THE WINNER’S BODY LANGUAGE
NARAYANAN CHITTOOR NAMBOODIRIPAD
Managing the first impression is of the utmost importance for any young executive. Besides the way we talk and dress, the way we conduct ourselves, the body language, speaks for us unconsciously in ways that we can’t even fathom. In fact, even more eloquently than the spoken or written word.
There are a number of books, learned tomes, written on the subject of body language. But although they explain in detail what each action and posture means and what message it conveys to the person in front of us many fail to clearly define what we are supposed to do. At best they tell us what not to do! Interestingly, a thousands of years old Sanskrit treatise from India, Bharata Muni’s Natya Shastra has looked at the principles of body language in detail. This book is an attempt to apply his theories to the modern day executive and help him in managing the way people perceive him.
Copyright © 2016 Narayanan Chittoor Namboodiripad
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We need an impressive personality to be a leader in the society. A used car salesman might sell a car but he sells something more – his personality. Indian Classical Theatre, Bharata Muni’s Natyashastra shows us a way to assume an imposing personality. He does not put it in a straight forward manner, we have to go through a large number of Slokas to learn this technique of body language.
Some people are blessed with imposing personalities that stand out even in a crowd. A muscle mountain from American wrestling ring must always create an aura of physical presence. So too a seven foot basket ball player from USA. Some people might argue that such persons do not need to study body language it will be like gilding the lily. That is not correct. Study Natyashastra techniques and apply them – soon he will have an even more confident personality. A small made man has no other option, he has to assume a confident winner’s body language. Can he? Yes! A five foot five inches person can create an illusion of six footer by Natya.
Experience and efficiency automatically confers this aura of an efficient winner but it takes time.
A company manager with years of successful career will look confident, he is confident. Years back, we had a volleyball match in Thrissur and one of the stars was the Indian captain herself. When she entered the field no one had any doubt as to who she was. The opposing teams could not hope to defend her smashes, they knew it and of course she knew that as well. So she had the aura of a winning fighter. But it must be argued that it took her years of hard practice to reach that level.
What can a nervous newcomer do? A newly appointed college professor addressing the class for the first time tends to be nervous. He knows that he knows the subject that he deals with, but feels self conscious and nervous at first. He cannot afford to show the nervousness he feels: he has to present the picture of a confident scholar. Natya Shastra can help him. This is the case of a newly appointed manager. He wants to display the guise of an efficient executive but might be a bit nervous. The case of a man presenting himself is even more pitiable. He is supposed to look like a confident, efficient candidate even when quite strung out with tension. That is where Natya Shastra can help. Some critics might say that we must always be natural instead of acting a part, but after all, we put on some act at all times in our lives.
Professionals often find that their success depends upon the aura of success. An advocate has to be and has to look like a successful fighter. A doctor has to fight diseases only but he must be confident and efficient to console his patients. Study classical theatre and a person can present any personality he wants successfully.
People often tend to consider Classical Theatre as less than useful in the modern world. They are doubtful about the relevance of Theatre in practical life but really Theatre is not for mere entertainment. As Bharatha Muni says, Theatre studies the body language, dialogue delivery and costumes of the man in the street. This shows him the subtle body language that he has to assume to present a particular character. The stoop shouldered posture is perfect for an old, disease stricken man but hardly suitable for the hero. We can argue from the other way around. Even a healthy man can turn himself into an old man by assuming that particular body language. A person acquires a winner’s body language through experience and success; if that is difficult, he can get the help of Bharata’s Natya Shastra. We can be sure that Natya Shastra is useful in our daily life.
What kind of character do we want to present to the society? We can classify them into four types.
I The Tough: As the word itself suggests, he is tough, really rough. We have the excellent example of Bhima of Mahabharata. He is supremely confident of his power and shuns the use of subtlety and diplomacy. Bhima knows that he can remove all obstacles and enemies through sheer power and will power. His weapon, naturally, the mace, is so heavy that no one else can lift it. The tough one usually is rather boastful because of his belief in his physical prowess. Naturally, he talks tough and does not care to use sweet, soft-spoken words. This character suits a soldier who has to be tough. He cannot afford to show fear. Sometimes in the thick of battle he might feel a twinge of fear but he hides it. Often he dredges up anger so as to forget fear. The policeman also has to assume this mantle of toughness very often; when dealing with law breakers. Ideally, he is kind and helpful to the ordinary citizens but more often than not, he has to be or pretend to be tough.
