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2016 U.S.A. Presidential Election 2.0

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2016

U.S.A.

Presidential Election

2.0

A Kh’an

Copyright © 2016 by A. Kh’an

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced distributed or

transmitted in any form or by any means, including photocopying, recording, or

other electronic or mechanical methods without prior written permission of the author or publisher.

Table of contain

Introduction

Presidential election 2016

History of election

Qualities of President

Voter

Political parties in United States of America

List of presidents of United States of America

Issues

Economy and Jobs

Tax

Social Security

Medicare

Welfare

Government

Veteran

Affordable-Health-Insurance

Immigration

Border

Refugees

National ID

Silent invasion

Cultural effect

Freedom of Religion

Crime

Infrastructure

Voting right

Freedom of speech

Education

American Language

National Security

Terrorism

Countries compromised by terrorism

Wars and peace

IQ and peace and wars

Minority matters

Climate Change / Global Warming

Media

[+ Candidates – primaries election+]

Oath of Allegiance (United States)

Oath of office of the President of the United States

Washington’s Farewell Address 1796

Constitution of the United States

Bill of Rights and later Amendments

Where to find political Parties Platforms

Notes

Acknowledgement and sources

Introduction

This book is not for academic scholars, but for all responsible citizen who love and respect the country and constitution of U.S. and interested in upcoming presidential election in 2016. 2016 election will determine the future of the country into 21st century and beyond.

This book briefly explains, election process, political parties, candidates, qualities of a president, brief over view of issues like economy, legal and illegal immigration, jobs, national security, war and peace, and much more.

This book will give basic information to prepare a potential voter to make educated and wise decision to how to pick a president to take U.S., into 21st century; also presidential candidates and their agendas for America and Americans and world peace.

What Americans has forgotten is “The Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag: “I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the United States of America, and to the Republic for which it stands, one Nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.”

Time is now to unite under “The Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag” to make America “America.” As intended by founding persons.

Country: USA is in translational purgatory, seems like USA slowly moving towards a dystopian future. US is victim of violent, economy, trade and cultural terror attack by Gangs, failed globalization concept, Mexico, India, and other countries and inside job.

UK’s exit from EU proves globalization is fail system on all levels.

The US sent 22% of global remittance volume in the year 2014 and $120 BILLION in 2012 by illegals and work visa foreign workers like H1B and type L and their spouses whom are allowed to work in US, these dollars are going out of the country and have extreme negative effect on economy, jobs, industries and politics. Monies earned here and spend here helps greatly in growth of the country’s economy. Mr. Trump and Bernie sanders are against outsourcing jobs and foreign workers. Once supporter of foreign workers and outsourcing American jobs, Hillary Clinton said in Feb 2016 “America should create jobs that cannot be exported to foreign countries “but she fails to mention what jobs cannot be outsourced, maybe President’s job or congress/Senate ?? which are responsible for making law to encourage outsourcing and foreign workers and illegals in US. Bigotry against own citizens. Mr. Jeff Weaver called Hillary “Outsource in Chief (CNN Mar 2, 2016).

When congress is done with their bingo night, they go and spend people monies like a kid in candy store. wastage of people monies all-time high.

There are many ways to measure the health of a society: income, accumulated wealth, overall feelings of happiness and life expectancy. Citizens of US are dying prematurely due to excessive alcohol consumption and drugs because of their jobs were outsourced and hiring of foreign worker on visa like H1B and L and others and illegals.

Middle class Americans has been liquidating savings or already exhausted all their monies to feed their families since 2001, main reason, is loss of job due to out sourcing and hiring of foreign workers on visas like H1 B and type L.

This has direct effect of foreign policies and interior policies for past decade.

Many states are near bankrupts because of less tax collections due to job loss to out sourcing and foreign workers, most of foreign workers do not pay income tax.

One of the main reason of jobs loss of American is outsourcing jobs to Philippines, India and like countries and Hiring of foreign workers on H1B and Type L and like visas to replace or / and fill to new jobs created in US and failing to educated, re-train or train on jobs programs and also this was part of foreign policy especially since 2006. Approved by congress and Senate of US. Sweatshops were legalizing by many western countries – legalize sweatshops are crime against humanity.

Congress (US) has approval rate of 9% disapproval rate (Feb 2016). Unsatisfactory mostly due to bigotry against own citizens, and economic terrorist prey America’s resources and jobs and other citizens’ rights. Since great recession of 2008, citizens have lost over few trillion dollars in house depreciation, loss of job, education, business and many are losing their life, since 1981 congress/Senate and White house has been making law to discriminate against her own people, some of such laws are encouraging out sourcing, hiring of foreign workers to replace citizens and unfair trade agreements, which cause government to increase tax on middle class and poor to fulfill unnecessary ever growing budget.

National debt is $19,423,157,727,100 + (as of Aug 18, 2016, est time 2:8 pm) [Source: usdebtclock.org/], people and companies who has benefitted from wars and out sourcing and hiring of foreign workers should be taxed to pay off national debt.

Border:

there is no border with defining wall, there is no country. Border protect country and her citizens from all kind of invasions such as military, business and economic and others.

Wall will reduce sex trafficking in US by almost 95% (citing estimate), thousands of innocent victims are human trafficked every year through Mexican / US boarder every year, victims often kidnapped from Mexico and other southern countries. Most of victims are females, some are young as 13. And many US citizens are kidnapped and are sex trafficked to southern countries and beyond.

Citizens:

70% American thinks country is on wrong track July 17-21, 2016 - rasmussenreports.com [July 28, 2016.]

Americans are frustrated with government because the government (including Congress/Senate) has failed American citizens at all levels, including economy, jobs, infrastructure, control wastage, wars and peace since 1990s. Citizens believes that government has no credibility and is incompetent at all level.

31% of American adults, or 76 million people, say they are struggling to get by or just barely making it, according to the Federal Reserve Bank's latest survey on Americans' economic well-being, which looked at 2015. 46 % of American cannot cover $400 emergency expense with saving. [by Tami Luhby CNN June 10,2016].

In July 2016, the participation (work force) rate was up a tenth of a percentage point to 62.8 percent. One of those figures used is the U-6 rate, which has a broader definition of the unemployed. That rate rose slightly in July — to 9.7 %. {The U-6 rate is defined as all unemployed, plus "persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the labor force."}. According to Labor Department, U.S. unemployment rate remained at 4.9 percent in July 2016.

An estimate 10 million jobs has been outsourced since year 2000 - 5 million service jobs, including banking, IT and 5 million manufacturing. 288,281 Management jobs to be outsourced in 2014(-15). And more to H1B visa employees in US According to the U.S. Department of Labor and Forrester Research, Inc, Department of Labor predict that outsourcing is expected to expand in numbers and scope. In 2011 2,273,392 (million) American jobs were outsourced outside USA. Manufacturing 53%, IT services 43%, R&D 38%, Distribution 26 %, call or help center 12% [Source: BEA: USA department of commerce].

“All Employment Growth Since 2000 Went to Immigrants,” Government data show that since 2000 all of the net gain in the number of working-age (16 to 65) people holding a job has gone to immigrants (legal and illegal). This is remarkable given that native-born Americans accounted for two-thirds of the growth in the total working-age population. Though there has been some recovery from the Great Recession, there were still fewer working-age natives holding a job in the first quarter of 2014 than in 2000, while the number of immigrants with a job was 5.7 million above the 2000 level.” [Article By Karen Zeigler, Steven A. Camarota – June 2014. [+ http://cis.org/all-employment-growth-since-2000-went-to-immigrants+]]. Indian (india) Americans and Indian foreign workers in US, had a national median income of $92,418 in 2011 and increasing, this trend suppresses citizens of all races, mostly effect minorities.

Economists polled by MarketWatch had forecast new claims to total a seasonally adjusted 265,000 in week stretching from June 19 to June 25. The average of new jobless claims over the past month, meanwhile, was unchanged at 266,750, the Labor Department said Thursday. The less volatile four-week average is seen as a more accurate measure of labor-market trends. (MSN) Most jobs are created are low paying or temporary in past few years.

American car makers that left U.S. for Mexico suffering worst drop since 2009 -Reported by Jan-Albert Hootsen - July 19, 2016 -Fox News Latino.

Black Unemployment Rate May 2016: 8.2% not including un participation [black - work force].

Black unemployment rate – Age 16-24: 42.7 %

Sen. Dianne Feinstein wrote in her article published in Huffington post on Sep 16,2015, “Since 2006, there has been a 67 percent increase in the number of homeless children in this country”.

One in five children in US – world biggest economy skips a meal every day, shameful for our law makers.

“11 percent of young children (0-9 years) live in households with incomes below 50 percent of the federal poverty line (FPL), up from 9 percent in 2008.” [Source: Young Children in Deep Poverty, Authors: Mercedes Ekono, Yang Jiang, and Sheila Smith, Publication Date: January 2016 – nccp.org].

“About 15 million children in the United States – 21% of all children – live in families with incomes below the federal poverty threshold. Research shows that, on average, families need an income of about twice that level to cover basic expenses. Using this standard, 44% of children live in low-income families.” [Source: nccp.org].

According to feedamerica.org , Poverty Statistics in the United States

In 2014:

46.7 million people (14.8 percent) were in poverty.

15.5 million (21.1 percent) children under the age of 18 were in poverty.

4.6 million (10 percent) seniors 65 and older were in poverty.

The overall national poverty rate according to the Supplemental Poverty Measure is 15.3 percent, as compared with the official poverty rate of 14.8 percent.

Under the Supplemental Poverty Measure, there are 48.4 million people living in poverty, nearly 2 million more than are represented by the official poverty measure (46.7 million)”. (Source:feedingamerica.org).

Trump and Hillary Clinton has not mentioned poverty and disadvantage in US.

legal immigration: Test for legal immigrant must confirm that he/she will uphold USA constitution above any personal or religion believes.

Candidates

Nominated candidates for 2016 presidential election

Donald J. Trump / Mike Pence (Republican Party) Slogan “I am with You” and “ Make America Great Again”

Hillary R. Clinton / Tim Kaine (Democratic Party) Slogan “I am with Her”

Jill Stein/Cheri Honkala (Green Party of the united State)

Gary Johnson / William Weld (Libertarian Party)

Evan McMllin (Independent)

According to Reuters/Ipsos opinion poll released on Aug 5, 2016 - About 42 % favor Hillary Clinton and 39% favor Trump. The poll had a credibility interval of + or minus 3 % points, poll results suggest the race is almost even. Notable polls results will be out around Oct 14, 2016.

NBC News/Wall Street Journal poll, released Aug 4, 2016.

According to the poll of registered voters, here are their choices:

Four-way race poll statistics:

Clinton: 43 percent

Trump: 34 percent

Johnson: 10 percent

Stein: 5 percent

Trump:

Women 35%

White 45 %

Black 1 %

Non-White 17%

White voters with college degree 40%

White voters without college degree 49%

Independents 36%

Young voters 34%

Clinton:

Women 51%

White 40%

Black 91%

Non-White 69%

white voters with a college degree 47 %

Independents 32%

Young voters 46%

Evan McMullin, Republican launch an independent presidential campaign. Evan is former Goldman Sachs for three years and former chief policy director of the House Republican conference and as a CIA officer.

More than 800,000 signatures are needed to get on the ballot in all 50 states and many deadlines to file have already passed [Source: Ballotpedia].

The Commission on Presidential Debates (CPD), announced that Presidential debate date and venues.

Presidential debate

Sept. 26, 2016 at Hofstra University

Oct. 9, 2016 at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri,

Oct. 19, 2016 at the University of Nevada-Las Vegas in Las Vegas, Nevada.

Vice presidential debate

Oct. 4, 2016, at Longwood University in Farmville, Virginia.

It would be wise and fair to have all four presidential candidates to be included in major debates, this will be beneficial to all candidates and legal voting citizens.

Meghan McCain: Trump’s Mistakes Are Offensive, Hillary’s Are Lethal

Donald J. Trump Statement on politically motivated letter issued by 50 self-claimed national security experts. in which they claimed that Mr Trump “lacks the character, values and experience” to be president.

“The names on this letter are the ones the American people should look to for answers on why the world is a mess, and we thank them for coming forward so everyone in the country knows who deserves the blame for making the world such a dangerous place. They are nothing more than the failed Washington elite looking to hold onto their power, and it’s time they are held accountable for their actions…. “I offer a better vision for our country and our foreign policy – one that is not run by a ruling family dynasty. It’s an America first vision that stands up to foreign dictators instead of taking money from them, seeks peace over war, rebuilds our military, and makes other countries pay their fair share for their protection. Together, we will break up the rigged system in Washington, make America safe again, and we will Make America Great Again.” {Source: Donaldjtrump.com – Aug 9, 2016}.

Ex-armed forces personalities and security persons should avoid coming on media, it may consider conflict of interest and can jeopardize national security.

May, {2016} former Secretary of Homeland Security and current University of California president Janet Napolitano announced a three-year commitment to support illegal UC students university-wide.

“We are committed to continuing a path forward for undocumented students at the University of California,” Napolitano said in a website message. “This funding will further strengthen the university’s undocumented student initiative, and help ensure that these students receive the support and resources they need to succeed.” Source: Colleges across the country give new perks to illegal immigrant students by Deirdre Reilly http://www.foxnews.com/us/2016/08/09/colleges-across-country-give-new-perks-to-illegal-immigrant-students.html]

“The U.S. Department of Justice gave $342,168,401 in grant money to 10 “sanctuary” states and cities that shield illegal aliens, even violent ones, from deportation by refusing to cooperate with federal immigration officials, according to a Judicial Watch report. In a recent memorandum to the Office of Justice Programs (OJP). Judicial Watch is investigating whether San Francisco violated the law by releasing from jail Juan Francisco Lopez-Sanchez, an illegal immigrant deported five times, who shot and killed Kate Steinle at one of the most popular tourist spots in San Francisco.”[cnsnews.com. Reported by Rachel Hoover Aug, 10 2016]. When legal or illegal immigration is very high, when the pace of change in society is too fast, it is extremely difficult to build a cohesive society, it is difficult for infrastructure like housing, schools and road and like to cope; And we know that for people in low-paid jobs, wages are forced down even further while some people are forced out of work altogether.

Trump and Bernie Sanders unleashed a mutiny against the old order and making and taking people politics into 21st century.

Bernie Sanders:

Mr. Bernie Sanders constitutional rights were violated few times by elite media when his belief was questioned, US law prohibit to use religion as a test for the position of the president of US. He was intimidated, and harassed by some elite media, even by PBS. Mr Sanders was heavily patronized and condescended by Judy Woodruff PBS Newshour (Mar 2016). And Charlie Rose [source CBSApril 7,2016], Gloria Anne Borger, Jeff Zeleny -CNN and Sean Hannity [Source Fox cable April] by the way Bernie Sanders speaking (and) streaming live right now at foxnew.com but I wouldn’t waste your time [viewers and guests] (April 5, 2016). DNC CFO Brad Marshall's email dated May 5, 2016 reads "It might may no difference, but for KY and WVA can we get someone to ask his belief. Does he believe in a God. He had skated on saying he has a Jewish heritage." And other by like Ana Navarro. Bernie Sanders says private meeting with Pope Francis. A source inside the Vatican, speaking on condition of anonymity, also confirmed the meeting [April 2016]. Mr. Bernie Sanders went to Vatican conference on social issues, Bernie Sanders went with his wife Jane, who is Roman Catholic.

Pope Francis should apologies to Mr. Trump for questioning his faith, he is also a victim of far right media … and far right … must work delicately to end Spanish Inquisition ideology agenda of many far right self-proclaimed prominent people.

Mr. Bernie Sanders endorsed Hillary Clinton, not suspended his campaign. (July 2016)

Democratic National Committee head Debbie Wasserman Schultz resigned on July 24, 2016 amid a furor over leaked email mentioned above and other emails – never ending DMC people’s scandals. After the convention, Schultz will join Clinton’s campaign to finish the job she started in 2015, as honorary chair of the campaign’s 50-state program and surrogate nationally and in state of Florida(US).

Michelle Obama gave one of the most racial coded charged speech at DNC convention on July 25, 2016, references about slavery and gun with others divisive references. Michelle Obama has been doing some good work for children and veterans is over shadowed by the DNC speech. Mrs. Obama should have read the White House history.

Wikileak denies Russia has nothing to with leak, they (Wikileak) is responsible for it – “Assange told on June 12, 2016 in TV interview” (fox news). Hacking is a crime. What is important in this cyber hacking is the contains in the emails and lack of countries cyber security.

“There are 20,000 emails that show the entire party leadership’s systemic insensitivity and intolerance toward people of color. They call Sanders’ religion into question. Several emails even suggest “pay for play” motives, proposing potential White House appointments for key Clinton donors. To exorcise the party’s flagrant corruption, there needs to be a wholesale change at the top of the DNC. For Sanders, his supporters, and the people at large, Wasserman Schultz’s resignation is not enough.” {Ed J. Pozzuoli – newsmax.com July 27,2016.}

July 25, 2016 – DNC offers “Sincere Apology” to Sanders, and supporter but they got their favored Hillary Clinton as their nominee for 2016 presidential election.

Sander’s supporter should follow their conscious and stay true to their heart and decide to vote or not vote in November 2016.

Bernie Sanders will continue his work for people in US Senate.

Trump has to offer concrete concessions to Bernie Sanders young and mature supporters to gain their support and votes, unfranchised Bernie’s supporter main platform was extended public education to college, Jobs, fair tax, secure Social Security/Medicare, and war and peace around the world. Trump need to avoid far right agendas and advocates. Trump already offer clean water and clean air for America.

Half of US jobs could be taken by robots in the next 20 years. It is imperative that all foreign worker should leave by end of 2017 to save and create jobs for citizens, all foreign workers should start training US citizen and leave by end of 2017. Jobs are national security issue. Government must consider this in their labor planning for next 50 years.

To save and doing the right thing, employers who hire foreign workers, should pay applicable tax plus Social security and medical tax 12.4% [6.2% employee and 6.2 % employers part] and Medicare 2.9 % [ 1.45 % employee part and 1.45 % employee part], they should not be allowed to avoid paying this tax because most foreign workers are exempt from this tax.

Far right economist think that companies should be allowed make profit through all means, even slavery, legalized sweat shops, child labor, human trafficking, forced labor, unfair and bad business practices, creating environment in which people loses their basic human right to work and do business with shared economy.

Half of US jobs could be taken by robots in the next 20 years. It is imperative that all foreign worker should leave by end of 2017 to save and create jobs for citizens, Jobs are national security issue. Government must consider this in their labor planning for next 50 years.

Trump need women and other minorities votes to secure a win.

Hillary Clinton need to be honest with no spin and lose reputation of untrustworthy and being a rogue establishment politician. Clinton has to offer job / economy plan which is attractive to white male, fair Tax plan without increasing tax for middle class. Clear policy regarding illegal immigration problem. Clinton policies on outsourcing and foreign workers on H1B and type visa, clear foreign policy and make bridges with Black youth and White men to secure a win.

Omaha -Aug 1, 2016 - Clinton said. “Well, we’re not going there, my friends. I’m telling you, right now - we’re going to write fairer rules for the middle class and we are going to raise taxes on the middle class!”. (source: several media)

Health of Clinton and Trump:

Trump: Dr Harold N Bornstein Lexon Hill Hospital New York NY, certified that Trump has no form of cancer, has never had a hip, knee or shoulder replacement or any other orthopedic surgery.

his on surgery was appendectomy at age ten, Trump cardiovascular is excellent. he takes 81 mg of aspirin and low dose of a statin. (letter dated Dec 4, 2015).

Hillary Clinton: Dr. Lisa Bardack (Mount Kisco, N.Y) wrote in her letter released by Clinton campaign regarding her health. (July 2016). doctor Dr. Bardack attesting to Mrs. Clinton’s good health and fitness to serve as president based on a full medical evaluation. Hilary Clinton, regularly takes thyroid hormone to bring her levels to normal as well as the anticoagulant drug Coumadin to help prevent new blood clots. Hilary Clinton’s history of treatment for a brain concussion, blood clots affecting her legs and brain on separate occasions, an underactive thyroid gland and a family history of heart disease. Mrs. Clinton experienced blood clots in 1998, 2009 and 2012, tests showed that she did not have any underlying disorder that put her at an increased risk of the clots.

Seems like Hillary Clinton have social anxiety disorder, she does not like to have press conference often, and excessive self-consciousness and overwhelming anxiety.

Electing a president to serve the country and people is an important civic duty of every citizen, especially, in this re-trying times of America, when the country is surrounded by foes of all kind, inside and outside of the country. Burden is on civil citizens to elect the best candidate to lead the country to prosperity and stability, which this country has lost after decades of sell-out to foes of the country.

Country’s soul can be saved by normal people who do not identify themselves or can be called as “conservative extremists” or “liberal extremists”, or simply called political crazies.

Unfortunately, country is run by professional politician, who have lost interest in protecting her citizens, and providing and develop environment to work and do commerce, which is basic human right. Failure to manage in Washington is main reason. Voters should never elect religious crazies or bigots; they are unable to perform their duties under constitution. These peoples are encouraged by the adversary and close end mind likes. Such people can be dangerous to American culture and society as we know. Aristocracy class, Ancestry, Racial supremacy, Spanish inquisition ideology and Caste system are crime against humanity. There is no sub-human or sub-life.

Religious mythologies can make a person delusional. Parts of any religion can be taken out of context and used to radicalize people enough to turn to terrorism. Terrorist are political or power motivated or criminal minds.

Groups like “Patriot” are going at alarming rate is past 15 years – their object is to protect basic citizens’ rights, such as land rights, gun rights, freedom of speech and other liberties, they accuse government (congress/Senate and White House) of systematically adhering and limiting basic rights which are guaranty under the Constitution.

Mark Potok of the Southern Poverty Law Center, which monitors extremism, said there were about 150 such groups in 2008 and about 1,000 now. The Facebook page of the Oath Keepers, a group of former members of police forces and the military, for example, has more than 525,000 “likes.”

American law makers and public need to take notice of rise of all kind religious crazies and their crazy agendas, most of them are delusional. History shows religious crazies not only try to impose their unwanted agendas on government and public but also can bring down a country. Recent examples are Taliban in Afghanistan or Bharatism are doing in India.

All presidential candidates should re-affirm their Pledge of Allegiance, which reads: “I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the United States of America, and to the Republic for which it stands, one Nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.”. Good way to kick start presidential election debate between candidates who are seeking highest office of U.S. President.

Media should be more civilized and ask policy and public concern issues than dog fights during debates, dog fights makes media look irresponsible and lack professionalism.

Best candidate for presidency of United State of America is who promises to preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States and serve citizens in all areas, such as jobs, economy, crime and security.

In 2016 election, Americans are looking for someone who can take the country out of economy crisis, job and legal and illegal immigration crisis, not someone who support on group of people or organizations or special interest agendas and with special interest caucus (es). 2016 election is about America and Americans. Elect someone who is not working with or have influenced congress and senate with monies and misguided ideologies. As of Aug 2015, congress approval rate is 14 %, disapproval is 82 %, no opinion 5 %( Gallup- Aug 5-9 2015).

Elect someone who understands that no one is above the law and knows and understand citizens and their tangible and intangible assets are national security. And take Sovereignty of the country seriously and work tirelessly to protect it from inside and outside foes. And reintroduce Sharing economy to eliminate increasing inequality of income which is devastating middle class and pushing poor further into point of no return.

In the United States today, the wealthiest country in the history of the world, 47 million Americans are living in poverty. Almost 22 percent of American children are poor and we have the highest child poverty rate of almost any major country on earth. the American Journal of Public Health found that 130,000 people died in just one year alone as a result of poverty. In the United States of America, poverty is often a death of society and country.

Each year, roughly 117,000 Americans are shot, and nearly one in every three of those shot die.

People should look and vote for a Candidate who has resin above professional politics, Gender and race politics.

Voters vote on gut feelings, like who they trust and like, voters know and understand that all promises are not fulfill, there are many examples in recent presidential history, George H. W. Bush promised “Read my lips -no new taxes” - he broke it and we all remember President Obama’s" Yes we can", we didn't.

2016 election will be decided by middle age and young angry white men, who voted and elected Mr. Obama in 2008. Minority vote does matter to secure victory in 2016 presidential election.

Analyzing the twenty-year trend to project the 2016 electorate.

Assuming turnout: 132,000,000 eligible voters.

Estimated 2016 turnout: 55.0%

2016 projection:

White: 70%

African-American: 13%

Hispanic: 13%

Asian: 3%

Other: 1%

Minorities should look at recent history, especially since 1990s to know which presidential candidate will work for their benefit in the future.

According to Gallup polls following are issues most Americans are concern about and can influence election of 2016.

Government/Congress/Politicians, Economy in General, Unemployment/Jobs, Heathcare, Immigration, Ethics/Moral decline, Education, Poverty/Homelessness, Focus overseas/Foreign aid, Gap between rich/poor, Race relations/Racism, Lack of money, Crime/Violence, Judicial system, Lack of respect for each other, Wars/War (non-specific), Terrorism, Wage issues and National Security. (Based on average of 12 monthly surveys- January 3, 2015- posted by Amy Miller – Gallup)

Policy: Making policy is about making choices, moral dimension is very important part of any policy. Policy maker must keep an eye on the performance and keep updating as needed to serve citizen of the country.

Congress is self-serving having best health insurance and other privileges, Congress/Senate can be found of guilty of bigotry against own citizens. Paul Ryan is working on new laws to kill Medicare and social benefits in which people pay into most of their life. Giving out H1B and type of visa to take jobs from own citizens and out sourcing job and businesses from own citizen – this is simply bigotry against own citizens. Some politicians are calling themselves as Trump Republicans,

Young and real republican is reviving original Republican Party which was founded in 1854 to combat Kansas-Nebraska Act, purpose of the act was to extend slavery into the territories. Republican wanted to modernize the economy. The Republican Party was based on northern white Protestants, African-Americans. businessmen, small business owners, professionals, factory workers, and farmers. Some notable leaders of RNC are Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Theodore Roosevelt and Ronald Reagan

Mitch McConnell (Rep – U.S Senate Majority leader) supporter of current trade agreements and voted for Iraq war and is one of anti-Trump camp. His wife Elaine Chao was Secretary of Labor from Jan 29, 2001 to Jan 20, 2009, is daughter of James S.C. Chao, is a shipping magnate (originally from Taiwan). The New York Times reported that “several of her five younger sisters married Wall Street titans, including Bruce Wasserstein, the late owner of New York Magazine”.

Charlie Rangel Found Guilty On 11 of 13 Ethics Violations by (US Congress) House ethics committee subpanel today found Democratic Rep. Charlie Rangel guilty of 11 of the 13 charges of ethics violations against him. (June 2016). Recommendation might be to expel from house or sanctions such as fine or a denial of privileges, jail time is never a option because of self-serving Congress.

Aug 2016 – The mayor of Fairfax City (a Democrat) Richard “Scott” Silverthorne has been arrested and charged in connection with what authorities say was a methamphetamine-for-sex scheme. Police said in a statement, “a suspect was identified who was allegedly distributing [meth] through a website used to arrange for casual sexual encounters between men.” Caustin Lee McLaughlin, 21 and Juan Jose Fernandez, 34, was also arrested who are alleged to have supplied meth to Silverthorne. Silverthorne faces charges of meth distribution and possession of drug paraphernalia.

Aug 2016, Mayor Anthony Silva, the mayor of Stockton, CA (a Democrat), was arrested for playing strip poker with a minor and providing alcohol to youths and secretly recording video of it.

Aug 2016, Patricia Smith and Charles Woods, the parents of two Americans killed in the 2012 attacks on a U.S. diplomatic compound in Benghazi, Libya, have filed a wrongful death lawsuit against Hillary Clinton.

How we got here Aug 2016:

Cruz and Kasich suspended their candidacy for president in April 2015. They seem like to be for their own benefit not people.

July 2016 – Mr. Trump picked Indian Gov. Mike Pence for Vice president running mate for election 2016. Mr. Pence is self-claimed evangelical Catholic, after retire from US politics, he can run for pope.

July 2016 – Ms. Hillary Clinton picked Senator Timothy M. Kaine for Vice president running mate for election 2016. On August 9, 2013, Jim Geraghty reported; (Then) Gov. Timothy M. Kaine, a Democrat, accepted an $18,000 Caribbean vacation last year, putting him atop the list of Virginia elected officials who in 2005 accepted nearly $315,000 in gifts, trips, concert tickets and other gratuities from corporations, interest groups and wealthy persons….governor’s winter getaway on Mustique — a private island playground for rock stars and royalty — was paid for by Albemarle County investor James B. Murray Jr. Murry [also] contributed $41,000 to Kaine’s campaigns up to that point. Kaine reappointed Murray to the Virginia Commission on Higher Education Appointments. The VPAP site reveals that since 2001 [till aug 2013], Kaine received $186,899 in gifts and travel – Redskins tickets, cases of wine, etc. (Article published in nationalview.com).

Mr. Obama reshaped the party of FDR, JFK and LBJ which worked hard to bring social and equality to leaning far left. DNC is the most divided party then most people think. DNC emails scandals hints about the divide and corruption. As being the president of the country, he should not actively take part in 2016, He should be working for the country not his DMC party on people’s dime.

Mr. Trump complain about biased and discrimination and retaliation against U.S. District Judge Gonzalo Curiel.

Far right and Far left media can destroy a country by their Spanish inquisition ideology or far left ideology propaganda. Many presidents and leaders has fallen into their trap and failed to serve their people or advance their genuine agenda for betterment of their country.

“Trump’s Dangerous Embrace Of Right-Wing Media Insurrectionism. [Eric Boehlert-Maedimatters.org].

Trump might lose the election if he leans towards far right and Spanish inquisition ideology agenda.

John and Tony Podesta – The Podesta Group a lobbyist in Washington, D.C (US), used by Russia’s biggest bank Sberbank, Sberbank is in the Panama Papers and has close relationship with Vladimir Putin and his administration and friends.

Tony Podesta is a big-money bundler for the Hillary Clinton presidential campaign while his brother John is the chairman of that campaign, the chief architect of her plans to take the White House this November. Other names in panama papers who have some link to Clintons are Gabrielle Fialkoff, who served as Clinton’s finance director during her first campaign for the Senate in New York, according to a report published online at mcclatchydc.com. Frank Giustra a Canadian and longtime crony of Bill Clinton who has donated $100 million to the Clinton Foundation. Chagoury Group, an international developer based in West Africa that has pledged $1 billion in projects to the Clinton Global Initiative. Marc Rich (McClatchy reported), The Clintons themselves do not appear to be mentioned in the document dump, McClatchy reported. This maybe more scandalous than legal issue for this coming election of 2016.

Sanders has condemned Hillary as a wealthy Washington insider who is in league with Wall Street fat cats.

Sen. Ted Cruz (R-Texas) attacked what he described as "the Obama-Clinton foreign policy" in a wide-ranging speech Tuesday. "It's almost as if the whole world is on fire right now," Cruz said at a Washington event hosted by Concerned Veterans for America. [businessinsider.com- Dec 2,2014]

Senator Cruz rhetoric about carpet-bombing ISIS, even though military leaders say that is neither a logical nor moral option. Senator Cruz may not know, there are about 10 million people under hostage situation under ISIS, carpet bombing will kill tens of thousands innocent, noncombatant people. Option of carpet bombing country is most stupid idea ever.

John Boehner, the former House speaker has called presidential candidate Ted Cruz “Lucifer in the flesh” (April 2016).

Canadian born said he is American second and seems like constitution is third in Mr. Cruz’s life, He fail loyalty to constitution test – deport or self-deport? Ms. His running mate Carley Fiorina who has been defeated in CA for senator 2010 – and governor bid few year years – she is known by some as queen of outsource and hiring foreign workers to replace American workers, while she HP CEO. Nikki Haley (SC) governor has indorsed him for Cruz’s presidential bid.

On July 20, 2016, Cruz committed political suicide, when he fails to fulfill his promise to endorse Mr. Trump for GOP nominee for 2016 election.

Constitution benders.

Carly Fiorina a cancer survivor eyes RNC chairperson, Current RNC Chairman Reince Priebus, who is serving in his record sixth year, has declined to rule out seeking a fourth two-year term in an interview with TIME this July.…. Fiorina laid off 30,000 U.S. employees. HP hired more people than it fired, during her tenure at HP Carley Fiorina out-sourced jobs to India and other countries outside the United States. Fiorina is

Hillary Clinton drew ire from Native Americans on Saturday (April 2016) over her use of the phrase “off the reservation” in a CNN interview. “I have a lot of experience dealing with men who sometimes get off the reservation in the way they behave,” she said.

July 8, 2016 – Hillary Clinton on Dallas (US) shootings: “We know there is something wrong with our country”. Going to back to modern US black history.

" Gangs of kids are " super predators" ... “bring them to heel.” 1996 -Hillary Clinton -Comment from web: "they are kids, they are children, they are young adults, they are our future. Their lives matter.

1994 crime bill signed by Bill Clinton (then US president), husband of Hillary Clinton, has caused “Black lives Matter” movement [in 2014/15]; and economy, since 1990s tens of thousands jobs are being outsourced to other countries and hiring of unwanted and un-needed foreign workers are hired on H1B and L types visas to replace US citizens, first victims of such visas are minorities. Lack of opportunities (and affordable or free) for getting education in current and future skills. Said causes shows bigotry by law makers against own citizens.

Black Lives Matter movement and other aligned movement – Asa Khalif, an organizer with the Philly Coalition for Real Justice criticized Clinton for supporting the 1994 crime bill that was signed into law by her husband. He also charged that the Democratic Party largely ignored the BLM movement as the party put together its convention platform. (USAToday.com July 26, 2016).

a Raleigh, N.C.-based federally registered lobbyist for the for-profit prison operator GEO Group—bundled $69,363 in donations for Clinton in the fourth quarter, bringing his total for the year to a whopping $274,891. Prison lobbyist donations to Clinton and other candidates were highlighted last year in reports by the Intercept and Vice News – reported by Josh Gerstein is a senior reporter for Politico.com Feb 1, 2016.

(Hillary) Clinton is “ignoring that not only are highly skilled employed Americans being fired by the tens of thousands every year due to H-1B labor, many are older age-protected people,” said Barrett. “Plus, it’s preventing qualified people from getting hired.” Mr. Barrett is a former IT worker who lost his job to a foreign worker. (Patrick Thibodeau Computerworld.com – July 12, 2016) Mr. Patrick Thibodeau added in this article “But critics say the presumptive Democratic nominee (Hillary Clinton) underplayed the extent of the problem, and offered no solution.

Petula Dvorak of Washington Post argues in her article and explore causes and facts and wrote “ So far this year, 509 people have been shot and killed by police in the United States, according to The Washington Post’s Fatal Force database. Most had guns, and most were white, but a quarter were black — a disproportionate number, given the country’s African American population.

Yet police officers frequently arrest suspects armed with guns who have shot and killed one or more people, who have shot at or killed cops, who have threatened men, women and children. And they arrest them without incident or loss of more life, according to the letter of the law. I did a bit of research and found plenty of examples. And, not surprisingly, lots of those gunmen were white.

Some well know criminals she exampled in her tweets: Dylan Roof – SC white supermist terrorist, Philando Castile and Robert Dear – infamous Springs Planned Parenthood clinic terror attacks in which Two civilians were killed, four others were shot. A police officer was killed, five other officers were shot. Dear, however, is alive and uninjured. (July 7, 2016)

HILLARY CLINTON: I suppose I could have stayed home and baked cookies and had teas, but what I decided to do was to fulfill my profession which I entered before my husband was in public life. (March 1992).

Hillary Clinton was a Wal-Mart Director for 6 Years - During six years (1986 -1992) as a member of the Wal-Mart board of directors, Hillary Clinton remained silent as the world’s largest retailer waged a major campaign against the labor unions seeking to represent store workers. the tapes show Clinton in the role of a loyal company woman. “I’m always proud of Wal-Mart and what we do and the way we do it better than anybody else,” she said at a June 1990 stockholders meeting [According to an ABC News report, published in 2008,].

Clinton also worked at the Law Firm which represented Walmart. A 1994 New York Times story identified Clinton as the Rose Law firm’s lead lawyer for the company.

Are above mentioned comments are racist, sexist, against labor workers and against women comments?

Reviewing Hillary past, many turmoil and unpleasant incidents and bad political decisions and concussion in 2014, one wonder about her mental conditions and questions – is she mentally stable to have nuclear code? Does has temperament to be the president of one of the most influential country.

“While Hilary Clinton has stated publicly that she would end private prison contracts, the presidential elect has come under fire for accepting $133,246 from prison lobbyists. During her husband’s term as president in the 1990s, a mass wave of black immigrants (Haitians, Africans, and Dominicans) were sent away under criminal deportations, and are detained and deported five times the rate of other populations of undocumented people” (Shanna Collins – Vibe) July 2, 2016.

Hillary Clintons’ political views changed since she hired Huma Abedin (Indian born) as personal adviser or/and in other positions, Hillary went from smart and cunning to “by hook or crook” and rogue.

