in the Quran as a policy, protecting the authenticity of the Quran by interlocking all the Ayaat together in such a way that no one can change, remove, and replace any letter. It’s a unique and one of the divine data security technique which has preserved Quran from corruption since it’s revelation on the 7th century and it will continue to protect it until Allah the owner takes it back. We find number 19 encoded in different places in the holy book Quran.

On the afore mentioned Ayat the word “WAHID” can be translated in English as

“God is one” in 3 words. Here Arabic language uses only one word. (Compressed format)

And as we mentioned previously this word has number 19 total values of all its letters.

And again if we add 1 + 9 from 19 we get 10 and if we add 1+ 0 from 10 we get 1

Which is again number one referring to “One God”

What other secrets from number 19?

One of the scientist scholar mention that number 19 can be represented into a geometrical representation. If we arrange into 3 layers starting with one circle we will end up with 3 layers of hexagonal structure and the hexagonal shape (honeycomb) has been proved to be the best way to divide a surface into regions of equal area with the least total perimeter and fully utilized space without gaps.

The first layer will have one circle which symbolises Oneness of God (Allah) and the second layer has 6 circles showing that Allah first created the world in 6 days and the third layer 12 circles showing that Allah created time which is 12 months.

The hexagonal geometrical representation which we created from arranging the circles of number 19 is not only used by bees to build the hives but all the creation (heaven and earth and between them) has this fundamental shape which is the smallest building block of the creation for everything and the outlines of this shape is made up interconnected elements like strings, these are the smallest particles than atoms and this is what the scientists today came up with the “theory of everything” (Gravity + Quantum). In the Quran we learn that the heaven is made up of strings or weaved ropes as Allah says here

By the heaven containing pathways, (Quran 51:7)

Today with the help of theoretical physics we can translate the Arabic word HUBUKI from this Ayat to mean “weaved strings” or ropes like a fishing net.

On 7th Century no one knew this science and they understood correctly as the heaven containing pathways orbits.

Today the scientists understand this Quranic Ayat to mean “weaved strings” which again is correct.

As we can see the scientific fact is encoded on this Ayat to be discovered after centuries of trial and error!!!

And from the same Ayat if we compare the translations we will see the compressed format as below

WaAsamaa Dhatil Hubuki =3 words

By the heaven containing pathways=5 words

And again Allah mention these threads on the below Ayat from another chapter.

The below Ayat give us more information on the threads or string theory.

Have you not seen those who claim themselves to be pure? Rather, Allah purifies whom He wills, and injustice is not done to them, [even] as much as a thread [inside a date seed]. (Quran 4:49)

The 7th century ordinary Arab in the desert understood the Ayat to mean threads of the date seed and was satisfied.

Today with advancement of science and technology the scientist scholars understand this type of threads as smaller than Quarks inside the atom.

These threads are interconnected with other elements producing a net of hexagonal shape of strings. And these are the ones which cause force of gravity depending on their density and place.

And if we compare the compression methods on the below Ayat we find similar results.

Arabic Ayat

Wala yudhlamuna fatilla= 3 words

English= and injustice is not done to them, [even] as much as a thread [inside a date seed]. =17 words

And again we can see the compressed format. And one of the greatest scientific fact is encoded in this Ayat. (Strings)

Third Example

It’s not possible to list the full knowledge on number 19 on this small eBook but I will list here some of the findings which will help us learn more this subject. As below Quran seems to be revealed with full protection from the creator and number 19 appears in many places and on various ways challenging human beings to produce a book similar to this one and its really impossible. For example if you were asked to produce and essay and you were asked to produce a book with certain conditions as below then it becomes impossible.

If Allah wishes my next series will shed more light with examples on this same subject with other miraculous Ayaat.

In the name of Allah, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful (Quran 1:1)

In Arabic= Bismillahi Arrahmani Arrahim

This Formula is very important that Muslim uses before performing any activity

Even when we recite the Quran.

-The Formula consists of 19 letters.

-The Qur’an consists of 114 (19 × 6) Chapters. Multiple of 19.