II The Efficient: This character is diplomatic. People love and respect him. They have great faith in him because of his efficiency. They love his soft spoken, sincere and efficient character. We have an excellent example in Arjuna of Mahabharata. His character made him the pet student of his Guru, Drona and the brother-in-law of Lord Krishna. It is interesting to note that many Hindus worship Subhadra, Arjuna’s wife as a Deity. The efficient is not always soft-spoken and efficient; he can rage like a cyclone. Arjuna was like that. He was a terror to his enemies. In other words, Arjuna could be very diplomatic and decent when the occasion demanded it but he could terrorise a whole army when needed. This ‘Efficient’ guise is ideal for most people. For example, it is excellent for a college professor. He has to attract the students; he has to be intolerant to mischief. A minister would do well to imitate Arjuna. So too an executive working in a factory. He has to earn the love and respect of those working under him; at the same time, the subordinates should fear his wrath. This ‘efficient’ guise is good for almost all jobs since it is so flexible.
III The Calm: This man is the ultimate gentleman whose outstanding feature is his philosophical calm. He is unflappable at all times simply because he knows the pros and cons of the activities around him. He is soft in his dealings, usually he does not need to get angry. This calm manner is excellent for a doctor who must console and help his patients. A judge, of course has to be like this, hence the old adage of sober as a judge. An IT professional can also don this guise successfully. He does not fight anyone, his problems are intellectual only.
IV The Artistic: As a worshipper of the muse an artist usually has some idea about body language. Thus an actor is very conscious about his body and facial characters. To some extent, he knows how to use these. A famous film star usually has a winner’s body language. We can argue both ways. Unless he has the body language of a winner, he cannot reach the eminence of his profession. On the other hand years of success gives him an aura of a winner. Usually actors are a bit vain which makes this kind of mantle easy to assume. Yet, even a famous star can improve his presentation by following the tenets of Natya Shastra.
Writers and painters are also part of this artistic brigade. A large percentage are ego centric which gives them a special aura. People often expect them to be rather eccentric. Suppose a painter has a hippie like life style, nobody considers it a bad character. Often we see painters with outlandish costumes and poor body language. That does not matter for a painter or a writer since people expect them to behave in such a manner. It has reached such a level that if a painter is well groomed and well dressed people are reluctant to accept him as a genuine talent.
Whatever be the character we want to present in the society, we do want greater physical presence than what we usually have. This is like vain men who ask the painters to make their portraits more beautiful. Now the moot question; can a person create a more imposing presence? As mentioned before, a 200 kg muscle mountain is sure to attract attention anywhere. Of course, no one can actually become taller or heavier at will. A 180 cm person cannot stretch himself to 185 cm or reach that height by eating more food. But we certainly can create an illusion of greater height. We can make others think that we have put on greater weight. Absurd? No. The Kathakali actors have been creating the illusion of larger size for centuries. That is the greatness of the Classical Theatre.
We have the excellent example of this illusion in the play Kalyana Sowgandhikam. Bhima, who has supernatural powers goes in search of an unusual flower called Sowgandhikam. He passes through a wonderful forest where Hanuman performs his eternal Thapas. Hanuman, the demigod is the son of the Wind God, Vayu. As it happened, Bhima was also the sun of Vayu so that Hanuman and Bhima were actually half-brothers. Hanuman knew the truth, but there was no chance that Bhima would recognize his brother.
Now we have the scene where Hanuman masquerades as a frail, old monkey. He makes himself smaller and smaller and play acts to reduce Bhima’s vanity and of course ultimately bless him. The Kathakali actor performing the part of Hanuman first stands on a stool to show a larger than life height! Then he spreads out his hands and bends the elbows slowly withdrawing his palms to the body. He further bends his legs at the knees and slowly sits down. As his aim is to present the picture of an old monkey he scratches his body like an ape and weakly falls down from the stool. The audience gets an illusion of a larger than life demigod becoming a small and frail monkey in a matter of mere minutes!!
