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IRA Makeover

 

Published by Sense Financial Services LLC

Edited by Vanessa Pham and Minna Nah

Copyright 2015. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, scanned, or distributed in any printed or electronic form without permission.

[] About the Author

Dmitriy Fomichenko is the founder and president of Sense Financial Services LLC, a boutique financial firm specializing in self-directed retirement accounts with checkbook control.  He began his career in financial planning and real estate investing in 2000. He owns multiple investment properties in various states and is a licensed California Real Estate Broker. Over the years, he has instructed hundreds of investment and financial planning seminars and has mentored thousands of investors.

Sense Financial Services was born through a series of conversations Dmitriy had with the real estate investors whom he mentored.  While many were highly successful in their real estate investments, the same investors were losing money in their retirement accounts. This prompted Dmitriy to spend several months consulting with industry experts and researching the powerful concept of self-directed retirement accounts.  He integrated the knowledge and experience gained from his many years of experience along with his newly acquired expertise in Self-Directed IRAs and 401ks to begin consulting individual investors to put more thought and diligence into their retirement and investment planning.

Dmitriy founded Sense Financial Services to help his clients maximize their returns on investments while protecting their hard-earned money. He is very passionate about helping families and individuals achieve financial freedom by following proven Biblical principles of financial planning and investing.

Dmitriy resides in Southern California with his wife and 9-year old daughter.  In his spare time, he enjoys studying systematic theology, spending time with his family and visiting new places.

Contents

About the Author 3

Introduction 7

Part I: 8

The Problem with Conventional Retirement Accounts 8

The Stock Market is No Longer Ideal for Retirement Savings 1

Alternative Investments with Better Return and Lower Risk 2

Alternative Investments Made Possible with Self-Directed IRA or 401k 3

Part II: 4

Self-Directed IRA 4

What Investments can I make with a Self-Directed IRA? 5

How does a Self-Directed IRA Work? 6

Are There any Disadvantages with a Self-Directed IRA? 7

How does a Self-Directed IRA LLC Work? 8

Do I need to ask permission to make an investment? 11

Why not just use a custodian? 11

How a Real Estate Developer Used His Expertise to Grow His Retirement Account 14

Part III: 17

Solo 401k – The Ultimate Retirement Plan 17

What is a Solo 401k? 18

Eligibility Requirements: 19

Benefits of Solo 401k: 20

1. High contribution limit 20

2. Checkbook control 21

3. Non-traditional Investment Options 21

4. Loan option available 23

5. No income limit for Roth account 24

6. UBIT exemption for non-recourse financing 24

7. Ability to combine multiple accounts 25

8. Cost-Effective Administration 25

How to save $10,000 in taxes with Solo 401k 27

Part IV: 29

Real Estate Investing with a Solo 401k or Checkbook IRA 29

Real estate vs. Stock market 30

Why the Self-directed IRA LLC is a great investment vehicle for real estate 32

Why the Solo 401k plan is a great investment vehicle for real estate 33

Prohibited Transactions: Understand the Rules of Investing with the Solo 401k and IRA 34

How a college professor earns $850 in monthly rent on a $30,000 purchase with a Solo 401k plan 40

Conclusion 43

 

[][] Introduction

Retirement planning is a complicated process. Anything that involves the tax codes and IRS regulations often is. Among the information out there, it is rare to find a comprehensive guide on retirement planning that focuses on the needs of investors.

When it comes to self-directed retirement plans, information resources are even harder to find.

Self-directed retirement plans such as the Checkbook IRA and Solo 401k plan are not new. The Solo 401k plan, for example, has been around as early as 2001. Why does it remain a mystery to so many investors? It is not in Wall Street’s best interest to let you know about these self-directed retirement options because it takes money away from their hands.

Over the years, I have met and mentored many real estate investors. One of the common problems that these investors faced was that they had very little say when it came to the investment choices in their retirement accounts. Many of them had thriving real estate portfolios, but their retirement accounts fell short in terms of earnings and risk management. And they couldn’t do anything about it.

The truth is, every investor has the option to take control of their retirement future. Each and every one of us has the option to self-direct our money without losing the tax benefits that qualified plans offer. Unfortunately, not many people know about this option. Even if they have heard of the concept, reliable information and resources are hard to come by.

The lack of comprehensive information on the topic of self directed retirement plans prompted me to write this book. In the IRA Makeover eBook, I will discuss in detail different self-directed retirement options and how you can take control of your hard-earned money. You will learn not only how to take control of your retirement savings, but also how to put your savings to good use, such as real estate investments and more. The book will also include some of my favorite success stories of my clients and fellow investors, who have found the way to grow their funds using their own expertise.

I hope you will find the answers to your retirement planning questions in this book. I also hope this book will inspire you to take control of your hard-earned money.

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[]Part I:

[] The Problem with Conventional Retirement Accounts

  • * The Stock Market is No Longer Ideal for Retirement Savings

For years, people often thought of the stock market when talking about retirement plans. The idea was that Americans could put their money into a tax-deferred account, invest that money into the stock market or mutual funds, and let it grow into a healthy nest egg. However, the reality has not been so simple. Historic evidence shows that millions of retirement accounts in the U.S. plummeted in value after the financial crisis in 2008.

Account
owners of conventional retirement plans are left with two options.
They can either leave their life savings at risk of a stock market
crisis, or they can play it safe with low-return target date funds.
Either way, investors are faced with the risk of losing their
savings either to a market crash or to the rising inflation
rate.

  • * Alternative Investments with Better Return and Lower Risk

The reality of the market forces investors to seek other ways to invest for retirement. Alternative investments, therefore, have become a popular topic. With this investment strategy, investors can generate good returns through passive sources of income. The strategy is to create predictable but profitable returns. This can be done with numerous alternative investments such as residential rental & commercial real estate, trust deeds, precious metals, private lending, tax liens, crowd funding and much more, instead of investing in stocks and mutual funds.

By purchasing rental properties, for example, investors can often count on two sources of income: rental payments and value appreciation. The returns are predictable as the rent amounts are set by the lease. As a tangible asset, real estate can also guard against inflation, provide tax benefits due to depreciation, and offer more security. This is a significant advantage over a stock market investment, which can lose all or most of its value with no collateral available when the stock price goes down.