- The first Chapter to be revealed (Chapter 96) is the 19th from the end

- The first Ayat of the Qur’an to be revealed are the first five Ayaat of Chapter 96 and the total number of words in these Ayaat is 19

- The first Chapter to be revealed, Surat al-‘Alaq, consists of 19 Ayaat and 285 (19 × 15) letters. Multiple of 19

- Surat an-Nasr, the final Sura to be revealed, consists of a total of 19 words

- Furthermore, the first Ayaat of Surat an-Nasr, which speaks of the help of Allah, contains 19 letters.

There are 114 Formulas in the Qur’an or 19 × 6

A total of 113 Chapters in the Qur’an start with the formula. The only Chapter not to start with one is the ninth, Surat at-Tawba. Surat an-Naml is the only Chapter to have two formulas. One of these is at the beginning and the other in 30. Counting from Surat at-Tawba, which does not begin with the formula, Surat an-Naml follows 19 Chapters on. There is a formula at the beginning of the 27th Chapter, Surat an-Naml, and in 30. There are thus two formulas in the 27th Chapter. It is the formula in the 30th of the 27th Chapter which completes the total of 114 formulas in the Qur’an. When we add together the number of the Ayaat and the number of the Chapter, 30 and 27, we find the number 57 (19 × 3) Multiple of 19

The total number of Suras from Surat at-Tawba (9) to Surat an-Naml (27) is 342 (9 + 10 + 11 +12 +13 +14 +15 +16 + 17 + 18 + 19 + 20 + 21 + 22 + 23 + 24 + 25 + 26 + 27). That figure is 19 multiplied by 18

The sum of all the occurrences of the name “Allah” in all the Ayaat whose numbers are multiples of 19 (i.e., Ayaat 19, 38, 57, 76, etc.) is 133, or 19 × 7.

The “abjad” value of the word “wahd” meaning “one” is 19. This word is used 19 times together with the name “Allah.”

- The total of the Sura and Ayat numbers of the occasions when the word “wahd” appears 19 times is 361: (19 × 19).

The Arabic word “wahdahu,” meaning “worship only Allah,” appears in the Ayaat 7:70, 39:45, 40:12, 40:84 and 60:4. When these figures are added up without numbers being repeated, the resulting total is 361 (19 × 19).

The number of Ayaat between the first initial letters (Alif, Lam, Mim; Surat al-Baqara 1) and the final initial letters (Nun; Surat al-Qalam 1) is 5,263 (19 × 277).

There are 38 (19 × 2) Suras without initial letters between the first Sura which has initial letters and the last to have them.

The word “Rahman” (All-Merciful) appears 57 (19 × 3) times in the Qur’an.

Thirty different numbers are mentioned in the Qur’an. The total of these numbers (again without taking repetitions into account) is 162,146. This is 19 × 8,534:

1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 + 10 + 11 + 12 + 19 +20 + 30 + 40 + 50 + 60 + 70 + 80 + 99 + 100 + 200 + 300 + 1,000 + 2,000 + 3,000 + 5,000 + 50,000 + 100,000 = 162,146 (19 × 8,534). Multiple of 19

In addition to these thirty numbers, the Qur’an also refers to eight fractions: 1/10, 1/8, 1/6, 1/5, 1/4, 1/3, 1/2 and 2/3. The Qur’an thus contains a total of 38 (19 × 2) different numbers.

The Sura from the beginning to possess 19 Ayaat is Surat al-Infitar. Another feature of this Sura is that its final word is “Allah.” At the same time, this is the 19th appearance of the name “Allah” from the end.

The 50th Sura, which begins with the letter Qaf, contains a total of 57 (19 × 3) letters Qaf. There are also 57 letters Qaf in the 42nd Sura with a letter Qaf at the beginning. The 50th Sura contains 45 Ayaat. Added together, these total 95 (19 × 5). There are 53 Ayaat in the 42nd Sura. These again total 95 (42 + 53).

The abjad value of the word “Majeed,” used for the Qur’an, in the first Ayat of Surah Qaf is 57 (19 × 3). As we have stated above, the total number of letters Qaf is also 57.

When we add together the number of times that the letter Qaf appears in the Qur’an, we reach a total of 798 (19 × 42). Forty-two is the number of another Sura with Qaf among its initial letters.

The letter Nun appears at the beginning of only the 68th Sura. The total number of times it appears in that Sura is 133 (19 × 7).