By the end of the play, Hanuman reveals himself as the devotee of Sri Rama and half brother of Bhima whom he blesses. Then Bhima wants to see the real physical might of Hanuman – as he fought the Rakshasas. Hanuman warns his brother that the actual body was terrorizing. Then he assumes his natural form with which he has devastated the Asuras. The actor does this trick of increasing his size standing on a stool. He slowly spreads out his hands and roars. The effect is surprising. The illusion is truly wonderful. This technique of illusion is not the result of inborn talent whom others cannot emulate. The masters teach this trick of size illusion and most of the good students are able to perform this metamorphosis effectively.
We see this illusion among the soldiers also. They are made to go through hours of exercise particularly the march past. The result is wonderful. They seem to be bigger than the actual size even when they stand in firm -‘attention’.
Let us consider how this illusion can be created in our daily life. The technique is to assume what maybe called a Yogic posture. Lord Krishna explains this posture in Bhagavat Gita. Keep the body, neck and head in a straight line. People usually have a tendency to bend the head forward since this ‘at ease’ position is more comfortable. This is bad because the neck and the head create the illusion of height. So we have to make sure that the body, neck and the head are straight. This is very important, several Upanishads tell us to keep this posture while meditating. Adi Shankara analyzing Yajnavalkya’s Upanishads insists upon this posture. Apart from the illusion of height this posture is very good for intellectual exercises as well as being more healthy. The next trick is to spread out the shoulders, meaning push the ends of the shoulder blades back. Yet another trick that the Kathakali actors use is to push the buttocks back by arching the vertebrae just above the hips.
Everyone knows that the feelings and emotions decide the body language. An old, disease stricken, unhappy man does not march like an army man. When a hooded serpent appears before us we jump back in fear. But we must argue it from the other way round. Body language influences the mind. We can test this by standing at ‘attention’ for some time and analyzing our own mind. The Yogic posture, scientists agree, is very good for the brain, particularly those parts that influence original thinking.
This posture has yet another advantage which people do not realize. Vagbhatacharya in his famous textbook Ashtangahrudayam says that the horse riders tend to have Piles. Usually they bend forward to ease the bump of the horse and too much of this posture leads to what is popularly known as ‘gas trouble’. This also leads to bleeding piles which can cause even mental problems. Padma Bhooshan ET Narayanan Mooss had such an experience. He was called upon to treat a violent madman violently who was in chains. Several doctors and physicians had tried to cure him and failed. Narayanan Mooss at first was baffled but when he learned that the patient suffered acute bleeding piles, he remembered the verse dealing with this ailment. Vagbhata has insisted that it can cause madness even. So Mooss treated his patient and cured the piles. The patient became a rational officer without any medicine for madness. This is not the only time Mr.Mooss has treated mental problems like depression by curing ‘gas trouble’ and piles. We wonder how many poor souls suffering from real depression have gas trouble and hemorrhoids. The Yogic posture can reduce this problem.
Is it possible to keep a Yogic posture for long hours and produce better physical presence? I have an interesting experience. Padmabhooshan Kalamandalam Ramankutty Nair came to my town to attend a prize giving ceremony. As usual in Kerala, the meeting was started one and a half hours late. The Kathakali actor sat in an ordinary chair. Away from the dais and alone. He sat straight, never bending his shoulders for almost one hour. His seemingly proud posture made him look like an imposing figure even though he was rather a small-made man. Long years of training made him an imposing figure which made him the number one actor. He knew that he was the best which gave him great confidence. Kathakali actors have another way to make sure that they do not bend forward. They are taught to push their buttocks back and arch back at the middle. This ensures an efficient and imposing posture. So this is the posture that every person must have; whatever be his profession.
What about the face – the most important part in expressing feelings and emotions? Once again, what kind of character should we assume?
Nava Rasas – Nine Moods
Bharatha Muni speaks of nine Rasas or moods that people go through in life. He shows how to act each one of them. Some of these we can adopt successfully, others we have to hide from our face.
1. Sensuous – Sringara: Bhoja, the old master of Theatre says that there is only one Rasa really – The Sensuous. Whatever be the merit of this statement, we have to accept the importance of the Sensuous as a Rasa. Bharatha says that everything that looks beautiful is sensuous. We have two kinds of sensuous. The passionate sexual desire and the feelings of a love-lorn person. The first, the sexual desire is such an integral part of life that a Kathakali actor is taught to show a pleasant smiling face from the start of his training. A small boy cannot act the real sensuous with intense passion. He just keeps his face pleasant and happy. He can paint it with passion later on. Now this is the Rasa that most people can adopt. A pleasant, happy, attractive face will do the trick. But we have to be careful not to overdo it. A doctor or a teacher cannot go beyond this level of pleasant-face. Even a trace of sexual desire is dangerous. Magicians have a word for an ideal face – Fascinate. Such a pleasant face will really fascinate the spectators.