  • * Alternative Investments Made Possible with Self-Directed IRA or 401k

The problem, however, is that conventional IRAs and 401k accounts offer their participants a very limited number of investment options confined to the stock market. Although the IRS allows real estate and other alternative investments within retirement plans, most custodians and plan administrators do not allow investments in alternative products outside of stocks, bonds, mutual funds as they do not financially benefit from these investments.

The trouble with your current retirement account is that your custodian will limit your investment choices to those that are profitable to their companies. For investors who would like to be in control of their retirement funds, or wish to invest in other types of assets, the solution is to step away from conventional retirement plans. An underperforming retirement account can be converted into a self-directed IRA or 401k. With the self-directed option, account holders can explore alternative investment opportunities, gain a greater control over their money and achieve true diversification. This is only possible with self-directed IRA or 401k.

[]Part II:

[] Self-Directed IRA

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A Self-Directed IRA is an IRA that is held with a special “self-directed” custodian (trust company) who does not place investment limitations other than what is prohibited by the IRS. It offers the account owner the ability to use his or her retirement funds to make almost any type of investment.

In addition to the tremendous IRA benefits (tax-deferred growth, tax deductions and asset protection); the Self-Directed IRA structure allows you to invest in what you know and understand best while growing your investments in a tax-deferred environment. Aside from life insurance, collectibles and certain “prohibited transaction” outlined in Internal Revenue Code Section 4975, a Self-Directed IRA can invest in most legally available investments, including real estate, private or hard money lending, precious metals, private business entities, public and private stocks, commercial paper and much, much more. Tax-free growth can also be achieved with a self-directed Roth IRA!

  • * What Investments can I make with a Self-Directed IRA?

A Self-Directed IRA offers you the ability to use your retirement funds to make virtually any type of investment. The IRS only describes the type of investments that are prohibited, which are very few. We’ll discuss Prohibited Transactions in a later chapter.

The following are some examples of investments that can be made with a Self-Directed IRA:

[] How does a Self-Directed IRA Work?

A self-directed IRA is a retirement plan held under a custodian that gives you the ability to invest in alternative assets. The custodian, however, will be the one holding all of the assets and handling all transactions going in and out of the account, following your directions.

Here is how it works:

#
p<>{color:#000;}. You open a self-directed IRA account with an IRS-approved custodian.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The custodian will oversee the process of a direct rollover of your money from your current retirement plan(s), such as another IRA, 401k or 403b.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. You, as the plan owner, will give investment directions and authorization to the custodian, who will then carry out transactions as instructed. The custodian will not make any investment recommendations, but will only oversee your account activities and execute your investment decisions.

Self-Directed IRA: How It Works

 

 

  • * Are There any Disadvantages with a Self-Directed IRA?

One concern I hear from my clients is related to the fees for a self-directed IRA. Just like other businesses, self-directed custodians are in business to make money. And since they are not allowed to make any investment recommendations or have any affiliation with investment providers, they charge various fees associated with opening and holding an account with them. Those fees vary from one custodian to another. Some may charge fees for every transaction you make with your IRA, such as asset purchase and sale fees, administrative fees, expense payment fees, document fees, expedited processing fees, research fees, etc. Others may charge a fee based on the account size as a percentage of the account value. The bottom line is that the cost to maintain the account goes up as your account grows in value, as you acquire additional investments and as you make more transactions with your IRA.

Another complaint that I often hear from my clients is the inconvenience of having to go through the custodian for every transaction. The typical procedure for making an investment with a self-directed IRA (or even paying a simple $50 repair bill) involves first completing the appropriate form, submitting it to your custodian, and then waiting a few days before the funds can be disbursed by the custodian on behalf of your IRA. I personally know several people who have lost potential deals because they could not get their custodian to send money on time.

The last complaint regarding self-directed IRAs is related to the cash that is not being invested under custody of the custodian. While it is uncommon, this situation creates a risk for the funds to be misappropriated as in the case of American Pension Services (APS). In April 2014, APS, a Utah-based third party administrator, was placed under receivership following a request by the SEC to freeze all its assets. APS and its founder, Curtis L. DeYoung, have lost over $22 million in fraudulent transactions for its investors. The company then attempted to cover it up with false account statements. Clients were charged fees based on the inflated account value on their statements. DeYong was also accused of using forged letters to invest without his clients’ authorization. Even though APS advertised their plans as self-directed, the clients’ funds were kept under the control of APS in two master trust accounts. This means their clients did not have true control over their money and were not able to detect fraudulent activities until it was too late.

The solution to the disadvantages described above is the Self-Directed IRA LLC (a.k.a. “Checkbook IRA”).

The Self-Directed IRA LLC is a truly self-directed vehicle with “checkbook control.” A special purpose, single member LLC (limited liability company) is established. The IRA account invests into the LLC by purchasing 100% of the units of the LLC. The LLC is then owned by the IRA account and managed by the IRA account holder. Because the account holder has instructed the custodian to transfer the IRA funds into the LLC's checking account, the IRA holder now has “checkbook control” over their IRA funds.

[] How does a Self-Directed IRA LLC Work?

With a Self-Directed IRA LLC you will have a checkbook, debit card and all the tools that come along with a business checking account at your fingertips. All you need to know with the Self-Directed IRA LLC investment options are the few things that you can’t do; the rest is up to your imagination.

The Self-Directed IRA LLC is a unique hybrid that utilizes a self-directed IRA custodian and a specialized legal structure. Basically, the Self-Directed IRA LLC is a vehicle that will help you utilize a self-directed custodian for their strengths while eliminating their bureaucracy and red tape and minimizing their fees.

Here is how it works:

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Create the IRA account: Your retirement account is moved to a self-directed custodian who allows alternative investments that can pass their compliance procedures and withstand IRS scrutiny.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Create the LLC: Our legal team creates a customized entity (in the form of a LLC) and submits it to the custodian as a private placement. (This is not an ordinary LLC. It is important that you use a professional to create this structure; otherwise your IRA may become disqualified, taxed and penalized).