When we add together the number of Ayaat (including the formulas) in Suras the number of which are multiples of 19, the following is noteworthy.

The letters Ya and Sin appear at the beginning of Chapter Ya Sin. The letter Sin appears 48 times in Surah Ya Sin and the letter Ya 237 times. The total of these letters is 285 (19 × 15).

Only one Chapter, the seventh, begins with the initial letters “Alif, Lam, Mim, Sad.” The letter Alif appears in this Sura 2,529 times, the letter Lam 1,530 times, the letter Mim 1,164 times and the letter Sad 97 times. These four letters thus appear a total of 2,529 + 1,530 + 1,164 + 97 times, or 5,320 (19 × 280) times.

The letters Alif, Lam and Mim are the most frequently used letters in Arabic. They appear together at the beginning of six Suras: numbers 2, 3, 29, 30, 31 and 32. The number of times these three letters appear in each of these six Suras is a multiple of 19. In order: 9,899 (19 × 521), 5,662 (19 × 298), 1,672 (19 × 88), 1,254 (19 × 66) and 817 (19 × 43). The total number of times all these three letters appear in the six Ayaat is 19,874 (19 × 1,046).

The initial letters Alif, Lam and Ra appear in Suras 10, 11, 12, 14 and 15. The total number of times these letters appear in these Chapters is 2,489 (19 × 131), 2,489 (19 × 131), 2,375 (19 × 125), 1,197 (19 × 63) and 912 (19 × 48).

The frequency with which the initial letters Alif, Lam, Mim and Ra appear is 1,482 (19 × 78) in total. The letter Alif appears 605 times, Lam 480 times, Mim 260 times and Ra 137 times.

The initial letters Qaf, Ha, Ya, ‘Ayn and Sad appear in only one Chapter the 19th. The letter Qaf appears 137 times in this Chapter Ha 175 times, Ya 343 times, ‘Ayn 117 times and Sad 26 times. The total number of appearances of these five letters is 137 + 175 + 343 + 117 + 26 = 798 (19 × 42).

Other findings on this subject include:

In the whole of the Qur’an,

- The word “atee” (obey!) appears 19 times,

- The words “Abd” (servant), “abid” (a person who serves) and “abudu” (worship) appear a total of 152 (19 × 8) times.

The numerical abjad values of some of the names of Allah given below are also multiples of 19:

- Al-Wahid (The One) 19 (19 × 1)

-[_ _]Aj-Jami (The Gatherer) 114 (19 × 6)

The number 19 is the total of the numbers 9 and 10 to the power of 1. The difference between the numbers 9 and 10 to the power of 2 is again 19.

 The Sun, Moon and Earth line up in the same relative positions once every 19 years.

 Halley’s Comet passes through the Solar System once every 76 years (19 × 4).

 There are 209 (19 × 11) bones in the human body. The number of bones in the human hand is 19

The place of the number 19 in the Pascal triangle

The total of the first 19 figures in the Pascal triangle is 38 (19 × 2).

As we have seen Allah encoded number 19 in the Quran in different unique ways.

Conclusion

We have covered Encoding of Arabic Numerical values, Scientific Facts and Compression of Data in the Quran. I have also presented a bonus on brief introduction on the language of Algebra, Geometry and Computer System, which are only some of many aspects which makes Quran one of the Miracle of Miracles on this earth. As we have seen from the previous examples that Arabic Language is unique in Compression and Encoding Methods and some Ayaat are miraculously flexible since the revelation, for example the same Ayat benefiting ordinary men of previous centuries can also benefit the current scientist scholars. Quran is for all people of all level, sex, rich, poor, ordinary people, highly educated. These are some of many reasons which make Quran as a media for Allah’s message.

Quran challenges the specialists on linguistics, Literatures and science since 7th century until now and his challenge is always very high until the end of this world.