We have another kind of the Sensuous Rasa- that of a hero or heroine pining for the mate. Thus the temple dancer shows the sensuous Rasa in a different. She is very unhappy that the hero is away from her. She sighs over those good old days when she was with her hero - symbolically the deity of the temple. Now, this kind of Rasa even though heartrending in a play is very bad in real life. So no executive should act this particular Bhava.
2. The Amused – Hasya: A jester on the stage with unusual or ridiculous make up makes people laugh. This is the Amused Rasa. Kerala has an art form called Koothu – where the actor – Chakkiar – gives himself a ridiculous face and twits the verse – dialogue into humorous meanings. He can keep the audience laughing for long hours. We have two kinds of the Amused Rasa. One is to dress up in a ridiculous fashion or make foolish gestures to make the people laugh. A Charlie Chaplin can do it successfully in front of the camera and win people’s hearts. But in real life, no one can afford to do it. For example, the CEO of a factory should not make people laugh at him. So this Amused Rasa is dangerous.
Yet another type of the Amused Rasa is to make the people laugh by ridiculing another person. Of course, everyone likes a laugh at another’s expense even though he likes it less when the arrow is aimed at him. A father, teacher or doctor can scold when it becomes necessary. Suppose the patient does not take the prescribed medicines properly. The doctor acts out a bit of anger even though he should not overplay this anger. The patient, penitent over his lapse will be shamefaced but will actually like the doctor’s sincerity. A professor too can become angry and rant. I used to be very angry when students did not attend my lectures. The students accepted it; they knew that I was scolding for their benefit. In fact, they loved it and were secretly proud of it. But never during my thirty-one years as a teacher did I ridicule a student. Make the students laugh at a particular boy and you create a life-long enemy. So humour is one Rasa to be avoided at all costs. The best way is to be enthusiastic and happy.
3 Miserable – Karuna: This is a heartrending Rasa. People are very miserable when loved ones die or lose their health or wealth. On the stage this Rasa is very effective. So tragedies are very popular as dramas. Imagine a play where the hero is parted from his loved one, goes through all kinds of unhappy events and dies heart-broken. The audience simply lap it up. We invoke the Miserable Rasa when the hero/heroine buckles under the weight of misfortunes. Hapless and helpless he cries his heart out. This kind of buckling under is not for a courageous man. He should soak up the misery and come out fighting. Very often he can overcome his misery by this. Anyway, Miserable Rasa is not for an efficient person. Suppose a CEO laments over his domestic miseries, his staff might act with proper sympathy but surely will despise and ridicule him. So this Rasa is out, in fact, it is the exact opposite of this that we want to project; it does not matter what profession one has.
4. The Terrifying – Rowdra: Here the person is so angry that he terrifies everyone. This kind of uncontrollable anger is not for a doctor or a teacher. In fact, it is suitable only for the soldier, that too in the throes of war. He has to reach that level where he forgets his doubts and fears. But generally, we have to avoid this Rasa.
[* 5. The Heroic- Veera: *] A true hero has to be courageous; this is the ideal Rasa for most people. A true hero fights through all the problems of life and comes out a winner. People admire this kind of heroism. An advocate or a teacher can assume this successfully. So too a person appearing for an interview. But too much of a Veera Rasa is counter-productive. It looks as though he is arrogant. So the ideal is to keep the body full of the heroic Rasa while the face remains quite pleasant; attractive without sensuous overtones. This is the ideal for almost all professions.
6. The Fearful – Bhayanaka: When a person is really afraid of something, we have the Fearful Rasa. Suppose a tiger attacks a person suddenly. He becomes full of fear; tries to run away from the threatening factor. Very often we are under the grip of this Rasa but we have to hide it effectively. This Rasa shows the weakness of a person which is not a favourable Rasa. So we must hide it somehow or the other.
7. The Repulsive – Bhibhatsa: Suppose the wind brings in an unbearably dirty smell. We feel the Repulsive Rasa. So too hateful sights. Once again, this Rasa is not for a true hero. A person appearing for an interview cannot show this Rasa.