“Judicial Watch president Tom Fitton said in a statement: “No wonder Hillary Clinton and Huma Abedin hid emails from the American people, the courts and Congress. … They show the Clinton Foundation, Clinton donors, and operatives worked with Hillary Clinton in potential violation of the law.” [Source: nypost.com - article- New emails show Huma scheming for Hillary - By Daniel Halper-Aug 9, 2016] This is US not India where everything done under a political scheme.

“The Obama administration has been “the greatest enemy of press freedom in a generation,” according to James Risen, a New York Times reporter who faced prison for not revealing a source. in 2015, it set an astonishing record of either censoring government materials or providing none at all in 77 percent of citizen requests under the Freedom of Information Act. That would be 596,095 instances of less than was sought, The Associated Press reported. “[Obama’s secrecy mission will continue if unchecked - Originally published August 12, 2016 at 3:32 pm - By Jay Ambrose -seattletimes.com/opinion/obamas-secrecy-mission-will-continue-if-unchecked/]

Hillary Clinton’s infrastructure bank will work for big construction companies and foreign companies and hurt or eliminate small and local contractors all together.

June 2016. Attorney General Loretta Lynch, Bill Clinton (Hillary Clinton’s husband) met amid Email Investigation. Many asking Lynch to be removed from Hillary Clinton (Democrat presidential candidate 2016) investigation because of conflict of interest and other related issues. Bill Clinton is also a potential witness in (separate) FBI investigating corruption allegations against the Clinton Foundation

Mr. Obama met Ms. Lynch just before indorsing Hillary Clinton for her 2016 presidential bid.

Obama endorses Hillary Clinton as establishment political heir on June 9, 2016

Hillary Clinton was investigated by FBI for more than 3 hours [FBI did not administer sworn oath, did not record Hillary Clinton interview] in Email-gate criminal investigation on July 2, 2016.

July 4, 2016 Website WikiLeaks reportedly published 1,258 emails from Hillary Clinton’s private server during her time as secretary of State about the Iraq War. Reported by many media around the world, including thehill.com in US. this indicate that her private server was hacked and national security was compromised.

July 4, 2016, many news agencies reported, Ms. Lynch has been offered to stay on her job by Democrats if Hillary Clinton is elected in Nov 2016.

July 5, 2016 – FBI recommends no charges for Clinton in email probe.

“Although the Department of Justice makes final decisions on matters like this, we are expressing to Justice our view that no charges are appropriate in this case,” FBI Director James Comey told reporters in Washington on July 5, 2016.

July 6, 2016 Depart of Justice – Lynch announced that criminal case against Hillary Clinton is closed with no charges.

Hillary Clinton has 30 points program as of April 16, 2016, her website does not provide information how she plans to pay for it and how she will get her agenda pass in republican hold congress and senate.

Money talks: Hedge-fund money: $48.5 million for Hillary Clinton, $19,000 for Donald Trump (MSN July 29, 2016.)

Clinton maybe called interventionist and political arsonist with her vote for war in 2002 and Libya, Syria and other and her comments about NATO in which she said she will use NATO for more campaigns. [ April 14, 2016 democrats debate.] NATO is NATO has no business outside Europe, it is designed to protect Europe and west.

Clinton’s Former Employer, LaFarge, Faces Allegations of Funding ISIS. LaFarge CEO Frederic Jolibois may have negotiated with ISIS in order to continue doing business in Syria. In June 2016, one of France’s most well-known publications, Le Monde, released an investigative report accusing LaFarge of making payments to ISIS. Reported by Michael Sainato. Observer.com Aug 05, 2016

Under Hillary Clinton, White house might become America’s casino, “Pay to Play” rule apply.

Actor George Clooney: Bernie Sanders is ‘absolutely right — it is an obscene amount of money’

April 2016 – Clooney and his wife hosted a $33,400-per-person SF & LA fundraiser for the Democratic frontrunner Hillary Clinton at the couple’s Los Angeles home. Clinton pulled in about 15 million plus (USD) from this fund event. On Friday at a fundraiser in San Francisco — where Clinton had asked donors for $353,400 for two seats at the head table with herself, Clooney and his wife, Amal. Hypocrisy at its best – where was Clooney is MIA (missing in action) in Iraq and Sryia genocide where ten of thousands of all races and religion are dying – every day. [Source: “Meet the Press” Sunday, April 17, 2016 (NBC) and others news media]. This is neither democracy nor human right advocacy.

Tonight Hillary Clinton is hosting a fundraiser at the home of a California venture capitalist where couples contributing $353,000 get to sit at a table with George Clooney.

Clinton campaign repeatedly claims this money to her “Victory Fund”

SuperPac is well known for owned by few super rich.

Billionaires are advocating for Hillary Clinton, including Buffett, Cuban and Bloomberg and likes. CEO Meg Whiteman also joined billionaire in support Hillary Clinton – HP the company, under CEO Meg Whitman, has already dismissed 55,000 HP workers “(Business Insider -By Julie Bort Sep 1-2015); Sep 15, 2015, HP is cut 30,000 jobs and outsourcing jobs to India and other countries.

Buffett (billionaire) said he is paying lower tax rate than his secretary (2013).

Time Warner Cable owns CNN. Time Warner, and has donated over $400,000 to Hillary Clinton’s campaigns. Oct 16, 2015[source: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/brian-hanley/money-talks-why-cnn-wants_b_8313536.html]

On June 26, 2015 -Comcast executive vice president David Cohen hosted a $2,700-a-plate fundraiser for Hillary Clinton's presidential campaign [2015 - Source: bizjournals.com/philadelphia/news/2015/06/12/comcast-exec-david-cohen-clinton-fundraiser.html].

Comcast: NBC, CNBC and MSNBC endorses Hillary Clinton – “Comcast and its fellow cable and wireless providers gave more money to Hillary Clinton (nearly $358,000) than to any other presidential candidate, according to Open Secrets.

During 2015 and 2016, it has contributed a total of $1.34 million to political candidates, with about $798,000 going to Republicans and $539,000 to the Democrats, according to Open Secrets.

“[Feb 26, 2016 – http://www.cio.com/article/3037467/consumer-electronics/comcast-us-telcos-gave-88m-to-lawmakers-in-2015.html]

21st Century Fox News Corp. has donated more than $3 million to Clinton family accounts. Overall, this lands Fox as the Clinton family’s 9th largest donor over the course of the family’s political involvement.

[Date July 3, 2014 – Source:http://truthinmedia.com/lotfi-fox-news-one-of-hillary-clintons-biggest-donors-for-more-than-two-decades/].

Headline: “Soon: Roll Call Vote to Nominate Hillary Clinton.” CNN July 26, 2016 4:20 pm

Count down showing: “Hillary Clinton Nomination 06:01 minutes”. CNN July 26, 2016 4:24-Approx – no mention that Sanders Bernie is also on nomination roll call.

Woman card is working well for Hillary Clinton, some conversetives females media personalities are supporting Hillary Clinton in passive ways.

(Failed) Obama care program originally Hillary Clinton care, according to Hillary Clinton.

During 2008 election, Hillary Clinton supporters questioned Obama’s citizenship and were one of the original Birther movement against president Obama during election of 2008, seems like it was one of the first racist campaign against first African American. Mr. Obama religion was also questioned. In an interview with YouTube personality Ingrid Nilsen on Jan,2016, Mr. Obama disclosed he carry Hindu (monkey) God with other superstitious icons during the interview. He might be a superstitious or a confused person. [Source Youtube.com]

If there is no border is there no country, Hillary Clinton want to take down current walls between Mexico and USA, eventually, USA may have concede Texas, California and other southern states to Mexico. Is the foreign policy plan of Mr. Clinton, she also said there will be path for citizenship for illegals, will this plan to be extended for people who come to USA after Jan 21 2016?

Ted Cruz wants to ban abortion even in case of rape or incent and wants to carpet bomb which may result in death of tens of thousands innocent people who are living under ISIS control area

World should be very nervous about these type of people not Trump or Sanders, who are labeled as political progressives.

Tony Blair said that trump is a world problem, he is wrong, Tony is a world problem, many world leaders have refuse to meet Tony Blair, he apologized for UK invading Iraq, which resulted in death of tens of thousands, he is political religious terrorist with his gang, apology for acts and decisions is not enough, need to bring them to justice.

Jeremy Corbyn (leader of Tony Blair’s labor Party), said he could support war crimes charges against the former prime minister Tony Blair. [Reported by The Washington Post July 5, 2016].

Mixing nationalism with religion is extremely dangerous cocktail.

Ted Cruz Partial tax returns shows income: $1.2 million. Cruz filed jointly with his wife Heidi, Heidi works as an investment manager at Goldman Sachs

Donald Trump claims he cannot release taxes because he is being audited by IRS.

Bernie Sander’s partial tax return shows, he and his wife earned $205,271 in 2014.

Hillary Clinton [2014]: $20 million, file joint with her husband Bill Clinton.

See candidate’s biography part for tax proposals – only Bernie Sanders and Trump disclose how they will pay for some of their programs.

Most of Bernie Sanders programs are not new, he is proposing expending already existing programs, probably can be pass by amendments.

Patrick Tomlimson (thehill.com)“Black Lives Matter is not the enemy, and cops aren’t soldiers.” he further added following quate in this article “There’s a reason you separate military and the police. One fights the enemies of the state, the other serves and protects the people. When the military becomes both, then the enemies of the state tend to become the people.” (Late Admiral Adama),” American do not want a police state like Russia or India. Blue lives Matters is widely agreed.

Black life matter: London (UK) Obama: Black Lives Matter And Other Activists Need To Learn To Compromise; “ “You can’t just keep on yelling at them and you can’t refuse to meet because that might compromise the purity of your position,” Obama said [April 23, 2016], there is no compromise on Human rights and civil liberties. People have right to gather and peacefully demonstrate, they should not interpret civil activities.

U.S.A., Law; “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.” The right to freedom of association is recognized as a human right, a political right and a civil liberty.

USA is being raped by countries like Mexico and India for resources and intelligence assets, such as jobs and business and technology like NASA and Laser arms.

One of the most dangerous threats is coming to America and Europe, its super bug, people coming from China and India might be the courier, this bug / bacteria resistant to the antibiotic Colistin in pigs. Within 3-5 years this bug will (may) be common in America and Europe. There are no antibiotics to treat this condition. Another virus is here in America is “Zika” virus. This virus has spread to 22 countries and territories in the Americas and Aisa – India and poses particular danger to pregnant women. The virus is expected to spread to the United States and every country in the Western hemisphere where Aedes mosquitoes. Another reason for US to secure boarder to protect her public from this damaging virus.

Cyber privacy

Personal information of all citizens are national security.

Microsoft won’t fix Windows flaw that lets hackers steal your username and password. The flaw is widely known, and it’s said to be almost 20 years old. It was allegedly found in 1997 by Aaron Spangler. [source: Zack Whittaker ZDNet.com (Aug 2016)]. Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella.

Aug 1, 2016 – Nigerian national, known as “Mike”, is arrested for cyber scam and online fraud networking with other related crimes, he alleged to be the mastermind behind and international crime ring that swindled individuals and companies out of more than $60 million has been arrested, according to Interpol.

Aug, 2016 Computer failure of Delta airline in Aug and Southwest Airline month earlier which resulted in thousands of cancelled flights and commerce loss and this may be a sabotage; federal agencies must investigate.

Microsoft leaks keys that unlock every Windows device. The keys allow hackers to unlock Windows devices, including tablets and phones, and other devices that are protected by Secure Boot. this also may be a sabotage; federal agencies must investigate.

First step is to adopt UK’s “Host Data” in the country law, it requires all IT company to keep all data from going over the border and cancel or change law which encourage outsourcing of jobs which is also part of foreign policy started in 2009. This will not only protect citizen’s personal data but also will secure almost all government agencies data.

Foreign affairs:

Global Peace Index 2016.

Country ranked 1st on most peaceful country is Iceland out of 163 countries.

Some concern countries with their peace and least peaceful raking are listed below.

Country Rank

Iceland 1

USA 103 - National Cost of Violence -US$ 2,028,740,716,654

Canada 8

Mexico 140

France 46

UK 47

Spain 25

Russia 151

China 120

India 141

Afghanistan 160

Libya 154

Iraq 161

Syria 163

Somalia 159

Nigeria 149

South Sudan 155

Source: Global Peace Index.

Full list in chapter War and Peace

Over 75 Million Christians are prosecute for their religion in India and being forced to covert to Hinduism, under a program called “Ghar Waspi”, DJS (Dharm Jagran Samiti) head Rajeshwar Singh said . “The Muslims and Christians don’t have any right to stay here. “; “I will ensure that India is freed of Muslims and Christians by December 31, 2021,” Singh said. Reported by Dailymail.co.uk - December 18, 2014. -- CNN ? Fox ? MSNBC ?

The most recent official figures show that 36,735 rapes were reported across the country (India aka Bharat) in 2014, although activists say the true number is likely much higher because of the social stigma attached to sexual crimes. India has become rape nation and also tops with other austerities against women and humanity with their Hindu religion base caste system. Any person or country doing any kind of business with a person or country which has caste system ideology is also responsible or is taking part in expending caste system’s discrimination and it is crime against humanity.

Almost 40% of India at is under martial law [any given time] since independence from British occupation in 1947.

Caste system is oppression, discrimination, fascism and crime against humanity. Many people confuse clan or tribalism and so-called brotherhood as part of caste system, it is not. Caste system is clearly birth based on helical and race and skin color base.

Rape in India - In 2014, there were 337,922 reports of violence against women including rape, molestation, and abduction, a 9% increase on the previous year, according to official data.

Fox ? CNN ? MSNBC ?

Former US ambassador to NATO Kurt Volker said in a BBC report, “Indians are prepared for anything big. And I don’t think Obama has a clear idea of what he wants.” [wkdramastars. com].

The U.S. State Department once said Mr. Modi was guilty of “severe violations of religious freedom,” [Joanna Sugden - Jan 29, 2015 -wsj.com]. "From the time the president took office, he's made increasing U.S. engagement with India top foreign policy priority," said Ben Rhodes, Obama's deputy national security adviser for strategic communications.

India accounts for almost 35.4 percent of all non-financial services (software development etc) in/for USA.

President Barack Obama is the first U.S. President to visit India twice during office, and is also the first U.S. President was the chief guest at the India Republic Day.

Nearly 41 top scientist and artists has returned the medals received from Indian government for intolerance of Christians, Moslems and caste system in Hinduism and Hinduist government’s religious agenda, a honorable person will do that for sake of humanity and show their humanist side. [reported by IndiaExpress and others].

NATO (The North Atlantic Treaty Organization) US is the largest donor to the organization.

Ret.General Sir Richard Shirreff – Former deputy supreme commander of Europe NATO said “Trump is “absolutely right” about many European nations failing to meet their financial obligations to NATO, even if the failed casino magnate couched his criticism in undue threats about abandoning treaty commitments. “Europe needs to step up to the mark.” (Newsweek Aug 1, 2016).

In recent years, NATO has failed or file to deliver desirable results.

List of some resect failed campaigns

Crimea

Ukraine

Syria

Libya

Iraq

Afghanistan

U.N has become an oppressive organization than peace keeping and being fair to all countries. Security Council should be dismantling to give equal say and equal fair voting power in every affair and world agenda, that what west try to project.

US is being dragged into a proxy war by India (Aug 2016). India has been a state sponsor terrorism in the region since 1947.

Manmohan Singh [ex-president of India] approved just after invasion and occupation of Crimea occupation by Russia.

USA is being raped by countries like Mexico and India for resources and intelligence assets, such as jobs and business and technology like NASA and Laser arms.

"An enemy generally says and believes what he wishes." --Thomas Jefferson to C. W. F. Dumas, 1788. Papers, 12:695.

DJS (Dharm Jagran Samiti) head Rajeshwar Singh said “Our target is to make India a Hindu Rashtra [nation] by 2021. The Muslims and Christians don’t have any right to stay here. “; ““I will ensure that India is freed of Muslims and Christians by December 31, 2021,” Singh said. Reported by Dailymail.co.uk – December 18, 2014. Article: ‘We will free India of Muslims and Christians by 2021’: DJS leader vows to continue ‘ghar wapsi’ plans and restore ‘Hindu glory’].

Ghar waspi program effect more than 300 million Christians in India.

Ukraine is a forgotten war in eastern Europe, thousands of people are under constant attack and live is fear.

Foreign policy is in peril by situation in Syria, state sponsor terrorism and genocide of civilians in Syria by Assad regime and co-partner Russia since start of civil war four years ago. Almost 25 % of Syrian population has been killed, mostly women and children.

Iraq is a prime “Real Estate” for centuries and two parties claims on their part of the land of Iraq, Shias and non-Shia of Iraq, same can be said about Syria and others parts of the Middle East. Middle East needs a fair real estate deal to have peace in Middle East and western world and end of democide/genocide in that region. World should pursue “eminent domain” philosophy in Middle East and other occupied lands by rouge countries for the good of the people and world peace.

Iraq has been bombed to stone age, their Infrastructure, education, society is completed destroyed since first Iraq and allied war in 1990. Left over Innocent people, mostly children and women are living under constant fear of being bombed, or suicide bomber or other kind of terrorism, since 1990, matter of fact is since 1980 (Iran-Iraq war). World must end the war on non-combatant middle eastern people. Over 1.5 million civilians has died since 1980 in Iraq.

According to a recent U.S. State Department report. Forty percent of the country said the U.S. is purposefully “working to destabilize Iraq and control its natural resources.”. State Inspector General report that was published online – March/April 2016. The report adds that the U.S. “image among Iraqis has fallen from 38 percent favorable in December 2014 to 18 percent in August 2015.”

In past year (2015) over 7400 civilians has been killed and almost 14500 wounded in Iraq according to UN. Only practical solution is to divide Iraq as suggested by many world leaders but no action or discussion on this option. It is very obvious that non-Shia of Iraq and Syria are separatists, they do want to live in occupation by Shias. If not divided, sadly killing and blood shed will continue. World map changes with time, a fact. Masrour Barzani, Kurdistan’s national security chief said “Trying to keep the country united against the will of the people is not going to succeed,” Reported by Liz Sly Dec 31, 2015 (washingtonpost.com). Iraq’s Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi approval rating dropped sharply from 72 % [2014] to 47 % in 2015, this shows that Iraqis are losing confidence in the government faster than expected. [Figures from Gallup.com Jan, 6 2016].

By plan to divide Iraq will bring back the Iraqis whom has joined ISIS but have no interest or support ISIS ideology, many Iraqis joined ISIS because they wanting to counter rogue government of Iraq, Shia militia and Iran.

People who are against dividing Iraq, mostly are people whom policies of Iraq and Syria has failed and created democide/genocide environment, and now have no empathy towards people of Iraq and Syria.

There is no such thing as radical Islam neither is radical Christianity, and there is no Islamic terrorism neither is Christian Terrorism. Jihad and Crusade is one of the dangerous concepts of political terrorism under coat of religion for world peace and humanity, Jihad is not in Koran and Crusade is not in the Bible. These concepts are man-made creation for political agendas, land grabbing and financial agendas. Calling Radical Islam or Radical Christianity is libel. Term Radical Islam or Radical Christianity is used by bigots, illiterates, ignorant, uniformed and insecure and fear mongers.

July 2016, ISIS inspired terror attack on church in France, Terrorist blame Christians for death of Moslems and chaos in Middle East.

Aug 13, 2016 – New York – The leader of a New York City mosque has been fatally shot and an associate has been wounded in a brazen daylight attack. Police say 55-year-old Imam Maulama Akonjee and a 64-year-old man were shot in the back of the head as they left the Al-Furqan Jame Masjid mosque in Queens shortly before 2 p.m. Detective Inspector Henry Sautner says Akonjee was killed and the Detective Inspector Henry Sautner says no motive has been determined. a man who worships at the mosque is blaming the shooting on anti-Muslim rhetoric.

If it was a hate crime committed by, say, a Christian then can we expect every Minister of every Christian Church to denounce it?  I mean, every one?  Surely.  For that is what everyone says Imams ought to do if a Muslim commits such a crime and I know that none of us would have a double standard

If it was a hate crime committed by, say, a Christian then can we expect every Minister of every Christian Church to denounce it?  every one?  Surely.  For that is what everyone says Imams ought to do if a Muslim commits such a crime and I know that none of us would have a double standard.

There is no such thing as Islamic terrorism nor is Christian terrorism, Bible and Koran does not condone terrorism.

There is a believe among many Christians and others that Jesus will return for a war known as Armageddon, this return will not happen until all Abrahamic religion people and atheist united to fight polytheistic and gather in Tel Megiddo – Armageddon. (Bible: Revelation 16:16)

Terrorism:

Terrorism is trillion dollars’ business, use rogue political parties, nationalists, gangs and far right and left wings using political, and violent means to advance their agendas.

“US gangs plan attacks against law enforcement, The United States Department of Justice is issuing a warning to all law enforcement officials that gangs across the country are putting together efforts to attack authorities. A gang leader in Chicago recently called for the murder of a federal agent. He believed targeting the agent would garner more attention than killing a local officer. A separate gang organization, United Blood Nation, is promoting violence against police by promising to elevate the status of those who commit such a crime. ABC News law enforcement contributor, Steve Gomez, said this is the worst situation he has witnessed since the riots and violence of the early 1990s.”{ Jul 21st 2016 3:06PM – AOL.com}

ISIS (ISIL) and Al-Qaida is at war with US, this has been confirmed by many news coming from both terror organizations and their affiliates. Both organization are Arab and all 9/11 terrorist were Arabs.

July 2016 – President Rodrigo Duterte (Philippine president) suggested in a speech Friday that intrusive policy was to blame for attacks on U.S. soil, saying, “It is not that the Middle East is exporting terrorism to America, America imported terrorism.” “They forced their way to Iraq … look at Iraq now, look what happened to Libya, look what happened to Syria,” reported by AP.

In Ireland and UK, IRA killed about 1800 people in terror attacks between 1969 and 1994. US need a smart policy on the actual Iraq, Libya and war torn Syria. Boko Haram and other terror groups have grown by demonstrating their pledged allegiance to ISIL /ISIS through horrendous terrorist attacks.

July 2016, ISIS inspired terror attack on church in France, Terrorist blame Christians for death of Moslems and chaos in Middle East. This is extremely dangerous concept, this my start a religious war which will be disastrous to world peace, only beneficial to non-Abrahamic majority countries.

Far right Spanish inquisition ideology journalist are fueling into this concept. And media of Hamas and Hezbollah try to spread hate, educated and sensible journalist do not take part in hate speech nor condone such media activities.

There is no such thing as radical Islam neither is radical Christianity, and there is no Islamic terrorism neither is Christian Terrorism. Jihad and Crusade is one of the dangerous concepts of political terrorism under cover of religion for world peace and humanity, Jihad is not in Koran and Crusade is not in the Bible. These concepts are man-made creation for political agendas, land grabbing and financial agendas. Calling Radical Islam or Radical Christianity is libel. Term Radical Islam or Radical Christianity is used by bigots, illiterates, ignorant, uniformed and insecure and fear mongers.

Pope Francis: “I think it is not right to identity Islam with violence,” he told reporters aboard the plane taking him back to Rome after a five-day trip to Poland. “This is not right and this is not true.” He added “I think that in nearly all religions there is a always a small fundamentalist group,” he said, adding “We have them,” Pope Francis thinks cause of terrorism is social injustice and idolatry of money were among the prime causes of terrorism. [Source: Philip Pullella, Reuters Aug 1, 2016]

Abrahamic religions are not radical, radical people who are motivated by their radical political agendas use religion to gain personal and political agendas, proven again and again throughout in history of terrorism.

So far Moslem countries have shown tolerance and have not accused Christians as responsible for Middle East peace and war problem. Many Christians from west and east are employed in Middle east and other Moslem majority countries, if Spanish inquisition ideology journalist push on their radical, absurd and reckless ideologies, they are putting life of Christian working and living in Moslem majority country in jeopardy.

Many middle eastern people fear of being bombed when they see western on their land and losing a job or Hindu caste system when they see Indian person on their land.

It is still very shocking and sad for most middle easterners that Arab league and other Arab countries allowed invasion and occupation of Iraq and other Middle Eastern countries. Invasion and after math cost tens of thousands of deaths of middle eastern people and billions in monetary loss.

June 1, 2016: Mainak Sarkar [Indian origin] killed his wife in Minneapolis (US), then drove to Los Angeles (US) and fatally shot UCLA engineering professor William Klug (age 39). Authorities say Sarkar had “ kill list “ that included the name of a second UCLA professor, who was not at campus at the time of terror attack. Sarkar came to the U.S. from India on a student visa in 2001 after earning a degree in aerospace engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology at Kharagpur.

One of the saddest day – On June 11, 2016 – Orland, FL (US). Police: 49 killed in mass shooting at Orlando gay nightclub. Omar Mateen, opened fire at a nightclub in central Florida, 50 dead and multiple people have been wounded, police said Sunday. Omar Mateen shot and killed. Proud Crusader Sean Hannity’s second cousin sold gun to the terrorist according to Yahoo news. Omar Mateen who once pose to be president of Afghanistan and supporter of terror group Talaban, also support Hillary Clinton, Hillary Clinton has not denounced his support. Hillary Clinton said that she will deport terror link people, is she planning or demanding to deport Mateen’s father ?

Homosexual practices should be punished with death (Leviticus 20:13,), cf. Genesis 19:4-25; Judges 19:22-20:48; 2 Peter 2:6-10; Jude 7. also see Leviticus 20:10 and 2 Chronicles 15:13 -some other reasons to put people to death.

Transgender identity is considered a mental illness by WHO (World Health Organization – United Nation) [July 31, 2016].

In USA., “The Fifteenth Transgender Person To Be Killed In 2016, In addition to Deeniquia Dodds, here are the names of other black transgender people who have passed this year, according to Autostraddle: Monica Loera, Jasmine Sierra, Kayden Clarke, Veronica Banks, Maya Young, Demarkis Stansberry, Kedarie/Kandicee Johnson, Kourtney Yochum, Shante Thompson, Keyonna Blakeney, Reecy Walker, Mercedes Successful, Amos Beede, and Goddess Diamond”. Reported by Shanna Collins,Vibe Fri, Jul 15

“Do you approach males among the worlds And leave what your Lord has created for you as mates? But you are a people transgressing.” [Koran , Surah 26 (165-166), trans. Sahih International], Koran does not prescribed any punishment so God will be deciding practitioner’s fate; human cannot judge people where there is no divine law. Most Moslem scholars allow transgender marriages. Islam allows and promotes filial love between people of the same sex. “there is no hadd punishment for lesbianism, because it is not “zina” (Fornication and adultery).

Several Hindu religious laws contain injunctions against homosexual activity

“Hinduism has no supreme governing body, but the majority of swamis opposed same-sex relationships in a 2004 survey, and a minority supported them (Malik, Rajiv (October–December 2004). “Discussions on Dharma”. Hinduism Today Magazine. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011.) Acts of Homosexuality is a crime in (so called secular) India.

Turkey

June 2016, Terror attach in Turkey, 50 killed and over 250 people injured, ISIS claim responsibility for the attack

July 1, 2016 20 killed in Dhaka (Bangladesh) 13 hostage rescued – ISIS claims responsibility for the assault.

July 2016 – Bomb terror attack on holy city of Medina (KSA) proves that ISIS/ISIL and her supports are un-Islamic.

July 3, 2016 – More than 200 killed and 212 people were injured in ISIS bomb attack in Baghdad, Iraq’s capital.

MP killed

July 4, 2016 – At least 33 shot and over 21 wounded in Chicago (IL, USA.) over Fourth of July weekend [2016] (till Tuesday – July 4th morning). according Chicago Tribune.

July 7, 2016 – Dallas, TX (US) 5 killed and 12 policer officer and at least 1 civilian in hate base terror attack. Gunman out to kill “White people, especially White officers” according to Police. Attackers used military grade rifles. One suspect identified as Micah Johnson (25 yrs), Terrorists were not associated with “Black Lives Matter” movement. Black Lives Matter condemns Dallas (US) violence.

William Watkinson reported on Ibt.co.uk on Jul 8, 2016’Black Power group’ aka Black Power Political Organization (BPPO), claims responsibility for Dallas police killings and warned of more attacks to come and asking people to join them on their social media website. (like ISIS/ISIL and other terror groups).

July 8, 2016 – Trump: “The senseless, tragic deaths of two motorists in Louisiana and Minnesota reminds us how much more needs to be done.”, he added “Our nation has become too divided,” the presumptive Republican nominee said. “Too many Americans feel like they’ve lost hope.”

July 17, 2016 – Baton Rouge, LA – 7 Police officers shot, 3 officer dead by home terrorist. Shooter Gavin Long. 2 suspect at large (as of July 17, 2016).

July 19, 2016 – Kansas City, Kansas (US) – Jamaal Lewis shot and killed (Police) Capt. Robert Melton.

Aug 4, 2016 – A former Virginia police officer Stephen Rankin (White man) was convicted in the killing of an unarmed 18-old shooting of 18-year-old William Chapman II (black man) man suspected of shoplifting at a Walmart.

Black life Matters can learn from Martin L. King’s movement of civil right of 1960s. On Aug 1, 2016 Black Lives Matters released their platform on their website.

US police is one the best in the world.

Minority Churches has failed their communities in their social work, encouraging education, teaching civil responsibilities and better understanding of social responsibilities and equality. They are more focus on membership recruitment and other non-social activities. Churches of majority has also failed to ease racial division with other social issue which mostly unique to US.

European colonialism and racial theories influence racism or racial thinking or racialism; racial thinking is often accompanied by stereotypes and prejudices. Dark skin, for instance, is often seen negatively, Clan and Hinduism caste system has been everywhere long before European color racism base theories were expended, above mentioned concepts are intellectually and historically dishonest. By no means racial tensions of today can be blamed on one race, we all have our own prejudices and stereotyping tendencies.

In reality, we are divided by our ideologies and thoughts which we made up. Tensions rise when we try to enforce our ideologies on others rather than make understanding by common understanding of realities and of the world, not by supremacy of thoughts and religion. Conflicts and wars are result of supremacy ideologies.

July- terror attack in Nice France. Many killed and injured, including children.

Far right and far left power craving politicians, television, other media systems help greatly in radicalizing people and terrorism.

UNHCR has said the number of people forcibly displaced worldwide was likely to have “far surpassed” a record 60 million in 2015, including 20 million refugees, driven by the Syrian war and other drawn-out conflicts. (May 19, 2016).

U.N is almost useless in keeping peace in the world, somewhat is used as an instrument to wage wars and invasions, Security Council should be abolishing, and all member should be given equal right and votes to fulfill the purpose of the organization; it will become the most oppressive organization in world history.

Aiding freedom advocate or helping in peace and war is absolutely fine, US aiding Syrian freedom fighters is legal and justified because they want to end oppression of Assad and Russian regime. And other countries who are also helps freedom fighters is also acceptable. Expansion of freedom and ending occupations which is crime against humanity and oppression is essential for peace and humanity. World maps have changed and will continue to change as people changes with time.

We (US) have stop listening to people of the countries and world to know what they really want for their people and country before we intervene in their affairs. There are good intervention, like providing education and educational aids (books, building schools), food aids with give teaching how to grow better, family planning aids, help in natural distress.

Make friends not enemies, make peace not wars and conflicts

Occupation of any people and/or any land is crime against humanity, people have right to govern themselves by international accepted laws of rules under human rights. Occupation leads to oppression, than [terrorism or] revolution than genocide/democide, Assad of Syria, Russia and ISIS are responsible for democide/genocide in Syria, According to various sources, including the United Nations, up to 100,000 people had been killed by June 2013- About 25% of Syrian population has been killed in current civil war, recent Russian bombing of Syrian people is start of genocide in larger scale than before., mostly Moslems and children and women, and over there are over 2.9 million Syrian refugees, mostly hosted ( 2,5 million) by Turkey world's biggest refugee hosting country at expense of about 2 billion dollars a year. Second is Pakistan hosting over 1.6 million Afghans, Afghanistan is free now, they should go back.

Human Rights Watch charged that Syrian government forces and their Russian allies have been making "extensive" use of cluster munitions, reported by AFP Dec 20, 2015. “Putin said in Dec 2015 that Russia's intervention in the Syrian civil war as a military "exercise" for Russia's "air forces, air defense," and "intelligence." (Reported by Business insider). Purpose is not to bring peace or end civil war in Syria, hundreds and thousands of Moslems and others are dying in this game of war of democide/genocide. India didn’t object Russia’s invasion of Crimea and is legitimate. India is buying billions of dollar worth of arms from Russian (Dec 2015), while “thousands of Indians are suffering from drought” reported by [Bharatist (India) TV (ZeeTV)]. Making any trade agreement with India and such countries would be aiding caste system which is crime against humanity. Ronald Reagan called Soviet Union (Now Russia) a terrorist (country) in 1983. India’s low caste untouchables are mostly Christians (40% of all untouchable in India are Christians) and are subject to crime against humanity of caste system every day for almost past 2000 years. Barbaric and primitive caste system of Hinduism is also against US constitution and most democratic governments around the world.

Caste system, race supremacy, aristocracy systems are crime against humanity and evil and from evil. there are no subhuman; fascism. People and states which do not oppose them and support or aid these evil systems. are also evil. Puppeteering and occupation of lands and people are also from adversaries. caste system is major part of Hinduism and its ideologies are in conflict with the world human equality philosophies and laws.

War and peace

Most Americans refer to the wars since 1990 as a national trauma.

US went into wars because of shortsighted and damaging policies, Smart people use diplomacy to achieve peace and low IQ or stupid people use wars to impose their opinion.

According to the Global Peace Index 2016 report, the world spend/lost more than $13 trillion last year (2015) because of war and violent conflicts around the world. Index also shows peace and safety, like the incomes of the rich and poor, are growing more unequal.

Tens of thousands of non-Shia Syrian people including children and women are under siege by Assad and his Russian intensive help, genocide going on and world is silent to a point it’s not only shameful but seems like they are becoming part of this genocide of non-Shias.

Key to peace in Middle East is division of Iraq, end of Assad and Russian occupation of Syria and end of democide/Genocide by Assad and Russian in Syria. And peace between Israel and indigenous Palestinians. According to Republican presidential candidate Trump “Mideast peace rests with Israel.” (AP Dec 2, 2015). He also suggest that “a total and complete shutdown of Muslims entering the United States until our country’s representatives can figure out what is going on.” (Dec 7, 2015); Trump explained the ban, ban is on countries which are compromised by terrorism and Iraq and Syria, because US, NATO and supporting countries are at war with ISIS in that region, make sense to anyone sensible person. On Dec 12, 2015 Trump: Clinton has caused ‘so many deaths’; “she’s the one that caused so many deaths and everything with her horrible policies.” He pointed to Libya and other “decisions that she made [that] were so bad, so horrible, and honestly caused tremendous havoc and tremendous death.” And on December 13, 2015[Busniessinsider.com] Mr. Trump said Donald Trump claimed Sunday that Hillary Clinton “killed hundreds of thousands of people with her stupidity” with her decisions as secretary of state. “ He is not entirely wrong, there should be high scrutiny of people (Moslem and non-Moslems) coming back from war torn countries. If found that a person fought with ISIS should be deported immediately or arrested for terrorism US civilian citizen are not allowed to take any war without permission from US authorities. Government top priority job is to protect her citizen from all kind of treats, including terrorism, economical threats, religious threats such as race and caste system which can effect Sovereignty of the state. Most probably ISIS will be defeated and eliminated by November 2016. Trump – Rick Perry team and Bernie Sander would be interesting elections of 2016 (US). Mr. Trump and/or Bernie Sanders are the best hope to fight Arab nationalist terrorism, and maybe they can eliminate the terrorism by fixing the cause of it at the root of this horrifying catastrophe of our time. Carpet bombing of Iraq (again) and Syrian region plan may result in death of millions of people living as hostage under ISIS and new devastating war may push US and world economy from great recession to (last) great depression of no return. Un-neutral equals to unfair and can’t achieve nothing with biased behavior.

July 2016, almost 40% lands occupied by ISIS has been freed.

USA should reject Henry Kissinger doctrine, and Spanish inquisition ideology and other religious crazies’ ideologies.

USA is in translational purgatory, seems like USA slowly moving towards a dystopian future.

If USA doesn’t find the middle path soon, country will look like Iran or Bharat (aka India), where religious crazies and clergies rule and there is no respect for human rights.

Anti-Semitic fliers appear on campuses across the [US]country, These fliers are addressed to “white men” and disparage Jewish people. They include links to a neo-Nazi website. (some)affected schools include Smith College, in Northampton, Massachusetts; the University of California, Santa Cruz; Northeastern University, in Boston; the University of Rhode Island; the University of Connecticut; DePaul University, in Chicago, and the University of Massachusetts Amherst. reported by Ben Finley, AP Mar 26,2016.

