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What Will Be With the Planet, After Nuclear War. Researches and Proofs.

What will be with the planet, after nuclear war. Researches and proofs.

 

William Gore

 

Copyright William Gore 2017

 

Published at Shakespir

 

Table of contents.

 

1. Introduction

2. Researches and proofs

 

Introduction

 

Presently the nuclear warfare represents the most serious environmental hazard. Simultaneous action of such factors as fall of temperature and illumination, reduction of level of an atmospheric precipitation, the ionizing radiation, increase in level of UF-radiation, and also receipt to the environment of the various poisoning products, will lead to sharp violation of biological communities and to decrease for the long period of their capability to recovery.

There are three possible global effects of the world nuclear conflict. The first of them is “nuclear winter” and “nuclear night” when temperature on all globe sharply drops by tens of degrees, and illumination will be less, than at moonless night. Life on Earth will be cut off from the main energy source – a sunlight. The second consequence – radioactive pollution of the planet as a result of destruction of nuclear power plants, storages of radioactive waste. And, at last, the third factor – global hunger. Years of a nuclear warfare will lead to sharp fall of crops.

The nature of impact of a large-scale nuclear warfare on the environment such is that, as if and when it began, the resulting effect is identical – global biospheric disaster.

In the mid-seventies the mankind began to understand, at last, that possible consequences of global exchange of nuclear attacks can exceed any expectations. In spite of the fact that in the center of attention the striking factors of land and air nuclear explosions which are well studied direct, i.e. a shock wave, thermal radiation and radioactive fallout continued to remain, scientists began to consider a possibility of global ecological effects.

Numerous nuclear explosions will lead to the thermal radiation and local radioactive fallout. Also indirect consequences, such as destruction of communications, systems of distribution of energy and public institutes can be very serious. And while danger of such tragedy to mankind, any aspiration to reduce or ignore catastrophic impact of a nuclear warfare on the biosphere remains will serve the worst service to the future of a terrestrial civilization.

 

In this chapter consequences of a nuclear warfare for pelagic and the bentosnykh of ecosystems are considered. The first consist of plankton and larger floating animals. Oceanic phytoplankton gives about 90% of all primary production of the ocean. Limiting factors for it are light and biogenes; in order that photosynthesis proceeded rather intensively, both of these factors shall be present at the same time at the same place and at the corresponding quantity.

The deep pelagic ecosystem completely of a geterotrofn also depends on inflow of food from the outside, mostly in the form of the settling plankton and particles from near-surface pelagic ecosystems. Deep pelagic communities include various populations of animals.

 

The first important circumstance concerning possible impact of a nuclear warfare on ecosystems of the open ocean – high degree of their “zabuferennost” concerning temperature drops. Though chilling of a sea surface on 1-2 C is obviously possible during the long climatic violations caused by a nuclear warfare, however more considerable thermal reaction of the open ocean isn’t supposed. Laboratory experiments show that phytoplankton will continue to grow also in case of such fall of temperature. Only in those places where features of behavior of animals are thinly adapted for ambient temperatures, there can be certain changes. Thus, it is impossible to assume any direct influence of temperature shifts neither on bentosny, nor on pelagic communities of the open ocean. However the indirect impacts mediated by changes of oceanic currents and also depths and stability of a thermowedge are possible.

As for illumination, it can significantly influence primary production of pelagic ecosystems. Phytoplankton meets up to the depths where insolation makes 1-10% of level for the surfaces of the sea. If it is lowered by 95% and more within several weeks, growth of the majority of types of seaweed stops as the amount of the radiant energy received by them won't reach a compensation point (i.e. the level in case of which photosynthetic fixing of carbon dioxide is just sufficient for compensation of its losses by a vegetable organism in case of breath. When reducing illumination of a sea surface for 95% the light compensation point, normal corresponding to the lower bound of an eufotichesky zone, would move almost closely to border water/air

If in the pelagialyakh of the Northern hemisphere biomass of phytoplankton strongly is exhausted owing to sharp fall of insolation, reducing number of zooplankton feeding on it, and also juveniles of the fishes consuming zooplankton is possible. But the eating phyto – and zooplankton toothless whales, apparently, won’t suffer from mass extinction if populations of plankton are recovered within several months. If the planktonic forage is lost for rather long time, death of fishes can begin. In ecosystems of the open ocean at zooplankton the tendency to complete extinction for hunger – generally because of lower density of populations of phytoplankton will be observed rather.