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Open a bank account: You open a business checking account for this entity. You can choose any bank you wish. You are the only person with access to this account as manager of the LLC. You can monitor the balance or write a check any time you need, without incurring any additional custodial fees and without any delays.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Fund the LLC bank account: You submit an investment authorization form to the custodian instructing them to fund your new bank account via check or wire. As manager of the LLC, you will be in control of and have direct access to all your money. All income and expenses from the IRA investments will go to and from this account.

Self-Directed IRA LLC: How It Works

After you complete the steps of the IRA LLC process, you will have absolute control over this new structure. You can direct your retirement funds into any investment you choose (keeping in mind that you still need to abide by IRS rules). Not only do you have the flexibility and convenience of having checkbook control over your IRA, you will also have the added liability protection associated with owning your investments inside of the LLC.

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Sense Financial made the process to switch my Roth IRA into a self-directed Checkbook Roth IRA extremely easy; and then they did all the paperwork to set up an LLC that my Roth IRA now owns. What a great experience! They are very knowledgeable and were always an email or phone call away and ready with answers to my questions. I am extremely satisfied with the process and how everything was done and now I’m super excited that I’m in charge of making money in my retirement account.

Tammy Parsons – Oceanside, CA

 

|

[] Do I need to ask permission to make an investment?

No, with a Self-Directed IRA LLC, you, the manager, make all investment decisions.

A Self-Directed IRA LLC gives you what is called “checkbook control.” The process is simple. When you want to make an IRA investment, you write a check or wire funds directly from your LLC checking account.

[] Why not just use a custodian?

When the money is managed by a traditional custodian, administrator or brokerage firm, this type of account is in no way self-directed. Typically, the only interaction afforded is the ability to view an annual statement.

 

Almost all custodians only handle the typical IRAs

*
p<>{color:#000;}. An individual puts money aside for retirement savings with a custodian, administrator or brokerage firm that empowers the individual to make investments that are allowable by the custodian’s compliance department.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. In most cases, the individual can trade stocks, bonds and mutual funds from a select inventory under the custodian, administrator or broker.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Depending on the type of IRA the individual has structured, gains can be tax-deferred or tax-exempt.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Contribution limits vary depending on age, employment status and adjusted gross income.

 

Some individuals have found their way to the Self-Directed IRA custodian. If the account is held by one of these flexible self-directed IRA custodians, the individual is empowered to purchase non-traditional assets titled in the custodians name FBO (for benefit of) the individual

(Example: ABC Trust Company, custodian FBO John Smith).

 

The extent of bureaucracy necessary is at the custodian’s discretion and is always paid for out of the IRA. Custodians who offer this type of plan have a fee for anything and everything. Below is a small list of fees you can expect.

 

Fees Fees Fees

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*
p<>{color:#000;}. Annual asset fees

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Invoice fees

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Fees based on % of the account

*
p<>{color:#000;}. RMD calculation fees

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Wire fees

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Entrance fees

|<>. * p<>{color:#000;}. Fees to buy

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Exit fees

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Fees to sell

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Check fees

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Return check fees

|

Red Tape

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*
p<>{color:#000;}. Waiting for custodian to cut a check

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Unnecessary annual appraisals

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Mortgage reviews

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Investment limitations

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Asset evaluation

|<>. * p<>{color:#000;}. IRS or Attorney Opinion letters

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Minimum distributions

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Private placement memorandums

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Waiting for custodian approval

*
p<>{color:#000;}. And the list goes on…

|

 

 

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Daniel Lucas – Morehead, KY

With all the different information on the internet about self-directed IRAs, I had no clue where to turn. After doing extensive research, I came across Sense Financial. After watching their videos and reading their blog, I decided to go with them to set up our self-directed IRA LLCs for me and my wife. The process was extremely easy and very smooth. Their excellent team led me step by step all the way through the process. Even after my account was set up they continued to reach out to me and answered all my questions. I highly recommend Sense Financial! |

Case Study:

  • * How a Real Estate Developer Used His Expertise to Grow His Retirement Account

 

Taking control of your retirement account and investing in the assets that you know, understand and can control will allow you to secure a better financial future. A Sense Financial client has achieved such satisfaction using the opportunities and features presented by the self-directed Solo 401k.

Mike Foley already had a self-directed account with Provident Trust when he learned about our truly self-directed option with checkbook control. As someone who knows a great deal about real estate, Mike thought that the truly self-directed Solo 401k would be a great investment vehicle especially when he discovered the advantages of checkbook control.

“My Solo 401k account now owns

rental properties and real estate notes.”

Michael Foley, CEO

The Foley Group

As a real estate developer, Mike has a lot of experience in real estate business— from development, construction, and even flipping houses. He is an active member and speaker for several real estate clubs in Southern California where people come together for training and discussions about real estate. Mike has a strong passion for educating others on how to become successful real estate investors. He always keeps up to date with the real estate market not only in Southern California but also in some European and Asian countries.

As a successful real estate developer and educator, Mike is also involved in charity work as a way of giving back. His recent contribution was in Vietnam where his group had a fund raising project to provide housing for poor families.

With his knowledge and involvement in real estate, Mike believes that with a Self-Directed Solo 401k, he will be able to put his knowledge and skills to good use and generate a healthy return for his retirement savings.

When Mike was introduced to Self-Directed Solo 401ks checkbook control feature, he found it to be a great solution for his needs. The fact that he knew me personally, and that he could be hands-on with his own account made him more confident with his decision. Sense Financial assisted him throughout the process of setting up and rolling over his previous custodial account into a Self-Directed Solo 401k. He was very pleased with how Sense Financial answered all his questions and the work they did to help him set up the ultimate retirement plan for his needs.

Mike’s Solo 401k plan now includes rental properties as well as mobile homes. Part of his retirement savings is also invested in notes and precious metals. These investment choices are part of the reason why he wanted to switch to checkbook control. There are many frequent transactions going in and out of his retirement account. Getting approval from a custodian would only slow down the process. With the Solo 401k plan from Sense Financial, account holders can make all investment decisions without going through a custodian. That is a huge advantage for someone like Mike. The Solo 401k gives him the freedom he needs to successfully grow his retirement nest egg.

Aside from real estate investments and the freedom of checkbook control, Mike sees the Solo 401k as a fantastic tax-sheltering vehicle because of its high contribution limits of nearly $50,000 each year. He also has the ability to make post-tax contributions into the Roth account of his Solo 401k. All pre-tax contributions can be claimed as tax deductions. According to Mike, “If you’ve got a self-directed 401k, you really have a great variety of choices on what you can invest. I like the control and I like the possibilities. I would say those were by far the two biggest benefits.”