Conservative Christians in Europe booted out entire Jewish populations from nearly every European country at least once over a 2,000-year period. The Churches were burning Torah books and declaring that “TORAH LAW” was the greatest threat to Christendom. England banned all Jews from entering their country for over 300 years, France Banned all Jews and Russia banned all Jews for over 150 years. Not because they were “terrorists” but simply because they did not worship the same (Jesus) God as the Christians. “Every honest Jew who knows the history of his people cannot but feel a deep sense of gratitude to Islam, which has protected the Jews for fifty generations, while the Christian world persecuted the Jews and tried many times “by the sword”  to get them to abandon their faith. – Uri Avnery, Israeli military veteran and peace activist 

 The Founding Fathers of America hoped to create a nation where the abuses of Europe could not be repeated. 

Today, Conservatives in positions of power are declaring that Muslims and Sharia are a great threat to our Republic. 

The separation of Church and State was designed just so that one religion could not declare another religion, its laws or customs to be “a threat” like what happened in Europe. The Conservatives of today would not hesitate to evict all Muslims like the Europeans did to the Jews in the past. 

 In 1797, President John Adams declared the United States had no “character of enmity against the LAWS, religion, or tranquility, of Mussulmen” (The Muslims). 

Occupation of any land or country is crime against humanity.

“World has learned, I am not sure” Elie Weisel – Holocaust survivor and Nobel peace prize winner.

According to Cato Institute in late 2012, the most-free country was New Zealand with highest rating of 8.73 out of 10, so the leader of the free world is Prime Minister John Key (2008-present [2015]) of New Zealand. Mr. John Key earned it. He will the best candidate for next Secretary General after Ban Ki-moon complete his term. Give the credit where credit is due.

Many outspoken and human rights advocate and reformer has suffered financial difficulties in their life time and some faced death, some of notable persons who gave their life for human rights in modern history are US president Abraham Lincoln, Martin Luther King Jr and in far history – Jesus Christ of Nazareth. Jesus can be considered as first Martyred for Human rights. Mohammed gave equal rights to women and man and all beings as noted in Koran.

Does IQ have any effect on war and peace, education, culture and society is debatable. Countries with higher IQ has less society and war and peace issues than countries with low IQ, example, China’s average IQ is 105, Iceland – 101, Denmark 98 and in low in the chart are Iran 84, Panama 84, Syria 83, India 82. India’s average is going down in past years as her religious and Hindu Bharatism is growing. See full list in the IQ and peace and wars chapter in this book.

India – Prime Minster Narendra Modi – link plastic surgery to their ancient mythological religious book “Mahabharat”. Modi “We worship Lord Ganesh. There must have been some plastic surgeon at that time who got an elephant’s head on the body of a human being and began the practice of plastic surgery.” [Reported by Express News Service, New Delhi, Oct 28,2014 – Indianexpress.com; Article: PM Modi takes leaf from Batra book: Mahabharat genetics, Lord Ganesha surgery.]

Some quotes of Thomas Jefferson

“Rightful liberty is unobstructed action according to our will within limits drawn around us by the equal rights of others. I do not add ‘within the limits of the law’ because law is often but the tyrant’s will, and always so when it violates the rights of the individual. Thomas Jefferson

"The care of human life and happiness, and not their destruction, is the first and only object of good government. ” -Thomas Jefferson

"I hope our wisdom will grow with our power, and teach us, that the less we use our power the greater it will be. “- Thomas Jefferson

“I cannot live without books.” ― Thomas Jefferson

Jefferson’s experiences with the American Indian began during his boyhood in Virginia and extended through his political career and into his retirement. He refuted the contemporary notion that Indians were an inferior people and maintained that they were equal in body and mind to people of European descent. [TJF: American Indians]

Some quotes from George Washington’s Farewell Address (September 19, 1796).

“I am influenced by no diminution of zeal for your future interest, no deficiency of grateful respect for your past kindness, but am supported by a full conviction that the step is compatible with both,” – George Washington.

“Steer clear of permanent Alliances with any portion of the foreign world.”……. “Observe good faith and justice towards all nations.” – George Washington.

“The name of American, which belongs to you, in your national capacity must always exalt the just pride of Patriotism, more than any appellation derived from local discriminations,”- George Washington.

Presidential election 2016

Presidential election of 2016 is scheduled for Nov 8, 2016; Tuesday. This coming election will be 58th quadrennial U.S. presidential election. Voters will select presidential electors who in turn will elect a new president and vice president. Candidate must be a natural-born citizen of the United States of America. Candidate be at least 35 years old, and a resident of the United States for a period of no less than 14 years.

Article VI of the US constitution states: “No religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.”

The president and Vice President are indirectly elected by the eligible voters through the Electoral College to a four-year term, and they are only two nationally elected federal officers.

President can- not serve more than two terms, this law was passed by Congress in 1947 by amendment - The Twenty-second Amendment (Amendment XXII) of the United States Constitution. Self- serving Congress did not put term limit set for serving in Congress or Senate

The United States of America is a federal Republic, composed of 50 states, a federal district and territories and other possession. The 48 contiguous states and Washington, D.C., are in central North America between Canada and Mexico. state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific. The state of Alaska is located in the northwestern part of North America.

U.S., has one of the world’s largest military, the largest nuclear arsenal; also world’s largest economy by real and nominal GDP.

Population of USA is estimated 320 million people, and is third most populous; and the country is the world’s third or fourth-largest by total area.

Name/phrase “United States of America”, was first mentioned (known) in an essay published in Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776, In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the name/phrase United States of America in the headline of his original rough draught of the declaration of independence. In final version of the Declaration, title was changed to read “The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen United States of America”. In 1777 the Articles of Confederation announced, “The Stile of this Confederacy shall be ‘The United States of America”.

President of United States is the head of government and commander-in-Chief of the United States Armed Forces and chief diplomat. President leads the executive branch of the federal government, is essentially the leader of the country.

The president duties includes, executes federal laws, appointing federal executive, diplomatic, regulatory and judicial officers. The President is also dictates the legislative agenda and the foreign and domestic policy of the United States. President also makes treaties with foreign countries with the advice and consent of the Senate. These executive powers are vested by Article II of the U.S. Constitution.

The United States has three branches of government: the executive, the legislative and the judicial. Each of these branches has a distinct and essential role in the function of the government, and they were established in Articles of the U.S. Constitution., 1: Legislative, 2: Executive and 3: judicial.

1: Legislative branch – Congress: Parts of Congress consist of House of Representatives and Senate: The House currently consists of 435 voting members, each of whom represents a congressional district. Currently Senate has 100 senators. Two senators from each state, regardless of population. Congress can pass laws, but the president can veto them. Congress can override the president’s veto.

2: Judicial branch: The Supreme Court can declare a law approved by Congress and the president unconstitutional.

3: Executive branch: executive branch of the United States government consists of the president, the vice president and 15 Cabinet-level executive departments.

The executive branch consists of the president, vice president and 15 Cabinet-level departments.

Fifteen cabinet members are appointed by the president after he is elected to run the government’s executive departments; the Senate must approve all appointments. The Cabinet includes:

1: The Department of Agriculture: main function is to ensure that the food Americans consume is safe and regulates the nation’s vast farming infrastructure and other duties.

2: The Department of Commerce: Regulate trade, economy and banking. Also its agencies are the Census Bureau and the Patent and Trademark Office.

3: The Department of Defense: Department includes the U.S. Armed Forces, protects the nation’s security.

4: The Department of Education: Department is responsible for ensuring equal access to a quality education for all peoples of the country.

5: The Department of Energy: Department regulates utilities, ensuring the security of power supplies and promoting new technology to conserve energy resources.

6: Health and Human Services: Department duties include protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. Its agencies include the Food and Drug Administration, the Centers for Disease Control, National Institutes of Health and the Administration on Aging.

7: The Department of Homeland Security: Department is charged with providing security to the people, its agencies includes the Immigration and Naturalization Service

8: Housing and Urban Development: Department promotes affordable home-ownership and ensures that no one is discriminated against in the pursuit of that goal.

9: Interior: Department protects and nurturing natural resources, national parks and wildlife. Among its agencies are the Fish and Wildlife Service and the Bureau of Native American affairs.

10: Justice: Department is led by the Attorney General, enforces the nation’s laws and includes, among other agencies, the Federal Bureau of Prisons, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA).

11: The Department of Labor: Department’s duties includes, enforces labor laws and keeps worker’s rights protected and safety.

12: State: Department is charged with diplomacy; its representatives reflect the United States as part of the world community.

13: The Department of Transportation: Department keeps the U.S. transportation infrastructure safe and functioning established the Interstate Highway System.

14: Treasury: Department ensures the country’s financial and economic stability, manages federal finances and collects taxes.

15: Veterans Affairs: Department provides medical care for wounded or ill veterans and administers veterans’ benefits.

All branches and their official are public service and their position is to serve, protect people of the country and work for best interest of the people.

History of election

First presidential election in the United States of America under the new United States Constitution, (which was adopted on September 17, 1787); This was first quadrennial presidential election of the United State was held from December 15, 1788 to January 10, 1789. In this election, George Washington was unanimously elected for the first of his two terms as president, and John Adams became the first vice-president.

Presidential election of U.S., is world’s first voter-based and biggest free to vote system in a democratic election.

The Twelfth Amendment establishes that the Vice-President must meet all of the qualifications of being a President.

The eligibility of an individual for voting is set out in the Constitution and regulated at state level. The Constitution states that suffrage cannot be denied on grounds of race or color, sex or age for citizens eighteen years or older. The presidential ballot is a vote “for the electors of a candidate” meaning that the voter is not voting for the candidate, but endorsing a slate of electors pledged to vote for a specific Presidential and Vice Presidential candidate.

There are two major pasts to gain the nomination to run for presidential election. Presidential nominating conventions held by each political party, this process nominate an eligible person by voting by the party members. Voters may be voting to award delegates And by primary elections are run by state and local governments, The caucuses are organized directly by the political parties. Some states hold only primary elections; some hold only caucuses and others use a combination of both. Presidential caucuses or primaries are indirect elections. Primaries and caucuses are staggered between January and June before the federal election.

The delegates chosen during primaries and caucuses, state delegations to both the Democratic and Republican conventions also include “unpledged” delegates who can vote for whomever they want.

Each party’s presidential candidate chooses a vice presidential nominee to run with him or her on the same ticket.

Under the United States Constitution, the manner of choosing electors for the Electoral College is determined by each state’s legislature. Although each state currently designates electors by popular vote, other methods are allowed.

Electoral College is the institution that elects the President and Vice President of the United States every four years. They are elected by “electors” who are chosen by popular vote on a state-by-state basis. There are 538 electors, corresponding to the 435 members of the House of Representatives, 100 senators, and the three additional electors from the District of Columbia.

In early January, the total Electoral College vote count is opened by the sitting Vice President, acting in his capacity as President of the Senate, and read aloud to a joint session of the incoming Congress, which was elected at the same time as the President.

To win presidential election, candidate must win at least 270 electoral votes. There are many laws to help elect a president if basic process fails. A number of constitutional amendments have been proposed seeking to alter the Electoral College or replace it with a direct popular vote.

Qualities of President

Presidents are not born but are made, People who have develop themselves through a never ending process of self-study, education, and acquire practical and skillful experience. Following are some basic qualities that every excellent president should possess.

1: Leadership: Utmost quality is president to be loyal to the country and country’s’ peoples and their warfare. Execute the oath of office of the President of the United States

Oath of office of the President of the United States:

“I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”

A good president is committed whole maintaining high standards for him/her- self to excellence and appointed and elected staff and personals.

A good president keeps their agenda in focus and is able to think analytically. A good president is able to break down a situation or project into sub parts to manageable modules and keeping a view wide open eye on the object of the project and keep moving the project to expected finish. Also, is proactive in raising the bar in order to achieve excellence in all areas.

A good president gains confidence of people by example and his/her resume. President has certain leadership qualities or can develop and strengthened required qualities of an excellent leadership in their leadership role.

2. Character: A good president processes a combination of mental and behavior characteristics of being honest and trustworthy to lead others. A good leader deliverer so a leader earns the right to have responsibility for the country and peoples. Thrust is not given but earned. A good character leader earns authority from respect for people.

A good president is dedicated to serve the country and people.

3. Ability to Inspire: A good president is able to inspire, and a motivator towards the country’s philosophy and ideology. A leader’s inspiring the peoples to see the vision of the success to come is utmost important. A good president becomes a part of the worker to achieve the goal with enthusiasm and high levels of energy and passing this quality to people to for greater causes for betterment for the country and people. Understands that change comes from the top, revolution evolves from the bottom.

4. Confident: Confidence comes from integrity, honest and hard work. A confident leader can set direction where he/she wants to take the country and people with respect and earned a place in the world and world’s politics.

A confident leader believes in the philosophy and ideology of the countries and works diligently for the country and people.

5. Communication: Communication is a vital asset of a good leader. A good president communicates his/her vision or agenda in clear statements and with educated and verifiable information, otherwise process towards the goal is lost or delay. With clear communication a leader earns trust and dependence from people that the leader will make the right decision for the country.

Dishonest and misleading communication can be extremely damaging to the president and country. Effective communication keeps the morale of the country high, thus making it productive and instill positive energy.

A good president understands and consider all business or official communications as classified, secret and/or as national security, except information release to public by Transparency and disclosure laws keeping in mind of security of the people and world peace.

5. Management: First is to hire the right, trust worthy, and competent managers to manage departments and staff. A good president is a manager of the country and the constitution. A president never takes eye off the country’s security nor welfare of the people.

Hiring dedicate advisors for the cabinet to achieve government goals. These advisors, advice must be backed by verifiable information and must have some kind of check and balances.

A good president communicates the mission and goals of the administration clearly to staff and government agencies to achieve higher results

A good president never let special interest or parties influence leadership or country by any means.

A good manager never blindly supports or work only with party-line agendas.

One of the important parts of the leader is ability to delegate tasks to the appropriate departments or agencies. Higher level task is taken and completed by the leader and never delegated. Finessing the vision is essential to creating an organized and efficient government.

Mismanagement of a leader can be disastrous to a government.

A good president never appointment anyone for personal, political favor nor religious belief

7. Creativity: A good president leader has ability to be a creative; this quality is very useful in a situation where there is no clear-cut answer to a serious and diplomatic problem. A leader has to think outside the box and solve an issue or a problem. President has to learn to trouble shoot if difficult situation arises. In diplomacy quick thinking and educated and thoughtful comment can defuse diplomatic disasters. Creativity is an asset of a leader when a leader is involved in negotiations to make deal. Lack of creativity can result in a bad deal or bad treaty, which can hurt the country.

8. Negotiator: A president has to be a good negotiator to achieve the best out-come for the country. A good leader uses best negotiation practices to deal with opposition in congress to get best possible laws to benefit the country and people.

Art of negotiation is vital for a president to possess when diplomacy is Important to make trade deals or cooling off a hot spot on world’s map. A good leader always works on behalf of the country and people.

9. Empathic: Empathy is also vital for a good leader. Some-time very difficult problems require hard decision, this where empathy helps the leader to make a good decision which benefit greater cause. A good leader work to end discrimination, racism, caste system or any racial or aristocratic base system. Good president does not assume that the way they think and feel about a situation is the way it is in reality.

10. Crisis Management: as a commander in chief a country’s leader has to use crisis management abilities to safeguards the constitutional rights of the people and protects people unalienable right from external and internal threats. In peril situations, people rely on their leader for rational and decisively to defuse the situation with effective diplomacy efforts or in rear cases defend the country with best possible way. A good president always considers war only when all efforts are exhausted and as last resort.

A good President take decisions to save jobs, manage debts, and economy for the country and people of the country. Greatness comes from small successes

A good president is not a quitter.

11. A good leader is not a religious crazy. A good president keeps separation of religious establishment and state; fear is that someday a religious crazy will replace the constitution with Bible or Gita.

12. Economy equality: A good president protects and provides equal opportunities to all citizens to work and do commence, which is basic human right. Workers income and employer’s income should be fare according to profit of the company.

Leadership Deficit: Trust deficit, honesty deficit, self-respect deficit, and moral deficit.

1. Disloyal to country or people

2. Lack of Trust.

3. Leader has earned a reputation of being dishonest

4. Lack of vision for the country or people.

5. A leader which play political cards.

6. A leader with personal agenda

7. Favor other countries over own country

8. Elite status

A president who consider self as an elite and above the law, likely to act carelessly and get involved in illegal activities; and can harm country and citizen greatly.

Voter

Eligibility to vote in the United States is established both in the US Constitution and its amendments, and by state law. Some states may have additional law to protect voter’s right and eligibility.

An American citizen of the U.S. and meets the residency requirements of his or her state and 18 years of age can vote in Presidential election

Voters turn out mainly depends of the conditions and issues during the election terms or candidates appeal and agendas.

Motivation of a person to vote may depend on perception of how their local / community condition is, this most important factors. Some other factors are listed below:

1. Personal contact by a party.

2. A belief that any of the parties can handle important issues

3. Parental interest in politics.

4. Perception that my vote will count;

5. Sense of voting as a duty.

6. Perception of the nature of the national competition between parties.

7. Motivation to vote

Most recent presidential election estimated voting statistics:

2016 might be lot difference from past elections, mainly due to social media. Many young people maybe more involved and vote more than any previous election. 2016 election is mostly about jobs, economy and keeping America’s sovereignty with better management.

Year 2012

Vote casted: 129,085,403

Turnout: 58.2% (voting eligible)

Men 47 %, Women 53 %.

Age: 18-24 11%, 30-39 17%, 40-49 20%, 50-64 28 %, 65 and older 16 % .

Education: high school 21 %, College grads 29 %, Post grads 18 %.

Income: Under 30,000 20%, $100,000–199,999 21%, Over $250,000 4 %

[Source: Exit polls conducted by Edison Research of Somerville, New Jersey, for the National Election Pool, a consortium of ABC News, Associated Press, CBS News, CNN, Fox News,133 and NBC News]

Reasons people vote: Some vote for the person they think is the best for the job, others vote for who they think are most qualify, some because of hype, some people vote based on which party they’ve always aligned with, other reasons: color, sex, who is better looking, who one is married to, religious, etc

Most voters likely look for a candidate who has proven successful pre-President biographical leadership resume.

Political parties in United States of America

The first President of the United States, George Washington, was not a member of any political party at the time of his election or throughout his tenure as president.

The first political system of the United State of America was formed from the Democratic-Republican Party and Federalist Party. The Democratic-Republican was founded by James Madison and Thomas Jefferson in opposition to Alexander Hamilton, who supported close ties with Britain, united central government and government by aristocratic base system.

The Federalist Party emerged about 1792–1793 and Democratic-Republican Party formed by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in 1792-1793.

Federalists were dominant until 1800, while the Republicans were dominant after 1800.

Thomas Jefferson – Secretary of State 1790–1793 and Presidency 1801–1809

James Madison – Secretary of State 1801–1809 and Presidency 1809–1817

Alexander Hamilton – the Secretary of the Treasury

Modern history: Political system known as “fifth political system (of U.S.A)” emerged beginning of 1933 with the “New Deal Coalition” , an alignments of interest groups and voting blocs, during presidential elections and candidates from 1932 – 1968. During this phase elite political parties like Republican Party and democrat Party took the center stage of American political system and still is the dominating political parties of U.S.

List of political Parties

1. Republican Party

2. Democratic Party

3. Green Party

4. Libertarian Party

5. Constitution Party

6. Other parties: there some small political parties in U.S.,

7. Independents: a person can run for presidential election as independent.

1. The Republican Party:

Membership 30.7 million (2012)

Brief background:

The Republican Party is one of the two major political parties in the U.S., commonly referred as Grand Old Party (GOP), name given by media.

Party core base is values of civic virtue, and opposition to corruption and aristocracy.

Republican Party was founded by anti-slavery activists, ex-whigs, modernizers, and ex-Free Spoilers in 1854.

First republican president was Abraham Lincoln, who served from 1861 until his assassination in 1865. There have been 18 Republican presidents. The first President of the United States, George Washington, was not a member of any political party at the time of his election or throughout his tenure as president

“some simple name like ‘Republican’ [that] would more fitly designate those who had united to restore the Union to its true mission of champion and promulgator of Liberty rather than propagandist of slavery”.[ ushistory.org (1995-07-04). “The Origins of the Republican Party”. Ushistory.org. Retrieved 2012-10-25.]. The party had historically advocated classical liberalism and progressivism

Currently, the Republican Party supports an American conservative platform, with further foundations in economic liberalism, fiscal conservatism, a strong national defense and social and traditional values. Republicans need to add back their original agenda to be a party of people.

1237 delegates are needed for nomination, there are no super delegates in republican party.

2. The Democratic Party

Membership: 43.1 million

72 million registered voters

Brief background:

The Democratic Party is the oldest political party in the world that is still in existence.

The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the U.S. Since 1854, The party was founded around 1828, Democrats trace their party’s origin to James Madison and Thomas Jefferson’s Democratic-Republicans. The party was founded around 1828

Democratic Party, the name “Democratic Party” was eventually settled upon and became the official name in 1844. Members of the party are called “Democrats” or “Dems” by media and its members and generally.

Party core base is values of social-liberal, a mixed economy, environmental protection, and the welfare state. Party also have agendas for social programs, support for labor unions.

Currently Democrats are moving towards far left from center-left. Democrats believe in liberal social programs, liberalism and path to citizenship for illegal aliens (aka illegal immigrants). Going too far-left can make Democratic Party into socialist or even a communist party. Democrats are losing register voter, since 2008 Democrats register voter numbers has reduced by 800,000. – citing estimate of 2011

List of Democratic Party super-delegates, 2016 (as of April 11, 2016)

20 distinguished party leaders (DPL), consisting of current and former presidents, vice-presidents, congressional leaders, and DNC chairs

21 Democratic governors (including territorial governors and the Mayor of the District of Columbia)

47 Democratic members of the United States Senate (including Washington, DC shadow senators)

193 Democratic members of the United States House of Representatives (including non-voting delegates)

434 elected members of the Democratic National Committee (including the chairs and vice-chairs of each state’s Democratic Party)

3. Green Party

Membership: 248,189 (2014)

Brief background:

The Green Party of the United States (GPUS) is fourth-largest political by membership. Green party was founded in 2001 as the evolution of the Association of State Green Parties (ASGP). The green party is a left-wing political party.

Four members of Green party run in presidential elections since 1996, but were considered as spoiler. Ralph Nader ran twice in 1996 and 2000, David Cobb in 2004, Cynthia McKinney in 2008 and Jill Stein in 2012. There are many elected Green party across America. Notable member Malik Rahim, former Black Panther Party activist, ran for the U.S. Congress in 2008 with the Green Party and lost.

Party is core base is promoting Ecology, Peace, Social Justice and Grass root democracy. And Path to citizenship for illegal aliens (aka Illegal immigrants).

4. Libertarian Party

Membership: 368,561

250,000 > registered voters

Libertarian Party is the third largest political party in the United States and was officially formed on December 11, 1971. 2013 – Throughout the year, 18 Libertarians are elected or re-elected to public office. And there are 149 Libertarians holding elected offices.

Party is core base is free-market economy and the abundance and prosperity it brings; a dedication to civil liberties and personal freedom; and a foreign policy of non-intervention, peace, and free trade.

5. Constitution Party

Membership: 76,425

Brief background:

The Constitution Party is a political party in the United States. The party was founded as the “U.S. Taxpayers’ Party” by Howard Phillips in 1991, party’s name was changed to the Constitution Party in 1999. The Constitution Party consider itself as the “philosophical home” of the Tea Party and has many supporters from Christians religious organizations who believes that America is a Christian country and was founded on the basis of the Bible and theocratic jurisprudence.

Party core base is Sanctity of life, Religious freedom, Personal liberty, Family (traditional), Personal and Private property security, Constitution ( and bills of right), State sovereignty, Foreign Policy –American government committed to protection of the borders, trade, and common defense of Americans with no entanglement in foreign alliance.

6. Other parties: there some small political parties in U.S.

7. Independents: a person can run for presidential election as independent.

List of presidents of United States of America

1. George Washington (April 30, 1789- March 4, 1797) No party Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army (1775–1783)

Vice president: John Adams

2. John Adams (March 4, 1797– March 4, 1801) Federalist.

Vice President: Thomas Jefferson

3. Thomas Jefferson (March 4, 1801- March 4, 1809) Democratic-Republican.

Vice President: Aaron Burr (March 4, 1801 – March 4, 1805)

George Clinton (March 4, 1805 – April 20, 1812)

4. James Madison (March 4, 1809–March 4, 1817) Democratic-Republican

Vice President: Elbridge Gerry (March 4, 1813 – November 23, 1814).

5. James Monroe (March 4, 1817–March 4, 1825) Democratic-Republican

Vice President: Daniel D. Tompkins

6. John Quincy Adams (March 4, 1825–March 4, 1829) Democratic-Republican

Vice President: John C. Calhoun (March 4, 1825 – December 28, 1832)

7. Andrew Jackson (March 4, 1829–March 4, 1837) Democratic

Vice President: Martin Van Buren (March 4, 1833 – March 4, 1837)

8. Martin Van Buren (March 4, 1837–March 4, 1841) Democratic

Vice President: Richard Mentor Johnson

9. William Henry Harrison (March 4, 1841–April 4, 1841) Whig

Vice President: John Tyler

10. John Tyler (April 4, 1841-March 4, 1845) Whig

Vice president: Vacant

11. James K. Polk (March 4, 1845–March 4, 1849) Democratic

Vice president: George M. Dallas

12. Zachary Taylor (March 4, 1849–July 9, 1850) Whig

Vice President: Millard Fillmore

13. Millard Fillmore (July 9, 1850–March 4, 1853) Whig

Vice President: Vacant

14. Franklin Pierce (March 4, 1853–March 4, 1857) Democratic

Vice President: William R. King (March 4, 1853 – April 18, 1853

15. James Buchanan (March 4, 1857–March 4, 1861) Democratic

Vice President: John C. Breckinridge

16. Abraham Lincoln (March 4, 1861–April 15, 1865) Republican/ National Union

Vice President: Hannibal Hamlin (March 4, 1861 – March 4, 1865)

Andrew Johnson (March 4, 1865 – April 15, 1865)

17. Andrew Johnson (April 15, 1865–March 4, 1869 Democratic/ National Union/Independent

Vice President: Vacant

18. Ulysses S. Grant (March 4, 1869–March 4, 1877) Republican

Vice president: Henry Wilson (March 4, 1873 – November 22, 1875)

19. Rutherford B. Hayes (March 4, 1877–March 4, 1881) Republican

Vice president: William A. Wheeler

20. James A. Garfield (March 4, 1881–September 19, 1881) Republican

Vice president: Chester A. Arthur

21. Chester A. Arthur (September 19, 1881–March 4, 1885) Republican

Vice President: Vacant

22. Grover Cleveland (March 4, 1885–March 4, 1889) Democratic

Vice President: Thomas A. Hendricks (March 4, 1885 – November 25, 1885)

23. Benjamin Harrison (March 4, 1889–March 4, 1893) Republican

Vice President: Levi P. Morton

24. Grover Cleveland (March 4, 1893–March 4, 1897) Democratic

Vice president: Adlai Stevenson

25. William McKinley (March 4, 1897–September 14, 1901) Republican

Vice President: Garret Hobart (March 4, 1897 – November 21, 1899)

Theodore Roosevelt (March 4, 1901 – September 14, 1901)

26. Theodore Roosevelt (September 14, 1901–March 4, 1909) Republican

Vice President: Charles W. Fairbanks (March 4, 1905 – March 4, 1909)

27. William Howard Taft (March 4, 1909–March 4, 1913) Republican

Vice President: James S. Sherman (March 4, 1909 – October 30, 1912)

28. Woodrow Wilson (March 4, 1913–March 4, 1921) Democratic

Vice President: Thomas R. Marshall

29. Warren G. Harding (March 4, 1921–August 2, 1923) Republican

Vice President: Calvin Coolidge

30. Calvin Coolidge (August 2, 1923–March 4, 1929) Republican

Vice President: Charles G. Dawes (March 4, 1925 – March 4, 1929

31. Herbert Hoover (March 4, 1929–March 4, 1933) Republican

Vice President: Charles Curtis

32. Franklin D. Roosevelt (March 4, 1933–April 12, 1945) Democratic

Vice President: John Nance Garner (March 4, 1933 – January 20, 1941)

Henry A. Wallace (January 20, 1941 – January 20, 1945)

Harry S. Truman (January 20, 1945 – April 12, 1945)

33. Harry S. Truman (April 12, 1945–January 20, 1953) Democratic

Vice President: Alben W. Barkley (January 20, 1949 – January 20, 1953)

34. Dwight D. Eisenhower (January 20, 1953–January 20, 1961) Republican

Vice president: Richard Nixon

35. John F. Kennedy (January 20, 1961–November 22, 1963) Democratic

Vice president: Lyndon B. Johnson

36. Lyndon B. Johnson (November 22, 1963–January 20, 1969) Democratic

Vice president: Hubert Humphrey (January 20, 1965 – January 20, 1969)

37. Richard Nixon (January 20, 1969–August 9, 1974) Republican

Vice President: Spiro Agnew (January 20, 1969 – October 10, 1973)

Vice president: Gerald Ford (December 6, 1973 – August 9, 1974)

38. Gerald Ford (August 9, 1974–January 20, 1977) Republican (only person to have served as both Vice President and President of the United States without being elected to either office.)

Vice President: Nelson Rockefeller (December 19, 1974 – January 20, 1977)

39. Jimmy Carter (January 20, 1977–January 20, 1981) Democratic

Vice President: Walter Mondale

40. Ronald Reagan (January 20, 1981–January 20, 1989) Republican

Vice President: George H. W. Bush

41. George H. W. Bush (January 20, 1989–January 20, 1993) Republican

Vice President: Dan Quayle

42. Bill Clinton (January 20, 1993–January 20, 2001) Democratic

Vice President: Al Gore

43. George W. Bush (January 20, 2001–January 20, 2009) Republican

Vice president: Dick Cheney

44. Barack Hussain Obama (January 20, 2009–Incumbent) Democratic

Vice President: Joe Biden

Issues

According to Gallup’s survey following are main issues and concern of the people of U.S.: Government/Congress/Politicians, Economy in General, Unemployment/Jobs, Heathcare, Immigration, Ethics/Moral decline, Education, Poverty/Homelessness, Focus overseas/Foreign aid, Gap between rich/poor, Race relations/Racism, Lack of money, Crime/Violence, Judicial system, Lack of respect for each other, Wars/War (non-specific), Terrorism, Wage issues and National Security. (Based on average of 12 monthly surveys- January 3, 2015- posted by Amy Miller – Gallup), updated in September, 2015 see no change since January 2015 according to Gallup polls. As noted in article “Government, Economy, Immigration Seen as Top U.S. Problems “–Gallup, by Rebecca Riffkin, SEPTEMBER 17, 2015.).

Economy and Jobs

According to Gallup Economy in General and Unemployment/Job is on top concerns and issue for the people of the country.

U.S. economy faces perilous with economical threats from within U.S., and from abroad.

The crash and economic meltdown during great depression of 2008-2012, directly attributed to their mismanaged, reckless and unsupervised investment practices. TARP cost than $750 Billion of taxpayer monies was used to bail out big banks and insurance companies. Germany and Japan faced same kind of problem in 1989-1992, Germany, let troubled companies go down, Japan in contrast, bail out their failing financial institutes, they are still struggling, like U.S., Reinstating Glass-Steagall; keeping religion out of government (constitution); modernizing our infrastructure; investing in human capital – jobs for citizens as national security and tuition free college for citizens.

U.S., economy is based on “mix economy system”, primarily, Service, manufacturing, human capital and consumer driven.

Far right economist think that companies should be allowed make profit through all means, even slavery, legalized sweat shops, child labor, human trafficking, forced labor, unfair and bad business practices, creating environment in which people loses their basic human right to work and do business with shared economy.

Half of US jobs could be taken by robots in the next 20 years. College education has become necessity than ever before, extending [free] public school to college is only way to keep countries education standard with the world. Future jobs will be high tech regardless of sector {doctors, programmers, financial} and jobs will be in management rather than clerical.

Economy stats

The U.S. unemployment rate ticked up to 5 percent (March 2016) – Actual unemployed 15542254 per usdebtclock.org/ on April 16, 2016

US National debt $192461877590997 (April 16, 2016) 4:15 PM.

Sep 7, 2015 11 am

Us national debt $18,376,602,100,200

Net Interest on debt $249,765,521,166

US population: 321,622,531 Debt per citizen: $57138,

Us federal spending: 3,666,331,040,600

US work force 149,097,038

Official unemployed 8,237,427

Actual Unemployment (Unofficial unemployment) 16,283,223

Government employees: 23,696,625

Living is poverty 43,788,599

Source: usdebtclock.org/

The US is now the greatest debtor nation in the world (2015)

As of April 3, 2015, the official debt of the United States government is $18.2 trillion ($18,152,112,019,695).

This amounts to: $56,649 for every person living in the U.S.

$147,304 for every household in the U.S

December 31, 2014, the national debt rose to 103 % of GDP.

On December 31, 2014, the national debt consisted of:

$5.1 trillion owed to federal entities

$13.0 trillion owed to non-federal entities

$18.1 trillion owed in total

As of June 30, 2015, the national debt consists of:

$13.1 trillion owed to non-federal entities (i.e., publicly held debt) 72%

$5.1 trillion owed to federal entities (i.e., intragovernmental debt) 28%

Ownership of publicly held debt as of December 31, 2014:

Entities Amount (billions) Portion of Total

Foreign & International $6,156; or 47%

Federal Reserve $2,461 or 19%

Mutual Funds $1,146 or 9%

Other Investors $895 or 7%

State & Local Governments $601 or 5%

Private Pension Funds $530 or 4%

Banks & Savings Institutions $518 or 4%

Insurance Companies $282 or 2%

State and Local Government Pension Funds $257 or 2%

U.S. Savings Bonds $176 or 1%

Ownership of intergovernmental debt as of June 30, 2015:

Funds Amount (billions) Portion of Total

Social Security $2,838 or 56%

Civil Service Retirement and Disability $740 or 15%

Military Retirement $532 or 10%

Medicare $274 or 5%

Department of Defense Retiree Healthcare $205 or 4%

Postal Service Retiree Health Benefits $45 or 1%

Other $441 or 9%

Ownership of U.S. government debt by foreign creditors as of April 30, 2015:

Country Amount (billions) Portion of Total

China $1,263 or 21%

Japan $1,216 or 20%

Caribbean Banking Centers $296 or 5%

Oil Exporters * $293 or 5%

Brazil $263 or 4%

Belgium $229 or 4%

Switzerland $216 or 4%

Ireland $216 or 4%

United Kingdom $195 or 3%

Hong Kong $183 or 3%

Luxembourg $171 or 3%

Taiwan $170 or 3%

Others $1,428 or 23%

Total $6,137 or 100%

Caribbean Banking Centers include: the Bahamas, Bermuda, Bonaire, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Curacao, St. Eustatius, St. Maarten, Panama, and Saba.

  • Oil exporters include: Ecuador, Venezuela, Indonesia, Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Algeria, Gabon, Libya, and Nigeria.

In past two decades, U.S., has lost over 10 million manufacturing jobs to Countries like, China, Mexico and India. United States has trade deficits with many countries, notable is with China, in year 2013 trade deficit with China was $318 billion and growing, our debt owed to China is well over $1 trillion dollars. China was given privileged trade arrangement after invasion of Iraq.

Robert Scott at the Economic Policy Institute, estimates that the U.S. lost roughly 800,000 jobs to Mexico between 1997 and 2013. He cites NAFTA -- the North American Free Trade Agreement signed in 1993 -- as the key driver for job losses. Robert Scott at the Economic Policy Institute, estimates that the U.S. lost roughly 800,000 jobs to Mexico between 1997 and 2013. He cites NAFTA -- the North American Free Trade Agreement signed in 1993 -- as the key driver for job losses. (CNN March, 31 2016).

Eighteen business organizations including the National Association of Manufacturers and the U.S. Chamber of Commerce wrote to Obama complaining of discriminatory trade barriers in India. India’s trade violations include a failure to protect intellectual property rights and rules that favor local information-technology and clean-energy producers. Governors from 14 U.S. states. Week 9-22-2013 they wrote to Obama, asking him to address similar concerns about trade with India.

Trade agreements: NAFTA, NAAEC, CAFTA , and repeal of Glass/Steagal has devastative to U.S., economy, TPP ( Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement which will further devastate the economy.

Badly negotiated trade agreements have created large trade deficits, which is one of the causes that are bringing America to the breaking point. Free trade agreements allow U.S companies to ship jobs and factories overseas then ship those goods back to the U.S. without tariffs and duty-free. Beneficiary of free trade is the manufacture and businesses; people get extra taxed from merchandise receiving country that need to cover the loss of revenues to run the government agencies.

Free trade agreement is destroying our middle class, and rich are getting richer while middle class are driven into poverty and poor of this country are hardest hit, they see no chance of getting out of their situation.

Free trade and trade agreement is form of discrimination against non- trade agreement countries and destroying small or under-develop countries, mostly in Africa and eastern Europe.