 

Possible chronic decrease in illumination by 5-20% and air temperatures on 1 C will hardly have significant effect on pelagic ecosystems.

 

On the other hand, the indirect effects caused by shifts in general circulation of oceanic waters can significantly break spatial distribution of zones of an upwelling and therefore, high productivity. Violations of oceanic currents can continue long enough, influencing trade within years or even decades.

 

For ecosystems, considerably remote from continents, a consequence of climatic indignations will be minimum. Influence will be limited to the mediated effects connected with change of productivity of pelagic ecosystems here.

 

Pelagic and bentosny communities of areas, closer to continents, differ from ecosystems of the open ocean in interaction with the nearby land. Pelagic organisms here more are influenced by intake of nutrients, sedimentary and other material from land systems therefore they are characterized in general by higher productivity.

From the point of view of possible consequences of a nuclear warfare coastal pelagic ecosystems are also affected by the decrease in illumination and other factors similar already noted for the open ocean. Besides, near coasts these ecosystems can experience more considerable changes of temperature because of shallow water and influence of a drain of fresh-water pools. Coastal communities are affected stronger by storm and thereof the strengthened sedimentation and hashing. The arriving rainfall can aggravate an insolation problem.

 

In the conditions of normal winter coastal products are represented enough and accumulate most quicker in case of low illumination. If phytoplankton could adapt to unusual time of approach of the “seeming” winter, primary production wouldn’t undergo considerable changes. Thus, it is possible that coastal ecosystems are steadier against the stresses connected with climatic changes than pelagic biocenoses of the open ocean.

 

Ecosystems at coast of tropics are much more sensitive to lowering both than illumination, and temperature. The thermal range of existence of water communities here in general twice already, than in moderate areas. So, for example, coral reeves represent ecosystems which distribution is limited to the warmest parts of the ocean where water isn’t cooled lower than 20 With, and depths generally don’t exceed 50 m. Coral reeves suffer already at temperatures about 15 S. Vdobavok to it corals are very sensitive to the increased levels of ultra-violet radiation of V. Vpolne perhaps that impact of the climatic indignations induced by a nuclear warfare on coral reeves will be among the most widespread and serious for marine ecosystems. Similarly, shallow communities of tropical sea herbs shall suffer from a cold snap. Actually coastal sites – such as beaches, oozy shallows and salty swamps – experience much more deeply going impacts, than other oceanic ecosystems. It concerns in particular recession of temperatures. Consequences of temperature recessions will depend on a season, location, salinity and height of inflows. There will be a death of the organisms living on a bottom surface. The populations of fishes in coastal waters which aren’t facing normal low temperatures will strongly be reduced as a result even short-term cold snaps.

 

Fresh-water reservoirs share on standing (i.e. ponds and lakes) and flowing (i.e. the rivers and streams). In general decrease in temperature and level of an atmospheric precipitation will lead to bystry reducing amount of the liquid water stocked in the rivers and lakes. Changes of ground waters will be much more slowly and are much less expressed.

 

Features of lakes are determined by their sizes, inflow of nutrients, a ground substratum, the spreading breeds, an atmospheric precipitation and a set of other parameters. The key moment in reactions of fresh-water ecosystems to climatic indignations is expected decrease in temperature, and reducing insolation is on the second place. Smoothing of temperature fluctuations is especially strongly expressed in large fresh reservoirs. However their ecosystems unlike ecosystems of the open ocean shall suffer from changes of temperature, possible after the nuclear warfare.

Establishment for the long period of negative temperatures can cause education on a surface of reservoirs of a thick ice layer. The ice layer on the shallow lake can cover a considerable share of its amount.

 

Consequences of climatic changes are more serious also dolgosrochna. Return of temperature and illumination to normal levels will happen in case of this scenario just by the time of regular approach of winter.

If the climatic indignations caused by a nuclear warfare happen in the winter where lake water normal has temperature close to zero, they will lead to increase in thickness of ice.

 

In shallow lakes the frost penetration to the bottom leading to death of the majority of live organisms isn’t excluded. If sharp winter indignations of climate affect the fresh-water ecosystems which aren’t freezing in a normal situation, biological consequences promise to be very serious. The chronic climatic violations which began in the spring or prolonged consequences of a winter nuclear warfare can detain ice thawing.