8. The Marvellous – Athbhuta: When we see something exceptionally grand or magnificent, we have this Rasa. We marvel at the structure. This Rasa also is not for a true hero, he takes such marvelous things in his stride.
9. The Composed – Santha: A person in complete control over his emotions has Composed Rasa. A Yogi should always have this Rasa but it is not perfectly suitable for a professional. We can argue that a doctor can assume this Rasa successfully but too perfect a Composed Rasa makes people think that he is heartless. It is much better to show Veera with the body and a fascinating expression with the face.
So then, ultimately, this should be the ideal for most professionals – the Heroic body posture which really means the Yogic posture plus the Fascinate, a pleasant, attractive face. This will mellow down the heroic Rasa.
How do we express these Rasas? Or, what should we do to create that mood? Bharatha Muni gives four ways to do that.
1. The body language and movements: The way in which a person stands, sits walks or moves his hands express his inner feelings. Thus a happy and contended person moves slowly and gracefully. A nervous person twitches his hands or moves them without proper control. An old disease stricken person wobbles about without proper self control over his body. On the other hand a young and healthy man walks with firm, measured steps. A true hero stands with legs apart as though ready to fight. We show the sensuous Rasa through graceful, gentle movements. When angry, our movements are quick and decisive. Karuna Rasa is akin to weakness and defeat. The whole body is weak and shows helplessness. Naturally it is not for the hero. He has to stand straight as though ready to face all problems. We have to avoid the body language of the fearful at all costs. Thus once again, the ideal is to assume the posture of Veera Rasa by standing or sitting straight as an arrow and keeping the face as Fascinating as possible.
Yet another trick is the use of hands. Consider how a Chakkiyar and a Kathakali actor use their hands. Of course, both talk through hand gestures. We do not have to use such techniques since we can talk properly. Yet almost all of us gesture with the hands while we talk. This can be done in two ways. The Koodiyattom actor gestures with the hands in front of the body while the Kathakali actor gestures with the hands slightly away from the body. This kind of gesture seems to increase the breadth of the body and make it more imposing. One thing more; the gestures should be slow and graceful; never nervous or jerky.
2. Costumes and props: The costumes play a decisive role in expressing the character. Sloppy dress means a sloppy person. A doctor, professor or advocate cannot afford to dress in such a sloppy fashion. Dress becomes even more important in the case of a policeman or army man. The policeman seems to put on a greater toughness and heroic personality when he wears the uniform. First, he feels proud that he has become an officer of the law when he wears the uniform and more importantly the people respect him thus. The black coat and gown of an advocate seems to be ill suited to a hot state like Kerala but he needs it to give greater dignity to his profession. Without that he seems to become smaller and ordinary.
We have another trick to make ourselves more imposing. Naturally, we cannot try to become stouter, the best way is to use shirts with full sleeves. This broadens the body without putting on extra fat.
3. Dialogue: Everyone knows that the way one talks etches the personality of the speaker but very few consider this aspect properly. The best way to learn how to talk is to watch a Kathakali play although the characters don’t talk on stage but just mimes the lyrics that the singer in the background sings. The red bearded villain has no self control and moves in hard quick steps. So too the minor character, the aborigine hunter. On the other hand, consider Nala, the great king in Nalacharitam. He is a true hero who has control over himself. Now let us watch him in the love scene. Sure, he talks through hand gestures. He draws each word slowly, gracefully and firmly. His steps and body movements are also slow and graceful. That should be the way for a good professional to talk. He has to speak slowly and legibly. If he talks fast, his subordinates are apt to think, even if unconsciously that he is not really confident. Yet he should be polite and graceful in his talk. Above all, he has to use effective dialogue; people seem to forget the importance of this aspect. People tend to use lifeless, passive sentences, they even consider it fashionable. This should not happen. For example, if the boss says “This file has to be sent by tomorrow’s post” or “the accounts will have to be written up properly by tomorrow” it leaves a bad taste. It seems as though the boss is not very confident about the subordinate’s obedience. This is not the way for the boss to talk. Once again the ideal is the efficient plus attractive character. So he should say “Send this file by tomorrows’ post” and to make the order more attractive and polite add “Please” as a front handle. This means Veera plus Sringara. We have to add that Sringara does not mean sexual attraction always, rather in this case Fascinate. Bharata Muni says that all that are attractive come under this. So the word please should be good enough for the boss.