For 2015, the Federal poverty guideline is an annual income of $24,250 for a family of four. One-quarter of American workers make less than $10 per hour, which creates an income below the Federal poverty level. The top 10% of earners took home 50% of all income in 2012. That's the highest percent in the last 100 years, when the government began collecting income data.

In November 2013 the U.S. Census Bureau said more than 16% of the population lived in poverty, up from 14.3% (approximately 43.6 million) in 2009 and to its highest level since 1993. In 2008, 13.2% (39.8 million) Americans lived in poverty. In 2012 was 15.0 %.

There are many tax loops as incentives given to companies to out-source jobs overseas are hidden in tax break – loophole cost of $168 billion dollars. And billions as subsidies to hire foreign workers on H1B and L type visas.

An estimate 10 million jobs has been outsourced since year 2000 – 5 million manufacturing and 5 million service jobs, including banking, IT; 288,281 Management jobs to be outsourced in 2014(-15). And more to H1B visa employees in US According to the U.S. Department of Labor and Forrester Research, Inc, Department of Labor predict that outsourcing is expected to expand in numbers and scope.

In 2011 2,273,392 (million) American jobs were outsourced outside USA.

Manufacturing 53%, IT services 43%, R&D 38%, Distribution 26 %, call or help center 12%

Source: BEA: USA department of commerce.

Paul Donnelly, in a 2002 article in Computerworld, cited Milton Friedman as stating that the H-1B program acts as a subsidy for corporations. Others holding this view include Dr. Norman Matloff, who testified to the US House Judiciary Committee Subcommittee on Immigration on the H-1B subject. Matloff’s paper for the University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform claims that there has been no shortage of qualified American citizens to fill American computer-related jobs, and that the data offered as evidence of American corporations needing H-1B visas to address labor shortages was erroneous.

More than 2273193 H1B visa has been issued for foreign workers for Americans jobs in U.S since early 1990 and more than 940575 H1B visa Issued for foreign workers for Americans jobs in U.S since 2008.

LCA for H1B Visa LC for Green Card

2013 $103,104 $125,138

2012 $94,727 – n/a

2011 n/a n/a

w/w/w(myvisajobs) 2013 figures.

Foreign workers have become elite of middle class in U.S., especially since 2008 because it seems like it is because of “open door immigration” is part of foreign policy.

U.S., should cancel or no extension on H1B and L type worker’s visas. Companies must train American workers to get jobs open by foreign workers after foreign worker leave; and no automatic citizenship to foreign worker’s children.

Goal should be to reduce H1 B and L type or foreign worker in U.S., should be zero by 2020, foreign worker should be on trainers to train Americans citizen.

Future foreign worker should get only 7 to 9 month or seasonal visa and no renewal, under some circumstances, they can apply for new work visa after 1-year wait.

Many companies are forcing American workers to train foreign workers to take their jobs, which is against the law, but many law makers and companies are ignoring this crime.

Most Companies has no OJT (on job training programs like in 1970s and before. Companies have lost its reinvestment in their employees as “Human capital”. There is no major reinvestment in human capital incentives given to companies from government.

Companies see employees as cost; their philosophy is maximizing short-term profitability. Currently Companies set their profits base on quarterly earnings targets; it is designed to maximize profits and stock prices today.

Some companies are so cost cutting that they have totally ignore human factors, there are computer applications installed to measure workers typing (data entry) per second – Technology slavery.

Fewer Americans are employed than at any time in the past three decades. The U.S. employment-to-population ratio has collapsed. We’re back at 1970s-1980s levels now.

Some number of unemployment has improved, likely most jobs are going to H1B and type L visas foreign workers 940575 H1B visa has been issued since early 2008.

There is a cap on how many worker visas can be issued per year and conditions to obtain such visa but there are many offenders, many major companies are under investigation for breaking laws.

Many H1B visa holder misrepresent their qualifications to obtain visa, many companies which provide H1B visa and L type visa worker to major companies are also under investigation for obtaining visas by illegal means and race (and religion [many cases caste systems)], and nationality (American citizen are discriminated by foreign employment companies operating in U.S. not given jobs).

U.S., has been has failed her youth in education, we have failed to reinvest in our youth as Human capital.

SAT Scores (2015) have sunk to the lowest level since the college admission test was overhauled in 2005.

Student loan debt in the US has reached a staggering $1.2 trillion, and many loan programs do not allow student to refinance to get low rate and make it manageable to pay off the loan. Many refer student debt as a financial crisis and a about to bust bubble.

College education is lacking greatly too, For example, there are only 141 accredited MD-granting institutions and 30 accredited DO-granting institutions in the U.S. many student are going to Caribbean countries to study medicine as foreign student.

Nobel Prize–winning economist Theodore Schultz explains, “Human capital…is the key to economic progress.”

The U.S. economy is predominantly driven by consumer spending, which accounts for approximately 70 % of all economic growth, they must be in a sound financial position, Simply put, no job for citizens, no good economy, Out sourcing and foreign workers on work visas like H1B and type L are devastating American citizen.

Almost 50 % of all employment companies or temporary/consulting job employment in U.S., are owned by foreign companies or by foreigners

Illinois (former) Governor Patrick Quinn became national news for circumventing a three year procurement process on up to $190 million in no-bid IT contracts to India. , IL (former) Governor Quinn's administration awarded a ten year $71.4 million staffing contract to Cognizant Technology Solutions. Cognizant ranks in the national top 10 for procuring H-1B visa workers from India. (Adam Andrzejewski huffingtonpost- 11/03/2013).

Following are status of unemployment in U.S.

In July 2016, the participation (work force) rate was up a tenth of a percentage point to 62.8 percent. One of those figures used is the U-6 rate, which has a broader definition of the unemployed. That rate rose slightly in July — to 9.7%.

According to Labor Department, U.S. unemployment rate remained at 4.9 percent in July 2016.

2016 (July) Unemployment rate 4.9% U6: 62.8%

2015. U 3: 5.78 % U 6: 10.3% total percentage 50%

The U-6, or real unemployment rate, includes everyone who wants a full-time job but doesn’t have one.

(U-3), the BLS only counts those who have looked for a job in the past four weeks as unemployed.

In August 2015, the real unemployment rate (U-6) was 10.3%, more than double the widely-reported unemployment rate (U-3) of 5.1%.

Jobs of American citizens are national security.

A Zogby International poll conducted in August 2004 found that 71% of American voters believed that “outsourcing jobs overseas” hurt the economy while another 62% believed that the U.S. government should impose some legislative action against companies that transfer domestic jobs overseas, possibly in the form of increased taxes on companies that outsource

Discrimination in work place has increased tremendously according to EEOC.

U.S., needed a new and get reasonable and fair and manageable policies to reshape our corporations and business to come out of this malaise. And companies have to stop these policies of “return on capital” business philosophy, this mantra (mantra = magic spell in Hindi) is devastating our country’s economy and slowly we are losing our sovereignty.

World economy is about to go into a peril. China, the world’s second-largest economy, is on roller coasters, and other emerging markets such as Russia, India, and Brazil are also extremely sluggish. Some expert economists are predicting that some form of global recession in 2016-2018. Good management of economy can avert U.S., from predicted global recession.

Globalization is legalized sweat shops, and is path of mass slavery which world has ever seen. Many countries like Greece are suffering due to globalization; there are many demonstrations by workers against concept of globalization and so called “New World Order”.

Globalization has encouraged disproportional share of business income between workers and owners by unfair means

The evidence shows that there is a large impact of globalization on wage differentials and wage inequality and has put the world at verge of financial collapse, again. Globalization has weakened national financial regulation without providing a satisfactory alternative.

Globalization will kill democracy around the world and people’s right to govern them-selves.

Many European countries are at verge of collapse, financial crisis has sharply reduced the life expectancy of governments; this situation has made room for the rise of populist and protest political parties. The public mood is best described as a combination of anger and pessimism. Almost 90 percent European thinks that there is a big gap between what the public wants and what their governments do; not so different than opinion of the peoples of U.S., about United States’ economic and government.

Many American companies out-sourced jobs to another countries to increase short term profit, reverse effect is American people lost jobs and have purchasing power to buy outsourcing companies products; in long run companies are at loss.

Because of unemployment U.S., experience Housing market collapse, Auto industry collapse, IT bubble bust, manufacturing industries and financial crisis in past two decades.

People who support H1 B visa and L Type and outsourcing American jobs to overseas lack loyalty to American workers, America and America’s constitution, which provide protection to citizens’ safety of life and its means.

Any company who heavily depend on H1 B and type of foreign worker should replace them by American citizens or move out of the country and do business in U.S., as business as foreign company in U.S., and pay extra tax.

Any company who has more than 10 % foreign workers should be considered as non-American company.

No work visa for spouse of H1 B visa, since July 2015, some spouses are allowed to work and take more American jobs from Americans.

Some easement for companies in agricultural sector must prove they can’t find citizen for work, and use E-very employment system to prove workers are eligible to work in U.S.

Many American companies have farms in Latin America and they pay foreign company working in the country tax.

E- Very should be fully in forced by president’s executive order.

HP outsourced more than 30,000 jobs to India and other countries in 2005 after firing 30,000 American workers in U.S. under Fiorina.

Moving forward to 2015, “HP told some employees to choose between becoming contractors with no benefits or being fired without severance

Throughout 2015, Whitman has told investors she is stabilizing the unit and is committed to it. She promised to bring margins up to 7% to 9%. She's doing that through restructuring the "labor pyramid" — i.e., hiring less-expensive workers and shifting more work to lower-cost offshore jobs, she said.

HP will split into two companies November 1 and HP ES will become part of the HP Enterprise company, with Meg Whitman as CEO.”..” The company, under CEO Meg Whitman, has already dismissed 55,000 HP workers “ (Business Insider -By Julie Bort Sep 1-2015)

Sep 15, 2015, HP is cutting 30,000 jobs and outsourcing jobs to India and other countries.

Excerpt:” All Employment Growth Since 2000 Went to Immigrants,” Government data show that since 2000 all of the net gain in the number of working-age (16 to 65) people holding a job has gone to immigrants (legal and illegal). This is remarkable given that native-born Americans accounted for two-thirds of the growth in the total working-age population. Though there has been some recovery from the Great Recession, there were still fewer working-age natives holding a job in the first quarter of 2014 than in 2000, while the number of immigrants with a job was 5.7 million above the 2000 level.

All of the net increase in employment went to immigrants in the last 14 years partly because, even before the Great Recession, immigrants were gaining a disproportionate share of jobs relative to their share of population growth. In addition, natives’ losses were somewhat greater during the recession and immigrants have recovered more quickly from it. With 58 million working-age natives not working, the Schumer-Rubio bill (S.744) and similar House measures that would substantially increase the number of foreign workers allowed in the country seem out of touch with the realities of the U.S. labor market.”

Three conclusions can be drawn from this analysis: First, the long-term decline in the employment for natives across age and education levels is a clear indication that there is no general labor shortage, which is a primary justification for the large increases in immigration (skilled and unskilled) in the Schumer-Rubio bill and similar House proposals. Second, the decline in work among the native-born over the last 14 years of high immigration is consistent with research showing that immigration reduces employment for natives. Third, the trends since 2000 challenge the argument that immigration on balance increases job opportunities for natives. Over 17 million immigrants arrived in the country in the last 14 years, yet native employment has deteriorated significantly.

The total number of working-age (16 to 65) immigrants (legal and illegal) holding a job increased 5.7 million from the first quarter of 2000 to the first quarter of 2014, while declining 127,000 for natives. Immigrants have made gains across the labor market, including lower-skilled jobs such as maintenance, construction, and food service; middle-skilled jobs like office support and health care support; and higher-skilled jobs, including management, computers, and health care practitioners.

Immigration has fallen in recent years. But despite the economy, between 2008 and the start of 2014 6.5 million new immigrants (legal and illegal) settled in the country and three million got jobs. Over the same time, the number of working-age natives holding a job declined 3.4 million.

Since the jobs recovery began in 2010, 43 percent of employment growth has gone to immigrants. The supply of potential workers is enormous: 8.7 million native college graduates are not working, as are 17 million with some college, and 25.3 million with no more than a high school education. [Article By Karen Zeigler, Steven A. Camarota – June 2014. [+ http://cis.org/all-employment-growth-since-2000-went-to-immigrants+]]

Half of US jobs could be taken by robots in the next 20 years; labor department must keep this in their labor and education planning.

To save and doing the right thing for social security, employers who hire foreign workers, should pay applicable tax plus Social security and medical tax 12.4% [6.2% employee and 6.2 % employers part] and Medicare 2.9 % [ 1.45 % employee part and 1.45 % employee part], they should not be allowed to avoid paying this tax because most foreign workers are exempt from this tax.

Income inequality:

Income inequality is crime against humanity because of disproportional distribution of company’s income between workers and owners/stockholders.

Workers are Backbone of any company

In history, one of the main reasons for fall of Roman Empire was Slavery. Slaves were considering cheap labor. And foreigners were allowed to trade freely and could buy real state inside Roman Empire, more than norm.

A study published in “Science” suggests that American’s wealthy do not like giving their money to other, unless giving small amount create a big payoff for someone else, don’t want to part with too much of their own income. (Sep 2015).

“An equality-minded person is going to make sure both parties always get the same amount,” (Raymond Fisman)

Tax

April 13, 2016- the Democratic senator introduced a bill with seven cosponsors, including Democratic presidential candidate Bernie Sanders, seeking to make significant reforms to the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). Under the bill, Americans with simple tax obligations would have the option not to complete a tax return at all, but to instead receive a pre-prepared return from the IRS with their liability or refund already calculated for them. The IRS already gets most employer and bank information on taxpayers’ obligations — such as W2s and interest earned — so all it would have to do is calculate what they would owe for them.

“Congress should be making it easier for Americans to file their taxes each year, not bowing to the interests of the tax prep industry,” Warren said in a statement.

Mr. Bernie Sanders’ presidential candidate (2016) sent ThinkProgress a statement supporting the legislation, saying, “This important piece of legislation will help us build a better, fairer tax system… Special interests who benefit from the system’s current complexity need to stop standing in the way of progress. As President, I will work to simplify the tax system for working families and give them tax relief, and I applaud Senator Warren for her excellent work.” [Source http://thinkprogress.org/economy/2016/04/13/3768924/warren-sanders-tax-returns/]

Tax payer can also try to use IRS.gov/freefile to file their taxes

There was no federal income tax until the early 20th century. This was by design. the design was that US citizens would avoid high degree of tax – one of the founding idea of the country’s consitution.

U.S. federal taxes not avoidable even for Americans living and working outside the United States.

Treasury can design rules to oppress people and local business.

People work very hard for their money, so spending it on unnecessary or wasting on things like “ Bridge to Nowhere” and likes things are just aren’t worth it is a cruel thing to do to the citizen of U.S. Return on tax paid is not worth the money.

Mismanaged government, wastage in budget and U.S., system of collect and spend is all wrong, government should plan the projects first, and then collect monies accordingly to complete projects; not the other way. This is how most smart countries do to have balanced budget.

In fiscal 2014, the federal government collected nearly $1.4 trillion from individual income taxes, making it the national government’s single biggest revenue source. And in fiscal 2014, the federal government collected $320.7 billion from corporate income taxes, or 10.6% of its total revenue.

Our Tax system is totally broken and miss-managed. Tax code is a monster of about 80,000 pages; almost 4,500 changes have been made to the tax code in the last ten years. The tax code is complicated that even tax experts do not know all the tax codes. Most of these codes and loopholes in the tax system are written by special interest and lobbyist and accountants, and does not benefit anyone in larger picture. Due to mismanaged tax system and countries finances and Budget nation is unable to process, nation is unable to repair 50-year-old infrastructure, unable to adequately educate its young people and unable to generally plan for the future of this great nation.

There are many tax codes which discourage saving, and investment by poor and middle class, Marriage penalty discourage marriage.

Tax system is obsolete and does not apply in ever changing economy and needs of this fast moving country. Cutting taxes, increasing or over-hauling the same system is not an answer anymore, Country requires a clear, simple and fair to all eligible tax paying people. Repeal and replace with new tax system. There are many proposals out there to make tax system efficient and well managed. Some are listed below

1: Flat tax: a single flat rate tax on income for all taxpayers. Flat tax will be devastating to poor of the country. People who are poverty line pay do pay consumed item tax, such as gas tax, currently consumed item tax ranged between 5 to 10 %, consumer item already has a build in tax from the manufacture or producer. If additional 10% income tax is impose on them, poor will not be able to manage, and welfare system will have to compensate them via tax payer monies. Poor might never get out of the welfare to achieve financial independence and live American dream.

One of major problem with flat tax is losing tax monies and short fall to manage government programs and an immediate 72 percent reduction in federal spending, basically the equivalent of eliminating Social Security, Medicare, Medicaid, food stamps and the entire military.

2: No Federal tax: No federal tax is one of the most interesting proposals. Idea is to eliminate all Federal tax, State collect tax from residence of their state. Fund all their programs including welfare and health. Federal will send request every year to state requesting monies to run departments under federal government, such defense department; each state funds these departments according to the services they receive from federal run departments. This will keep Washington under check and small federal government. Not a very popular idea though but maybe very close to constitution.

3: Reduce the people tax rate and collapse tax brackets, and curb many big-ticket tax breaks. Eliminate all itemized deductions. Business/corporation tax be at 28% flat tax rate and eliminating most corporate tax expenditures.

4: National Sales tax: Impose sales tax on the sales of goods and services; eliminating most corporate and individual income taxes, estate and gift taxes and payroll taxes. this is indirect high tax on poor and middle class. in time and mismanaged finance, sale tax can go up to 40 to 60 % of income, when state sales tax is added to the national sales tax. This is similar to VAT (Value add to Tax). Tax is collected at retail level and difficult to manage and collect. This system will have a negative effect on quality of life for poor and middle class.

5: another proposal is that federal government, state and each representative in congress, send their request for funds for their projects ever year to budget committee, committee review, congress and senate review each item, then budget committee prepare budget for projects to be complete and propose tax and other means to fund request project, most countries follow this system successfully, and most time, always a balance budget, no chance for project like famous “bridge to nowhere”

Government has made major mistake like, allowing and giving incentives and subsidiaries as tax loopholes to outsourcing jobs and hiring not needed foreign workers for American jobs, most do not pay any kind of tax.

Off-shoring our jobs are the stupidest thing we ever did for several reasons:

A) Loss of federal revenue when the jobs left

B) Loss of our technological expertise when we handing our “trade secrets” over to other countries to learn from and then improve upon

C) Loss of any reason for more experts who can improve the manufacturing process, thereby loss of more jobs for the engineering, computer programming, services (like banking and finance), and others, since no manufacturing improvements will occur in a nation where manufacturing no longer takes place.

Congress and Senate members should recall the Pledge of Allegiance they used to say in school growing up; doesn’t seem as if too many remember making that daily pledge to America. Wish they did.

Some people thinks that poor people who do not pay federal tax, fact is that they do pay indirect tax – such as gasoline and cigarette taxes, estate taxes, tax on electric and phone, public transportation and likes, and they also pay state tax, local tax. Some states like Illinois tax federal tax refund.

Some taxes are devastation to our small business owners, like death tax – a double taxation.

Marriage tax: morally wrong, discourage the instruction of marriage.

Rent deduction like mortgage interest will help people who are at borderline poverty of incomes, this will help to increase saving which is important part of growing economy and retirement.

Reducing Tax for super rich does not help economy; they tend not to spend enough to stimulate country or local economy.

Social Security

Social Security is primarily the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) federal program which provide safety net to retire people and their survivors and person who is disable to support unable self. Social Security is funded through payroll taxes called Federal Insurance Contributions Act tax (FICA) or Self Employed Contributions Act Tax (SECA). Over 90% of all workers pay into FICA and SECA taxes. A separate payroll tax of 1.45% of an employee's income is paid directly by the employer, and an additional 1.45% deducted from the employee's paycheck, yielding a total tax rate of 2.90%. There is no maximum limit on this portion of the tax. This portion of the tax is used to fund the Medicare program, which is primarily responsible for providing health benefits to retirees.

Some of the programs under the Social Security Administration, are following:

1: Federal Old-Age (Retirement), Survivors, and Disability Insurance, OASDI

2: Supplemental Security Income (SSI)

3: Health Insurance for Aged and Disabled, Medicare and Medicaid for low income people.

Managing Social Security:

Lift the payroll ceiling completely or increase to $500,000 on income subject to Social Security taxes, which is now $118,500.

Raise the retirement age from age 62 to 64 would be unfair and dishonest to the payers, also reducing benefits for new retirees. Future generation may have less lifespan than baby boomers according to new aging prediction.

Social security has specific legal significance because the Treasury securities it holds are backed by the “full faith and credit” of the U.S. government, which has an obligation to repay its debt

Better management can control if not eliminate Disability fraud and Social Security number stolen by illegals and others, which has big effect on sovereignty of SSA.

Cutting benefit for a personal who choose to retire at before government determined age (in 2016 65 ) maybe consider unconstitutional, it is breach of contract. A person who spent an entire career paying into Social Security should receive 100 percent of his benefit.

Disability and Supplemental Security Income should not be part of Social Security Administration, but a separate department and tax separately to manage better and eliminate fraud. A person should be allowed to opt out of this program; Said and similar program should be in welfare like programs.

Retirement age to receive social security should be reduced to 60, maybe to 58, advantage is more jobs and advancement in job, will be open for younger workers and they work for less wages, more worker will give more social security tax and make the department strong; additional – unemployment rate will go down among young workers and working youth are less incline towards crime.

Government has borrowed $2,838 billion or 56% of total national debt, from Social Security.

To save and doing the right thing for social security, employers who hire foreign workers, should pay applicable tax plus Social security and medical tax 12.4% [6.2% employee and 6.2 % employers part] and Medicare 2.9 % [ 1.45 % employee part and 1.45 % employee part], they should not be allowed to avoid paying this tax because most foreign workers are exempt from this tax.

Medicare

Medicare is also facing issues, mainly due to miss-managing. Nearly 50 million elderly depend on Medicare for their physician care and other health services. Premiums are going up.

Mismanagement of Medicare, fee-for-service billings errors rose by 2.62 percent in fiscal 2014, at a cost of $9.7 billion more than the previous year. Medicaid (programs) estimates improper-payment of $17.5 billion – an increase over the 2013 estimate of $14.4 billion (The Fiscal Times). There are many other issues with miss-management and losses Medicare suffers

Medicare should be allowed to negotiate medicine cost with pharmaceutical companies to control cost to keep its sovereignty for coming years and generation.

Government has borrower $274 billion or 5% of national debt from Medical care.

Welfare

A republic government is responsible for providing a strong social safety to the most vulnerable. Among all vulnerable are children, one estimate is one in five children miss a meal in the world’s biggest economy – U.S.

Six major welfare programs are following:

Medicaid

Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), better known as food stamps

Housing assistance

Supplemental Security Income (SSI)

Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), or cash benefits

General Assistance

SNAP helps millions of low-income Americans put food on the table, Average monthly benefit is $133 or $ 4.43 a day.

Medicaid helps needed sick

SSI and TANF and General assistance helps other vulnerable, mostly disable who can’t work or age , average benefit is between $404 – $698 a month as of 2015.

In 2012, an average of 41.6% of African Americans received means-tested benefits each month. About 18% of Asians and 13% of whites received benefits each month. 36 % of Hispanics of any race received government assistance; about 10% of people receiving benefits for three years or more.

There is a great need to provide practical options for recipients of welfare to work themselves out of welfare, like tuition free college education, micro business loans, on job training in IT, manufacturing and other service sectors, government to give incentives to companies who participates in such programs than hire foreign workers.

Sen. Dianne Feinstein wrote in her article published in Huffington post on Sep 16,2015, “ Since 2006, there has been a 67 percent increase in the number of homeless children in this country. The recession pushed millions of families over the edge and many never recovered.

Today, 2.5 million children in the United States under age 18 are without a permanent roof to live under—more than ever before. … What makes this even more heartbreaking is many of these children are ineligible for federal homeless assistance programs because the government doesn’t consider them homeless… there are 6,678 homeless individuals in households with at least one child, while the more accurate definition counts 61,639 homeless students. In this case, HUD is off by a factor of 10.” Sen. Feinstein has introduced a bill to change the code to help these homeless children.

Government

Many thinking American are realizing that system will not be fix by professional politicians, they believe that some professional politicians says is misleading, inaccurate if no an outright lie; Some professional politicians are pawns in hands of special interests and their caucus (s).

Some Professional politicians has lost their credibility and confidence and are incompetent to get anything done to benefit the citizens of the country.,

Many high profile professional politicians are investigated or found corrupt on regular basis.

Veteran

According to VA figures dated April 20 2013, the number of claims pending for more than 125 days was 613,469, while the total number of pension and entitlement claims was 886,345. (June 2015 – NY Times)

The department’s inspector general eventually concluded that “the systemic underreporting of wait times resulted from many causes, to include the lack of available staff and appointments, increased patient demand for services, and an antiquated scheduling system.”

Some 100,000 veterans across the country are waiting long periods to see doctors, according to an internal Department of Veterans Affairs audit released report. A total of 57,436 veterans across the country have waited 90 days to see a doctor and still did not have an appointment as of May 15, the VA said. The agency also found evidence that in the past 10 years, nearly 64,000 veterans who sought VA care were simply never seen by a doctor. Report release June 2015.

VA department issues are directly linked with mismanagement and lack of interest in VA affairs and taking care of your heroes and very fine people, business as usual.

Things need to improve quickly and greatly to serve our heroes who put their lives to protect our great Nation and citizens and all people.

Affordable-Health-Insurance

Affordable-Health-Insurance (The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act) need to be improved to benefit the people not Insurance companies. Maybe repeal and replace. Rosenthal, Elisabeth of News Analysis noted” Future reforms and ideas continue to be proposed, with notable arguments including a single-payer system and a reduction in fee-for-service medical care: (2013). 2007 Yahoo/AP poll showing a majority of respondents considered themselves supporters of “single-payer health care,” (Dec 2007)

Immigration

Before 1990 most people migrate to U.S., for American ideology, America’s core philosophy and freedom to choose and live according to U.S laws and constitution, which they admired and like concepts. Since 1990 most immigration, illegal or illegal is for financial and personal gains, most have no love for U.S., and human rights; This new immigration includes illegals and work visa like H1B visa types, comers to U.S., are loyal to their country of origin and potential treat to country’s security and Sovereignty

Since 1995, U.S., immigration laws have been so much messy, mostly because it is influence by special interest and their caucus, that it has become unenforceable, immigration laws need to be rewritten with correct interpretation of “Birth right” of 14th amendment of the constitution. Immigration is mismanaged.

According to DHS’ Office of Immigration Statistics (OIS), an estimated 11.4 million unauthorized immigrants resided in the United States as of January 2012 compared to 11.5 million in January 2011. These results suggest little to no change in the unauthorized immigrant population from 2011 to 2012.

In 2013, Mexican-born immigrants accounted for approximately 28 percent of the 41.3 million foreign born in the United States, making them by far the largest immigrant group in the country. India was the second largest, closely trailed by China (including Hong Kong but not Taiwan), which both accounted for about 5 percent, while the Philippines (4 percent) was the fourth largest sending country. Vietnam, El Salvador, Cuba, and Korea (3 percent each), as well as the Dominican Republic and Guatemala (2 percent each), complete the top ten countries of origin. Together, immigrants from these ten countries composed close to 60 percent of the U.S. immigrant population in 2013. (Source migrationpolicy.org)

Reported by Leonardo Blair, (Christian Post Reporter) on May 20, 2013|3:49 pm [christainpost.com]

“Most Undocumented Immigrants Are Christians From Latin America and Caribbean: An estimated 83 percent, or 9.2 million, of the 11.1 million people living in the United States illegally are Christians from Latin America and the Caribbean, according to a recent study by the Pew Research Center’s Forum on Religion & Public Life.”

Program is run in all 50 Mexican consulates in the U.S. helps push food stamps

Shocking US government leaflet tells Mexican immigrants they can collect food stamp benefits without admitting they’re in the country illegally, A Spanish-language leaflet that the U.S. Department of Agriculture has provided to the Mexican Embassy in Washington advises border-crossing Mexicans that they can collect taxpayer-funded food stamp benefits for their children without admitting that they’re illegal immigrants.

Underlined and in boldface type, the document tells immigrants who are unlawfully in the United States that, ‘You need not divulge information regarding your immigration status in seeking this benefit for your children.’

On its website, it acknowledges an education ‘partnership’ with the Mexican government.

(DailyMail.co.uk -- 14:45 EST, 26 April 2013)

Congress spent $86.5 billion on the SNAP program in 2012, by far the largest single line-item in the USDA’s $205 billion overall budget

Illegal and legal Immigration, both has become a problem for our country and economy. Number of unauthorized immigrants living in the United States has tripled since 1990.

1. There are about 11.4 million illegal aliens in the U.S., currently makes up to 3.5 % of the nation’s population.

2. 52 % of all illegal aliens are from Mexico, 48 % of illegal aliens, mainly came from Central America, India, China and Africa and others countries.

3. 8.1 million Illegal Aliens are either working or looking for work (2012). Illegal aliens, mostly working in food, hotel/motel, and ethnic based industries. Most of these businesses do not use E-verify.

4. 40 – 50 % of all legally entered persons over stayed their student, tourist and other visa, are illegal aliens and criminals

5. 87% Illegal Alien Families on Welfare

6. 72% of Legal Immigrants use Welfare.

.7. Illegal Alien households primarily benefit from food programs and Medicaid through U.S.-born children.

8. Legal immigrant households with children: 72 percent access one or more welfare programs, compared to 52 percent of native households.

9. Households headed by immigrants made greater use of food programs than “native households,” 40 percent to 22 percent, and Medicaid by 42 percent to 23 percent.

10. There are 42.8 million illegal aliens and legal immigrants in the U.S., making up around 14 per cent of the population. (2012 –worldbank)

11. Every year about 1 million people become legal immigrants in U.S.

12. Foreign born population U.S 316,497,531 (2013)

13. Average 350,000-450,000 babies are born to illegal and H1B visa parents in U.S.- every year. one in ten births nationwide

Cost of illegals in U.S

14. According to the Edwin Rubenstein report, illegal aliens cost American taxpayers $346 billion across 15 federal agencies. (Source: www.TheSocialContract.com)

15. Illegal aliens displaced American workers at a cost in excess of $133 billion dollars according to Harvard Professor George Borjas.

16. Cost of taking care of babies born to illegal or H1B visa parents -estimated that it costs $52 billion per year to educate the children of illegal aliens in American schools (FAIR)

17. Illegal immigrants cost U.S $113 billion a year. (Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR).)

18. U.S., paid $28.6 billion in illegal related costs, and state and local governments paid $84.2 billion on an estimated 13 million undocumented residents (Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR).).

19. Cost of deporting illegal is ONE time cost of about between $12000 per aliens. Keeping illegal and their children is far more expensive. There should be fast track system with fast track immigration court to handle this kind of projects for security of the country.

20. Expense includes breakfasts and lunches for their children. It includes English as a Second Language. It includes free education from K-12. It means free and unlimited medical care paid for by your wallet. It means you pay for insurance rates by unlicensed drivers and the list grows.

21. Deportation will help the economy, it will help creating sustainable and productive jobs, stabilize and increase in pay scale, drop in crime by illegals and by citizen who are involved in crime with illegals, drug control. Jail expense will go down in long run. Save many welfare and other agencies, and may help to balance out of control imbalance country’s budget. Also may help control racism, which mainly due to stereo typing because of the crime committed by illegals and non-citizens and on work visa.

22. Birth tourism is big in U.S., this type of tourism is commonly used by China, Mexico and Canada. H1B and L type Visa foreign workers, who can bring their spouse to live here and are using misunderstood “birth right clause” to obtain residency status, and use of welfare and other benefits available to citizens only. “Mexico warns Texas not to refuse its immigrants’ babies U.S. birth certificates” (Published August 27, 2015-Fox News Latino).

Most H1B and type visa foreign workers have no intention to go back to their country of origin.

Economy cost: Illegal and Illegal Aliens (Immigrants) are sending billions home each year, The US sent 22% of global remittance volume last year (2014). and on Top, India received 12% of global remittance volume. Illegal and legal immigrants in America are sending $120 BILLION to their families back home in 2012. U.S. is the largest sender of remittances in the world. More than $23 billion went to Mexico, $13.45 billion to China, $10.84 billion to India and $10 billion to the Philippines, among other recipients. (world Bank) World Bank officials believe the amount they donate could be billions more because not all cash is sent through banks and money transfer companies on which the figures are based.

75 percent of drugs arrive from Mexico at a net cost of $75 billion hard currency that leaves our country for good.

Most of illegals works in food industry, hotel/motel and ethic base businesses, question is do we need a fast food restaurant or a convenient store or a motel at every Corner? These are also cause of obesity in U.S.

Illegal makes other legal and citizens of same ethic group look bad.

Persons who came to U.S., with legal visa with expiration date – Most of them over stay and which is a crime and they became illegal aliens

Some crimes committed by illegals are:

Identity theft,

Use of fraudulent social security numbers.

Obtaining Green cards by illegal means.

Tax evasion.

Driving without licenses.

Violent crime and drug distribution and possession is also prevalent among illegal aliens. Over 25% of today's federal prison population is illegal aliens. In some areas of the country, 12% of felonies, 25% of burglaries and 34% of thefts are committed by illegal aliens."

There may be as many as 240,000 illegal alien sex offenders circulating throughout America. Based on studies, they will commit an average of 8 sex crimes per perpetrator before being caught.

Nobody knows how big the Sex Slave problem is.

The overall financial impact of illegal alien crimes is estimated at between $14.4 and $81 billion or more per year. Factor in the crime as a result of the cocaine and other drugs being smuggled in and the number may reach $150 billion per year.

Engaged in criminal activity represent some of the crimes that are engaged in by the majority of illegal aliens on a daily basis merely to maintain and hide their illegal status.

Source: usillegalaliens.com

April 12, 2016. During Senate Finance Committee Hearing; Dan Coasts (R-Ind) [IRS]agency identified 200,000 new cases of employment-related identity theft last year, Coats said.

Internal Revenue Service Commissioner John Koskinen: The question is whether the Social Security numbers have been stolen. In many cases, they have been borrowed from friends or acquaintances with permission, Koskinen said.

“It’s not the normal identity-theft situation,” Koskinen said.

Laws are developed inappropriate, confusing and tricky.

The estimated cost of incarcerating criminal illegal aliens at the federal level is estimated at $1.5 to $1.6 billion per year. the average cost to house any inmate is $44,563 a year. Estimate – Over period of 10 years $16 billion or more.

2015 research on illegal alien crime:

The New York Times reports that about 4.5 million illegal aliens in the U.S. drive on a regular basis, many without licenses or insurance, or even the ability to read road signs written in English. One estimates that illegal alien drunk drivers kill 13 Americans every day — that’s a death toll of 4,745 per year.

According to the Center for Immigration Studies, more than 43,000 illegal aliens were convicted of drug offenses. The violent crime category of assault, robbery, sexual assault, and family offenses comes to 12 percent.

An FBI crime study shows that 75 percent of those on the most wanted criminals list in Los Angeles, Phoenix and Albuquerque are illegal aliens.

There are at least 70,000 MS-13 gang members operating between Central America and the United States. (cairco.org)

Many children and women are sexual abused or raped on the way to coming to U.S. from Central America, Mexico and other countries does not do anything to protect peoples.

Human trafficking is becoming a major concern in U.S., many are run by illegals and these illegal services are used mainly illegals and work visa workers.

Visa Fraud:

The United States Citizenship and Immigration Services "H-1B Benefit Fraud & Compliance Assessment" of September 2008 concluded 21% of H-1B visas granted originates from fraudulent applications or applications with technical violations

Visa fraud includes obtaining visa with stolen Identity, fraudulent marriage, fake university degree and certificates, hiring a worker for which there is no U.S. job; among many other scams. There is no workable system to track people who are here on temporary visas, such as visit, H1B visa etc.

Impose E-Verify for every state and company by executive order will help controlling many abuses by illegals and companies.

There is crime committed by citizen but we do not need to add more crime by illegals to crime statistics. By better management and controlling illegals, we are also minimizing crime in U.S.

Media in U.S are religiously report influx of immigrants in Europe (2015), but almost no reporting on illegal and legal non-citizens aliens and their crime and its effect in U.S.

All immigration systems are almost broken and need streamline and major changes for better management.

According to Pew Research Center report, between 2015 and 2065, Asian will account for 88 percent of the nation’s population increase.

By 2065 Hispanic immigrant population will drop to 31% of all immigrants and Asian immigrants likely to grow to 38 %. Although Asians will be the largest foreign-born U.S. population, researchers project Hispanics will still make up a larger part of the overall population by 2065.

Source of Immigration to the U.S., by Era

Between 1965-2015

Total immigrants: 58,525,000

Mexico. 16,375,000

China. 3,175,000

India. 2,700,000

Philippines. 2,350,000

Korea. 1.725,000

Vietnam. 1,500,000

Cuba. 1,550,000

El Salvador. 1,500,000

Former USSR. 1.450,000

Dominican Republic. 1.325,000

Regional totals:

Latin American. 29,750,000

South/East Asia. 14,700,000

Europe. 6,900,000

Africa/ Middle East. 4,550,000

Canada. 1.150,000

All other. 1,450,000

Source: Office of immigration Statistics. Population figures rounded to nearest 25,000. These figures include legal and illegal immigrants.