He is very pleased with how much time and money he saved by switching to a truly Self-Directed Solo 401k plan. He is also happy with the positive experience and convenient process provided by the Sense Financial team, which he thinks is difficult to find these days. Mike believes that he wouldn’t be able to have the same control over his retirement future if he still had all of his funds invested in the stock market.

[]Part III:

[] Solo 401k – The Ultimate Retirement Plan

I’ve saved the best available retirement option for the end. In my opinion, what you are about to read is the best way to control and grow your retirement wealth if you qualify for it. Because of its advantages, the Self-Directed Solo 401k plan is the ultimate wealth building machine! Not only will the Solo 401k give you control over your retirement account, eliminate custodian fees forever and open the world of investment opportunities, it also has awesome tax advantages enabling you to pay yourself instead of Uncle Sam. The Solo 401k has the potential to save you tens of thousands of dollars in taxes every year if you decide to maximize its benefits.

[]What is a Solo 401k?

The Solo 401k is a Qualified Retirement Plan (QRP) designed for self-employed individuals and small business owners. The plan has all of the tax benefits of a traditional 401k but with much more flexibility and control for the plan holder. The Solo 401k complies with most rules and regulations just like a traditional 401k,

[] Eligibility Requirements:

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Self-employment activity: Self-employed individuals and owners of small business are qualified for the plan. The business or self-employed activity can be in any capacity, including independent contractor, sole proprietorship, partnership, LLC, and corporation.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Absence of Full-Time Employees: The business cannot have any full-time employees who work 1000 hours per year or more, except for the business owner(s) and his or her spouse.

 

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Michael Atias – Director

OTA Tax Pros

In order to have a Solo 401k you need to have self-employment income. A lot of people asked me: “I don’t have self-employment income, but I really like this plan and its benefits. How can I become qualified?” It depends on the industry you’re in. For example, if you are in real estate, you can turn yourself into your own property manager and become eligible. You can pay yourself and that would become self-employment income, which you can report on Schedule C or another separate LLC or an S-corporation of your choosing. Then you are eligible for a Solo 401k. Another suggestion is if you are a day trader. If you have an advisor, would you pay him 1 to 3% of the size of your account or percentage of your earnings? You can do the same thing, only pay yourself. Now you will create an earned income for yourself and that allows you to be a participant in the Solo 401k. A lot of people do some type of consulting on the side. They can find a few clients even if it is just for a few thousands a year. That would make them eligible. There are additional options available depending on what you want to do. |

[] Benefits of Solo 401k:

Since the retirement plan is designed for only individuals and their spouses, the plan offers much more control and flexibility to the account holder. Below are some of the major benefits of a Solo 401k plan:

1. High contribution limit

With Solo 401k, the account holder wears two hats: that of an employee and that of the business owner. Therefore he or she is allowed to make both salary deferral and profit sharing contributions to the plan. For the salary deferral, a person can contribute up to $18,000 per year (for 2015). Account holders over 50 years old are also allowed an additional catch-up contribution of $6,000, bringing the maximum salary deferral contribution to $24,000. Secondly, as the business owner, a person can also contribute up to 25% of the earned compensation, with an upper limit of combined contribution of up to $53,000 (or $59,000 if over age 50). This is almost 10 times higher than a Traditional IRA account.

2. Checkbook control

The business owner also acts as the plan trustee and administrator, which eliminates the need for a third party administrator (TPA) or a custodian. This also enables the owner to have a checkbook control. With a traditional qualified plan, the account holder would be required to get custodial consent before making an investment. The Self-Directed Solo 401k, on the other hand, allows plan participants to make investments as they wish without consulting a custodian or anyone else. Checkbook control gives you the ability to invest with the speed and simplicity of writing a check.

3. Non-traditional Investment Options

The Solo 401k is a breakthrough retirement solution, which allows account holders to expand their investment horizons. Usually, people are forced to go with stocks and mutual funds for their retirement portfolio. However, the Self-Directed Solo 401k allows account holders to choose other investment options as well, including real estate, precious metals, private businesses, tax liens and tax notes, and much more. This is one of the most attractive benefits, as investors can now use their experience and expertise to grow their retirement funds more efficiently. For example, many investors are now looking to add real estate to their retirement portfolio as a way to increase security and earnings for their future.

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p={color:#FFF;}. Conventional Ret. Account
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I initially reached out to Sense Financial in regards to a Self-Directed IRA account, but after consulting with Dmitriy himself (which was my first pleasant surprise to get such direct access to the leadership!), it became evident that for my circumstances, a Solo 401k was the preferred pathway to take. This wasn’t even on my radar, and this conclusion could not have been reached without the insight and guidance given directly from Dmitriy. My second concern was being a Florida resident, with Sense Financial Services LLC being located out of state and on the West coast. Dmitriy and his staff quickly overcame that concern for me as well. They were always responsive to any query I had, and even worked extended hours (early) seeing I was on the East coast. As Dmitriy instructed me, this vehicle has been the most empowering tool to take personal control of my future retirement plans and it is almost criminal that more people are not aware of these tools. With the quality of initial set up instructions, as well as the on-going reminders and guidance that Sense Financial Services LLC continues to provide. I for one am trying to educate everyone in my circle about these tools, and of course, recommend Sense Financial Services LLC to all of them.

 

Tracy Hendershott – Saint Petersburg, Florida |

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4. Loan option available

With an IRA account, borrowing money from the account is not permitted. The IRS, however, allows the loan option for Solo 401k accounts. This means that account holders can take out up to 50% of the account balance, or $50,000, whichever is less, and for any reason. There is no tax or penalty charge on the loan amount, as long as the loan amount and interest are paid back at least every quarter and within 5 years. If the loan is used to purchase a primary residence for the plan owner, it can be paid pack over a period of up to 15 years.

In many cases, the interest on a Solo 401k loan can also be much lower than other conventional loans. The interest is set at prime rate plus one percent. If the plan owner is paying back a high-interest debt, such as credit card debt, using the Solo 401k loan can allow him or her to switch to a lower interest loan. Plus, the plan owners will pay interest back to his retirement account instead of another lender.