In case of approach of frosts at the end of spring (and for the southern lakes – at all seasons of the year) most likely there will be a complete dying off of live components of ecosystems under direct impact of temperature drop and illumination. However, if frosts strike in the summer, consequences will probably be not so devastating as many of the most vulnerable stages of lifecycles will be already passable. Scales of consequences will be determined lasting cold weather. Duration of impact will especially strongly affect next spring.

 

Climatic indignations in autumn time will have the smallest consequences for northern fresh-water ecosystems as by this moment live organisms will already pass all reproductive stages.

 

Researches and proofs

 

Long time when planning military operations with use of nuclear weapon mankind amused itself with illusion that the atomic war can terminate as a result in a victory of one of the conflicting parties. The researches of consequences of nuclear attacks which are conducted from 80th years of the twentieth century destroyed these illusions and established that the most terrible consequence will be not the most predictable radioactive defeat, but climatic consequences of which least of all thought before. Climate change will be so strong that the mankind isn’t able to endure it.

In the majority of researches till 1983 nuclear explosion was associated with the volcanic eruption, the nuclear explosion represented by natural model. In case of eruption, as well as in case of explosion the huge number of the fine particles which aren’t passing a sunlight, and, therefore, lowering atmosphere temperature is released into the atmosphere. Consequences of explosion of an atomic bomb were equated to explosion of the volcano Tambor in 1814 which had the big explosive force, than the charge dumped to Nagasaki. After this eruption in the northern hemisphere the lowest temperatures in summertime were registered.

However modeling of possible consequences of explosions revealed other order of their current, concerning a volcanic eruption. As the purpose of bombings will be mainly the cities where along with such consequences as radiation, destruction of structures, intermedia, etc., one of the main catastrophic consequences will become the fires. Because of which in air not only clouds of dust, but also the mass of soot will rise.

The fire represents chain reaction. In the course of burning of lighter substances, conditions for ignition of more dense, and then and even more dense are created. In case of unrestricted inflow of combustible material, and oxygen can quite be it, burning can not only not weaken, but become more intensively. As a result not only paper or a tree, but even metal can burn.

 

The mass fires in the cities generate so-called fiery tornadoes. In a flame of fiery tornadoes practically any material burns. And one of their terrible features is emission in an upper atmosphere of a large amount of soot. Rising in the atmosphere, soot practically doesn’t pass a sunlight. Its properties were quite fully studied by the German scientists after bombings during World War II of Dresden and Hamburg where just and the first fiery tornadoes because of massive bombings of allied troops were formed. On the basis of these data later scientists in the USA simulated several scenarios of development of consequences of mass nuclear bombings. Formed the basis of these hypotheses assumptions that the nuclear bomb can serve as the “match” which is setting fire to the city. Modern inventories of nuclear weapon shall be enough for causing fiery tornadoes in more than one thousand cities in the northern hemisphere of our planet.

The modern cities provide a huge amount of combustible substances for the possible fires. And it not only tree, coal, plastic and asphalt. It is also metal, concrete which burns down in case of achievement of critical temperatures too. Multi-storey buildings and long direct streets will provide sufficient thirst for a continued access of oxygen for places of ignitions. Scientists could count approximate amount of soot which will be released into the atmosphere in case of the fires in one thousand cities. And assessment of optical properties of clouds which at the same time will appear and features of subsidence of soot yielded unexpected results. Explosion of bombs a general equivalent about 7 thousand megatons of trotyl will create the black and dust clouds passing no more than one million share of the sunlight which is usually reaching the earth over the northern hemisphere. On the earth there will come fixed night owing to what, its surface deprived of light and heat will begin to cool down quickly. The publication of these conclusions of scientists generated the new terms “nuclear night” and “nuclear winter”. The conclusions drawn at that time constitute nowadays separate direction of scientific research.

In the summer of 1983 in the USSR the machine experiments based on scenarios of nuclear explosions for the purpose of clarification of influence of nuclear explosions in general on climate on the planet Earth in the first year after the nuclear warfare were made.