Amnesty supporter are giving preference to illegals over American citizens and American workers and lacking loyalty.

Illegals are breaking US laws and crime should not be rewarded.

Great wall of China was built in 220–206 BCE by Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China, many parts were added to it later and since Qin Shi Huang time, country’s immigration policy is almost zero in immigration, and have open out going immigration. China is well protected from India’s invasion naturally by Himalaya mountain range.

At least 20 people were shot over 16 hours in Chicago on Wednesday into Thursday – Chicago Tribune (May 19, 2016).

Most countries in central and eastern Europe as well as Germany, Greece, Armenia, France, China, Japan, Norway, Finland, Philippines, Ireland, Turkey, Kazakhstan and Israel have repatriation laws

Border

The border between the United States and Mexico stretches more than 2,000 miles and one of the major concerns for national security and Sovereignty of the country.

There is great need to monitor and stop illegal passing over border line. A wall is a great idea, wall will make it easier to protect countries sovereignty and illegal activities. Broder wall is used by many countries like Israel.

There are tens of thousands of Latinos in U.S., who are great and have served the country greatly.

Some are listed below.

Sonia Sotomayor, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States

Bill Richardson, Governor of New Mexico

Geraldo Rivera, talk-show host, journalist

Nydia Velásquez, U.S. Representative

Gloria Estefan, singer

Christina Aguilera, pop singer

Isabel Allende, writer

Alberto Alfonso, choreographer

Roberto Alomar, baseball player

Ellen Ochoa, astronaut

Julia Alvarez, writer

Luis Walter Alvarez, Nobel Prize-winning physicist

Rudolfo Anaya, writer

Andy Garcia, actor

Desi Arnaz, actor

Judy Baca, artist

Joan Baez, folk singer and activist

David Barkley, soldier and Medal of Honor recipient

Jean-Michel Basquiat, artist

Ruben Blades, actor

Jose Canseco, baseball player

Lynda Carter, actress

Franklin Chang-Dìaz, astronaut

Linda Chavez-Thompson, labor leader

Henry Cisneros, U.S. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development

Sandra Cisneros, writer

Roberto Clemente, baseball player

Celia Cruz, singer

Selena Gomez, Actress and philanthropist

Refugees

In 1979, U.S., provided sanctuary to 111,000 Vietnamese refugees and in 1980 almost doubled that number to 207,000. Around the same time, the United States took in more than 120,000 Cuban.

Bhutan stripped the minority ethnic Nepalese of their citizenship and forced them into exile in the early 1990s, The U.S. has offered to resettle 60,000 refugees. First group of 60,000 refugees from Bhutan came into U.S., in March 2008. (CNN -March 2008).

U.S., has offered to take about 100,000 Syrian refugees starting in 2015, Many of them are the most vulnerable from Syria’s collapse: torture survivors, people with special medical needs and women who head households. About 25 % of Syrian population has been killed in modern day genocide by Shia minority government of Assad with Russia, since civil war broke in Syria four years ago. Mostly killed are women and children.

Russian President Vladimir Putin’s spokesman Dmitry Peskov explains Russia was targeting ISIS and “other groups,” telling reporters: “These organizations are well known and the targets are chosen in coordination with the armed forces of Syria.” (Oct 2015).

Many people have been asking for no fly zone over Syria and certain areas of Iraq since start of civil war and ISIS insurgency in Iraq, but allied has not done this and result is ten of thousand has died by Syrian Assad regime and now Russia is involved in this genocide of Syrian people. This is state sponsor terrorism and genocide against her own people by dictator Assad and Russia.

National ID

Many people are realizing that National ID is a good idea, many states does issue State ID card for people who do not have driver’s license and Passport issuing department also issue “Passport card”, this type of card can help and identify citizens and illegals, terrorists and others for security of nation.

Silent invasion

There are many different methods, by which an invasion can take place. One of the most dangerous is silent invasion. Object of silent invasion is to conquering, liberating or re-establishing control or authority over a territory, forcing the partition of a country, altering the established government or gaining concessions from victim country. Victim country can save its Sovereignty with counter-offensive actions.

With silent invasion came cultural exchanges in government, philosophy, religion, and technology that reshaped the victim country.

Silent invader uses different methods, few are economy, heavily invest in real estate and other intangible and tangible assets, slowly buying of local business, taking jobs from locals, work in key positions in the victim country’s government, inject large number of people to increase their population in victim country.

Some silent invader uses violent means to advance their agenda of occupy the victim country.

In 1940 Hitler’s invasion of Norway is an example of mixture of silent and military invasion. In that invasion German combat units entered Norway disguised as civilians. Once on Norwegian soil they deployed to sites where uniforms and weapons were waiting. Entire German combat units were able to invade Norway without having to fight their way up beaches. The country was penetrated in depth at the outset.

Rajneesh movement in U.S. in 1970 until 1985, founded by Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh [Hindu religious philosopher] Tried to take over government and conducted a first ever terror attack in Texas and Oregon (U.S.) by food poisoning about 751 individuals in Dallas and Oregon, had hoped to incapacitate the voting population of the city so that their own candidate would win 1984 Wasco Country (Texas, U.S) election; Likely to take over the country by violent political terrorism. No major arrest was made and party members disbursed and maybe still actively working to take over the country and convert this country to Baratism philosophy.

Popular support is vital to the success of any invasion

Cultural effect

Many thinking citizens has concerns and fearing of losing earned and developed culture of the country, they maybe not wrong in thinking.

Cultural effect of extremely large numbers illegal aliens and workers from third world countries is fundamentally changing the landscape of the United State culturally. When small numbers of legal immigrants move into a free and advance country, legal immigrant adopt local culture and respect country’s constitution, in contrast, when large number of illegal aliens and foreign worker present in a country, it threatens Sovereignty and unity of the country.

These groups try to stick to their third world mentality with their cultural deficiencies, such as lack of human rights, equality – caste system or aristocracy. Most refuse to interrogate with main stream culture of the country. This can be seen in business and companies where they work, one of the major out-sourcing and supplier of foreign worker in the world has been repeatedly investigated for breaking employment laws and discrimination base of nationality (mainly discriminating against US citizens) and hiring within their race or hiring heavily within chose of caste member. Caste system or aristocracy can consume a culture to a point of no recovery. U.S. was found to end British aristocracy law and system, and to end British occupation and freedom to all citizens.

Mismanaged of Immigration laws is encourage both sides to discriminate and distance each other from main stream culture of the country. Furthermore, this separation could allow for tensions and possibly violence to grow between all groups.

Minority tries to influence mainstream culture by playing victim or misrepresenting their culture by glamorizing it

At a women’s tech conference in Oct 2014, Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella said that women not asking for a raise is “good karma” and that “the system will give you the right raises as you go along.” (USA today Oct, 2014) He did apologize on Twitter

There many areas in U.S which are known as Mexican town or little India.

Heritage is new secret code word for race supremacy – used by all races.

Freedom of Religion

Freedom of religion does not mean that one can go and kill homosexual if their religion ask for it or practice caste system in social life, work place or temples. Freedom of religion basically means that one can go to their house of worship and worship anyone or anything they like. Constitution is the supreme law of the United State of America, if disagree then self-deport.

Crime

According to New York Time report, murder rates are rising sharply across the U.S., 35 major cities have reported a spike in murders, violent crimes or both. 120 people were killed by late August (2015) in New Orleans, compared to 98 during the same time last year. Milwaukee, Wisconsin has reported 104 murders, compared to 59 in all of 2014, an increase of 76 %. Other cities with number has increase are St. Louis, where numbers show increase of crime by 60% and Baltimore by 56% since the same date in 2014.

Some experts give reason for the increase in crime include weak economy, less aggressive policing, gun ownership, gang-related crime, crime by illegal aliens, domestic violence and mental illness – mental illness may depend of frustration with economy, helplessness from lack of opportunities and rise of religious hate groups and persons and their propaganda of hate, which is not a free speech.

Most recent crime in U.S., 9 people were killed and more than a dozen others wounded in a shooting at Umpqua Community College in Roseburg, OR on Oct 1, 2015, shooter/killer Christopher Harper-Mercer. Reported that He was asking victim their religious believes before shooting them.

All four students were arrested for conspiracy to commit an assault with deadly weapons in Summerville High School in Tuolumne, California. Police were investing them for obtaining the weapons. Their names will not be released because they're juveniles. (USA today- Oct 4, 2015)

There have been at least 432 known schools shooting in United States since 1764. These numbers include incidents in which a person intentionally shot him or herself in suicide or suicide attempt.

1700s: 1

1800s: 44

1900s: 226

2000s: 161

Total: 432

(Many media sources)

More people are killed in gun violence than terror attack in past 10 years.

Deaths because of fire arms in U.S., between 2004 and 2013

Fire arm: 316545 deaths

Terrorism: 313 deaths (this include political and 36 people killed under “domestic act of terrorism”, such as abortion clinic attack. Source CDC/CNN. (Oct 2, 2015). Not all Christians are terrorist, estimate about 2.5 % [around the world]are extremists and/or involved or have violent Spanish inquisition ideology or race – based on misguided and man-made religion doctrines.

Arrested offenders by race (2012)

Year 2012:

White: 6,502,919

Black: 2,640,067

American Indian: 135,165

Asian: 112,322

Arrested offenders by gender (2012)

Male: 6,972,023

Female: 2,474,637

Source: FBI

There were 13,716 homicides in the United States in 2013, including non-negligent manslaughter

Source FBI

Robberies Year: 2012: 354,520 [Crime and criminal justice statistics, used table: robbery. Retrieved May-24-2014]

Tjaden, P., & Thoennes, N. (2006). Extent, nature and consequences of rape victimization. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice. “Among female rape victims, 78.2 percent were raped by one person, 13.5 percent were raped by two people, and 8.3 percent were raped by three or more people.”

The U.S. Department of Justice’s National Crime Victimization Survey states that on average there are 237,868 victims (age 12 or older) of sexual assault and rape each year. By these calculations an American is sexually assaulted every two minutes [“How Often Does Sexual Assault Occur? | RAINN | Rape, Abuse and Incest National Network.” How Often Does Sexual Assault Occur? | RAINN | Rape, Abuse and Incest National Network. N.p., n.d. Web. {rainn.org / get-information / statistics / frequency-of-sexual – assault}

Illicit arms sale is out of control in U.S., NRA and government is not doing enough to stop this violence in our society.

People with gun kills

Infrastructure

Infrastructure in USA can be comparable to any third world. It’s a disgrace to world number one economy, most because of mismanagement and wastage.

infrastructurereportcard.org gave American infrastructure following grades (2013):

Energy: D

Bridges: C +

Aviation: D

DAMS: D

Drinking water: D

Schools: D

Voting right

One person one vote is basis democracy.

Voting right at birth of American citizen, age at 16- 21 depending type of election and state or federal election. Every citizen should be allowed to vote regardless of registration. Citizenship can be verified by 1 photo id such as passport or birth certificate and 1 photo ID. It’s a right should not be over regulated nor restrictive.

Elections should be held on Saturday so working people can easily go to polling station to cast their vote and exercise their civil right.

Freedom of speech

Freedom of speech is important, but freedom to speak of hate through by any media is not free speech. It’s simply hate speech.

Education

SAT Scores (2015) have sunk to the lowest level since the college admission test was overhauled in 2005

Student loan: Government must bail out American students, just like TARP for corporation, countries who do not support their students and education system is bound to go down.

There are many advantages of college education, first is enormously increase human capital which is great asset of any country. College educated tend to be more financial independent and less like to be depended on welfare, in year 2012, only 13 % college educated received welfare benefits.

Tuition free college education, just like elementary and high school, is a good policy and people who do not support this policy, are lacking loyalty to America and American children.

Today’s students and recent graduates are victim of predatory lending, student loan rate is just too high than normal rate and in most cases cannot be refinanced, some bank do refinance if loan is over 10,000 and student can only refinance “once”. Rules approved by government

Government try to change and update federal student loans rules and lose millions of dollar in process and bail outs; free college education is cheaper than any bail outs and beneficial to government and student and above all the country. Most advance educated countries have free college in Europe and Asia.

Teachers has failed our students; there must some standard to measure their performance and hold them accountable.

Teachers pay should be compatible to their education and compatible to other sectors, such as wall street, doctors etc. this will bring high educated people to teaching.

Teacher should do their full teaching in class. No homework for grade 1 to high school. It is inhuman to expect small children to work (attend school) for long hours than do homework, that’s too many hours for kids.

School should add Information technology SQL, Python and JavaScript and like courses in their curriculum for future jobs and to be with time.

According to The United Nations school education ranking, U.S., is number 5, after Netherlands Norway is on top, and India is in bottom tier and is number 100. (2013).

College graduate is less likely to be involved in violent crime and other crimes.

Half of US jobs could be taken by robots in the next 20 years.

American Language

European languages evolved and spread from Anatolia, now modern-day Turkey. In 2012, a team of evolutionary biologists at the University of Auckland led by Dr. Quentin Atkinson released a study that found all modern IE languages could be traced back to a single root: Anatolian — the language of Anatolia, now modern-day Turkey.

American language is not British English, both uses most of the words, but structure of sentence is differentiating and in many cases words has differencing meaning or interpretation of words or/and sentence are lot different. There are many versions of English language used today, such as British, American, Spanish and Commonwealth English.

Language has “The Power To Divide As Well As Unite”.

National Security

National security is most important responsibility of any government. Government not only protects state from rogue countries invasion, but also from terrorists, multinational corporations, silent invasions, and natural disasters and other environmental damages like climate changes.

Most important government responsibility is protecting and provide safety to all citizens to conduct the normal life activities, such as job, commerce and raise family.

Protecting citizen’s personal information should be top priority as national security, for example, if personal and personal information of army personal is hacked, a terrorist or a rogue country can know address and where he/she works in army base or sensitive agency’s address, in past few years’ hackers stole millions of Social security numbers and personal information. Identity theft is billions of dollar business. When personal and government business works are outsourced to another country, these works go through internet and other countries government have full access to all information flowing through the system, hacker have same access to information, this is a national security crisis.

Citizens Job is utmost countries national security; out sourcing and hiring too many at government agencies and sensitive area put country at risk.

The Experian breach is the latest in a string of massive hacks that have each claimed millions (Oct 2015) – and sometimes tens of millions – of customer records, including the theft of personnel records from the U.S. government this year, a 2014 breach on JPMorgan Chase and a 2013 attack on Target Corp’s cash register systems. No known arrest was made, most IT departments of these companies depend or hire foreign workers or have out sourced their work overseas to countries like India and Philippines.

Foreign workers on H1B and L type and other visa, do not have taken oath “Oath of Allegiance (United States)” to be loyal to U.S., they are loyal to their country of origin and some of them became citizen via different means and do not take their oath seriously when they became naturalized citizens, a serious national security concern

TSA (Transportation Security Administration) is authority over the security of the traveling public in the United States. TSA oversees security for highways, railroads, buses, mass transit systems, pipelines and ports. Private screening companies are allowed if airports to opt out of federal screening and hire firms to do the job instead. This is very risky for citizens, TSA should hire Veterans to screening, they already trained in many security areas and loyal to the country.

Analogic’s {US company} Cobra CT scanners are currently in use at Amsterdam’s Schiphol Airport and London’s Luton Airport with success, TAS red tape and TSA bureaucrats won’t buy this technology which can save 1000s of hours for TSA and travelers and above all, it will increase security.

U.S., is losing its place in Military national security to China, India and Russia. China has 2,285,000 personal, India 1,325,000, Russia 1,040,000; USA was 1.429,995 and is shrinking at alarming rate due to cuts.

North Korea is one of the biggest treat to America; North Korea has WMD and means to deliver it to American soil. North Korea has issued many nuclear warning to U.S. India also has WMD and have means to deliver these kind of bombs to U.S.

US has been acting like toilet paper to countries like Mexico and India and like countries since 1990s.

Terrorism

Following are some organization or groups or person which is most dangers to the peace of civilized world. DAESH [Al Dawla al-Islamyia fil Iraq wa’al Sham] (aka ISIL or ISIS), Al-Qaida, Hamas, Moslem Brother-hood, Moslem Sisterhood, Hizbollah, Asaib Ahl al-Haq, Indian Hindutuva (India), KKK, Jon Ritzheimer, RSS [aka Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, India ] affiliates:BJP/BD/SS/MSN/HRS, Taliban, Zakarias, DKBA [Democratic Karen Buddhist Army], Khomeinist, Hutaree, Tony Blair & Group, Aryan Nations,( Earl Holt, leader of ) the Council of Conservative Citizens, Nazi/Neo-Nazi affiliated groups, Zaidis and Naqshbandi (sufi group) – not all Naqshbandi are terrorist; Khomeinist, and RAW, the Donetsk and Luhansk People’s Republics are classified as terrorist organizations, and the National Youth Front, Geert Wilders –Dutch freedom Party – this party terrors 1.2 billion Moslem around the world via many tactics, including use of media. Phil Robertson – know bigot who terrorize minorities and others around the world, he has some elite media support, even Yahoo gives him platform to expend his hate agenda. In May 2016, he compared Moslems with Nazi (yahoo news)– probably he doesn’t know that most Nazis were Christians.

In 1928 Hitler said in a speech: “We tolerate no one in our ranks who attacks the ideas of Christianity … in fact our movement is Christian.” [Speech in Passau 27 October 1928 Bundesarchiv Berlin-Zehlendorf; from Richard Steigmann-Gall (2003). Holy Reich: Nazi conceptions of Christianity, 1919-1945. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 60-61].

Religion to fascism

Scholar of fascism, Stanley Payne notes that fundamental to fascism was the foundation of a purely materialistic “civic religion” that would “displace preceding structures of belief and relegate supernatural religion to a secondary role, or to none at all”, and that “though there were specific examples of religious or would-be ‘Christian fascists,’ fascism presupposed a post-Christian, post-religious, secular, and immanent frame of reference.”[Payne, Stanley, A History of Fascism, 1914–1945, p. 9, Routledge 1996.]

In USA, about 462 terror cases are in process of prosecuting associated with groups such as ISIS and al-Qaida since the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks in U.S.; over 800 are being investigated for terror affiliation in US.

“This spring FBI arrested a Tennessee man named Robert Doggart who was plotting to lead a far-right militia on a killing spree against a heavily Muslim community in New York state. “ (vox.com-2015)

To counter terrorism, most important part is to review and understand the reasons of rise of terrorism, without cooked up reports, deep analysis of reasons of cold war covering Russian (USSR) invading of Afghanistan, on December 24, 1979 to 9/11, mujahedeen to jihad and crusaders and Benghazi to where and how we got here (2015). Terrorism by self-proclaimed Moslem is not about religion but political. ISIS security issue can be solved if world see ISIS problem as political not religious issue, use both military and political ways; just like allied forces dealt with Germany in 40s.

On Sep 16, 2013: “Aaron Alexis: A former Navy reservist killed at least 12 people on Monday in a mass shooting at a secure military facility. “New details have emerged about accused Washington Navy Yard shooter Aaron Alexis. Perhaps most unexpected: Alexis was a practicing Buddhist, who visited a Fort Worth Thai Buddhist temple to meditate twice a week. “From the outside, he was a quiet person,” says one of the monk’s assistants, per The Washington Post.”

(newser.com/story/174344/navy-yard-gunman-was-a-buddhist.html)

Edward Snowden – a convert Buddhist, (June 2013) leaked classified information from the U.S. National Security Agency, jeopardizing security of many countries and public, this act is cyberterrorism.

An independent computer security researcher uncovered a database of information on 191 million voters that is exposed on the open Internet due to an incorrectly configured database, he said on Monday. The database includes names, addresses, birth dates, party affiliations, phone numbers and emails of voters in all 50 U.S. states and Washington, researcher Chris Vickery said in a phone interview. Vickery, a tech support specialist from Austin, Texas, said he found the information while looking for information exposed on the Web in a bid to raise awareness of data leaks. “I want our society to respect privacy more,” he said. “We need serious referendum on the way private data is handled.” reported by Jim Finkle and Dustin Volz Dec 28, 2015(Reuter).

Every time “Why they Hate us” CNN documentary is run, somewhere there is terror attack a recruiting tool for radicalization of vulnerable or just a coincident. Terror cases like in Orlando. Many cases of terror attack on police, many officers killed and injured, and others -Turkey and Bangladesh. Some may argue that it uses out of context words, out of context verses from Bible and Koran and totally unfairly and misleading views and analogies, it ignores other religions and countries where laws are against human rights, such as India, which criminalize Gay rights.

American citizen’s private information is national security.

ISIS:

World have to view Iraq and Syria beyond ISIS problem, its political mix with sectarian issue, after liberation of Iraq after 2011, Shia Moslem government fail to give non-Shia opportunities in government and economy but also discriminately killed non-Shia Moslems with help of Shia Militia and Shia terror group under Shia cleric Sadr. Shia of Iraq wanting a Iran type theological government system. This caused a civil war between Shia and non-Shia of Iraq and all most non- existence of governing creates a vacuum and opportunity for goons and thugs to gather and create terror groups like ISIS and Al-Nusra and likes.

Many world leaders and thinker said to divide Iraq into Shia and non-Shia country and divide oil income equally like Sudan. This would have stop the killing and saved tens of thousands of lives and would have peace in the region.

Arab spring is successful in Egypt, Tunisia and Libya is most because of people of each country share same religious sectarian believes or at least they kept separation and religion. Egypt, Tunisia and Libya is stable and peaceful now, but is not immune to occasional ISIS and type terror group’s terror attack like any country.

Small core of American government-financed organizations was promoted democracy in authoritarian Arab states. Key leaders of the movements where been trained by the Americans in campaigning, organizing through new media tools and monitoring elections. Reported by Ron Nixon in an article published in nytime.com on April 14, 2011. Further he noted that groups like International Republican Institute, the National Democratic Institute and Freedom House, a nonprofit human rights organization based in Washington, DC provide training and finance to April 6 Youth Movement in Egypt and Yemen. Also noted in the article, “The Republican and Democratic institutes are loosely affiliated with the Republican and Democratic Parties. They were created by Congress and are financed through the National Endowment for Democracy, which was set up in 1983 to channel grants for promoting democracy in developing nations. The National Endowment receives about $100 million annually from Congress. Freedom House also gets the bulk of its money from the American government, mainly from the State Department. “ .. “We learned how to organize and build coalitions,” said Bashem Fathy, a founder of the youth movement that ultimately drove the Egyptian uprisings. Mr. Fathy, who attended training with Freedom House, said, “This certainly helped during the revolution.”

Modern Iraq was created wrong by League of Nation in 1920, mostly demarcated, league did not took sectarians difference in consideration between non-Shia and Shia Moslem, maybe due to lack of knowledge or just made a hot spot by choice. Same can be said about Syria, which was also created by League of Nation in 1920.

In Syria, there have been many tries by majority non-Shia to over throw Assad dynasty. In or about 1982 uprising reached its climax, Hafez al-Assad (father of current dictator Assad) massacre some 10,000 – 40,000 people by regular Syrian Army troops in Hama, Syria. Genocide is still in progress by Assad dynasty.

Indeed, Saddam Hussain, Gadhafi and Assad are evil people of Middle East, evil has no religion.

More than 1 million Iraqis and Syrian have been displaced in the past few years since the ISIS took control over significant part of Iraq, over 200,000 people has died since civil war broke in Syria and millions displaced. Russian army is moving in to support oppressive and rogue government of Assad. Most refuges are in Turkey, Jordan and Lebanon. Europe has started to see refugees’ influx at their door steps. Europe is expecting about 2 million refuges by mid next year (2016).

About 25% of Syrian population has been killed in current civil war, recent Russian bombing of Syrian people is start of genocide in larger scale than before. Mostly killed are women and children

Russian is trying to expend their activities in Syria into a full invasion, like in Ukraine

Allied Arab countries with Westerns Allied countries must be more active to eliminate this threat from ISIS for peace and security of the world with minimum Collateral damage.

The U.S.-led coalition to fight ISIS has conducted 6,863 strikes in the year-long campaign in Iraq and Syria, according to Pentagon statistics. (Sep 2015)

The alleged cooking of the intel books on ISIS by CENTCOM and weak advice that is not reliable and complete as much as possible, one cannot make educated and result delivering decision to encounter threats.

Syria’s genocide of majority by minority Shia government needs to stop.

Occupation of a country by any means and/or rule by dictatorship is crime against humanity.

ISIS’s (DEASH) persecution of Iraqi Christians, Yazidi and other communities is a persecution of immense proportions which has already forced tens of thousands of men, women and children to flee for their lives. World is deeply pessimistic about the international community’s slow response to the persecution.

Syrian Moslems Kurdish fighters, who control the north-east of the country, have sent units across the border into neighboring Iraq where they are supporting tens of thousands of refugees from the Christians and Yazidi and other Moslem minority communities, who have fled into the mountains near Sinjar.

14 Misconception about ISIS (ISIL or DEASH)

Some reasons ISIL is not Islamic and is in full contradiction to the Holy Koran:

1: War and Islam:

“People who make unnecessary wars and problems for not making peace “Who break the covenant of Allah after contracting it and sever that which Allah has ordered to be joined and cause corruption on earth. It is those who are the losers”.(Koran: 2:27) , and in Verse (of Koran) 5:32, killing one person , it would be like killing the whole humanity, as if one life saved would be like saving of whole humanity. And “O you who believe! Eat not up your property among yourselves unjustly except it be a trade amongst you, by mutual consent. And do not kill yourselves (nor kill one another). Surely, Allah is Most Merciful to you.” [Koran: 4:29]

2: Killing of people and Moslems (of any Sects): Killing of innocent Moslem is forbidden in Koran in following verse:

“But whoever kills a believer intentionally – his recompense is Hell, wherein he will abide eternally, and Allah has become angry with him and has cursed him and has prepared for him a great punishment.” (Koran: 4:93).

“Bear unto the hypocrites the tidings that for them there is a painful doom.” (Koran: 4: 138).

“The believers are but brothers, so make settlement between your brothers. And fear Allah that you may receive mercy.” (Koran: 49:10)

ISIS (or ISL) has been killing innocent people regardless of their belief.

3: Converting people to Islam by force or by threat: (no compulsion).

“There is no compulsion in the religion; right-mindedness has already been evidently (distinct) from misguidance. So whoever disbelieves in the Taghut (i.e. false gods, idols, devils and seducers) and believes in Allah, then he has already upheld fast the most binding Grip, with no disjunction (ever); and Allah is Ever-Hearing, Ever-Knowing.”(Koran2:256)

“And Allah invites to the Home of Peace and guides whom He wills to a straight path”. (Koran 10:25)

” Invite to the way of your Lord with wisdom and good instruction, and argue with them in a way that is best. Indeed, your Lord is most knowing of who has strayed from His way, and He is most knowing of who is [rightly] guided.” (Koran: 16:125)

And

“Invite (all) to the Way of thy Lord with wisdom and beautiful preaching; and argue with them in ways that are best and most gracious: for thy Lord knoweth best, who have strayed from His Path, and who receive guidance.” (Koran: 16:125)

“So by mercy from Allah , [O Muhammad], you were lenient with them. And if you had been rude [in speech] and harsh in heart, they would have disbanded from about you. So pardon them and ask forgiveness for them and consult them in the matter. And when you have decided, then rely upon Allah . Indeed, Allah loves those who rely [upon Him].” (Koran: 3:159)

“And whoever desires other than Islam as religion – never will it be accepted from him, and he, in the Hereafter, will be among the losers.”(Koran:3:85)

“And in no way can (any) self believe except by the permission of Allah; and He sets (Literally: makes) abomination upon those who do not consider.”. (Koran:10:100)

4: Tolerance

“For you is your religion, and for me is my religion.”.(Koran: 109:6)

Koran teaches tolerance for people of different faith. This theme is repeated several times in Koran as equality and race equality and with other references.

“O mankind! Lo! We have created you male and female, and have made you nations and tribes that ye may know one another. Lo! the noblest of you, in the sight of Allah, is the best in conduct. Lo! Allah is Knower, Aware. [Koran: 49:13]

5: Head of state to be elected by consensus of majority of the state.

“Those who hearken to their Lord, and establish regular Prayer; who (conduct) their affairs by mutual Consultation [Majlis al-Shura is { democracy} ; who spend out of what We bestow on them for Sustenance;.”[ Koran:42:38]

ISIL Caliph is not elected by any general election as prescribe by Koran.

6: Hajj

ISIL thinks hajj is superstition or worship of stones in Mecca and destroy the Kaaba (holy Shrine in Mecca). ISIS threat to kill Moslims, who perform the Hajj pilgrimage in Mecca.

“In it are clear signs [such as] the standing place of Abraham. And whoever enters it shall be safe. And [due] to Allah from the people is a pilgrimage (Hajj) to the House – for whoever is able to find thereto a way. But whoever disbelieves – then indeed, Allah is free from need of the worlds.”[Koran: 3:97]

7: destruction of shrine and graves and antiquity:

24 July: ISIS blew up the Mosque and tomb of the Prophet Yunus (Jonah) in Mosul, with no reported casualties. Residents in the area said that ISIS had erased a piece of Iraqi heritage. ISIS blew up the Nabi Shiyt (Prophet Seth) shrine in Mosul – Iraq.

“Say, “Travel in the earth; thereafter look into how was the end of the beliers.” [Koran:6:11]

Mohammed never desecration any Temple of any religion nor antiquity,

8: There is no reference in Koran stating somone will get 72 virgin in paradise if they killed themselves in jihad.

9: Suicide attack: Suicide attack and suicide is not allowed in Islam and its is mentioned in following verse of Koran.

“O you who have believed, do not consume one another’s wealth unjustly but only [in lawful] business by mutual consent. And do not kill yourselves [[or one another].]. Indeed, Allah is to you ever Merciful.” (Koran: 4:29) SEE OTHER TRANSLATION BEFORE USING IT

Suicide attack is not in Koran and there no evidence of this practice in Islamic history in terms of sharia law, Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) or tradition.

10: status of women

“O mankind! Lo! We have created you male and female, and have made you nations and tribes that ye may know one another. Lo! the noblest of you, in the sight of Allah, is the best in conduct. Lo! Allah is Knower, Aware. [Koran: 49:13]

Rape of female in war (and in general) is a great sin and is punishable, term “Hiraba” is used in Koran [5:33-34] for such crime.

Many abuses by ISIL have been reported against women.

Also see “Women and Islam” section in this book.

11: respect of all races and people:

“O Humankind! Lo! We have created you male and female, and have made you nations and tribes that ye may know one another. Lo! the noblest of you, in the sight of Allah, is the best in conduct. Lo! Allah is Knower, Aware.”(Koran 49:13)

12: other human rights abuses:

“And O my people, give full measure and weight in justice and do not deprive the people of their due and do not commit abuse on the earth, spreading corruption.” (Koran: 26:183).

13: world peace,

“And do not make [your oath by] Allah an excuse against being righteous and fearing Allah and making peace among people. And Allah is Hearing and Knowing.” (Koran: 2:224).

“But he who fears from a testator some unjust act or wrong-doing, and thereupon he makes peace between the parties concerned, there shall be no sin on him. Certainly, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful (Koran: 2:182)

“The believers are naught else than brothers. Therefore make peace between your brethren and observe your duty to Allah that haply ye may obtain mercy.” [Koran: 49:10]

Most Islamic countries and Moslem scholars have declared ISIS aka ISL and its caliphate as terrorist organization.

Christian in India:

Burning of Church’s and discrimination against Christians and other minorities in India is norm. such report information are reported by By ICC’s (International Christian Concern) India Correspondent.

(Narendra) Modi (Prime minister of Bharat Gaṇarajya aka India) also came under fire last month for rejecting calls to sack another BJP (offshoot of RSS) lawmaker (Niranjan Jyoti ) who told a campaign rally crowd to decide whether they wanted a government run by “the children of Ram (Hindu god) or the children of bastards”{subhuman or has no rights }.” Report by dailymail.co.uk [January 2015].

In Hindu mythology there are few illegitimate who are their gods, “Vayu [the wind god] illegitimate offspring is Hanuman, the monkey god.” [Ramayana and Mahabharata -Hindu religious book], among other illegitimate is Bhim. [pantheon.org/articles/v/vayu.html].

According to Hindu religion, all Hindus are children of Ram (Hindu God) and all non-Hindu and non-natural born Hindus are Bastards / illegitimate (as an lowest caste) , according to Niranjan Jyoti.

DJS (Dharm Jagran Samiti) head Rajeshwar Singh said “Our target is to make India a Hindu Rashtra [nation] by 2021. The Muslims and Christians don’t have any right to stay here. “; ““I will ensure that India is freed of Muslims and Christians by December 31, 2021,” Singh said. Reported by Dailymail.co.uk – December 18, 2014. Article: ‘We will free India of Muslims and Christians by 2021’: DJS leader vows to continue ‘ghar wapsi’ plans and restore ‘Hindu glory’].

Forced conversation of Christians and other minorities in India (aka Bharat ) under campaign called “ghar wapsi” (Homecomings). it is a very ambitious Bharatism (Hindu fundamentalist) campaign.

Hindu Indian religious police routinely use violence to inforce them believes on people in India.

Thomas the Apostle was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, was martyred on St. Thomas Mount (Parangimalai – Chennai- India) in 72 CE, by four soldiers of Hindu king armed with spears. Tradition says that he proclaimed Christ in India, and founded the church of Mar Thoma. This church is still in existence today

Delhi – capital of India is known as Rape capital of the world. There are many incidents in which Christians nuns were raped. Hindu God rape a women, so many Hindus believes that rapes is form of punishment and part of religious punishment, Hinduism is uncivilized codes of rules, also evil.

US congress/Senate invited India’s Narendra Modi to address joint session in 2016, and gave him warm welcome. Modi is well known as part of Bharatist (Indian Hindu fascist) party. Once west was Hitlers friend too, history know the result of helping and associate with a fascist.

Pope Francis in Manila, Philippines; Calls for Elimination of Social Inequalities, Injustices and Corruption (January 16, 2015) reported by www.americanmagazine.org)

Jan 2015 President Obama (U.S) Speaking at the government-run Siri Fort Auditorium in New Delhi, the president said India must learn to treat both women and religious minorities equally. WashingtonTimes Jan 27 2015]. Mr. Obama cut short his visit to India. – Anyone claim to be superior based on race, caste or aristocratic system is committing crime against humanity- Fascism.

Countries compromised by terrorism

1. France

2. Germany

3. Belgium.

4. Syria

5. Iraq

6. Iran

7. Lebanon

8. Israel

9. Afghanistan. Seems like its benefit the rulers to have terrorist in the country to ………

10. India (PM Modi is associated with Hinduist party, their main agenda is convert all Christian and other minorities by 2020). Almost 40% of India at is under martial law [any given time] since independence from British occupation in 1947. India has Hinduist caste system which is crime against humanity and a real cancerous like threat to the world and world’s economy.

11. Turkey

12. Saudi Arabia

13. USA (Victim of terrorism by ISIS, Al-Qaida, other race base (all) terrorist and gang terrorism.

14. Mexico

15. Russia

Wars and peace

Global Peace Index 2016

Global Rankings

Countries ranked 1st have a lower score and are the most peaceful.