While it is often not recommended for plan owners to take money out of their retirement plan, the loan option can come handy in certain situations. In case of need, the money can be accessible with a very simple application process with no credit check required.

The loan option is also preferable over early withdrawals in most cases. Instead of paying an expensive 10% penalty charge (on top of ordinary income tax) to withdraw money early, plan owners can borrow from their savings tax-free and penalty-free. With the loan option, it is also possible to pay back the money into the account and let it grow tax-deferred. With an early withdrawal, the plan participants cannot put their money back and can fall behind on their retirement savings.

5. No income limit for Roth account

While an IRA account allows Roth contributions, there is an income restriction. With a Solo 401k, however, plan participants can contribute to a Roth account, with no income restriction.

The Roth option gives plan owners the ability to achieve tax-free investments. With a regular 401k or IRA plan, the tax is deferred until the time of withdrawal. This allows plan owners to invest their contributions in full, and reinvest all of the earnings. The funds can grow without interruption for years, but plan owners will pay income taxes when they withdraw money during retirement.

With a Roth option, taxes are paid upfront on the contributions. However, there will be no tax at the time of withdrawal. That means all returns on investments will be completely tax-free. Plan owners will also avoid the risk of increasing tax rates.

With a Solo 401k plan, there is no income limit to contribute to a Roth Solo 401k. Hence, many investors can take advantage of this option to sidestep the income limit of a Roth IRA.

6. UBIT exemption for non-recourse financing

For real estate investors, the ability to leverage their property purchase can make or break a deal. However, traditional mortgages often require personal guarantee. For a retirement plan, the plan participant cannot provide the guarantee needed for a traditional mortgage. This would constitute a prohibited transaction. A retirement plan itself does not have any credit history and hence, conventional financing is not possible for any retirement plan.

The good news is the IRS allows the use of non-recourse financing within retirement plans. With a non-recourse loan, the property will act as the collateral without requiring personal guarantee. This enables IRA and Solo 401k plan owners to leverage real estate purchase within the account. However, IRA accounts will be charged with an Unrelated Business Income Tax (UBIT) for the use of leverage.

The biggest advantage of a Solo 401k to real estate investor is that the use of non-recourse financing within a Solo 401k plan is penalty-free. Using leverage within a Solo 401k will not trigger the UBIT. This allows real estate investors to stay competitive and obtain financing for their property purchase.

7. Ability to combine multiple accounts

The Solo 401k allows rollovers from other retirement plans like a traditional IRA, SEP IRA, or even a previous employer’s 401k, 457 or 403B. The only exception is a Roth IRA, which cannot be rolled over into a Solo 401k account. You can rollover a Roth 401k into a Roth Solo 401k, however.

Because of this, Solo 401k plan owners can rollover money from their previous retirement accounts into their Solo 401k. If a plan owner follows the appropriate process to rollover the funds, there will be no tax liability. The most common option is direct rollover. The funds from the old IRA or 401k will be issued in form of a check to the new Solo 401k plan. With a direct rollover, there is no tax or penalty, and therefore, no tax withholding required either.

The ability to accept rollovers from different retirement plans tax-free allows plan owners to consolidate different retirement savings into one. This makes it easier to manage. Some plan owners can also take this opportunity to accumulate a larger sum into one account for a large investment, such as a property purchase.

8. Cost-Effective Administration

As the Solo 401k is designed for individuals, it is quite simple to set up and manage. The plan owner is also the plan trustee and plan administrator. He or she can keep records of the transactions and make investments without involving another third party. This eliminates the hassles, delays, as well as the fees associated with having a custodian. There are no transaction fees or value-based fees.

For active investors, this is a huge advantage. Real estate investors, for example, may need to carry out small transactions to pay for property maintenance or small repairs. If a transaction fee is charged for every check written, the costs and fees will eat away a big part of any return they may get.

For the Solo 401k plan, there is also no annual tax filing required for plans with less than $250,000 in total assets. This minimizes administrative efforts for plan owners of smaller accounts. For plans that pass this threshold, the plan holder will only need to file Form 5500-EZ with the IRS. If the plan owner decided to close the Solo 401k plan at any time during the year, they will also need to file final return form 5500-EZ, regardless of the account value. The form is simple to file, however, and needs to be completed by the seventh month following the end of plan year.

 

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Tony Watson – Tax Consultant

Robert Hall & Associates

As a tax consultant, one thing I am aware of is the importance of proper planning. The 401ks are one of the more important ways to protect not only your assets but also to save from paying the maximum amount of taxes to the federal government. For self-employed individuals, one thing that we as tax accountants look for is deductions that are dollar-for-dollar write offs. One of the larger deductions that any individual might encounter throughout their working life is the contribution to retirement accounts such as 401ks. It is going to give you the largest tax benefits known within the tax codes.

 

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[] How to save $10,000 in taxes with Solo 401k

With all the benefits of a Solo 401k plan, I would be remiss if I didn’t mention the tax benefits that this plan offers. Many of my clients have come to realize how much they can save in taxes simply by contributing to their Solo 401k plan.

Many investors set up a Solo 401k in order to rollover their money from an old retirement account and to break away all the restrictions. The Solo 401k allows them to put their money to good use and maximize their growth potential. What many don’t realize is that the Solo 401k can help them to easily save $10,000 in taxes every year.

The Solo 401k plan offers one of the highest contribution limits among qualified plans. The total contribution limit, including elective deferral and profit sharing, can be as high as $53,000 as of 2015. Plan owners who are at least 50 years old are also allowed an additional catch-up contribution of $6,000, bringing a total contribution limit to $59,000.

Consider the case of a plan owner who contributes the maximum of $53,000 to his Solo 401k plan. Because the Solo 401k plan is tax-deferred, the contribution will effectively reduce his taxable income by $53,000. Assuming an income tax rate of 20%, the reduced amount will translate to a $10,600 saving in income taxes. In some case, the decrease in taxable income can even help the plan owner drop to a lower tax bracket. This means an even bigger tax saving for the year.

Also, if the spouse of the business owner also participates in the business, he or she can also contribute to the Solo 401k plan. Together, the couple can contribute a maximum of $106,000 a year, or $118,000 if both are 50 years or older. This means the tax savings can double for couples.