Allah confirm in the Quran:

Say, “If mankind and the jinn gathered in order to produce the like of this Qur’an, they would not produce the like of it, even if they were to each other assistants.” [Qur’an 17:88]

And if you are in doubt about what We have sent down upon Our Servant [Muhammad], then produce a Surah the like thereof and call upon your witnesses other than Allah, if you should be truthful. [Qur’an 2:23]

And it was not [possible] for this Qur’an to be produced by other than Allah, but [it is] a confirmation of what was before it and a detailed explanation of the [former] Scripture, about which there is no doubt, from the Lord of the worlds [Qur’an 10:37]

Or do they say [about the Prophet], “He invented it?” Say, “Then bring forth a surah like it and call upon [for assistance] whomever you can besides Allah, if you should be truthful.”(Quran: 10:38)

Or do they say, “He invented it”? Say, “Then bring ten Chapters like it that have been invented and call upon [for assistance] whomever you can besides Allah, if you should be truthful.” [Qur’an 11:13]

Or do they say, “He has made it up”? Rather, they do not believe. [Qur’an 52:33]

Then let them produce a statement like it, if they should be truthful. (Quran 52:34)

This is a challenge for us to produce the like of Quran even a chapter like chapters of the Quran. Allah has promised to guide this book from corruption as he says in the Quran

Indeed, it is We who sent down the Qur’an and indeed, We will be its guardian. (Quran 15:9)

He also said:

Falsehood cannot approach it from before it or from behind it; [it is] a revelation from a [Lord who is] Wise and Praiseworthy (Quran 41:42)

Witchcraft was considered a very important craft and was at its peak during the time of Moses, he was given power by Allah more than all the witches of his period and he defeated the Egyptian King who claimed to be God “The Firaun’s” and during Jesus Christ period when medicine of that time was at its peak he was given power by Allah to cure incurable diseases such as leprous, and blinds or giving life to dead, and Prophet Mohamed is the seal and is the greatest of all the previous Prophets and Messengers and his power is the last version of all books which is “Quran” its the book for all humanity and Jinn’s for all centuries until the end of this world.

It’s a guidance and a light leading to success. Quran covers various subjects. Most importantly, it talks about the unity of God and how to live a life which accords to His Will. Other topics include religious doctrine, creation, criminal and civil law, Judaism, Christianity, polytheism, social values, morality, history, stories of past prophets, and science.

The Quran calls the great human exemplars of the past prophets and mentions their great sacrifice in spreading the message of God, the most important of them being Noah, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus. The Quran elaborates on the ways in which the followers of the prophets, specifically the Jews and the Christians, have or have not lived up to the prophetic messages. It also discusses the fate of past nations who rejected their Prophets, such as Noah and Lot. It issues instructions on how to live a life pleasing to God. It commands people that they should pray, fast, and take care of the needy. It discusses matters of human interrelationships, sometimes in great detail – such as laws of inheritance and marriage. The Quran tells people that they should observe God’s instructions purely for God’s sake, not for any worldly aims. It warns those who deny God’s messages that they will be thrown into the fire of Hell, and it promises those who accept the messages that they will be given the bliss of Paradise.

The Quran retells in their original form many of the stories from the Biblical heritage, especially that of Moses (mentioned by name more than any other person, followed by Pharaoh, his great enemy). It has much to say about the moral and legal duties of believers, Many Quranic passages could be described as preaching.

Also, the Quran repeats, shifts topics, and often relates narratives in summarized form. We can see two reasons for this characteristic. First, it serves a linguistic purpose and is one of the powerful rhetorical techniques of classical Arabic. Second, all themes of the Quran, no matter how varied, are wrapped around one common thread running through the entire book: that all types of worship rendered to others besides or alongside God is false, and that obedience to Him and His prophets, Muhammad being one of them, is a must. The Quran, unlike the Bible, does not mention genealogies, chronological events, or minute historical details, but rather uses events from both past and present to illustrate its central message. So, when the Quran is discussing the healing properties of honey or the life of Jesus, neither topic is an end in itself, but each is related in one way or another to the central message – unity of God and unity of the prophetic message. No matter what the topic may be, it finds occasion to refer the discussion back to this central theme.

Another important point to keep in mind is that the Quran was not revealed in one sitting, but was revealed in parts over a span of 23 years. Like the previous scriptures, many passages were revealed in response to specific events. Often, Quranic revelation would come from the angel Gabriel to Prophet Muhammad as a response to questions raised by those around him, whether believers or unbelievers. The Quran addresses the People of the Scripture (a term used by the Quran for Jews and Christians), humanity at large, believers, and, finally, it addresses the Prophet himself, commanding him what to do in certain situations or supporting him and giving him solace in the face of ridicule and rejection. Knowing the historical and social context clarifies the text.