 

On an experiment has shown that as a result of formation of black clouds, the Earth’s surface deprived of heating by sunshine will begin to cool down quickly. Within the first month average temperature at a land surface will fall approximately by 15-20 degrees, and in zones, remote from oceans, by 30-35 degrees. Further, in spite of the fact that clouds will begin to dissipate, within several more months, temperature will decrease, and illumination will still remain low. There will come “nuclear night” and “nuclear winter”. Prestanut to drop out rainfall in the form of a rain, and the Earth’s surface will be chilled on several meters in depth, depriving of the escaped living beings, fresh drinking water.

 

Such blow will be struck to the biosphere that there is no hope of her complete recovery in an initial state. In a year after nuclear war practically all settled trophic communications will be destroyed. Consequences in the equatorial zone which all life is subordinated to constancy of temperatures will be strongest. Even if the woods won’t be completely burned, then many elaborate life forms will die out completely.

In northern areas the situation will depend more on that in what season there will be nuclear attacks. In cold winter months the most part of northern flora and a part of fauna is in a condition of a dream. And theoretically can quite survive in those territories that will be less subject to the fires.

If war bursts in the summer, then the most part of plants, without having managed to adapt to sharply changed conditions, will die. At the same time also practically all highest life forms will die. Only the lowest will have a chance of survival.

 

Anyway, after nuclear catastrophe the most part of modern species of plants and animals will disappear.

At the same time all these consequences will arise not only in the northern hemisphere – the potential place of fighting, but also in southern even if there and there will be no massive nuclear bombings. Black clouds gradually under the influence of circulation in the atmosphere of air will merge in one, covering all planet.

In the northern hemisphere there will be a reorganization of the movement of air streams. Completely air circulation from the equator to a pole of the hot air heated by the sun and back cold air which has cooled down on a pole as her main source – the solar heat which is warming up the equator will disappear will stop. The black cloud “will gradually flow down” to the southern hemisphere since there air circulation will still take place on usual ways. As a result and there will come “the nuclear winter” and “nuclear night”. However the difference of temperatures will be much lower there. Temperature will drop on average only by 10-12 degrees, against 25 degrees in the northern hemisphere.

But fall of temperature over the surface of the ocean occupying the most part of the southern hemisphere, and having a big thermal capacity will appear only 1-2 degrees. And such difference of temperatures will cause a collapse on coastal areas powerful and storms and hurricanes.

 

Because of a dark cloud of soot and dust the reflecting planet capability considerably will decrease. Therefore Earth will begin to reflect less solar energy, than usually. The thermal balance will be broken and absorption of a solar energy will increase. Heat it will concentrate in an upper atmosphere, forcing soot instead of settling to rise up.

 

Fixed inflow of an added warmth will very strongly warm an upper atmosphere. The lower layers will remain still cold and to cool down even more. The considerable vertical difference of temperatures which isn’t causing movement of air masses, and opposite, in addition stabilizing an atmosphere condition is formed. Therefore, loss of soot will be slowed down on an order. And in the place with it also “the nuclear winter” will drag on.

Of course, everything will depend on capacity of blows. But explosions of average capacity (about 10 thousand megatons) are capable to deprive almost for a year the planet of a sunlight necessary for all live on the earth.

 

In high concentration ozone is capable to absorb tough ultra-violet radiation and to protect all live on the earth from radiation pernicious for it. There is a theory that availability of an ozone layer gave the chance to emergence of multicellular life on the land.

The ozone layer easily collapses under the influence of various substances.

 

Nuclear explosions in a large number, even in the limited territory, will lead to bystry and elimination of an ozone layer. Explosions and the fires that will arise after them, will create temperatures in case of which there are transformations of chemicals, impossible in usual conditions or proceeding inertly.

For example, the radiation of explosion leads to formation of an oxide of nitrogen, one of powerful destroyers of ozone most of which part will reach an upper atmosphere. Also ozone collapses, reacting with hydrogen and hydroxyls which large number will rise in air together with soot and dust, and will also be delivered in the atmosphere by powerful hurricanes that will storm in the southern hemisphere.

As a result, after clarification of air from aerosol pollution, the surface of the planet and all live on it will appear under tough ultra-violet radiation.

High doses of ultraviolet at the person, as well as at animals, cause burns and cancer of skin, injury of a retina, a blindness, influence a hormonal background, destroy immunity. Owing to what, survivors will be ill much more. Ultraviolet blocks normal replication of DNA. What causes dying off of cages or emergence of the mutated cages not capable it is correct to perform the functions.