Speaking of the Solo 401k plan, Tony Watson, a tax consultant at Robert Hall & Associates, commented: “The Solo 401k for self-employed individuals is going to give you the largest tax benefit known within the tax codes.”

How do you take advantage of this tax benefit? Simply contribute to your Solo 401k plan and save for your own retirement. Compared to other tax-planning strategies, contributing to a Solo 401k plan is one of the easiest and most effective ways to reduce your taxable income for the year. Having a Solo 401k plan will help to not only protect your assets, but also to minimize your taxability to Uncle Sam.

[]Part IV:

  • * Real Estate Investing with a Solo 401k or Checkbook IRA

[] Real estate vs. Stock market

The recent financial crisis greatly affected the majority of 401k accounts and other retirement plans, mainly because they were heavily invested in stocks and bonds. It’s a common saying that you should never put all your eggs in one basket. Since the Solo 401k and IRA LLC allow you almost any type of legally available investments, why would you? The reality is that the stock market has never been known for its stability. A sudden downturn can cause a loss of much, if not all, your investments.

Unlike stocks, real estate investments are not likely to risk all your capital. In the worst case scenario, the property itself will act as collateral to help recover your loss.

 

Even within real estate, there are many investment choices at different levels of risk to fit your preference. The Solo 401k allows investment in rental properties, house flipping, trust deeds, commercial building, notes, and so on. The level of risk, potential return, and amount of work involved depend on each type of investment.

With the housing market heating up, many investors are attracted to rental properties or house flipping, which require more work but can potentially offer higher reward. Alternatively, investors who do not want to invest too much time in managing their portfolio can choose to invest in trust deeds or notes. With these types of investment, there is little to no effort required once the purchase is settled, and the retirement plan will receive a fixed payment whether the property is vacant or not.

 

Even if you are not ready to jump head first into the real estate pool, adding real estate to your portfolio is a great way to diversify your assets and minimize risk. Instead of having all savings invested in stocks and bonds, investors are now looking to add alternative investments to their retirement accounts, with real estate being one of the most popular choices. By adding different asset classes to your portfolio, you will create a well-balanced and diversified retirement account.

 

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We are really thankful to have our Solo 401k setup and to have the freedom to invest in a wider variety of investment options. For us this has been investing in tax liens in Florida. We just received our first redemption check in the mail. We made 5% in a week investing in two tax liens that were paid off within a week of our purchase of them. We are excited to wait for more checks in the mail as other tax liens are redeemed. The freedom to invest where we choose allows us to take that money we just earned and reinvest it the moment it clears the bank. It really is awesome to not have someone in an office somewhere that has to approve every unconventional investment we make. Thank you for your services and the very educational website you have setup. I have referenced it many times for details of how our account is to work. We are very pleased and investing for retirement is now fun rather than nerve-racking.  

Royce and Jenny Tyler – Ammon, ID

 

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  • * Why the Self-directed IRA LLC is a great investment vehicle for real estate

As mentioned above, a Self-Directed IRA LLC is allowed to invest in many non-traditional assets, including real estate. This is a tremendous advantage to help investors diversify and grow their savings.

With a Self-Directed IRA LLC, almost any real estate investment is fair game. Real estate investors can choose to invest their IRA funds into single or multi-family properties, which provide high-earning potential from rental payments. Others can choose a more hands-off approach with property notes or trust deeds. With these types of passive investment, plan holders are guaranteed a steady stream of passive income while skipping all the responsibilities of a landlord. Because of the wide range of options, plan holders of the Self-Directed IRA LLC are sure to find investments that fit their investing style and preference.

In addition to flexibility, the checkbook feature makes investing in real estate much easier. Having to consult a custodian can delay the process. Plus, not all custodians are specialized in real estate investments and have the required knowledge and experience. With the checkbook control feature, investors can step up and make important decision before the opportunities are gone.

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  • * Why the Solo 401k plan is a great investment vehicle for real estate

The Solo 401k comes with many advantages, including tax benefits, flexibility, loan options and many others. A few of these benefits are especially helpful for real estate investors. Similar to a Self-Directed IRA LLC, a Solo 401k account offers the same flexibility and checkbook control, which gives real estate investors powerful advantages to succeed.

Besides these advantages, a Solo 401k offers additional features that can benefit real estate investors. Investing in real estate requires higher capital upfront. With an IRA’s maximum contribution limit of $5,500 annually, it could take years before you’re able to put away enough money to start investing in real estate. The Solo 401k, however, allows a maximum contribution of $53,000 in 2015, which means you can save up enough funds faster.

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Stephen Gryglewski – Baltimore, MD

 

Dmitriy & his team of professionals guided me through the entire set-up process for my Solo 401K, answering all of my questions and providing me with a complete set of documents. In addition, they provide a web site for customers only with a Q&A format along with many other documents at no additional cost. I also enjoy reading his timely emails/reminders and insight to the upcoming regulatory changes and potential filing requirements. His team is always available to walk you through any and all filing requirements as needed. They provide excellent customer service and I would and have recommended him to several other investors.

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Even better is the ability to leverage your investment. While a Self-Directed IRA can invest in real estate, the use of financing can lead to an Unrelated Business Income Tax. That’s not the case with Solo 401k. Account holders can choose to finance their purchase with a non-recourse loan and effectively leverage their investments without triggering UBIT charges.

  • * Prohibited Transactions: Understand the Rules of Investing with the Solo 401k and IRA

The Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) and the Internal Revenue Code (IRC) do not specify what investments a Solo 401k Plan or an IRA is allowed to have. Instead, they describe who or what is prohibited from investment. These types of transactions are known as Prohibited Transactions.

The Solo 401k and IRA Rules prohibit so-called “disqualified persons” from taking part in prohibited transactions. These rules are meant to encourage people to use qualified retirement plans to grow savings; at the same time, the restrictions block participants in retirement plans from exploiting tax benefits for their personal benefit. These regulations were based on a congressional assumption that certain transactions are inherently suspicious.

Disqualified Person

There are some related definitions, but a “disqualified person” (Internal Revenue Code Section 4975(e)(2)) generally include the retirement plan participant, ancestors or lineal descendants of that participant, and entities in which the client holds a controlling equity or management interest.