1 Iceland 1.192

2 Denmark 1.246

3 Austria 1.278

4 New Zealand 1.287

5 Portugal 1.356

6 Czech Republic 1.360

7 Switzerland 1.370

8 Canada 1.388

9 Japan 1.395

10 Slovenia 1.408

11 Finland 1.429

12 Ireland 1.433

13 Bhutan 1.445

14 Sweden 1.461

15 Australia 1.465

16 Germany 1.486

17 Norway 1.500

18 Belgium 1.528

19 Hungary 1.534

20 Singapore 1.535

21 Netherlands 1.541

22 Poland 1.557

23 Mauritius 1.559

24 Slovakia 1.603

25 Spain 1.604

26 Croatia 1.633

27 Chile 1.635

28 Botswana 1.639

29 Bulgaria 1.646

30 Malaysia 1.648

31 Romania 1.649

32 Latvia 1.680

33 Costa Rica 1.699

34 Qatar 1.716

35 Uruguay 1.726

36 Estonia 1.732

37 Lithuania 1.735

38 Madagascar 1.763

39 Italy 1.774

40 Zambia 1.783

41 Taiwan 1.787

42 Indonesia 1.799

43 Sierra Leone 1.805

44 Ghana 1.809

45 Malawi 1.817

46 France 1.829

47 United Kingdom 1.830

48 Serbia 1.834

49 Panama 1.837

50 Mongolia 1.838

51 Kuwait 1.842

52 Laos 1.852

53 South Korea 1.858

54 Albania 1.867

55 Namibia 1.873

56 Timor-Leste 1.879

57 Montenegro 1.884

58 Tanzania 1.899

59 Vietnam 1.906

60 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1.915

61 United Arab Emirates 1.931

62 Equatorial Guinea 1.940

63 Lesotho 1.941

64 Tunisia 1.949

65 Moldova 1.953

66 Togo 1.954

67 Argentina 1.957

68 Mozambique 1.963

69 Nicaragua 1.975

70 Senegal 1.978

71 Cyprus 1.994

72 Benin 1.998

72 Liberia 1.998

74 Oman 2.016

75 Kazakhstan 2.019

76 Ecuador 2.020

77 Kosovo 2.022

78 Nepal 2.026

79 Gabon 2.033

80 Paraguay 2.037

81 Bolivia 2.038

82 Greece 2.044

83 Bangladesh 2.045

84 Trinidad and Tobago 2.056

85 Cuba 2.057

85 Georgia 2.057

85 Peru 2.057

88 Burkina Faso 2.063

89 Haiti 2.066

90 Swaziland 2.074

91 Morocco 2.086

92 The Gambia 2.091

92 Jamaica 2.091

94 Macedonia (FYR) 2.092

95 Guyana 2.105

96 Jordan 2.127

97 Sri Lanka 2.133

98 Angola 2.140

99 Dominican Republic 2.143

99 Papua New Guinea 2.143

101 Guinea 2.148

101 Uganda 2.148

103 United States of America 2.154

104 Cambodia 2.161

105 Brazil 2.176

106 Belarus 2.202

106 Turkmenistan 2.202

108 Algeria 2.213

109 Uzbekistan 2.216

110 Armenia 2.218

111 Honduras 2.237

111 El Salvador 2.237

113 Niger 2.239

114 Republic of the Congo 2.249

115 Myanmar 2.256

116 Guinea-Bissau 2.264

117 Guatemala 2.270

118 Cote d’ Ivoire 2.279

119 Ethiopia 2.284

120 China 2.288

121 Djibouti 2.292

122 Tajikistan 2.293

123 Mauritania 2.295

124 Kyrgyz Republic 2.297

125 Thailand 2.312

126 South Africa 2.316

127 Zimbabwe 2.322

128 Rwanda 2.323

129 Saudi Arabia 2.338

130 Cameroon 2.356

131 Kenya 2.379

132 Bahrain 2.398

133 Iran 2.411

134 Azerbaijan 2.450

135 Eritrea 2.460

136 Chad 2.464

137 Mali 2.489

138 Burundi 2.500

139 Philippines 2.511

140 Mexico 2.557

141 India 2.566

142 Egypt 2.574

143 Venezuela 2.651

144 Israel 2.656

145 Turkey 2.710

146 Lebanon 2.752

147 Colombia 2.764

148 Palestine 2.832

149 Nigeria 2.877

150 North Korea 2.944

151 Russia 3.079

152 Democratic Republic of the Congo 3.112

153 Pakistan 3.145

154 Libya 3.200

155 Sudan 3.269

156 Ukraine 3.287

157 Central African Republic 3.354

158 Yemen 3.399

159 Somalia 3.414

160 Afghanistan 3.538

161 Iraq 3.570

162 South Sudan 3.593

163 Syria 3.806

Source: Global Peace Index

10 countries spending the most on war {April 2016}

1. United States

> Military expenditure: $596.0 billion

> Pct. change military expenditure, 2006-2015: -3.9%

> Expenditure as pct. of GDP: 3.3%

> Per capita military expenditure: $1,854

2. China

> Military expenditure: $214.8 billion

> Pct. change military expenditure, 2006-2015: 131.7%

3. Saudi Arabia

> Military expenditure: $87.2 billion

> Pct. change military expenditure, 2006-2015: 97.1%

4. Russia

> Military expenditure: $66.4 billion

5. United Kingdom

> Military expenditure: $55.5 billion

6. India

> Military expenditure: $51.3 billion

> Pct. change military expenditure, 2006-2015: 43.1%

7. France

> Military expenditure: $50.9 billion

> Pct. change military expenditure, 2006-2015: -5.9%

> Expenditure as pct. of GDP: 2.1%

8. Japan

> Military expenditure: $40.9 billion

> Pct. change military expenditure, 2006-2015: -0.5%

9. Germany

> Military expenditure: $39.4 billion

> Pct. change military expenditure, 2006-2015: 2.8%

10. South Korea

> Military expenditure: $36.4 billion

> Pct. change military expenditure, 2006-2015: 36.7%

[Source: http://247wallst.com/ Thomas C. Frohlich]

World War II

1 September 1939 – 2 September 1945

Military dead:

Over 16,000,000

Civilian dead:

Over 45,000,00

Total dead:

Over 61,000,000 (1937–45)

Vietnam War:

Nov 1, 1955 – April 30, 1975

Total dead: 455,462–1,170,462

Total wounded: ≈608,200

United States

58,307 dead; 303,644 wounded

Afganistan: 7 October 2001 – December 28, 2014

Afghan Security Forces:

16,013+ killed

Afghan Northern Alliance:

200 killed

Coalition:

Dead: 3,486 (all causes)

2,807 (hostile causes)

(United States: 2,356, United Kingdom: 454, Canada: 158, France: 88, Germany: 57, Italy: 53, Others: 321)

Wounded: 22,773 (United States: 19,950, United Kingdom: 2,188, Canada: 635)

Contractors:

Dead: 1,582

Wounded: 15,000+

Total killed: 20,743+

Civilians killed: 16,725–19,013 (2001–2013)

Total killed: 25,500–40,500

Iraq: 20 March 2003 – 18 December 2011

Coalition forces: Killed: 4,809 (4,491 U.S., 179 UK, 139 other)

The Lancet study’s figure of 654,965 excess deaths through the end of June 2006

Lancet survey (March 2003 – July 2006): 601,027 (95% CI: 426,369–793,663

U.S., and U.N should take a lead in world peace process, to do this, first they should eliminate Security Council and give equal rights to all members. This is very important to achieve equal voice to all members to achieve world peace.

IQ and peace and wars

Does IQ have any effect on war and peace, education, culture and society is debatable.

World IQ ranking of countries by their average

Rank Country IQ

1 Hong Kong 108

1 Singapore 108

2 South Korea 106

3 Japan 105

3 China 105

4 Taiwan 104

5 Italy 102

6 Iceland 101

6 Mongolia 101

6 Switzerland 101

7 Austria 100

7 Luxembourg 100

7 Netherlands 100

7 Norway 100

7 United Kingdom 100

8 Belgium 99

8 Canada 99

8 Estonia 99

8 Finland 99

8 Germany 99

8 Poland 99

8 Sweden 99

9 Andorra 98

9 Australia 98

9 Czech Republic 98

9 Denmark 98

9 France 98

9 Hungary 98

9 Latvia 98

9 Spain 98

9 United States 98

10 Belarus 97

10 Malta 97

10 Russia 97

10 Ukraine 97

11 Moldova 96

11 Slovakia 96

11 Slovenia 96

11 Uruguay 96

12 Israel 95

12 Portugal 95

13 Armenia 94

13 Georgia 94

13 Kazakhstan 94

13 Romania 94

13 Vietnam 94

14 Argentina 93

14 Bulgaria 93

15 Greece 92

15 Ireland 92

15 Malaysia 92

16 Brunei 91

16 Cambodia 91

16 Cyprus 91

16 Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 91

16 Lithuania 91

16 Sierra Leone 91

16 Thailand 91

17 Albania 90

17 Bosnia and Herzegovina 90

17 Chile 90

17 Croatia 90

17 Kyrgyzstan 90

17 Turkey 90

18 Costa Rica 89

18 Laos 89

18 Mauritius 89

18 Serbia 89

18 Suriname 89

19 Ecuador 88

19 Mexico 88

19 Samoa 88

20 Azerbaijan 87

20 Bolivia 87

20 Nauru 87

20 Guyana 87

20 Indonesia 87

20 Iraq 87

20 Myanmar 87

20 Tajikistan 87

20 Turkmenistan 87

20 Uzbekistan 87

21 Kuwait 86

21 Philippines 86

21 Seychelles 86

21 Tonga 86

22 Cuba 85

22 Eritrea 85

22 Fiji 85

22 Kiribati 85

22 Peru 85

22 Trinidad and Tobago 85

22 Yemen 85

23 Afghanistan 84

23 The Bahamas 84

23 Belize 84

23 Colombia 84

23 Iran 84

23 Jordan 84

23 Marshall Islands 84

23 Micronesia 84

23 Morocco 84

23 Nigeria 84

23 Pakistan 84

23 Panama 84

23 Paraguay 84

23 Saudi Arabia 84

23 Solomon Islands 84

23 Uganda 84

23 United Arab Emirates 84

23 Vanuatu 84

23 Venezuela 84

24 Algeria 83

24 Bahrain 83

24 Libya 83

24 Oman 83

24 Papua New Guinea 83

24 Syria 83

24 Tunisia 83

25 Bangladesh 82

25 Dominican Republic 82

25 India 82

25 Lebanon 82

25 Madagascar 82

25 Zimbabwe 82

26 Egypt 81

26 Honduras 81

26 Maldives 81

26 Nicaragua 81

27 Barbados 80

27 Bhutan 80

27 El Salvador 80

27 Kenya 80

28 Guatemala 79

28 Sri Lanka 79

28 Zambia 79

29 Democratic Republic of the Congo 78

29 Nepal 78

29 Qatar 78

30 Comoros 77

30 South Africa 77

31 Cape Verde 76

31 Congo 76

31 Mauritania 76

31 Senegal 76

32 Mali 74

32 Namibia 74

33 Ghana 73

34 Tanzania 72

35 Central African Republic 71

35 Jamaica 71

35 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 71

35 Sudan 71

36 Antigua and Barbuda 70

36 Benin 70

36 Botswana 70

36 Rwanda 70

36 Togo 70

37 Burundi 69

37 Côte d’Ivoire 69

37 Ethiopia 69

37 Malawi 69

37 Niger 69

38 Angola 68

38 Burkina Faso 68

38 Chad 68

38 Djibouti 68

38 Somalia 68

38 Swaziland 68

39 Dominica 67

39 Guinea 67

39 Guinea-Bissau 67

39 Haiti 67

39 Lesotho 67

39 Liberia 67

39 Saint Kitts and Nevis 67

39 São Tomé and Príncipe 67

40 The Gambia 66

41 Cameroon 64

41 Gabon 64

41 Mozambique 64

42 Saint Lucia 62

43 Equatorial Guinea 59

Last update: 08/11/ 2016 (V.1157)

Source: https://iq-research.info/en/page/average-iq-by-country

Minority matters

Minority make about 22.30 % of U.S population

About 14.2% of Americans are consider black American or African Americans, Asian American are 4.4% of the U.S. population, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, particularly Native Americans made up 0.8% of the population in 2008 and Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders made up 0.1 % in 2008 and In 2008 nearly 5% of the total U.S. population, were estimated to be "Some other race".

Economy: Minority families are trapped in high-poverty neighborhood without livable housing, schools are in bad conditions and without good teacher or are substandard teachers, books are not available, neither modern labs for students to get good standard education.

Many cities like Chicago is large segregated city in U.S., due to lack of good integration policies and/or some are self-imposed.

In 2012, an average of 41.6% of African Americans received means-tested welfare benefits each month, and about 18% of Asians.

Since 2000, more and more minorities are living in below the poverty level, number has double from 1990s.

Employment: Unemployment rates for African Americans are typically double those of Caucasian Americans. African American men working full time earn 72 percent of the average earnings of comparable Caucasian men and 85 percent of the earnings of Caucasian women (Rodgers, 2008).

Illegals and foreign worker in USA has hurt minority tremendously, especially in jobs, education and treatment.

Lower education, poverty, and poor health, ultimately affect our society as a whole. Inequities in wealth and quality of life are increasing in the United States. Welfare and handouts does not solve the minorities issues, government has to provide opportunities, such as same standard schools and education system as given to middle class districts and create environment to create jobs, and control crimes in low income areas.

African-Americans cast about 13 percent of presidential ballots in 2012, according to exit polls conducted for the AP and television networks

Minorities should look at recent history, especially since 1990s to know which presidential candidate will work for their benefit in the future.

Black life matters.

Black Lives Matters issued their platform on Aug 1, 2016.

The groups include: Alliance for Educational Justice, Baltimore Bloc, BIG: Blacks in Green, Black Alliance for Just Immigration, Black Leadership Organizing Collaborative, Black Women’s Blueprint, Black Youth Project 100 (BYP100), BlackBird, The BlackOut Collective, Center for Media Justice, Coleman Advocates for Children and Youth, Dignity and Power Now, Dream Defenders, Ella Baker Center for Human Rights, Environmental Justice Advocates of Minnesota, Freedom Inc., Highlander Research and Education Center, Million Hoodies Movement for Justice, National Black Food and Justice Alliance, Open Democracy Project at Crescent City Media Group, Organization for Black Struggle, Organization for Black Struggle, Philadelphia Student Union, Project South, Southerners On New Ground, SpiritHouse Inc., The Worker’s Center for Racial Justice.

The platform has a list of endorsing organizations. They include Black Liberation Collective, , Million Women March Cleveland, National African American Reparations Commission, National Conference of Black Lawyers NYC; other organizations signing on to the platform are the National Economic & Social Rights Initiative, New York State Prisoner Justice Network, ONE DC, and The Truth Telling Project.

[Source: buzzfeed.com]

The Movement for Black Lives

Platform End the War on Black People

Reparations

Invest-divest

Economic Justice

Community Control

Political Power

UNA VISIÓN PARA LAS VIDAS NEGRAS

Glossary

Join Us

Take Action

Downloads

About Us

Platform

Black humanity and dignity requires Black political will and power. Despite constant exploitation and perpetual oppression, Black people have bravely and brilliantly been the driving force pushing the U.S. towards the ideals it articulates but has never achieved. In recent years we have taken to the streets, launched massive campaigns, and impacted elections, but our elected leaders have failed to address the legitimate demands of our Movement. We can no longer wait.

In response to the sustained and increasingly visible violence against Black communities in the U.S. and globally, a collective of more than 50 organizations representing thousands of Black people from across the country have come together with renewed energy and purpose to articulate a common vision and agenda. We are a collective that centers and is rooted in Black communities, but we recognize we have a shared struggle with all oppressed people; collective liberation will be a product of all of our work.

We believe in elevating the experiences and leadership of the most marginalized Black people, including but not limited to those who are women, queer, trans, femmes, gender nonconforming, Muslim, formerly and currently incarcerated, cash poor and working class, differently-abled, undocumented, and immigrant. We are intentional about amplifying the particular experience of state and gendered violence that Black queer, trans, gender nonconforming, women and intersex people face. There can be no liberation for all Black people if we do not center and fight for those who have been marginalized. It is our hope that by working together to create and amplify a shared agenda, we can continue to move towards a world in which the full humanity and dignity of all people is recognized.

While this platform is focused on domestic policies, we know that patriarchy, exploitative capitalism, militarism, and white supremacy know no borders. We stand in solidarity with our international family against the ravages of global capitalism and anti-Black racism, human-made climate change, war, and exploitation. We also stand with descendants of African people all over the world in an ongoing call and struggle for reparations for the historic and continuing harms of colonialism and slavery. We also recognize and honor the rights and struggle of our Indigenous family for land and self-determination.

We have created this platform to articulate and support the ambitions and work of Black people. We also seek to intervene in the current political climate and assert a clear vision, particularly for those who claim to be our allies, of the world we want them to help us create. We reject false solutions and believe we can achieve a complete transformation of the current systems, which place profit over people and make it impossible for many of us to breathe.

Together, we demand an end to the wars against Black people. We demand that the government repair the harms that have been done to Black communities in the form of reparations and targeted long-term investments. We also demand a defunding of the systems and institutions that criminalize and cage us. This document articulates our vision of a fundamentally different world. However, we recognize the need to include policies that address the immediate suffering of Black people. These policies, while less transformational, are necessary to address the current material conditions of our people and will better equip us to win the world we demand and deserve.

We recognize that not all of our collective needs and visions can be translated into policy, but we understand that policy change is one of many tactics necessary to move us towards the world we envision. We have come together now because we believe it is time to forge a new covenant. We are dreamers and doers and this platform is meant to articulate some of our vision. The links throughout the document provide the stepping-stones and roadmaps of how to get there. The policy briefs also elevate the brave and transformative work our people are already engaged in, and build on some of the best thinking in our history of struggle. This agenda continues the legacy of our ancestors who pushed for reparations, Black self-determination and community control; and also propels new iterations of movements such as efforts for reproductive justice, holistic healing and reconciliation, and ending violence against Black cis, queer, and trans people.

Demands

End the War on Black People

We demand an end to the named and unnamed wars on Black people – including the criminalization, incarceration, and killing of our people.

Reparations

We demand reparations for harms inflicted on Black people: from colonialism to slavery through food & housing redlining, mass incarceration, & surveillance.

Invest-divest

We demand investments in the education, health, and safety of Black people, instead of investments in the criminalizing, caging, and harming of Black people.

Economic Justice

We demand economic justice for all and a reconstruction of the economy to ensure Black communities have collective ownership, not merely access.

Community Control

We demand a world where those most impacted in our communities control the laws, institutions, and policies that are meant to serve us.

Political Power

We demand full and independent Black political power and Black self-determination in all areas of society.

UNA VISIÓN PARA LAS VIDAS NEGRAS

Details on website:

Source: https://policy.m4bl.org/platform/

Climate Change / Global Warming

Global Risk Institute (GRI) Report – 2016 – “Given the financial service industry’s heavily integrated role in society, it is particularly susceptible to the risks associated with climate change,” GRI wrote in its report. “It must therefore ensure that proper climate change strategies and risk management procedures are in place in order to remain viable.”

That’s the fifth straight record hot season in a row and the fourth consecutive record hot month. Meteorologists say 2015 is a near certainty to eclipse 2014 as the hottest year on record.

Since 2000, Earth has broken monthly heat records 20 times and seasonal heat records 11 times. Scientists blame a combination of human-caused climate change and natural El Nino.

Earth broke the August record by a sixth of a degree and the summer record by a fifth of a degree. Records go back to 1880. [The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration]

Believe in climate change or not, policies should be made to take care of earth and climate. Air pollution does effect human health.

Media

“The man who reads nothing at all is better educated than the man who reads nothing but newspapers.” ― Thomas Jefferson

Journalism rule “Where, when, who, why” should be followed by Media for respected journalism, apply to TV, Web or paper

USA Media: some credible and notable journalists are – Fox news anchor O’Reily , Greta Van Susteren, and Lou dobbs . Kate Couric explains news issue in her Yahoo contributions. Charlie Rose CBS, and Don Lemon, John King and Erin Burnet of CNN are among who have successful deliver news objectively. No one is perfect.

Some strange journalist and others in US: Bryant Williams, Dan Rather, Fareed Zakaria (born in India), Sanjay Gupta, John F. Dickerson, Dr Oz, Tom brokaw, Meredith Vieira, Ashley Edens-Shaffer, Wolf Blitzer, Todd Koppel, Stuart Varney (Born in UK) and George Will

journalist who over support foreign countries political and economy agendas are providing comfort to others.

“History is watching” Dan Rather to Trump’s backers – History is also watching you all {media} too.

Using expletives by elite media is new nom on cable TV news ?

CNN anchor Fareed Zakaria called Trump a "bulls--- artist."

CNN guest Liz Mair said “loudmouth d—-.”

Fox news – one guest called President Obama a “Pus…”

Fox News – Stacey Dash said” President Obama “doesn’t give a S….” {Source: thehill.com – Joe Concha}.

Aug 5,2016 -Sean Hannity to WSJ editor: If Clinton wins, 'I will hold a--holes like you accountable.' Twitter - ; Hannity was responding to "Fox News' dumbest anchor had a message for y'all," tweeted Bret Stephens, The Wall Street Journal foreign affairs columnist and deputy editorial page editor; Stephens shot back at Hannity on Friday morning, remarking that the Fox News host reminded him of Kevin Kline's character Otto in the 1988 film "A Fish Called Wanda." {Source: Politico.com - Nick Gass} aug 5 2016.

Wayne Simmons, 62, of Annapolis, Maryland, was sentenced in U.S. District Court in Alexandria, Virginia, the U.S. Attorney’s Office said in a statement. “Wayne Simmons is a fraud. Simmons has no military or intelligence background, or any skills relevant to the positions he attained through his fraud,” said Dana Boente, U.S. Attorney for the Eastern District of Virginia. Wayne SImmons fraudulently claimed to have been a CIA agent for decades, according to U.S. prosecutors (Source: Reuters – July 15,2016)

July 4, 2016 – PBS Caught Using Old Footage in ‘‘Live’‘ Broadcast of Washington, D.C. Fireworks; PBS was forced to apologize for a snafu with their popular “A Capitol Fourth” broadcast of the “live” fireworks in Washington, D.C. reported by E! Online . Funding to PBS is waste of money. Congress/Senate should stop funding PBS.

Since Roger Ailes announced his leave from Fox News many positive changes are noted. More news is being reported than just opinions.

Most cable news does not show credits at end of each program, such as names producers, support and others, people have right to know who is behind the show.

Anti-Christian, anti-Jew and Anti-Moslem and Anti-American websites like Yahoo (news section) is heavily used by rogue polytheist for their political agenda and religious propaganda.

Many news websites promote hate speech by adding comments section by readers when they think people will add hateful comments.

“The Obama administration has been “the greatest enemy of press freedom in a generation,” according to James Risen, a New York Times reporter who faced prison for not revealing a source. in 2015, it set an astonishing record of either censoring government materials or providing none at all in 77 percent of citizen requests under the Freedom of Information Act. That would be 596,095 instances of less than was sought, The Associated Press reported. “[Obama’s secrecy mission will continue if unchecked - Originally published August 12, 2016 at 3:32 pm - By Jay Ambrose -seattletimes.com/opinion/obamas-secrecy-mission-will-continue-if-unchecked/]

Candidates – primaries election

Snap shot of the notable Candidates of Democrats and Republicans for Presidential election of U.S., 2016 – List is randomized.

Democrats:

1. Bernie Sanders

2. Hillary Clinton

3. Martin O’Malley

4. Lincoln Davenport Chafee

5 James Henry “Jim” Webb, Jr

6. Joseph Robinette “Joe” Biden, Jr

Bernard “Bernie” Sanders

Born September 8, 1941

United States Senator January 3, 2007 – Present

Political party: Independent

Candidate for presidential election of 2016 as a Democrat.

Previous Political affiliation: Liberty Union (1971–1979)

Born in Brooklyn, New York, U.S.

Education: Bachelor of arts degree in political science, from University of Chicago, IL U.S. (1964).

Bernie Sanders worked for nonprofit “American people’s Historical Society” as the director and a writer after he left Liberty Union Party in 1971.

From 1981 to 1987, Bernie Sander served as mayor of Burlington, Vermont.

Bernie Sanders briefly taught political science at Harvard University’s Kennedy School of Government and at Hamilton College.

Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Vermont’s At-large district January 3, 1991 – January 3, 2007

Bernie Sanders voted against the resolutions authorizing the use of force against Iraq in 1991 and 2002,

Bernie Sanders opposed the 2003 invasion of Iraq

He voted for the 2001 Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists.

United States Senator from State of Vermont January 3, 2007

Committee on the Budget (Ranking Member), Committee on Environment and Public Works, Subcommittee on Clean Air and Nuclear Safety, Subcommittee on Transportation and Infrastructure, Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, Subcommittee on Energy, Subcommittee on National Parks, Subcommittee on Water and Power, Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, Subcommittee on Primary Health and Aging (Ranking Member), Subcommittee on Green Jobs and the New Economy, Subcommittee on Children and Families, ,Committee on Veterans’ Affairs.

Bernie Sanders presidential campaign, 2016

Bernie Sanders formally announced his candidacy for the presidency in the 2016 election on May 26, 2015.

Bernie Sanders has a modest net worth of about $460,000. (yahoo news)

Bernie Sanders’ campaign has raised over $12.1 million by end of June, 2015, average donation is about $27 [April 2016].

Reception

On July 1, (2015) a crowd of at least 10,000 showed to see Sanders in Madison, Wisconsin, nearly twice the size of the biggest crowd of his main primary challenger, Hillary Clinton (MSNBC)

August 9, (2015) Sanders spoke to a record crowd of 20,000 supporters inside the Moda Center in Portland, Oregon. (Washington Post).

Bernie Sanders says private meeting with Pope Francis. A source inside the Vatican, speaking on condition of anonymity, also confirmed the meeting. [April 2016]

He has education, experience, qualities and proven judgment to be president and commander of chief of USA.

Bernie Sanders on Issues:

“The American people must make a fundamental decision. Do we continue the 40-year decline of our middle class and the growing gap between the very rich and everyone else, or do we fight for a progressive economic agenda that creates jobs, raises wages, protects the environment and provides health care for all? Are we prepared to take on the enormous economic and political power of the billionaire class, or do we continue to slide into economic and political oligarchy? These are the most important questions of our time, and how we answer them will determine the future of our country.

Income and wealth inequality

Getting big money out of politics

Creating decent paying jobs

Racial Justice

Fighting for women’s rights

Caring for our veterans

A fair and humane immigration policy

War should be the last option: Why I support the Iran deal.

A Living wage

Real family values

Climate change & Environment

Reforming wall Street

Source: https://berniesanders.com/issues/

(September 22, 2015)

Bernie Sanders other points from his speeches and other sources:

Email:

On Poverty:

Here’s what we need to do:

1. Rebuild our country’s crumbling infrastructure. A $1 trillion investment in our infrastructure will create at least 13 million jobs all over America – jobs that cannot be outsourced.

2. We must rewrite our disastrous trade policies that enable corporate America to shut down plans in places like West Virginia and move them to Mexico, China, and other low-wage countries.

3. We can create 1 million jobs for disadvantaged youths through legislation I introduced with Rep. John Conyers of Michigan.

4. We need to increase the wages of at least 53 million American workers by raising the minimum wage from a starvation wage of $7.25 an hour to $15 an hour.

5. At a time when women workers earn 79 cents for every dollar a man earns, we need to sign the Paycheck Fairness Act into law. Equal pay for equal work.

6. We need to make health care a right for every man, woman, and child through a Medicare for All single-payer system.

7. We need to treat drug addiction like a mental health issue, not a criminal issue.

8. We need to ensure every worker in this country has at least 12 weeks of paid family and medical leave, two weeks of paid vacation, and one week of paid sick days.

9. We need to impose a tax on Wall Street to make public colleges and universities tuition free while substantially reducing student debt.

10. At a time when half of older workers have no retirement savings, we’re not going to cut Social Security, we’re going to expand it so people can retire with dignity and respect.

[Bernie Sanders May, 2016]

From Speeches:

1. Judicial system reform - criminal justice - end corporate run jail systems- dematiralize police -end war on drug, health issue not criminal issue.

2. Education – tuition free public college for all – paid program, will effect private colleges and universities. refinance student on lowest rate

renegotiate medicine deals with drug companies

3. Health care system reform – single payer system – will be less expensive for Americans than for profit private insurance.

4. campaign contribution – private contribution represent people not companies interest or special interest via superPac

5. Infrastructure- will create at least 13 million jobs for Americans

6. Unite American under – of the people, by the people, for the people

7. Break up big companies which claim to be “Too big to fail”

8. end of ISIS no American boots on ground

9. Climate Change has contributed by human activities and must move to efficient system, tax on carbon emission, no off shore drilling and no fracking

will end fracking on public land.

10. $15 minimum wage

11. save and expand social security

12. pay equity for all, women and men

13. comprehensive immigration reform

14. environment protection

15. Native American improve and fair relationship

16. Veterans system reform (Bernie Sanders April 2, 2016)

And

17. Affordable Housing for poor, this will also provide new jobs to trade workers.

18. He will expend Planned Parenthood to help women health issues

Older Americans Act Reauthorization Act of 2015 [192]- passed April 7, 2016. Among this legislative champions: Bernie Sanders. Original bill was passed on March 31 1965, introduced by Representative John E. Fogarty (D-RI) in 1965.

The Older Americans Reauthorization Act of 2015, S. 192, would authorize continued funding until the end of 2018

The act -

Helps feed America’s elderly poor - maintains separate federal funding for congregate- and home-delivered meals with other services.

Helps to combat elder abuse in many ways

Helps to create new support for modernizing multipurpose senior centers.

Provide helps to family caregivers.

Helps to provide older Americans with better information about resources available to them through many agencies and many media outlets.

Among other services it provides services specifically for American Indian and Alaskan Native populations are protected in this legislation and provide services to Holocaust survivors.

Sanders’ education and single payer health care are not new programs, they are extension to existing programs, these extension need addendums not new bill. Many conservatives and progressives should not have any problems passing it. it will save tens of thousands of citizens and government monies and may help balancing the d and national debt.

Bernie Sanders tax proposals:

Establishes four new brackets of 37%, 43%, 48%, and 52%. The top rate applies to taxable income over $10 million. Raises the rate of all other brackets by 2.2%.

Taxes capital gains and dividends at ordinary income rates for households with incomes over $250,000.

Has No specific proposal for Corporate Income Tax.

Increases the top estate tax rate to 65%, and lowers the estate tax exclusion to $3.5 million.

Please see his official website for updates and detail of tax proposals

Mr. Sanders website layout how he will pay for his programs.

Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton

Born October 26, 1947. Age 67

Political party Democratic (1968–present)

Previous political party: Republican (before 1968)

Born in Illinois, U.S.A

Education: Bachelor of Arts, with departmental honors in political science in 1969, received a Juris Doctor degree from Yale in 1973.

First Lady of Arkansas: January 11, 1983 – December 12, 1992.

First lady of United State of America: January 20, 1993 – January 20, 2001

Hillary Clinton was appointed in January, 1993 to head the Task Force on National Health Care Reform. The proposal was abandoned in September 1994 after Democrat majority Congress and Senate did not support enough to vote on it.

Hillary Clinton with help of then Attorney General Janet Reno, they create the Office on Violence Against Women at the Department of Justice. She advocate for older women to seek mammogram and nationwide immunization against Childhood illnesses. Hillary Clinton also sought to increase research funding got prostate cancer.

Hillary Clinton attended as First Lady od United States, the Fourth World Conference of Women in Beijing, China in 1995 and there she argued very forcefully against practices that abused women around the world.

In 1997, she initiated and shepherded the Adoption and Safe Families Act.

As First lady, Hillary Clinton traveled to 79 countries.

United States Senator: January 3, 2001 – January 21, 2009

Hilary Clinton served on five Senate committees.

Hillary Clinton voted for the USA Patriot Act in October 2001

Hillary Clinton supported the 2001 U.S. military action in Afghanistan.

Clinton voted in favor of the October 2002 Iraq War Resolution, which authorized President George W. Bush to use military force against Iraq.

Hillary Clinton supported the bailout of the United States financial system and voted in favor of the of the $700 billion law also known as TARP (Troubled Asset Relief Program). TARP was a relief program to help “too big to fail” financial institutes suffering in financial crisis of 2007-2008 due to mismanagement and regulations.

Hillary Clinton unsuccessfully ran presidential campaign in 2008

67th United States Secretary of State: January 21, 2009 – February 1, 2013

Hillary Clinton tries to ease and rebuild relationship with Russian; she presented Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov with a “Reset button” symbolizing good will efforts from U.S., administration.

Beginning in 2010, she helped organize a diplomatic isolation and international sanctions regime against Iran, in an effort to force curtailment of that country’s nuclear program; this would eventually lead to the multinational Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action being agreed to in 2015.[ Crowley, Michael (July 14, 2015). “Hillary Clinton endorses nuclear deal”. Politico. And times]

A cause Clinton advocated throughout her tenure was the adoption of cook-stoves in India and other developing countries.

President Obama authorized a raid to be conducted by United States navy SEALs on compound in Pakistan, where Osama bin Laden was hiding; the operation took place on May 1, 2011, resulting in the death of Osama bin laden. Hillary Clinton was present in the office with President Obama with other high official to witness the operation. Hillary Clinton was in favor of the raid.

Low point of Hillary Clinton’s administration came on September 11, 2012, the U.S. diplomatic mission in Benghazi, Libya, was attacked, resulting in the deaths of the U.S. Ambassador, J. Christopher Stevens, and three other Americans. During Congressional hearing on incident, Hillary Clinton responded to a question by Senator Ron Johnson with the heated and much-quoted rejoinder, “With all due respect, the fact is we had four dead Americans. Was it because of a protest or was it because of guys out for a walk one night who decided that they’d they go kill some Americans? What difference at this point does it make? It is our job to figure out what happened and do everything we can to prevent it from ever happening again, Senator.”

In December 2012, Clinton was hospitalized for a few days for treatment of a blood clot in her right transverse venous sinus, the clot, which caused no immediate neurological injury, was treated with anticoagulant medication, and her doctors subsequently said she made a full recovery

Hillary Clinton supports TPP (Trans-Pacific Partnership) which was formed by her during time as secretary fo State. “ As secretary of State, she was a chief advocate as talks commenced surrounding the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), one of the largest worldwide deals in recent history.” Source: Megan R. Wilson in TheHill.com weblog, “Clinton vs. Warren” , Aug 24, 2014.

In 2013, Hillary Clinton, Chelsea Clinton joined her husband Bill Clinton as named members of the Bill, Hillary & Chelsea Clinton Foundation. The Clinton Foundation (originally founded in 2001 as the William J. Clinton Foundation.

Foundation is a nonprofit foundation, not a charity foundation, purpose of the foundation is not clear.

Helderman, Rosalind S.; Hamburger, Tom; Rich, Steven reportaed in their article). “Clintons’ foundation has raised nearly $2 billion – and some key questions”. The Washington Post] “Through 2014 the foundation had raised almost $2 billion from U.S. corporations especially Wall Street; foreign governments and corporations; political donors; and various other moneyed interests.” [(February 18, 2015]. Roughly 10 percent of contributions to the foundation go to charitable activity (Fox News).

Sant Singh Chatwal (Indian origin Hotelier) was a trustee of the William J. Clinton Foundation and a convict, a former Hillary Clinton fundraiser (election 2008) convicted of making more than $180,000 in illegal campaign contributions. And was “a founder of the Clinton Global Initiative, a charitable arm of the former first couple’s foundation. He once accompanied Bill Clinton on a trip to India.” [Michael Isikoff, Chief Investigative Correspondent, Yahoo Politics, ‎December‎ ‎03‎, ‎2014]

Hillary Clinton has earned over $11 million from speeches after leaving position of Secretary of State. One estimate is the Clintons earned almost $141 million, paid some $56 million in federal and state taxes, and donated about $15 million to charity, between 2007-2014.

On April 2, 2015, Clinton confirmed her support for an agreement limiting Iran’s nuclear program, calling it “an important step” in controlling the nation’s security {Huffington post}

Clinton visited 112 countries during her tenure, making her the most widely traveled secretary of state

Hillary Clinton formally announced her candidacy for the presidency in the 2016 election on April 12, 2015

Hillary Clinton’s campaign has risen over $45 million in primary money during their first quarter of their 2016 bid, a Clinton official with knowledge of the fundraising operation told CNN. July 1, 2015.

Hillary Clinton on Issues: (as of April 16, 2016). Her website does not provide information about how she intended to pay for her programs and her plan how she will get Republican congress/Senate pass her programs and promises to her supporters.

Hillary Clinton on Issues:

1. Alzheimer’s disease

We can prevent, effectively treat, and make an Alzheimer’s cure possible by 2025.

2. Campaign finance reform

Our democracy should work for everyone, not just the wealthy and well-connected.

3. Campus sexual assault

It’s not enough to condemn campus sexual assault. We need to stop campus sexual assault.

4. Climate change and energy

Making America the clean energy superpower of the 21st century.

5. College

The New College Compact: Costs won’t be a barrier, debt won’t hold you back.

6. Criminal justice reform

Our criminal justice system is out of balance.

7. Disability rights

We must continue to expand opportunities for all Americans.

8. Early childhood education

Every child deserves the chance to live up to his or her God-given potential.

9. Economy

The defining economic challenge of our time is raising incomes for hard-working Americans.

10. Gun violence prevention

It is past time we act on gun violence.

11. Health care

Affordable health care is a basic human right.

12. HIV and AIDS

We have reached a critical moment in our fight against HIV and AIDS.

13. Immigration reform

America needs comprehensive immigration reform with a pathway to citizenship.

14: Infrastructure

Strong infrastructure is critical to a strong economy.

15. K–12 education

A world-class education for every child in every community.

16. Labor

When unions are strong, America is strong.

17. LGBT equality

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender Americans deserve to live their lives free from discrimination.

18. Manufacturing

Manufacturing is critical to the U.S. economy.

19. National security

With policies that keep us strong and safe, America can lead the world in the 21st century.

20. Paid leave

It’s time to guarantee paid family and medical leave in America.

21. Racial justice

America’s long struggle with race is far from finished.

22. Rural communities

America’s rural communities are at the heart of what makes this country great.

23. Small business

Hillary Clinton will be a small business president.

24. Social Security and Medicare

We must preserve, protect, and strengthen these lifelines.

25. Substance use disorder and addiction

Through improved treatment, prevention, and training, we can end this quiet epidemic once and for all.