 

Consequences of ultra-violet radiation and for plants are at least heavy. At them ultra-violet radiation changes activity of enzymes and hormones, influences synthesis of pigments, intensity of photosynthesis and photoperiodic reaction. As a result in plants photosynthesis can practically stop, and such representatives of flora as blue-green seaweed can disappear at all.

Ultra-violet radiation has pernicious and mutagen effect on microorganisms. Under the influence of ultraviolet membranes of cages and cellular covers collapse. And it attracts death of the microcosm which is under the influence of sunshine.

The most terrible consequence of destruction of an ozone layer will turn out the fact that its recovery can become impracticable. On it several honeycombs of years during which the Earth’s surface will be subjected to fixed ultra-violet radiation can be required.

 

One of the major factors of impact on the environment attracting serious consequences for life after the nuclear warfare is pollution by radioactive products.

In case of massive attacks products of nuclear explosions will form steady radioactive infection of the biosphere in the territories in hundreds and thousands of kilometers.

 

In assessment of scientists it is said that the nuclear attack by capacity from 5 thousand megatons, can generate an infection zone with the dose of gamma radiation exceeding 500-1000 rem (in case of a dose in 10 rem in blood of the person the changes caused by radiation begin, radiation sickness begins; a regulation 0,05-1 rem), the area which there is more all territory of Europe and a part of North America are.

Long-living radionuclides will average 4-10 Ki (in case of normal level 0,2 – 0,3 Ki) on square kilometer of the infected territory. In case of such doses danger to the person, animals, insects and in particular for inhabitants of soils is created.

 

According to the machine analysis of consequences of a nuclear warfare with any scenario, all live on the earth, endured explosions, capacity from 10 thousand megatons, and the fires, will undergo to radiation exposure. Even the territories remote from places of explosions will be infected in doses from 0,1 Gr above. At the same time the average dose of radiation which will influence survivors will constitute 0,58 Gr.

As a result biotic a component of ecosystems it will be subject to mass radiation defeats. Progressively changing specific structure of ecosystems, destruction of trophic communications and general degradation of ecosystems will become a consequence of such radiative effects. And over time it will lead to decrease in genetic stability in populations, especially at quickly breeding types.

 

In case of large-scale use of nuclear weapon, first of all, big losses among fauna in zones of continuous nuclear defeat will follow. Then various long negative impacts caused by radiation factors will be added to them. At the same time subsequent strong changes of the habitat, radiation defeats of individuals and populations, negative genetic consequences.

 

Strong cold weather which will be established in the first months after explosions will cause huge damage to flora. Practically photosynthesis and growth of plants will stop. Especially it will be noticeable in tropic latitudes in which the most part of the population of Earth lives.

Cold, lack of drinking water, poor lighting – will lead to mass death of animals.

Powerful storm, frosts which will lead to freezing of superficial reservoirs and coastal waters the termination of reproduction of plankton will destroy a food supply for many species of fish and water animals. The remained sources of food will be so strongly infected with radiation and products of chemical reactions that their use will be pernicious at least other factors.

 

Cold and dying off of plants will result in impossibility of farming. Inventories of food for the person will be exhausted as a result. And those that will remain still will also undergo to strong radiation contamination. Especially strongly it will affect the territories importing food.

2-3 billion people will die from nuclear explosions. “Nuclear night” and “nuclear winter”, depletion suitable for the use of food and water, destruction of communications, means of energy providing, transport communication, lack of medical care will claim a bigger quantity of the human lives. Against the background of general easing of human health pandemics earlier not known and with unpredictable consequences will begin.


What Will Be With the Planet, After Nuclear War. Researches and Proofs.

Presently the nuclear warfare represents the most serious environmental hazard. Simultaneous action of such factors as fall of temperature and illumination, reduction of level of an atmospheric precipitation, the ionizing radiation, increase in level of UF-radiation, and also receipt to the environment of the various poisoning products, will lead to sharp violation of biological communities and to decrease for the long period of their capability to recovery.

  • ISBN: 9781370954711
  • Author: William Gore
  • Published: 2017-01-18 13:20:08
  • Words: 4152
What Will Be With the Planet, After Nuclear War. Researches and Proofs. What Will Be With the Planet, After Nuclear War. Researches and Proofs.