Under Code Section 4975, a disqualified person is described as:

#
p<>{color:#000;}. A fiduciary (such as the plan participant, or individual authorized to make investments for the Plan)

#
p<>{color:#000;}. A person offering services to the plan (such as a custodian or a trustee)

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Any employer whose employees are included in the plan (usually this doesn’t apply to Solo 401k plans but does include owner(s) of a business that sets up a qualified retirement plan)

#
p<>{color:#000;}. An employee organization which has any member included in the Solo 401k plan

#
p<>{color:#000;}. A 50% owner of 3 or 4 above

#
p<>{color:#000;}. A family member of 1, 2, 3 or 4 above (including the fiduciary’s spouse, grandparents and parents, grandchildren and children, spouses of the fiduciary’s grandchildren and children, but not parents-in-law)

#
p<>{color:#000;}. An entity (partnership, corporation, estate or trust) owned or controlled more than 50 percent by 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5. To determine if an entity is a disqualified person, we will consider the indirect stock-holdings/interest which would be considered under Code Sec. 267©, except that members of a fiduciary’s family are the family members under Code Sec. 4975(e)(6) (lineal descendants) for purposes of determining disqualified persons.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. A 10 percent owner, director, officer, or highly compensated employee of 3, 4, 5 or 7

#
p<>{color:#000;}. A 10 percent or more joint venture or partner of a person described in 3, 4, 5 or 7

Solo 401k Prohibited Transactions

IRS Section 4975 prohibits a Solo 401k plan participant from making certain transactions. The kinds of prohibited transactions generally fall into three categories: self-dealing prohibited transactions, conflict of interest prohibited transactions and direct prohibited transactions.

Self-Dealing Prohibited Transactions

A Self-Dealing Prohibited Transaction usually involves one of these acts below:

4975©(1)(E): The direct or indirect act by a “disqualified person” who is a fiduciary whereby he/she deals with income or assets of the Solo 401k plan in his/her own interest or for his/her own account. For example:

Nick, a real estate agent, uses his Solo 401k plan funds to purchase an investment property and receives a sales commission.

Scott desires to purchase a rental property for $100K and would like to own the property personally but does not have enough money in his account. Therefore, he uses $10,000 from his Solo 401k plan and $90,000 from his personal fund to finance the purchase.

Conflict of Interest Prohibited Transactions

A Conflict of Interest Solo 401k Prohibited Transaction usually involves one of the following:

4975©(i)(F): Receipt of any consideration by a “disqualified person” who is a fiduciary for his/her own account from any party dealing with the Plan in connection with a transaction that involves income or assets of the plan. For example:

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Irene uses money from her Solo 401k plan to loan to a business which she controls and manages but has a small ownership interest in.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Nancy uses her Solo 401k plan to loan money to a company she works for so that she can earn a promotion.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Ross invests his Solo 401k plan in a fund that he manages and his management fee depends on the total asset value of the fund.

Direct Prohibited Transactions

A Direct Solo 401k Prohibited Transaction generally involves one of the following:

4975©(1)(A): The direct or indirect sale, trade, or renting of property between a Solo 401k plan and a “disqualified person.” For example:

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Bob uses his Solo 401k plan funds to purchase an LLC interest owned by his son.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. John sells an interest in a partnership belonged to his Solo 401k plan to his father.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Mary rents rental property belonged to her Solo 401k plan to her parents.

4975©(1)(B): The direct or indirect loaning of money or other extension of credit between a Solo 401k plan and a “disqualified person.” For example:

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Judy personally guarantees a mortgage loan to her Solo 401k plan to buy a residential investment property.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Mark lends his wife $10,000 from his Solo 401k plan.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Rob uses money from his Solo 401k plan to loan to an LLC which is controlled and owned by his son.

4975©(1)(C): The direct or indirect furnishing of goods, services, or facilities between a Solo 401k plan and a “disqualified person.” For example:

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Peter uses funds from his Solo 401k plan to buy a building and pays his son to do repairs on the building.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Trudy owns a rental house with her Solo 401k plan and hires her son to manage the rental.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Maria buys a rental with her Solo 401k plan funds and personally fixes it up.

4975©(1)(D): The direct or indirect transfer to a “disqualified person” of income or assets of a Solo 401k plan. For example:

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Mark invests his Solo 401k plan in a real estate fund and after that earns compensation for providing management services to the fund.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. John, in financial distress, uses $15,000 from his Solo 401k plan to pay a personal debt.

S” Corporation Stock

Because of the shareholder restrictions imposed on “S” Corporations, a Solo 401k plan cannot own stock in an “S” Corporation.

However, a Solo 401k plan can own stock in a “C” Corporation.

Statutory Exemptions

Under IRC Section 4975(d), Congress allowed statutory exemptions from the prohibited transaction rules, believing there was legitimate reason to allow them and assuming that specific requirements are satisfied.

A few of the statutory exemptions in Section 4975(d) that are applicable to Solo 401k plans include:

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Any contract with a disqualified person for office space, legal, accounting or other services necessary to operate the Solo 401k plan provided that reasonable compensation is made. Note that this exemption is not applicable to a Solo 401k plan fiduciary (the trustee of the Solo 401k plan) as stated in Treasury Regulation Section 54.4975-6(a)(5).

*
p<>{color:#000;}. The provision of ancillary services by a bank trustee to a Solo 401k plan.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Receipt by a disqualified person of any benefit entitled to him as a plan participant or beneficiary, provided that the benefit is calculated and paid in a manner that is dictated by the terms of the plan as applied to all other participants and beneficiaries.

Plan Asset Rules

The Department of Labor’s (DOL) Plan Asset Rules specify when the assets of an entity are deemed “plan” assets. Considered pension plans under the Plan Asset Rules, Solo 401k plans are subject to these rules.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. If the aggregate Solo 401k plan ownership of an entity is at least 25% of all the assets of the entity, the equity interests and assets of the “investment entity” are treated as assets of the investing Solo 401k plan for purposes of the prohibited transactions rules, unless there is an applicable exception.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Additionally, when a Solo 401k plan or group of related qualified plans owns 100% of an “operating company”, the operating company exception is no longer applicable and the company’s assets are going to be considered plan assets.