Yet another despicable use of language is the continuous tense. People often ask “Will you be going to Bombay next month?” or “I will be coming back after the convention”. This is like a lame man dragging his legs painstakingly. We can be precise and direct. “I will come back” is good enough.
Yet another modern trick that weakens the language is the use of the word ‘by”. For example a policeman cannot tell a suspected thief “tell me the truth or you will be kicked by me”. A teacher cannot ask a student to “get out of the class or you will be thrown out”. We do not need such weak sentences; we can simply say “tell me the truth or I will kick you hard” Here the principle is simple, the verb is the most lively and important word in a sentence. We have to use the verb without the embellishments that weaken it. So we have to avoid the ‘ing’ at all costs. Kill, beat, walk, smile and love are good enough. We must avoid the word ‘by’ which weakens the sentence.
The psychic changes influence the body tremendously but in a subtle way. We perspire profusely when creeping nervousness or fear engulf us. We tremble uncontrollably in fear. Psychic factors influence such bodily changes. To understand this properly, we can consider a Kathakali actor. As a boy he learns to smile and move his brows to show pleasure. He becomes attractive just by that. But he cannot add sexual overtones to this so that even though it is a kind of Sringara, the passion is absent. As he matures he can add the psychic factor in the love scenes. The face automatically makes subtle difference that infuses passion into the act. Likewise, a job applicant appearing for an interview has to control his mind to remove all traces of nervous self doubts and make it confident. The only way is self hypnotism. You have to convince yourself that you are efficient and fascinating. A professor can tell himself that he has nothing to worry since he knows the subject and is capable of explaining it properly. This psychic conditioning automatically gives him the proper body language. There is another method which is not suitable to all, that is to place everything in God’s lap to make sure of divine help.
Thus the best body language for an efficient winner is to keep Veera with the body and Fascinate – pleasurable happiness on the face. For this we have to explain once again that we have to keep the Yogic posture of the body, neck and head in a straight line. Never keep the shoulders hunched when we stand we have to keep the legs slightly apart and balanced. Gesture with hands slightly away from the body. Keep the face pleasant and fascinating. Be convincing yourself that you are fascinating. That is the way for a winner.
Narayanan Chittoor Namboodiripad belongs to the ancient family, Chittoor Mana. Son of Sankaran Namboodiripad, the Yajurveda exponent and Uma Antharjanam, Namboodiripad is the descendant of Vasudevan Namboodiripad, the greatest Godman of the fifteenth century. Fate willed that Narayanan Namboodiripad be the spiritual heir, the ordained member of the family to perform Vasudevan Namboodiripad’s Puja. His Gurus are: HH Sankaracharya Abhinava Vidya Theertha Mahaswamigal and HH Bharathi Theertha Mahaswamigal of Sringeri, KPC Narayanan Bhattathiripad, Prof.K.Sivarama Menon and Swamy Gabheerananda of the Chinmaya Mission. He married Smt.Savithry and has two sons, Sanil C Namboodiripad, BTech, MBA and Nimal C Namboodiripad, MBA.
His published works include:
[+ Revealing the Art of Natyashastra+]
[+ Nerambokkukal (Malayalam)+]
Yogashastrathinte Thatwam (Malayalam)
Aithihya Sampudam (Malayalam)
Aithihya Sanchayam (Malayalam)
[+ Aithihya Rathnakaram (Malayalam)+]
Aithihya Sallapam (Malayalam)
Aithihya Malika (Malayalam)
Rakshassinte Pratikaram (Malayalam)
Kesavan the Tusker
Kudumba Paradevatha Upasana (Malayalam)
The Abode of Wisdom
Narayana Navakas (Poems)
True Blue Flame (Poems)
Body language is very important for any executive. Besides the way he dresses and how he communicates orally and in writing, it is the way an executive carries himself that creates a positive impression with the people he interacts with. There are any number of books on the subject. Most of them talk of what each gesture and posture communicates or even what not to do when you are trying to communicate something but rarely does it talk in detail of what to do. Bharata Muni's Natya Sasthra is a thousands year old Sanskrit book that talks of body language in Theatre. This book talks about how Bharata Muni's theories can be implemented in ordinary life of an executive too.