26. Veterans, the armed forces, and their families

America must fully commit to supporting veterans.

27. Voting rights

We should be making it easier to vote, not harder.

28. Wall Street and corporate America

Wall Street must work for Main Street.

29. Women’s rights and opportunity

Women’s issues are family issues, economic issues, and crucial to our future competitiveness.

30. Workforce and skills

Every American should be able to learn new skills in order to advance in their careers.

Read more at Hillary Clinton official website link below

Source and time and date: April 16, 2016. 8:10 am

https://www.hillaryclinton.com/issues/

Hillary Clinton has written many books and other works, some are listed below

1. It Takes a Village: And Other Lessons Children Teach Us

2. Living History

3. Hard Choices

Hillary Clinton tax proposals:

Adds a 4% surtax on income over $5 million

Adds a 4% surtax on income over $5 million. Raises rates on medium-term capital gains (investments held for less than six years) to between 24% and 39.6%.

Has No specific proposal for Corporate Income Tax.

Increases the top estate tax rate to 45%, and lowers the estate tax exclusion to $3.5 million.

See her official website for full details and updates.

Martin Joseph O’Malley

Born January 18, 1963

Governor of Maryland January 17, 2007 – January 21, 2015

Mayor of Baltimore December 7, 1999 – January 17, 2007

Political party: Democratic

Candidate for presidential election of 2016 as a Democrat.

Born in Washington, D.C., United States, U.S.

Education

The Catholic University of America

Juris Doctor University of Maryland in 1988

Over his eight years as Mayor of Baltimore, O’Malley’s policies helped the people of Baltimore achieve the greatest crime reduction of America’s largest cities. He also promoted important investments in the local economy—bringing fiscal stability to schools and cracking down on crime, which drew investments and people back to the city.

As Governor of Maryland. Under his leadership, Maryland made sweeping investments in public safety, college education, affordable healthcare, and economic growth.

He and his wife, Katie, a District Court judge, live in Baltimore with their four children.

Martin O’Malley formally announced his candidacy for the presidency in the 2016 election on May 30, 2015

Martin O’Malley has a modest net worth of about $ $256,000 after subtracting debt (July 16, 2015 – bloomberg.com)

Martin O’Malley on Issues: (Vision) September 22, 2015

Fight for better wages

Bring accountability to Wall Street

Expand equality of opportunity for next generation

Strengthen our cities and communities

Support women and families

Break down barriers that keep families in poverty

Reform our immigration system

Protect the dignity of retirement

Launch a jobs agenda for climate challenge

Restore competition to our economy

Put elections back in the hands of American voters

Insist on transparent, accountable, high-performing government

Reduce threats to our national security through a strengthened economy and middle class

Source: https://martinomalley.com/

Lincoln Davenport Chafee – – Suspended campaign on October 23, 2015

Born March 26, 1953

Governor of Rhode Island (2011–2015).

U.S. Senator (1999–2007)

Mayor of Warwick (1993–1999)

Candidate for presidential election of 2016 as a Democrat.

Political Parties:

Democratic: 2003- present

Independent 2007-2013

Republican 1999-2007

Born in Providence, Rhode Island, U.S.

Education

Bachelor of Arts in Classics in 1975 from Brown University

In 1992, Lincoln Chafee was elected Warwick’s mayor. He was re-elected in 1994, 1996, and 1998.

Governor Lincoln Almond appointed the Lincoln Chafee to serve out the term in U.S., Sanate, when his father John Chafee passed away in 1999.

Lincoln Chafee was elected to a full six-year term in 2000.

Committee assignments U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works and U.S. Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs

Chafee was the only Republican in the Senate to vote against authorization of the use of force in Iraq.

Presidential campaign, 2016

Lincoln Chafee formally announced his candidacy for the presidency in the 2016 election on June 3, 2015

Democratic presidential candidate Lincoln Chafee and his wife, Stephanie, had income of as much as $5.5 million in 2014 and are worth as much as $34.9 million, according to his financial disclosure report.

Lincoln Chafee has raised $392,743 in the first half of the year (2015) —$364,000 of which he loaned to his own campaign. The campaign has $329,000 in the bank.

Lincoln Chafee on Issues:

Lincoln Chafee’s Priorities: (September22, 2015)

“I will always fight to protect personal liberties guaranteed in the Constitution.

Conservative forces have been chipping away at our personal freedoms. I will never allow any American’s personal liberties to be diminished, including a woman’s right to control her own personal reproductive decisions. And the Federal government should never torture prisoners or tap people’s phones without warrant.”

Prosperity through Peace

Strengthen Economic Opportunity

Environmental Stewardship

Ensure Freedom for All Americans “

Source: http://www.chafee2016.com/policy/

Books:

Against the Tide

James Henry “Jim” Webb, Jr – – Suspended campaign on October 20, 2015.

Born February 9, 1946

United States Senator January 3, 2007 – January 3, 2013

United States Secretary of the Navy May 1, 1987 – February 23, 1988

Assistant Secretary of Defense for Reserve Affairs May 3, 1984 – April 10, 1987

Military service 1968–1972

Political party: Democratic

Candidate for presidential election of 2016 as a Democrat.

Born in Saint Joseph, Missouri, U.S.

Education Juris Doctor – Georgetown University Juris Doctor

United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland

Jim Webb was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the U.S. Marine Corps.

From 1977 to 1981, Webb worked on the staff of the House Committee on Veterans Affairs.

Jim Webb served as the nation’s first Assistant Secretary of Defense for Reserve Affairs from 1984-87.

In a 1990 New York Times opinion piece, Webb opposed further U.S. military escalation in Saudi Arabia during Operation Desert Shield citing lack of a coherent strategy and consent from the United States Congress. He also warned against a permanent military presence in the Middle East. [Webb, James (September 23, 1990). “In the Gulf, the Danger of a Diplomatic Solution … And the Horrors of a Desert War”. The New York Times (Arlington, Virginia). Retrieved January 29, 2010.]

Webb won election to the senate in 2006.

Committee assignments: Subcommittee on Personnel (Chairman), Subcommittee on East Asian and Pacific Affairs (Chairman), Committee on Armed Services, Committee on Foreign Relations, Subcommittee on Airland, Subcommittee on SeaPower, Subcommittee on Western Hemisphere, Peace Corps and Narcotics Affairs, Subcommittee on African Affairs, Subcommittee on European Affairs, Committee on Veterans’ Affairs

On February 9, 2011, Webb announced that he would not run for re-election for his Senate seat in 2012.

Presidential campaign, 2016

Jim Webb formally announced his candidacy for the presidency in the 2016 election on July 2, 2015

Jim Webb has a net worth of about $4.6 million –est [insidegov.com]

Jim Webb on Issues:

September 22, 2015

Source: https://www.webb2016.com/

Books and other Works : Some books and works are noted below:

Books:

I Heard My Country Calling (2014)

Fields of Fire (1978)

A Sense of Honor (1981)

A Country Such as This (1983)

Something to Die For (1991)

The Emperor’s General (1999)

Lost Soldiers (2001)

Born Fighting (2004)

A Time to Fight (2008)

Articles:

Foreign Policy & National Security

Economic Fairness & Social Justice

Government Accountability & Balance of Powers

Military & Veterans

Source: http://www.jameswebb.com/

Jim Webb wrote the story and was the executive producer for the 2000 movie Rules of Engagement.

Jim Webb script for Whiskey River

The following other notable individuals have taken one or both of the following actions: formally announced their candidacy; filed as a candidate with FEC., Willie Wilson, Robby Wells, Lawrence Lessig, Harry Braun and Jeff Boss

Publicly expressed interest:

Al Gore, Vice President of the United States 1993–2001; Democratic Party Presidential Nominee in 2000; U.S. Senator from Tennessee 1985–1993

Vice president Joe Biden, Vice President of the United States, (2009–present)

Jerry Brown, Governor of California 2011–present, 1975–1983

Joseph Robinette “Joe” Biden, Jr

Born November 20, 1942

Vice President of the United States January 20, 2009 – Present

United States Senator from Delaware January 3, 1973 – January 15, 2009

Education University of Delaware (B.A.) with a double major in history and political science

Syracuse University College of Law Juris Doctor in 1968

Born in Scranton, Pennsylvania, U.S.

Education

Joe Biden earned his BA degree in 1965 from the University of Delaware in Newark, with a double major in history and political science. He earned Juris Doctor from Syracuse University College of Law in 1968.

Joe Biden served on the County Council from 1970 to 1972 and practice law.

Joe When Biden was sworn into office on January 5, 1973 as United States Senator.

Joe Biden is sworn into office by Associate Justice John Paul Stevens, January 20, 2009

Joe Biden re-elected as Vice president of United States and Assumed office on January 20, 2009

Works by Joe Biden: Joe Biden has written more than 12 papers and books; some are listed below:

Promises to Keep.

Strategies for Homeland Defense: A Compilation by the Committee on Foreign Relations, U.S. Senate

International Campaign Against Terrorism: Hearing before the Committee on Foreign Relations, U.S. Senate

Hague Convention On International Child Abduction: Applicable Law And Institutional Framework Within Certain Convention Countries Report To The Senate.

Joe Biden has not formally announced his candidacy for the presidency in the 2016. (September 24, 2015).

Republican:

1. Donald John Trump

2. Randal Howard “Rand” Paul

3. John Ellis “Jeb” Bush

4. Rafael Edward “Ted” Cruz

5. Carly Fiorina

6. Christopher James “Chris” Christie

7. Marco Antonio Rubio

8. Benjamin Solomon “Ben” Carson, Sr

9: Other candidates

Donald John Trump

Born June 14, 1946

Political party:

Republican (Before 1999; 2009–11; 2012–present)

Previous Political affiliation:

Reform (1999–2001)

Democratic (2001–09)

Independent (2011–12)

Candidate for presidential election of 2016 as a Republican

Born in borough of Queens in New York City, U.S.

Education

Donald Trump graduated in 1968, with a Bachelor of Science degree in economics from University of Pennsylvania.

Donald Trump started his real estate career in his father’s firm and he focused on middle-class rental housing in the New York City boroughs of Brooklyn, Queens, and Staten Island (U.S).

Donald Trump’s The Trump Organization operates many golf courses and resorts in the United States and around the world.

Recent acquisitions include the iconic Doral Hotel & Country Club (800 acres) in Miami, and the historic Old Post Office Building in Washington, D.C. which is being developed into a world class luxury hotel. Seen as a generational asset by the Trump family, the redevelopment plan will infuse the building with new life. Groundbreaking was in July of 2014.

Donald Trump’s title and companies and management experience: Chairman and president of The Trump Organization, Chairman of Trump Plaza Associates, LLC, Chairman of Trump Atlantic City Associates. His estimated salary is $250 million – annually.

Donald Trump formally announced his candidacy for the presidency in the 2016 election on June 16, 2015

Donald Trump has an approximately net worth of $10 billion (September 2015)

Donald Trump is self-funded for 2016 presidential election. Donald Trump ‘s campaign has raised over $1.90 million by end of June, 2015 from grass root donors and/or self.

He has education, experience, qualities and proven business judgment to be president and commander of chief of USA.

Donald Trump’s positions and on Issues:

Positions:

Pay for the wall

It’s an easy decision for Mexico. There are several ways to compel Mexico to pay for the wall.

Healthcare Reform

Since March of 2010, the American people have had to suffer under the incredible economic burden of the Affordable Care Act—Obamacare. This legislation, passed by totally partisan votes in the House and Senate and signed into law by the most divisive and partisan President in American history, has tragically but predictably resulted in runaway costs, websites that don’t work, greater rationing of care, higher premiums, less competition and fewer choices.

The GEN Poll (genengnews.com) – Inequality in Healthcare. A recent study in Health Affairs reports that wealthy Americans have much more access to healthcare than do the poor and middle class. Do you think that a single-payer national health insurance program should be instituted in the U.S.?

Yes 80.4%

No 19.6%

(poll result as of July 16, 2016 9:30 am)

U.S.-China Trade Reform

The most important component of our trade policy is leadership and strength at the negotiating table. We have been too afraid to protect and advance American interests and to challenge China, India and Mexico and other countries to live up to its obligations. We need smart negotiators who will serve the interests of American workers – not Wall Street insiders that want to move U.S. manufacturing and investment offshore.

Veterans Administration Reforms

The current state of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is absolutely unacceptable. Over 300,000 veterans died waiting for care. Corruption and incompetence were excused. Politicians in Washington have done too little too slowly to fix it. This situation can never happen again, and when Donald J. Trump is president, it will be fixed – fast.

Tax Reform

Too few Americans are working, too many jobs have been shipped overseas, and too many middle class families cannot make ends meet. This tax plan directly meets these challenges with four simple goals.

Second Amendment Rights

Donald J. Trump on the Right to Keep and Bear Arms

The Second Amendment to our Constitution is clear. The right of the people to keep and bear Arms shall not be infringed upon. Period.

Immigration Reform

Real immigration reform puts the needs of working people first – not wealthy globetrotting donors. We are the only country in the world whose immigration system puts the needs of other nations ahead of our own. That must change.

Issues:

1. The Establishment

I want to win for the people of this great country. The only people I will owe are the voters. The media, special interests, and lobbyists are all trying to stop me. We won’t let that happen!

2. Trade War

Our country is getting ripped off. We need the smartest people negotiating for us!

3. Making Deals With Congress

I would love to see the Republican party and everyone get together and unify. When we unify there is nobody who is going to beat us!

4. Law Enforcement Respect

The police in our country do not get respect. Our law enforcement officers deserve our appreciation for the incredible job they do.

5. First Day In Office

What I would do on my first day in office.

6. Competent Leadership

America needs strong leadership. Politicians can talk but they don’t get things done. I have a strong track record of success and if elected I will do what I have promised to do: ‪#‎MakeAmericaGreatAgain!‬‬‬‬

7. Drug Epidemic

The New Hampshire drug epidemic must stop. If elected POTUS — I will create borders and the drugs will stop pouring in. We will ‪#‎MakeAmericaGreatAgain!‬‬‬‬

8. Live Free or Die

Live Free or Die: A motto for the whole country to follow.

9. The 2nd Amendment

Politicians are trying to chip away at the 2nd Amendment. I won’t let them take away our guns!!

10. Political Correctness

Being politically correct takes too much time. We have too much to get done!

11. Israel

I am very pro Israel.

12. Self Funding

I am self funding my campaign so I don’t owe anything to lobbyists and special interests. I will bring the greatest negotiators and smartest operators to Washington to help Make America Great Again!

13. Illegal Immigration

If we don’t have borders, we don’t have a country. We need to BUILD A WALL that will keep illegal immigrants out.

14. Unifying The Nation

I will unify and bring our country back together. We will be unified, we will be one, we will be happy again.

15. Education

I will end common core. It’s a disaster.

16. The Military

I will make our Military so big, powerful and strong that no one will mess with us.

17. Jobs

I will be the greatest job-producing president in American history.

18. Life Changing Experiences

America has been great to me, I want to be great to America. I want to put us back on the right course and Make America Great Again!

19. The Economy

$19 trillion of debt and growing is a crushing burden to leave young Americans

20. Trump University Truth

The facts on Trump University the media and lying politicians choose to ignore. Irresponsible and dishonest.

Source: offical website – April 16, 2016 – 9:21 AM

https://www.donaldjtrump.com/issues/

Read More at website

Donald Trump has authored over fifteen books and works. Donald Trump’s works include:

The Art of the Deal

Surviving at the Top

The Art of the Comeback

The America We Deserve, with Dave Shiflett

Time to Get Tough: Making America No. 1 Again (2011)

Awards include:

Key to the City of Doral, Florida, 2015

Commandant of the Marine Corps Leadership Award, 2015, Marine Corps–Law Enforcement Foundation.

Trump tax proposal

Establishes four tax brackets, with rates of 0%, 10%, 20% and 25%. The top rate applies to to income over $150,000 for single filers and $300,000 for joint filers.

Lowers the top corporate rate to 15%.

Eliminates the net investment income surtax.

Eliminates the estate tax

See his official webpage for update and detail. He does disclose how he will pay for some of programs.

John Kasich

Born May 13, 1952

Governor of Ohio -United States - January 10, 2011 – Present

Political party: Republican

Candidate for presidential election of 2016 as a Republican

Born in Mckees Rocks, Pennsylvania, U.S.

Education

Ohio State University (BA) – 1974

U.S. House of Representatives (1983–2001)

Kasich was a member of the House Armed Services Committee for 18 years.

He worked with Ralph Nader in seeking to reduce corporate tax loopholes.

Kasich said he was “100 percent for” the first Persian Gulf War as well as the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan, but said that he did not favor U.S. military participation in the Lebanese Civil War or in Bosnia.

[Darrel Rowland, What we’ve found out about the foreign policy of a President Kasich, Columbus Dispatch (April 27, 2015).]

Ranking Republican member of the House Budget Committee [1993].

On November 17, 1993, Kasich voted to approve the North American Free Trade Agreement, casting a “yea” vote for the North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act.

Chairman of the House Budget Committee [1996].

2000 presidential campaign for the Republican nomination

Kasich served on the board of directors for several corporations, including Invacare Corporation and the Chicago-based Norvax Inc. In 2001, Kasich joined Lehman Brothers’ investment banking division as a managing director, in Columbus, Ohio. He remained at Lehman Brothers until it declared bankruptcy in 2008

According to FEC filings, Kasich’s campaign had $2.5 million on hand at the beginning of 2016

The 2016 presidential campaign of John Kasich, the 69th Governor of Ohio, began at an event at the Ohio State University in the Ohio Union on July 21, 2015.

Kasich has authored three books

1. Courage is Contagious – 1998

2. Stand for Something: The Battle for America’s Soul – 2006

3. Every Other Monday, published – 2010

Issues

1. EDUCATION

2. NATIONAL SECURITY

3. A CONSERVATIVE APPROACH TO BETTER HEALTH CARE

4. FISCAL RESPONSIBILITY AND BALANCING BUDGETS

5. DEFENDING THE SECOND AMENDMENT

6. LIFTING UP THE MOST VULNERABLE AMERICANS

7. RESPECTING THE SANCTITY OF HUMAN LIFE

8. SUPPORTING OUR VETERANS

9. CREATING JOBS AND STRENGTHENING THE ECONOMY

Source and date: April 16, 2016. 10:09 AM

Read more at official website

https://www.johnkasich.com/issues/

Rafael Edward “Ted” Cruz

Born December 22, 1970

United States Senator from Texas (2013–present)

Solicitor General of Texas (2003–2008)

Political party: Republican

Candidate for presidential election of 2016 as a Republican

Born in Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Education Harvard Law School – (Juris Doctor degree , 1995)

Princeton University Bachelor of Arts in Public Policy – 1992

In 1995 Ted Cruz served as law clerk to J. Michael Luttig of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit and William Rehnquist, Chief Justice of the United States in 1996

Between 1997 and 1998, Ted Cruz took a position with Cooper, Carvin & Rosenthal, now known as Cooper & Kirk, LLC, from 1997 to 1998.

Ted Cruz served as an associate deputy attorney general in the U.S. Justice Department and as the director of policy planning at the U.S. Federal Trade Commission.

Ted Cruz served as appointed Solicitor General of Texas -2003–2008)

Ted Cruz is serving as an United States Senator from Texas (2013–present)

Committee assignment: Subcommittee on Oversight, Federal Rights and Agency Activities (Chairman), Subcommittee on Science and Space (Chairman), Committee on Armed Services Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and Capabilities, Subcommittee on Readiness and Management Support, Committee on the Judiciary Subcommittee on the Constitution, Subcommittee on Seapower, Civil Rights and Human Rights, Subcommittee on Immigration, Refugees and Border Security, Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation Subcommittee on Aviation Operations, Safety, and Security, Committee on Rules and Administration and Special Committee on Aging.

Presidential campaign, 2016

Ted Cruz formally announced his candidacy for the presidency in the 2016 election on March 23, 2015

Ted Cruz has an approximately net worth of $ 3.17 million (2015)

Ted Cruz’s campaign has raised over $52. 18 million by end of June, 2015. [This number include Superpac]

Works: A Time for Truth: Reigniting the Promise of America

Ted Cruz on Issues:

Issues

1. Restore the Constitution

2. Second Amendment

3. Secure the border

4. Defend our nation

5. Stand with Israel

6. Religious liberty

7. Life, marriage and family

8. Jobs and opportunity

9. Rein in Washington

read more at offical website

Source and date: April 16, 2016 9:34 AM

https://www.tedcruz.org/issues/

Mr. Cruz opposes abortion even in cases of rape and incest, and has called for a federal amendment that would allow states to avoid performing or recognizing same-sex marriages.

Mr. Cruz entered the Senate in 2013 as part of the Tea Party favorite. Tea Party is lost with wave of progressive candidates like Trump and Sanders.

Ted Cruz tax proposal

Establishes a flat rate of 10% on all ordinary income. Increases the standard deduction to $10,000 per filer.

Lowers the rate on capital gains and dividends income to 10%.

Replaces the corporate income tax with a 16% business transfer tax, which applies to all capital income and labor payments.

Eliminates the estate tax.

Please see his website for detail and updates

Randal Howard “Rand” Paul – – Suspended campaign on February 3, 2016

Born January 7, 1963

United States Senator from Kentucky January 3, 2011 – Present

Political party: Republican

Candidate for presidential election of 2016 as a Republican

Born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.

Education

Duke University School of Medicine (M.D.) – 1988

Rand Paul He grew up in Lake Jackson, Texas and attended Baylor University.

Rand Paul graduated from Duke Medical School in 1988. Dr. Paul completed a general surgery internship at Georgia Baptist Medical Center in Atlanta and completed his residency in ophthalmology at Duke University Medical Center. Upon completion of his training in 1993, Rand and Kelley moved to Bowling Green to start their family and begin his ophthalmology practice.

Rand owned his own ophthalmology practice and performed eye surgery for 18 years.

Rand is a former president and 17-year member of Lions Clubs International

Elected to the U.S. Senate in 2010

Committee assignments

Committee on Small Business and Entrepreneurship (starting 2011), Committee on Energy and Natural Resources (2011–13), Committee on Foreign Relations (starting 2013) United States Senate Foreign Relations Subcommittee on International Operations and Organizations, Human Rights, Democracy and Global Women’s Issues (Chairman), United States Senate Foreign Relations Subcommittee on International Development and Foreign Assistance, Economic Affairs and International Environmental Protection, and Peace Corps, United States Senate Foreign Relations Subcommittee on Western Hemisphere and Global Narcotics Affairs, United States Senate Foreign Relations Subcommittee on African Affairs, Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions (starting 2011) United States Senate Health Subcommittee on Children and Families, Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs (starting 2011) United States Senate Homeland Security Subcommittee on Emergency Management, Intergovernmental Relations, and the District of Columbia (Chairman), United States Senate Homeland Security Subcommittee on the Efficiency and Effectiveness of Federal Programs and the Federal Workforce, and Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations

Rand Paul formally announced his candidacy for the presidency in the 2016 election on April 07, 2015

Rand Paul has an approximately net worth of $1.33 million (2015)

Rand Paul ‘s campaign has raised over $13.13 million by end of June, 2015. Total fundraising across Rand Paul’s official committee, super PACs, and leadership PAC

Rand Paul concerns Issues:

Spending and Debt

Ending NSA Spying

Term Limits

Taxes

Audit the Fed

Foreign Policy & Defense

Health Care

Energy

Immigration

Regulation

Criminal Justice Reforms

Civil Liberties

Education

Israel

Social Security

Veterans

Sanctity of Life

Second Amendment

Source: https://www.randpaul.com/

John Ellis “Jeb” Bush – – Suspended campaign on February 20, 2016

Born February 11, 1953

Governor of Florida January 5, 1999 – January 2, 2007

Florida Secretary of Commerce January 6, 1987 – September 9, 1988

Political party: Republican

Candidate for presidential election of 2016 as a Republican

Born in Midland, Texas, U.S.

Education University of Texas at Austin – B.A. in Latin American Studies

Joined Texas Commerce Bank in 1974 and in 1977 he was send to Caracas, Venezuela, by same bank to open a branch, there he worked as manager and later as vice president.

Job Bush moved back to U.S., and volunteered for his father’s (George H. W. Bush) campaigns in 1980 and 1988. During this time, he was involved in many different entrepreneurial pursuits, including Real estate, Mobil Company.

Jeb Bush worked as Florida Secretary of Commerce January 6, 1987 – September 9, 1988

Bush helped to establish Florida’s first charter school

In 1988 he was elected as Governor of Florida, he served between January 5, 1999 – January 2, 2007.

During Bush’s tenure he reduced taxes and eliminate of the state’s Intangible Personal Property Tax, which applied to holdings of stocks, bonds, mutual funds, and money market funds. [The Christian Science Monitor]. Bush reduced the state’s government workforce by 11 percent

Bush favors gradually raising the retirement age (i.e., the age for collecting Social Security retirement benefits) from 65 to 68 or 70 [WP]

Jeb Bush formally announced his candidacy for the presidency in the 2016 election on June 15, 2015

Jeb Bush has a net worth of about to be between $19 million and $22 million.

Jeb Bush’s’ campaign has raised over $114.60 million by end of June, 2015, this figure includes Super Pac.

Jeb Bush on Issues:

Regulatory Reform

Reform Tax code

Education reform

Immigration reform

Islamic Terrorism

Source: https://www.jeb2016.com/

Carly Fiorina – – Suspended campaign on February 10, 2016

(Given name: Cara Carleton Sneed)

Born September 6, 1954

Politician – Presidential candidate, 2015-present

Hewlett-Packard, CEO (1999-2005)

Lucent Technologies, President (consumer products sector, 1996-1999)

AT&T, Senior vice-president (hardware and systems, 1990); Head chair (North American operations, 1995)

Fox Business Network, Commentator (2007-?)

One Woman Initiative (OWI), Fund chair (2013-2015)

Political party: Republican

Born in Austin, Texas, U.S.

Education

Stanford University (B.A.)

University of Maryland (MBA)

Massachusetts Institute of

Technology (M.S.)

Heath: Cancer survivor: 2009 stage II breast cancer underwent a double mastectomy.

Board member of Good360 (chair, 2012-present), World Economic Forum (2005), Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (2006-2009), James Madison University (Board of Visitors, 2012-2015) and Opportunity International (chairwoman of the global board).

In 1980, Carley Fiorina joined AT&T as a management trainee, selling telephone services to big federal agencies. She left AT&T in 1995, at that time, she was heading the North American operations.

From 1996-1999 Carley Fiorina worked for Lucent Technologies, a spin-off from AT&T of its Western Electric and Bell Labs divisions. Last title was President (consumer products sector).

In July 1999, Hewlett-Packard Company named Fiorina chief executive officer. during her tenure, HP exquisite Compaq with US$25 billion in stock.

Fiorina laid off 30,000 U.S. employees. HP hired more people than it fired, during her tenure at HP Carley Fiorina out-sourced jobs to India and other countries outside the United States.

The company’s stock jumped on news of Carley Fiorina’s departure, adding almost three billion dollars to the value of HP in a single day.

Carley Fiorina was named tenth on the Forbes list of The World’s 100 Most Powerful Women. 2004.

Carley Fiorina ran for the United States Senate in California in 2010, lost the general election to incumbent Democratic Senator Barbara Boxer.

Carley Fiorina formally announced his candidacy for the presidency in the 2016 election on May 4, 2015

Carley Fiorina has a approximately net worth of $59 million (2015)

Carley Fiorina’s campaign has raised over $5.6 million by end of June, 2015.

Carley Fiorina on Issues:

Carley is asking voters their concern issues or questions:

“Get Answers

Since her announcement on May 4, Carly has stood apart from the political class with her willingness to take any question, about any topic, and deliver answers in commonsense terms—not political sound bites. What’s your question? “

Source: https://carlyforpresident.com/

Christopher James “Chris” Christie

Born September 6, 1962

Governor of New Jersey (2010–present)

United States Attorney for the District of New Jersey (2002–2008)

Member of the Morris County Board of Chosen Freeholders (1995–1998)

Political party: Republican

Candidate for presidential election of 2016 as a Republican

Born in Newark, New Jersey, U.S

Education University of Delaware, Newark (B.A.) Bachelor of Arts in political science in 1984

Seton Hall University School of Law with a J.D. in 1987.

In 1987, Christie joined the law firm of Dughi, Hewit & Palatucci of Cranford, New Jersey

Between 1999 and 2001, Christie and Palatucci lobbied on behalf of, among others, GPU Energy for deregulation of New Jersey’s electric and gas industry [Michael Rispoli (August 26, 2009). “Gov. Corzine, Chris Christie trade barbs about lobbying histories”. nj.com.]

President George W. Bush appointed Christie the U.S. Attorney for the District of New Jersey in Dec, 2001; He served from 2002 to 2008 in this position.

Presidential campaign, 2016

Chris Christie formally announced his candidacy for the presidency in the 2016 election on June 30, 2015

Chris Christie has a approximately net worth of $ million (2015)

Chris Christie’s campaign has raisin over $11.00 million by end of June, 2015.

Chris Christie on Issues:

Criminal Justice

Entitlements

Foreign Policy

Education

Economy

Border Security and Immigration

Healthcare for America’s Veterans

https://www.chrischristie.com/

Marco Antonio Rubio – Suspended campaign on March 15, 2016.

Born May 28, 1971

Junior United States Senator from Florida January 3, 2011– Present

Speaker of the Florida House of Representatives November 21, 2006 – November 18, 2008

Member of the Florida House of Representatives January 25, 2000 – November 18, 2008

Political party: Republican

Candidate for presidential election of 2016 as a Republican

Born in Miami, Florida, U.S.

Education

University of Florida Bachelor of Arts degree in political science 1993

University of Miami School of Law degree in J.D. cum laudein 1996

Member of the Florida House of Representatives January 25, 2000 – November 18, 2008

Speaker of the Florida House of Representatives November 21, 2006 – November 18, 2008

Junior United States Senator from Florida January 3, 2011– Present

Committee assignments : Subcommittee on East Asia, The Pacific, and International Cybersecurity Policy, Subcommittee on Africa and Global Health Policy, Subcommittee on Near East, South and Central Asia, and Counterterrorism, Subcommittee on Western Hemisphere, Transnational Crime, Civilian Security, Democracy, Human Rights, and Global Women’s Issues, (Chair),Select Committee on Intelligence, Committee on Small Business and Entrepreneurship, Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation, Subcommittee on Aviation Operations, Safety, and Security, Subcommittee on Communications, Technology, and the Internet, Subcommittee on Oceans, Atmosphere, Fisheries, and Coast Guard, (Chair),Subcommittee on Science and Space, Committee on Foreign Relations,

Marco Rubio formally announced his candidacy for the presidency in the 2016 election on April 13, 2015

Marco Rubio has a approximately net worth of $ $443,508 (2015)

Marco Rubio’s campaign has raised over $ 42.9 million – 2015. Total fundraising across Marco Rubio’s official committee, super PAC, and leadership PAC..

Marco Rubio’s concerns on Issues:

A Safer, Stronger America

Barack Obama’s Third Term

Building A New American Century

Education: Marco’s Plan

A Safer, Stronger America

America

Cuba

Debt

Defense Spending

Energy

Europe

Foreign Policy

Human Life Won’t Become A Cat

Iran

Iran, Part 2

ISIS

Israel

Life

Marriage

More Gun Laws Won’t Stop Them

Obamacare

Second Amendment

Securing America’s Energy Future Starts With Innovation

Student Loans

Tax Reform

The Internet

The Party Of The Future

Veterans

Source: https://marcorubio.com/

Benjamin Solomon “Ben” Carson, Sr – Suspended campaign on March 4, 2016

Born Sep 18, 1951

Title: Politician

Neurosurgeon – retired from Johns Hopkins

Political party: Republican – November 4, 2014 – present.

Candidate for presidential election of 2016 as a Republican

Previous Political affiliation: Liberty Union (1971–1979)

Born in Detroit, Michigan, U.S.

Education the University of Michigan Medical School- M.D.

Yale University (B.A.)

Ben Carson received his M.D. from the University of Michigan Medical School

Ben Carson was the director of pediatric neurosurgery at Johns Hopkins Hospital.

Carson was the first surgeon to successfully separate twins conjoined at the head with 70-member surgical team.

Carson has served on the boards of the Kellogg Company, Costco, and the Academy of Achievement [Puget Sound Business Journal. Retrieved May 6, 2015.]

In March 2013, Ben Carson announced he would retire as a surgeon, stating “I’d much rather quit when I’m at the top of my game [Washington Post.].

“I want a system that’s based on biblical principles,” Ben Carson said in Phoenix in August 2015. [Seventh-day Adventist interpretation of the bible]

Ben Carson is the author of many articles in peer-reviewed journal, and many philosophies and faith based books published by Zondervan, an international Christian media and publishing company. Books include: Gifted Hands, My Life: Based on the Book Gifted Hands (with Cecil Murphey), Think Big: Unleashing Your Potential for Excellence.

Ben Carson formally announced his candidacy for the presidency in the 2016 election on May 4, 2015.

Ben Carson has an approximately net worth of $10 million (2015)

Ben Carson ‘s campaign has raised over $14.57 million by end of June, 2015. Numbers include superPac monies.

Ben Carson concerns and on Issues:

Protecting Innocent Life

Balanced Budget Amendment

Education

Keep Gitmo Open

Heath Care

Keep Faith in Our Society

Russia and Lesson Learned

Protect the Second Amendment

Stand by Israel, Our Bulwark Middle East Ally

The American People Deserve a Better Tax Code (flat Tax)

Source: https://www.bencarson.com/ (September 24, 2015)

Other candidates

The following notable individuals have taken one or both of the following actions: formally announced their candidacy; filed as a candidate with FEC. None have been featured in a national poll.

Jimmy McMillan, Mark Everson, Andy Martin, Jack Fellure, Jim Gilmore, Mike Huckabee, Piyush “Bobby” Jindal. Lindsey Graham, Rick Santorum and George Pataki

The following notable individuals have taken one or both of the following actions: formally announced their candidacy; filed as a candidate with FEC.

Mark Everson, Jack Fellure, Andy Martin, and Jimmy McMillan.

Others:

American Freedom Party

Bob Whitaker, political activist from South Carolina.

Constitution Party

Publicly expressed interest: John Hostettler, U.S. Representative 1995–2007 from Indiana

Green Party

Declared candidate: Jill Stein, physician and 2012 Green Party presidential nominee from Massachusetts

Libertarian Party

Declared candidate Robert David Steele, activist and author of Virginia; candidate for the Reform Party’s nomination in 2012

Nathan Norman, activist and entertainer of Virginia- (Constitutionally ineligible – under age 35)

Party for Socialism and Liberation

Gloria La Riva, newspaper printer and activist, from Albuquerque, New Mexico. Vice-Presidential nominee: Eugene Puryear

Peace and Freedom Party

Declared candidates

Roseanne Barr, entertainer from Hawaii; 2012 Presidential nominee

Prohibition Party

James Hedges, Tax Assessor for Thompson Township, Fulton County, Pennsylvania 2002–2007.] Vice-Presidential nominee: Bill Bayes of Mississippi

Veterans Party of America

Chris Keniston, Reliability Engineer from Texas. Vice-Presidential nominee: Deacon Taylor of Nevada

Declared candidates without a specified affiliation

Dan Bilzerian, Internet personality

Zoltan Istvan, futurist, writer, transhumanist philosopher from California

Juaquin James Malphurs (Waka Flocka Flame), rap artist from Georgia (Constitutionally ineligible – under age 35)

John McAfee, developer of antivirus software

Guy Schwartz, musician from Texas

Vermin Supreme, performance artist and perennial candidate from Massachusetts

Oath of Allegiance (United States)

“I hereby declare, on oath, that I absolutely and entirely renounce and abjure all allegiance and fidelity to any foreign prince, potentate, state, or sovereignty of whom or which I have heretofore been a subject or citizen; that I will support and defend the Constitution and laws of the United States of America against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; that I will bear arms on behalf of the United States when required by the law; that I will perform noncombatant service in the Armed Forces of the United States when required by the law; that I will perform work of national importance under civilian direction when required by the law; and that I take this obligation freely without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion; so help me God.”

Oath of office of the President of the United States

“I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”

Washington’s Farewell Address (1796)

Friends and Citizens:

The period for a new election of a citizen to administer the executive government of the United States being not far distant, and the time actually arrived when your thoughts must be employed in designating the person who is to be clothed with that important trust, it appears to me proper, especially as it may conduce to a more distinct expression of the public voice, that I should now apprise you of the resolution I have formed, to decline being considered among the number of those out of whom a choice is to be made.

I beg you, at the same time, to do me the justice to be assured that this resolution has not been taken without a strict regard to all the considerations appertaining to the relation which binds a dutiful citizen to his country; and that in withdrawing the tender of service, which silence in my situation might imply, I am influenced by no diminution of zeal for your future interest, no deficiency of grateful respect for your past kindness, but am supported by a full conviction that the step is compatible with both.