As a rule, the Plan Asset Rules will apply in the following cases:

*
p<>{color:#000;}. If one or more disqualified persons and IRAs/401k plans own 100% of an “operating company”, in which case all the assets of the “operating company” are considered Plan assets (assets of the IRA/401k), or

*
p<>{color:#000;}. If disqualified persons and IRAs/401k plans own at least 25%of an “investment company”, in which case all the assets of the “investment company” are treated as Plan Assets (assets of the IRA/401k). To determine if the 25% threshold is reached, all IRAs/401k owners will be taken into account, even when they belong to unrelated individuals.

How to Tell If a Transaction is Prohibited

Through an arrangement between the Department of Labor and the IRS, it is the DOL who decides if a certain transaction is prohibited and to allow necessary exemptions.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. In case the IRS finds what looks like a Solo 401k Prohibited Transaction, it transfers the case to the DOL. The DOL will review and get back to the IRS who will in turn respond to the taxpayer.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. An IRA grantor who wants to be granted a prohibited transaction exemption has to apply to the DOL. Some exemptions, called “prohibited transaction class exemptions” (PTCEs), can be issued to anyone’s reliance, while others, known as “individual prohibited transaction exemptions” (PTEs), are only available for the applicant.

Case Study

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  • * How a college professor earns $850 in monthly rent on a $30,000 purchase with a Solo 401k plan

 

When Susan Maneck began looking for a self-directed Solo 401k plan provider, she already had a game plan in place. Living in Mississippi, she realized that there were plenty of potential investment opportunities in the local market. Susan shared: “Right now real estate in Mississippi is ridiculously low. You don’t have to be genius in math to figure out where the best returns are on your investment.”

As a college professor at a university, Susan also did consulting work on the side. After doing her research, she realized that her options were not limited to only IRA and SEP IRA plans, which she was holding at the time. With her independent consulting work, she qualified for a Solo 401k plan, one of the most popular options for self-employed professionals.

Comparing the Solo 401k and IRA

While it is possible to invest in real estate using an IRA or SEP IRA, Susan found two advantages that the Solo 401k plan had over an IRA. First, borrowing is allowed with a Solo 401k plan. This is important, as Susan is planning to take out a loan for a down payment for her retirement home. With an IRA, borrowing is out of the question. With a Solo 401k, however, Susan can borrow for any reason. In this case, she was able to secure the retirement home of her dreams in Tahoe.

The second advantage of a Solo 401k plan is that it allows non-recourse financing for real estate purchases. The properties that Susan is after are mostly under $50,000; she figured that mortgages were not applicable in her case. Even so, Susan understands that this feature can be a huge benefit for real estate investors. Sense Financial has partnered with many non-recourse financing lenders, who are willing to provide non-recourse loans at competitive rates.

After considering many plan providers, Susan found Sense Financial Services to be the best option. The firm also offered a free knowledge base and exclusive seminars on real estate investments with the Solo 401k plan. Planning to invest her retirement savings in real estate, Susan thought this expertise was an unmatched advantage.

Capture Real Estate Bargains

Once the plan was established, Susan immediately started to invest.

With the rollover funds in her brand new Solo 401k, Susan decided to purchase an investment property for $30,000. House flipping is not her cup of tea. Instead, Susan plans to turn the property into a rental unit. Speaking of the property, she comments: “Very little work needs to be done on this house, and most of it can be done by my own tenants. I expect the house to rent out for $850 a month.”

The $850 monthly return will make this $30,000 purchase a big real estate win. Susan was able to capture this deal thanks to her knowledge of the local market. The neighborhood was a predominantly working class neighborhood in Mississippi. The area took a big hit during the recession. House prices went down significantly, but began to rise after Hurricane Katrina. At that time, many people were forced to leave their homes down south and move northward to Mississippi. Local house prices were pushing $100,000 and up. Many homeowners purchased their houses at the peak price with predatory lending, and ended up losing their homes to foreclosures.

What resembles a real estate roller coaster now leaves the area filled with foreclosures, which drag down real estate prices. Many homes are up for grabs at $55,000 or less. The low prices make it hard to obtain mortgage financing and therefore, the field is left open for investors.

Seeing the great potential in returns, Susan Maneck decided to capitalize on the opportunities. In addition to the aforementioned property, Susan is already fixing her old home for rent, while co-owning another rental property with her mother. Having a Solo 401k plan allows her to quickly capture this opportunity with her retirement fund as well.

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Saravanan Baskaran – Irvine, CA

I actually transferred my Solo 401K Plan from Nabers Financial as I was not happy with their customer service. Dmitriy and his team have provided excellent support ever since, and I am very happy that I transferred my account. He has been providing detailed clarification and prompt response for all of my questions related to real estate investment, brokerage account opening, etc. It has been a hassle-free experience, and I would strongly recommend Sense Financial to anyone who is interested in opening a Solo 401k account without any hesitation.

 

 

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[] Conclusion

While the stock market may have worked in favor of investors in the past, we can all agree that it is not always predictable. Is it wise then to leave our life savings in something that is completely out of our hands?

Traditional retirement plans have been tied to the stock market for too long. We automatically think of stocks and bonds when it comes to our retirement savings. The truth is, if you look beyond the stock market, there are many more options available.

With the use of self-directed retirement plans, such as the Solo 401k and self-directed IRA, the option is no longer limited to the stock market. Investors can choose among real estate, precious metals, private lending, and much more. Real estate assets, such as rental property or trust deeds, can be completely under your control. Rent or interest payments are predetermined. So why leave all your savings at the risk of an unpredictable stock market, when you can invest in something under your control? The Solo 401k and self-directed IRA plan are great ways to take control of your retirement plan and invest in what you know best.

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IRA Makeover

Many investors have a successful business or a growing personal portfolio, but without much control over their retirement savings. The truth is, investors can take control of their retirement investments, through the use of self-directed retirement plans, such as the self-directed Solo 401k or the Checkbook IRA. In this IRA Makeover ebook, you will find information on self-directed retirement plans, and how to invest your retirement savings in real estate, private business, tax liens, trust deeds, and more.

  • Author: Dmitriy Fomichenko
  • Published: 2016-05-27 06:50:16
  • Words: 10156
IRA Makeover IRA Makeover