Some other notable features of Quran’s style are the following:

(1) The use of parables to stir curiosity of the reader and explain deep truths.

(2) More than two hundred passages begin with the Arabic word Qul – ‘Say’ – addressing Prophet Muhammad to say what follows in reply to a question, to explain a matter of faith.

(3) In some passages of the Quran, God takes oaths by His marvelous creation to strengthen an argument or to dispel doubts in the mind of the listener,

“By the sun and its brightness,

By the moon when it follows it,

By the day when it displays it,

By the night when it covers it,

By the sky and He who constructed it,

By the earth and He who spread it,

By the soul and He who proportioned it…” (Quran 91:1-7)

Sometimes God takes an oath by Himself:

“But no, by your Lord, they will not (truly) believe until they make you, (O Muhammad), judge concerning that over which they dispute among themselves and then find within themselves no discomfort from what you have judged and submit in (full, willing) submission.” (Quran 4:65)

(4) Lastly, the Quran has what is called ‘the disjointed letters,’ composed of letters of the Arabic alphabet which taken together do not have a known meaning in the Arabic lexicon. Some scholars say that their meaning is only known to God, each letter is pronounced and not the words they form. For example, the first Aayah of Surat-ul-Baqara appears as Alif-Lam-Mim, three letters of the Arabic alphabet pronounced individually. Other scholars count the values of these and come up with surprises such as number 19 which astonishingly is found in several places of the glorious book Quran which again gives birth to another branch of Quranic System of Interlocking Numerical Values proving the genuinely of this book as these letters or any letter or word or phrase or sentences (Ayat) cannot be removed or replaced by any means without breaking the system.

Prophet Mohamed was not a Mathematician or Scientist as he was an illiterate messenger who was living in the desert and He didn’t know how to read and write but he received a revelation and was asked to deliver to the humanity which he did and passed away.

His companions and followers believed and trusted him, and during his time he also performed some miracles such as split of the moon etc. The language of the Quran was a challenge to the Arabs of his time as its Literature and Linguistics is of very high level during the time when these Arabs were very eloquent in their language

And this was one of the reasons for them to accept Islam. And now Quran is a challenge to science as it speaks on several scientific facts some discovered on 21st century and others not yet discovered.

Quran is in advance to all the human sciences, as a result many Muslims who were lost now are reverting back to Islam and others from other faiths convert to Islam as soon as they learn these facts. Quran will remain firm and high until the big crunch (The end of the world) and only Allah knows as he is the owner of this knowledge and he is the heritor.

Before I conclude I would like to mention that Quran is a message from Allah and it never Contain any linguistically or contextually errors, and any errors found in my eBook is from me, myself, and as I am a scholar and researcher I am not exempted from errors. I welcome any critics or comments which I believe will assist me to understand the reader’s viewpoint. You can leave your opinion on smash words website.

The End


Linguistic Perspectives on Encoding and Compression Systems in the Quran

This eBook covers Encoding of Arabic Numerical values, Scientific Facts and Compression of Data in the Quran. I have also presented a bonus on brief introduction on the language of Algebra, Geometry and Computer System, which are only some of many aspects which makes Quran one of the Miracle of Miracles on this earth. As we have seen from the previous examples that Arabic Language is unique in Compression and Encoding Methods and some Ayaat are miraculously flexible since the revelation, for example the same Ayat benefiting ordinary men of previous centuries can also benefit the current scientist scholars. Quran is for all people of all levels, rich, poor, ordinary people, highly educated etc. These are some of many reasons which make Quran as a media for Allah’s message. Quran challenges the specialists on linguistics, Literatures and science since 7th century until now and his challenge is always very high until the end of this world

  • ISBN: 9781370310593
  • Author: Al-Amin Ali Hamad
  • Published: 2016-11-09 23:20:14
  • Words: 9362
Linguistic Perspectives on Encoding and Compression Systems in the Quran Linguistic Perspectives on Encoding and Compression Systems in the Quran