The acceptance of, and continuance hitherto in, the office to which your suffrages have twice called me have been a uniform sacrifice of inclination to the opinion of duty and to a deference for what appeared to be your desire. I constantly hoped that it would have been much earlier in my power, consistently with motives which I was not at liberty to disregard, to return to that retirement from which I had been reluctantly drawn. The strength of my inclination to do this, previous to the last election, had even led to the preparation of an address to declare it to you; but mature reflection on the then perplexed and critical posture of our affairs with foreign nations, and the unanimous advice of persons entitled to my confidence, impelled me to abandon the idea.

I rejoice that the state of your concerns, external as well as internal, no longer renders the pursuit of inclination incompatible with the sentiment of duty or propriety, and am persuaded, whatever partiality may be retained for my services, that, in the present circumstances of our country, you will not disapprove my determination to retire.

The impressions with which I first undertook the arduous trust were explained on the proper occasion. In the discharge of this trust, I will only say that I have, with good intentions, contributed towards the organization and administration of the government the best exertions of which a very fallible judgment was capable. Not unconscious in the outset of the inferiority of my qualifications, experience in my own eyes, perhaps still more in the eyes of others, has strengthened the motives to diffidence of myself; and every day the increasing weight of years admonishes me more and more that the shade of retirement is as necessary to me as it will be welcome. Satisfied that if any circumstances have given peculiar value to my services, they were temporary, I have the consolation to believe that, while choice and prudence invite me to quit the political scene, patriotism does not forbid it.

In looking forward to the moment which is intended to terminate the career of my public life, my feelings do not permit me to suspend the deep acknowledgment of that debt of gratitude which I owe to my beloved country for the many honors it has conferred upon me; still more for the steadfast confidence with which it has supported me; and for the opportunities I have thence enjoyed of manifesting my inviolable attachment, by services faithful and persevering, though in usefulness unequal to my zeal. If benefits have resulted to our country from these services, let it always be remembered to your praise, and as an instructive example in our annals, that under circumstances in which the passions, agitated in every direction, were liable to mislead, amidst appearances sometimes dubious, vicissitudes of fortune often discouraging, in situations in which not unfrequently want of success has countenanced the spirit of criticism, the constancy of your support was the essential prop of the efforts, and a guarantee of the plans by which they were effected. Profoundly penetrated with this idea, I shall carry it with me to my grave, as a strong incitement to unceasing vows that heaven may continue to you the choicest tokens of its beneficence; that your union and brotherly affection may be perpetual; that the free Constitution, which is the work of your hands, may be sacredly maintained; that its administration in every department may be stamped with wisdom and virtue; that, in fine, the happiness of the people of these States, under the auspices of liberty, may be made complete by so careful a preservation and so prudent a use of this blessing as will acquire to them the glory of recommending it to the applause, the affection, and adoption of every nation which is yet a stranger to it.

Here, perhaps, I ought to stop. But a solicitude for your welfare, which cannot end but with my life, and the apprehension of danger, natural to that solicitude, urge me, on an occasion like the present, to offer to your solemn contemplation, and to recommend to your frequent review, some sentiments which are the result of much reflection, of no inconsiderable observation, and which appear to me all-important to the permanency of your felicity as a people. These will be offered to you with the more freedom, as you can only see in them the disinterested warnings of a parting friend, who can possibly have no personal motive to bias his counsel. Nor can I forget, as an encouragement to it, your indulgent reception of my sentiments on a former and not dissimilar occasion.

Interwoven as is the love of liberty with every ligament of your hearts, no recommendation of mine is necessary to fortify or confirm the attachment.

The unity of government which constitutes you one people is also now dear to you. It is justly so, for it is a main pillar in the edifice of your real independence, the support of your tranquility at home, your peace abroad; of your safety; of your prosperity; of that very liberty which you so highly prize. But as it is easy to foresee that, from different causes and from different quarters, much pains will be taken, many artifices employed to weaken in your minds the conviction of this truth; as this is the point in your political fortress against which the batteries of internal and external enemies will be most constantly and actively (though often covertly and insidiously) directed, it is of infinite moment that you should properly estimate the immense value of your national union to your collective and individual happiness; that you should cherish a cordial, habitual, and immovable attachment to it; accustoming yourselves to think and speak of it as of the palladium of your political safety and prosperity; watching for its preservation with jealous anxiety; discountenancing whatever may suggest even a suspicion that it can in any event be abandoned; and indignantly frowning upon the first dawning of every attempt to alienate any portion of our country from the rest, or to enfeeble the sacred ties which now link together the various parts.

For this you have every inducement of sympathy and interest. Citizens, by birth or choice, of a common country, that country has a right to concentrate your affections. The name of American, which belongs to you in your national capacity, must always exalt the just pride of patriotism more than any appellation derived from local discriminations. With slight shades of difference, you have the same religion, manners, habits, and political principles. You have in a common cause fought and triumphed together; the independence and liberty you possess are the work of joint counsels, and joint efforts of common dangers, sufferings, and successes.

But these considerations, however powerfully they address themselves to your sensibility, are greatly outweighed by those which apply more immediately to your interest. Here every portion of our country finds the most commanding motives for carefully guarding and preserving the union of the whole.

The North, in an unrestrained intercourse with the South, protected by the equal laws of a common government, finds in the productions of the latter great additional resources of maritime and commercial enterprise and precious materials of manufacturing industry. The South, in the same intercourse, benefiting by the agency of the North, sees its agriculture grow and its commerce expand. Turning partly into its own channels the seamen of the North, it finds its particular navigation invigorated; and, while it contributes, in different ways, to nourish and increase the general mass of the national navigation, it looks forward to the protection of a maritime strength, to which itself is unequally adapted. The East, in a like intercourse with the West, already finds, and in the progressive improvement of interior communications by land and water, will more and more find a valuable vent for the commodities which it brings from abroad, or manufactures at home. The West derives from the East supplies requisite to its growth and comfort, and, what is perhaps of still greater consequence, it must of necessity owe the secure enjoyment of indispensable outlets for its own productions to the weight, influence, and the future maritime strength of the Atlantic side of the Union, directed by an indissoluble community of interest as one nation. Any other tenure by which the West can hold this essential advantage, whether derived from its own separate strength, or from an apostate and unnatural connection with any foreign power, must be intrinsically precarious.

While, then, every part of our country thus feels an immediate and particular interest in union, all the parts combined cannot fail to find in the united mass of means and efforts greater strength, greater resource, proportionably greater security from external danger, a less frequent interruption of their peace by foreign nations; and, what is of inestimable value, they must derive from union an exemption from those broils and wars between themselves, which so frequently afflict neighboring countries not tied together by the same governments, which their own rival ships alone would be sufficient to produce, but which opposite foreign alliances, attachments, and intrigues would stimulate and embitter. Hence, likewise, they will avoid the necessity of those overgrown military establishments which, under any form of government, are inauspicious to liberty, and which are to be regarded as particularly hostile to republican liberty. In this sense it is that your union ought to be considered as a main prop of your liberty, and that the love of the one ought to endear to you the preservation of the other.

These considerations speak a persuasive language to every reflecting and virtuous mind, and exhibit the continuance of the Union as a primary object of patriotic desire. Is there a doubt whether a common government can embrace so large a sphere? Let experience solve it. To listen to mere speculation in such a case were criminal. We are authorized to hope that a proper organization of the whole with the auxiliary agency of governments for the respective subdivisions, will afford a happy issue to the experiment. It is well worth a fair and full experiment. With such powerful and obvious motives to union, affecting all parts of our country, while experience shall not have demonstrated its impracticability, there will always be reason to distrust the patriotism of those who in any quarter may endeavor to weaken its bands.

In contemplating the causes which may disturb our Union, it occurs as matter of serious concern that any ground should have been furnished for characterizing parties by geographical discriminations, Northern and Southern, Atlantic and Western; whence designing men may endeavor to excite a belief that there is a real difference of local interests and views. One of the expedients of party to acquire influence within particular districts is to misrepresent the opinions and aims of other districts. You cannot shield yourselves too much against the jealousies and heartburnings which spring from these misrepresentations; they tend to render alien to each other those who ought to be bound together by fraternal affection. The inhabitants of our Western country have lately had a useful lesson on this head; they have seen, in the negotiation by the Executive, and in the unanimous ratification by the Senate, of the treaty with Spain, and in the universal satisfaction at that event, throughout the United States, a decisive proof how unfounded were the suspicions propagated among them of a policy in the General Government and in the Atlantic States unfriendly to their interests in regard to the Mississippi; they have been witnesses to the formation of two treaties, that with Great Britain, and that with Spain, which secure to them everything they could desire, in respect to our foreign relations, towards confirming their prosperity. Will it not be their wisdom to rely for the preservation of these advantages on the Union by which they were procured ? Will they not henceforth be deaf to those advisers, if such there are, who would sever them from their brethren and connect them with aliens?

To the efficacy and permanency of your Union, a government for the whole is indispensable. No alliance, however strict, between the parts can be an adequate substitute; they must inevitably experience the infractions and interruptions which all alliances in all times have experienced. Sensible of this momentous truth, you have improved upon your first essay, by the adoption of a constitution of government better calculated than your former for an intimate union, and for the efficacious management of your common concerns. This government, the offspring of our own choice, uninfluenced and unawed, adopted upon full investigation and mature deliberation, completely free in its principles, in the distribution of its powers, uniting security with energy, and containing within itself a provision for its own amendment, has a just claim to your confidence and your support. Respect for its authority, compliance with its laws, acquiescence in its measures, are duties enjoined by the fundamental maxims of true liberty. The basis of our political systems is the right of the people to make and to alter their constitutions of government. But the Constitution which at any time exists, till changed by an explicit and authentic act of the whole people, is sacredly obligatory upon all. The very idea of the power and the right of the people to establish government presupposes the duty of every individual to obey the established government.

All obstructions to the execution of the laws, all combinations and associations, under whatever plausible character, with the real design to direct, control, counteract, or awe the regular deliberation and action of the constituted authorities, are destructive of this fundamental principle, and of fatal tendency. They serve to organize faction, to give it an artificial and extraordinary force; to put, in the place of the delegated will of the nation the will of a party, often a small but artful and enterprising minority of the community; and, according to the alternate triumphs of different parties, to make the public administration the mirror of the ill-concerted and incongruous projects of faction, rather than the organ of consistent and wholesome plans digested by common counsels and modified by mutual interests.

However combinations or associations of the above description may now and then answer popular ends, they are likely, in the course of time and things, to become potent engines, by which cunning, ambitious, and unprincipled men will be enabled to subvert the power of the people and to usurp for themselves the reins of government, destroying afterwards the very engines which have lifted them to unjust dominion.

Towards the preservation of your government, and the permanency of your present happy state, it is requisite, not only that you steadily discountenance irregular oppositions to its acknowledged authority, but also that you resist with care the spirit of innovation upon its principles, however specious the pretexts. One method of assault may be to effect, in the forms of the Constitution, alterations which will impair the energy of the system, and thus to undermine what cannot be directly overthrown. In all the changes to which you may be invited, remember that time and habit are at least as necessary to fix the true character of governments as of other human institutions; that experience is the surest standard by which to test the real tendency of the existing constitution of a country; that facility in changes, upon the credit of mere hypothesis and opinion, exposes to perpetual change, from the endless variety of hypothesis and opinion; and remember, especially, that for the efficient management of your common interests, in a country so extensive as ours, a government of as much vigor as is consistent with the perfect security of liberty is indispensable. Liberty itself will find in such a government, with powers properly distributed and adjusted, its surest guardian. It is, indeed, little else than a name, where the government is too feeble to withstand the enterprises of faction, to confine each member of the society within the limits prescribed by the laws, and to maintain all in the secure and tranquil enjoyment of the rights of person and property.

I have already intimated to you the danger of parties in the State, with particular reference to the founding of them on geographical discriminations. Let me now take a more comprehensive view, and warn you in the most solemn manner against the baneful effects of the spirit of party generally.

This spirit, unfortunately, is inseparable from our nature, having its root in the strongest passions of the human mind. It exists under different shapes in all governments, more or less stifled, controlled, or repressed; but, in those of the popular form, it is seen in its greatest rankness, and is truly their worst enemy.

The alternate domination of one faction over another, sharpened by the spirit of revenge, natural to party dissension, which in different ages and countries has perpetrated the most horrid enormities, is itself a frightful despotism. But this leads at length to a more formal and permanent despotism. The disorders and miseries which result gradually incline the minds of men to seek security and repose in the absolute power of an individual; and sooner or later the chief of some prevailing faction, more able or more fortunate than his competitors, turns this disposition to the purposes of his own elevation, on the ruins of public liberty.

Without looking forward to an extremity of this kind (which nevertheless ought not to be entirely out of sight), the common and continual mischiefs of the spirit of party are sufficient to make it the interest and duty of a wise people to discourage and restrain it.

It serves always to distract the public councils and enfeeble the public administration. It agitates the community with ill-founded jealousies and false alarms, kindles the animosity of one part against another, foments occasionally riot and insurrection. It opens the door to foreign influence and corruption, which finds a facilitated access to the government itself through the channels of party passions. Thus the policy and the will of one country are subjected to the policy and will of another.

There is an opinion that parties in free countries are useful checks upon the administration of the government and serve to keep alive the spirit of liberty. This within certain limits is probably true; and in governments of a monarchical cast, patriotism may look with indulgence, if not with favor, upon the spirit of party. But in those of the popular character, in governments purely elective, it is a spirit not to be encouraged. From their natural tendency, it is certain there will always be enough of that spirit for every salutary purpose. And there being constant danger of excess, the effort ought to be by force of public opinion, to mitigate and assuage it. A fire not to be quenched, it demands a uniform vigilance to prevent its bursting into a flame, lest, instead of warming, it should consume.

It is important, likewise, that the habits of thinking in a free country should inspire caution in those entrusted with its administration, to confine themselves within their respective constitutional spheres, avoiding in the exercise of the powers of one department to encroach upon another. The spirit of encroachment tends to consolidate the powers of all the departments in one, and thus to create, whatever the form of government, a real despotism. A just estimate of that love of power, and proneness to abuse it, which predominates in the human heart, is sufficient to satisfy us of the truth of this position. The necessity of reciprocal checks in the exercise of political power, by dividing and distributing it into different depositaries, and constituting each the guardian of the public weal against invasions by the others, has been evinced by experiments ancient and modern; some of them in our country and under our own eyes. To preserve them must be as necessary as to institute them. If, in the opinion of the people, the distribution or modification of the constitutional powers be in any particular wrong, let it be corrected by an amendment in the way which the Constitution designates. But let there be no change by usurpation; for though this, in one instance, may be the instrument of good, it is the customary weapon by which free governments are destroyed. The precedent must always greatly overbalance in permanent evil any partial or transient benefit, which the use can at any time yield.

Of all the dispositions and habits which lead to political prosperity, religion and morality are indispensable supports. In vain would that man claim the tribute of patriotism, who should labor to subvert these great pillars of human happiness, these firmest props of the duties of men and citizens. The mere politician, equally with the pious man, ought to respect and to cherish them. A volume could not trace all their connections with private and public felicity. Let it simply be asked: Where is the security for property, for reputation, for life, if the sense of religious obligation desert the oaths which are the instruments of investigation in courts of justice ? And let us with caution indulge the supposition that morality can be maintained without religion. Whatever may be conceded to the influence of refined education on minds of peculiar structure, reason and experience both forbid us to expect that national morality can prevail in exclusion of religious principle.

It is substantially true that virtue or morality is a necessary spring of popular government. The rule, indeed, extends with more or less force to every species of free government. Who that is a sincere friend to it can look with indifference upon attempts to shake the foundation of the fabric?

Promote then, as an object of primary importance, institutions for the general diffusion of knowledge. In proportion as the structure of a government gives force to public opinion, it is essential that public opinion should be enlightened.

As a very important source of strength and security, cherish public credit. One method of preserving it is to use it as sparingly as possible, avoiding occasions of expense by cultivating peace, but remembering also that timely disbursements to prepare for danger frequently prevent much greater disbursements to repel it, avoiding likewise the accumulation of debt, not only by shunning occasions of expense, but by vigorous exertion in time of peace to discharge the debts which unavoidable wars may have occasioned, not ungenerously throwing upon posterity the burden which we ourselves ought to bear. The execution of these maxims belongs to your representatives, but it is necessary that public opinion should co-operate. To facilitate to them the performance of their duty, it is essential that you should practically bear in mind that towards the payment of debts there must be revenue; that to have revenue there must be taxes; that no taxes can be devised which are not more or less inconvenient and unpleasant; that the intrinsic embarrassment, inseparable from the selection of the proper objects (which is always a choice of difficulties), ought to be a decisive motive for a candid construction of the conduct of the government in making it, and for a spirit of acquiescence in the measures for obtaining revenue, which the public exigencies may at any time dictate.

Observe good faith and justice towards all nations; cultivate peace and harmony with all. Religion and morality enjoin this conduct; and can it be, that good policy does not equally enjoin it – It will be worthy of a free, enlightened, and at no distant period, a great nation, to give to mankind the magnanimous and too novel example of a people always guided by an exalted justice and benevolence. Who can doubt that, in the course of time and things, the fruits of such a plan would richly repay any temporary advantages which might be lost by a steady adherence to it ? Can it be that Providence has not connected the permanent felicity of a nation with its virtue ? The experiment, at least, is recommended by every sentiment which ennobles human nature. Alas! is it rendered impossible by its vices?

In the execution of such a plan, nothing is more essential than that permanent, inveterate antipathies against particular nations, and passionate attachments for others, should be excluded; and that, in place of them, just and amicable feelings towards all should be cultivated. The nation which indulges towards another a habitual hatred or a habitual fondness is in some degree a slave. It is a slave to its animosity or to its affection, either of which is sufficient to lead it astray from its duty and its interest. Antipathy in one nation against another disposes each more readily to offer insult and injury, to lay hold of slight causes of umbrage, and to be haughty and intractable, when accidental or trifling occasions of dispute occur. Hence, frequent collisions, obstinate, envenomed, and bloody contests. The nation, prompted by ill-will and resentment, sometimes impels to war the government, contrary to the best calculations of policy. The government sometimes participates in the national propensity, and adopts through passion what reason would reject; at other times it makes the animosity of the nation subservient to projects of hostility instigated by pride, ambition, and other sinister and pernicious motives. The peace often, sometimes perhaps the liberty, of nations, has been the victim.

So likewise, a passionate attachment of one nation for another produces a variety of evils. Sympathy for the favorite nation, facilitating the illusion of an imaginary common interest in cases where no real common interest exists, and infusing into one the enmities of the other, betrays the former into a participation in the quarrels and wars of the latter without adequate inducement or justification. It leads also to concessions to the favorite nation of privileges denied to others which is apt doubly to injure the nation making the concessions; by unnecessarily parting with what ought to have been retained, and by exciting jealousy, ill-will, and a disposition to retaliate, in the parties from whom equal privileges are withheld. And it gives to ambitious, corrupted, or deluded citizens (who devote themselves to the favorite nation), facility to betray or sacrifice the interests of their own country, without odium, sometimes even with popularity; gilding, with the appearances of a virtuous sense of obligation, a commendable deference for public opinion, or a laudable zeal for public good, the base or foolish compliances of ambition, corruption, or infatuation.

As avenues to foreign influence in innumerable ways, such attachments are particularly alarming to the truly enlightened and independent patriot. How many opportunities do they afford to tamper with domestic factions, to practice the arts of seduction, to mislead public opinion, to influence or awe the public councils. Such an attachment of a small or weak towards a great and powerful nation dooms the former to be the satellite of the latter.

Against the insidious wiles of foreign influence (I conjure you to believe me, fellow-citizens) the jealousy of a free people ought to be constantly awake, since history and experience prove that foreign influence is one of the most baneful foes of republican government. But that jealousy to be useful must be impartial; else it becomes the instrument of the very influence to be avoided, instead of a defense against it. Excessive partiality for one foreign nation and excessive dislike of another cause those whom they actuate to see danger only on one side, and serve to veil and even second the arts of influence on the other. Real patriots who may resist the intrigues of the favorite are liable to become suspected and odious, while its tools and dupes usurp the applause and confidence of the people, to surrender their interests.

The great rule of conduct for us in regard to foreign nations is in extending our commercial relations, to have with them as little political connection as possible. So far as we have already formed engagements, let them be fulfilled with perfect good faith. Here let us stop. Europe has a set of primary interests which to us have none; or a very remote relation. Hence she must be engaged in frequent controversies, the causes of which are essentially foreign to our concerns. Hence, therefore, it must be unwise in us to implicate ourselves by artificial ties in the ordinary vicissitudes of her politics, or the ordinary combinations and collisions of her friendships or enmities.

Our detached and distant situation invites and enables us to pursue a different course. If we remain one people under an efficient government. the period is not far off when we may defy material injury from external annoyance; when we may take such an attitude as will cause the neutrality we may at any time resolve upon to be scrupulously respected; when belligerent nations, under the impossibility of making acquisitions upon us, will not lightly hazard the giving us provocation; when we may choose peace or war, as our interest, guided by justice, shall counsel.

Why forego the advantages of so peculiar a situation? Why quit our own to stand upon foreign ground? Why, by interweaving our destiny with that of any part of Europe, entangle our peace and prosperity in the toils of European ambition, rivalship, interest, humor or caprice?

It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world; so far, I mean, as we are now at liberty to do it; for let me not be understood as capable of patronizing infidelity to existing engagements. I hold the maxim no less applicable to public than to private affairs, that honesty is always the best policy. I repeat it, therefore, let those engagements be observed in their genuine sense. But, in my opinion, it is unnecessary and would be unwise to extend them.

Taking care always to keep ourselves by suitable establishments on a respectable defensive posture, we may safely trust to temporary alliances for extraordinary emergencies.

Harmony, liberal intercourse with all nations, are recommended by policy, humanity, and interest. But even our commercial policy should hold an equal and impartial hand; neither seeking nor granting exclusive favors or preferences; consulting the natural course of things; diffusing and diversifying by gentle means the streams of commerce, but forcing nothing; establishing (with powers so disposed, in order to give trade a stable course, to define the rights of our merchants, and to enable the government to support them) conventional rules of intercourse, the best that present circumstances and mutual opinion will permit, but temporary, and liable to be from time to time abandoned or varied, as experience and circumstances shall dictate; constantly keeping in view that it is folly in one nation to look for disinterested favors from another; that it must pay with a portion of its independence for whatever it may accept under that character; that, by such acceptance, it may place itself in the condition of having given equivalents for nominal favors, and yet of being reproached with ingratitude for not giving more. There can be no greater error than to expect or calculate upon real favors from nation to nation. It is an illusion, which experience must cure, which a just pride ought to discard.

In offering to you, my countrymen, these counsels of an old and affectionate friend, I dare not hope they will make the strong and lasting impression I could wish; that they will control the usual current of the passions, or prevent our nation from running the course which has hitherto marked the destiny of nations. But, if I may even flatter myself that they may be productive of some partial benefit, some occasional good; that they may now and then recur to moderate the fury of party spirit, to warn against the mischiefs of foreign intrigue, to guard against the impostures of pretended patriotism; this hope will be a full recompense for the solicitude for your welfare, by which they have been dictated.

How far in the discharge of my official duties I have been guided by the principles which have been delineated, the public records and other evidences of my conduct must witness to you and to the world. To myself, the assurance of my own conscience is, that I have at least believed myself to be guided by them.

In relation to the still subsisting war in Europe, my proclamation of the twenty-second of April, I793, is the index of my plan. Sanctioned by your approving voice, and by that of your representatives in both houses of Congress, the spirit of that measure has continually governed me, uninfluenced by any attempts to deter or divert me from it.

After deliberate examination, with the aid of the best lights I could obtain, I was well satisfied that our country, under all the circumstances of the case, had a right to take, and was bound in duty and interest to take, a neutral position. Having taken it, I determined, as far as should depend upon me, to maintain it, with moderation, perseverance, and firmness.

The considerations which respect the right to hold this conduct, it is not necessary on this occasion to detail. I will only observe that, according to my understanding of the matter, that right, so far from being denied by any of the belligerent powers, has been virtually admitted by all.

The duty of holding a neutral conduct may be inferred, without anything more, from the obligation which justice and humanity impose on every nation, in cases in which it is free to act, to maintain inviolate the relations of peace and amity towards other nations.

The inducements of interest for observing that conduct will best be referred to your own reflections and experience. With me a predominant motive has been to endeavor to gain time to our country to settle and mature its yet recent institutions, and to progress without interruption to that degree of strength and consistency which is necessary to give it, humanly speaking, the command of its own fortunes.

Though, in reviewing the incidents of my administration, I am unconscious of intentional error, I am nevertheless too sensible of my defects not to think it probable that I may have committed many errors. Whatever they may be, I fervently beseech the Almighty to avert or mitigate the evils to which they may tend. I shall also carry with me the hope that my country will never cease to view them with indulgence; and that, after forty five years of my life dedicated to its service with an upright zeal, the faults of incompetent abilities will be consigned to oblivion, as myself must soon be to the mansions of rest.

Relying on its kindness in this as in other things, and actuated by that fervent love towards it, which is so natural to a man who views in it the native soil of himself and his progenitors for several generations, I anticipate with pleasing expectation that retreat in which I promise myself to realize, without alloy, the sweet enjoyment of partaking, in the midst of my fellow-citizens, the benign influence of good laws under a free government, the ever-favorite object of my heart, and the happy reward, as I trust, of our mutual cares, labors, and dangers.

Source: http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/washing.asp

Constitution of the United States

We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

Article I

Section 1. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

Section 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every second year by the people of the several states, and the electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the state legislature.

No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the age of twenty five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state in which he shall be chosen.

{Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several states which may be included within this union, according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons.1Changed by Section 2 of the Fourteenth Amendment

Close} The actual Enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each state shall have at least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the state of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.

When vacancies happen in the Representation from any state, the executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.

The House of Representatives shall choose their speaker and other officers; and shall have the sole power of impeachment.

Section 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each state, {chosen by the legislature thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote.2Changed by the Seventeenth Amendment

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{Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year, and the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so that one third may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen by resignation, or otherwise, during the recess of the legislature of any state, the executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies3Changed by the Seventeenth Amendment

Close}.

No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state for which he shall be chosen.

The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no vote, unless they be equally divided.

The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the office of President of the United States.

The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two thirds of the members present.

Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust or profit under the United States: but the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment and punishment, according to law.

Section 4. The times, places and manner of holding elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each state by the legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by law make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choosing Senators.

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall {be on the first Monday in December,4Changed by Section 2 of the Twentieth Amendment

Close} unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

Section 5. Each House shall be the judge of the elections, returns and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties as each House may provide.

Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two thirds, expel a member.

Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgment require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either House on any question shall, at the desire of one fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.

Neither House, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

Section 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the treasury of the United States. They shall in all cases, except treason, felony and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other place.

No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time: and no person holding any office under the United States, shall be a member of either House during his continuance in office.

Section 7. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments as on other Bills.

Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a law, be presented to the President of the United States; if he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each House respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their adjournment prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law.

Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.

Section 8. The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;

To borrow money on the credit of the United States;

To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes;

To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States;

To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures;

To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the United States;

To establish post offices and post roads;

To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries;

To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court;

To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offenses against the law of nations;

To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water;

To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years;

To provide and maintain a navy;

To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces;

To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the union, suppress insurrections and repel invasions;

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to the states respectively, the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular states, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the legislature of the state in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dockyards, and other needful buildings; — And

To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof.

Section 9. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the states now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each person.

The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it.

No bill of attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.

{No capitation, or other direct, tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken.5See Sixteenth Amendment

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No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any state.

No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the ports of one state over those of another: nor shall vessels bound to, or from, one state, be obliged to enter, clear or pay duties in another.

No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but in consequence of appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to time.

No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States: and no person holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state.

Section 10. No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility.

No state shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it’s inspection laws: and the net produce of all duties and imposts, laid by any state on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the treasury of the United States; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the Congress.

No state shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops, or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another state, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay.

Article II

Section 1. The executive power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term of four years {6Limited to two terms by the Twenty-Second Amendment

Close}, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same term, be elected, as follows:

Each state shall appoint, in such manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States, shall be appointed an elector.

{The electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons voted for, and of the number of votes for each; which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such majority, and have an equal number of votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately choose by ballot one of them for President; and if no person have a majority, then from the five highest on the list the said House shall in like manner choose the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each state having one vote; A quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the President, the person having the greatest number of votes of the electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them by ballot the Vice President.7Changed by the Twelfth Amendment

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The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors, and the day on which they shall give their votes; which day shall be the same throughout the United States.

No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United States, at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age of thirty five years, and been fourteen Years a resident within the United States.

{In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by law provide for the case of removal, death, resignation or inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what officer shall then act as President, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.8Changed by the Twenty-Fifth Amendment

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The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services, a compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that period any other emolument from the United States, or any of them.

Before he enter on the execution of his office, he shall take the following oath or affirmation: — “I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”

Section 2. The President shall be commander in chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several states, when called into the actual service of the United States; he may require the opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices, and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the United States, except in cases of impeachment.

He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United States, whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law: but the Congress may by law vest the appointment of such inferior officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of departments.

The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen during the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions which shall expire at the end of their next session.

Section 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress information of the state of the union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in case of disagreement between them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper; he shall receive ambassadors and other public ministers; he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed, and shall commission all the officers of the United States.

Section 4. The President, Vice President and all civil officers of the United States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.

Article III

Section 1. The judicial power of the United States, shall be vested in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The judges, both of the supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behaviour, and shall, at stated times, receive for their services, a compensation, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.

Section 2. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority; — to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls; — to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; — to controversies to which the United States shall be a party; — to controversies between two or more states; — {between a state and citizens of another state9Changed by the Eleventh Amendment

Close}; — between citizens of different states; — between citizens of the same state claiming lands under grants of different states, and between a state, or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens or subjects.

In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and those in which a state shall be party, the Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before mentioned, the Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions, and under such regulations as the Congress shall make.

The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury; and such trial shall be held in the state where the said crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any state, the trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by law have directed.

Section 3. Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court.

The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason, but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture except during the life of the person attainted.

Article IV

Section 1. Full faith and credit shall be given in each state to the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state. And the Congress may by general laws prescribe the manner in which such acts, records, and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof.

Section 2. The citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens in the several states.

A person charged in any state with treason, felony, or other crime, who shall flee from justice, and be found in another state, shall on demand of the executive authority of the state from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the state having jurisdiction of the crime.

{No person held to service or labor in one state, under the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due.10Changed by the Thirteenth Amendment

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Section 3. New states may be admitted by the Congress into this union; but no new states shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other state; nor any state be formed by the junction of two or more states, or parts of states, without the consent of the legislatures of the states concerned as well as of the Congress.

The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any particular state.

Section 4. The United States shall guarantee to every state in this union a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion; and on application of the legislature, or of the executive (when the legislature cannot be convened) against domestic violence.

Article V

The Congress, whenever two thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the application of the legislatures of two thirds of the several states, shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the legislatures of three fourths of the several states, or by conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress; provided that no amendment which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first article; and that no state, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate.

Article VI

All debts contracted and engagements entered into, before the adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, anything in the Constitution or laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding.

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the members of the several state legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several states, shall be bound by oath or affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States.

Article VII

The ratification of the conventions of nine states, shall be sufficient for the establishment of this Constitution between the states so ratifying the same.

________________________________________

Done in convention by the unanimous consent of the states present the seventeenth day of September in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty seven and of the independence of the United States of America the twelfth.

In witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names,

G.o Washington — Presdt. and deputy from Virginia

New Hampshire John Langdon

Nicholas Gilman

Massachusetts Nathaniel Gorham

Rufus King

Connecticut Wm: Saml. Johnson

Roger Sherman

New York Alexander Hamilton

New Jersey Wil: Livingston

David Brearley

Wm. Paterson

Jona: Dayton

Pennsylvania B Franklin

Thomas Mifflin

Robt Morris

Geo. Clymer

Thos. FitzSimons

Jared Ingersoll

James Wilson

Gouv Morris

Delaware Geo: Read

Gunning Bedford jun

John Dickinson

Richard Bassett

Jaco: Broom

Maryland James McHenry

Dan of St. Thos. Jenifer

Danl Carroll

Virginia John Blair—

James Madison Jr.

North Carolina Wm. Blount

Richd. Dobbs Spaight

Hu Williamson

South Carolina J. Rutledge

Charles Cotesworth Pinckney

Charles Pinckney

Pierce Butler

Georgia William Few

Abr Baldwin

Attest William Jackson Secretary

Source: http://www.ushistory.org/documents/constitution.htm

Bill of Rights and Later Amendments

Original Ten Amendments: The Bill of Rights

Passed by Congress September 25, 1789.

Ratified December 15, 1791.

Amendment I

Freedoms, Petitions, Assembly

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

Amendment II

Right to bear arms

A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.

Amendment III

Quartering of soldiers

No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

Amendment IV

Search and arrest

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

Amendment V

Rights in criminal cases

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb, nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

Amendment VI

Right to a fair trial

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed; which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defence.

Amendment VII

Rights in civil cases

In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

Amendment VIII

Bail, fines, punishment

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

Amendment IX

Rights retained by the People

The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

Amendment X

States’ rights

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

________________________________________

Later Amendments

Amendment 11

Lawsuits against states

The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.

February 7, 1795.

Amendment 12

Presidential elections

The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate;--The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted;--The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. [And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President.]* The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.

June 15, 1804.

Superseded by Section 3 of the Twentieth Amendment.

Amendment 13

Abolition of slavery

Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce these article by appropriate legislation.

December 6, 1865.

Amendment 14

Civil rights

Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.

Section 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.

Section 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.

July 9, 1868.

Amendment 15

Black suffrage

Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

February 3, 1870.

Amendment 16

Income taxes

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.

February 3, 1913.

Amendment 17

Senatorial elections

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislature.

When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.

April 8, 1913.

Amendment 18

Prohibition of liquor

Section 1. After one year from the ratification of this article, the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.

Section 2. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

January 16, 1919. Repealed by the Twenty-First, December 5, 1933.

Amendment 19

Women’s suffrage

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any States on account of sex.

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

August 18, 1920.

Amendment 20

Terms of office

Section 1. The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.

Section 2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

Section 3. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified.

Section 4. The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them.

Section 5. Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification of this article.

Section 6. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission.

January 23, 1933.

Amendment 21

Repeal of Prohibition

Section 1. The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.

Section 2. The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.

Section 3. The article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

December 5, 1933.

Amendment 22

Term Limits for the Presidency

Section 1. No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more than once. But this Article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President when this Article was proposed by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term within which this Article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term.

Section 2. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission to the States by the Congress.

February 27, 1951.

Amendment 23

Washington, D.C., suffrage

Section 1. The District constituting the seat of government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct:

A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a state, but in no event more than the least populous State; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment.

Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

March 29, 1961.

Amendment 24

Abolition of poll taxes

Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.

Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

January 23, 1964.

Amendment 25

Presidential succession

Section 1. In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.

Section 2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.

Section 3. Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.

Section 4. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.

Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.

February 10, 1967.

Amendment 26

18-year-old suffrage

Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age.

Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

June 30, 1971.

Amendment 27

Congressional pay raises

No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.

May 7, 1992. (Note: Congress submitted the text of this amendment as part of the proposed Bill of Rights on September 27, 1789. The Amendment was not ratified together with the first ten Amendments.)

Source: http://www.ushistory.org/documents/amendments.htm

Where to find political Parties Platforms

Republican Platform 2016 can be found at gopconvention2016.com

 

Democratic Party Platform 2016

No Democratic Party Platform found on the site (as of July 24, 2016 – 8:44am)

Source: https://www.democrats.org/

Libertarian Party Platform can be found at lp.org/platform

adopted in Convention, May 2016, Orlando, Florida

Green Party of United States platform can be found at gp.org

Notes:

“I love my country no matter who is president.”

God bless United States of America and my fellow Americans

Acknowledgement and sources

https://www.fiscal.treasury.gov

http://www.treasury.gov/ticdata/Publish/mfh.txt

“Monthly Statement of the Public Debt of the United States.” U.S. Bureau of the Public Debt, June 30, 2015. https://www.treasurydirect.gov/…

“Table III – Detail of Treasury Securities Outstanding, June 20, 2015 … Government Account Series – Intragovernmental Holdings”

http://www.justfacts.com/nationaldebt.asp#f175

And as noted

Candidate’s issues and agendas information is from between Sep 1 and Aug 14, 2016.

Copyright Page

Copyright © 2015 by A. Kh’an

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All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced distributed or transmitted in any form or by any means, including photocopying, recording, or other electronic or mechanical methods without prior written permission of the author or publisher.

Disclaimer:

The information presented in this book represents the views of the publisher as of the date of publication. The publisher reserves the rights to alter update their opinions based on new conditions. This report is for informational purposes only. The author and the publisher do not accept any responsibilities for any liabilities resulting from the use of this information. While every attempt has been made to verify the information provided here, the author and the publisher cannot assume any responsibility for errors, inaccuracies or omissions. Any similarities with people or facts are unintentional.


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