This short book explains effective
teaching methodologies, and describes
the effects of these methods on the
mind, attitude, and life of the students.
“Teaching methodology” expresses the effective teaching methodologies and describes the effects of these
teaching methods on the mind, attitude, and life of the students. It is an important topic of discussion, because teachers make the nation. While, teaching methodology
represents the personality of a teacher. In a society, there are different teaching methods, and teachers of different temperaments. This is a general discussion about
teaching methodology, and how they may help the
people of nation, and the teachers of future.
Choudhry Ghulam Murtaza Gujjar
All the ideas written in this book, are those I have
learned from my teachers. My teachers have helped me
to reach this stage. Their work, struggles, affection, prays, and appreciation, alongside the prays, blessing and efforts of my parents, have brought me this far in writing this book.
Also, my friends, Bilal Ahmad Cheema (BAC) and
Zoaheb Mohammed have helped greatly in the design
and editing of this book.
Special Thanks to
My Teachers, My Parents
And My Friends
Bilal Ahmad Cheema (BAC)
Teacher and teaching
The temperament of teachers
Knowledge and teaching
The attitude of students
Psychology of students
Simple and easy lectures
Control the attention of students
Examples of effective teaching methodology
Psychological factors and teaching methodology
General Psychology of students
Mental Psychology of students
Appreciation and reward
Student and teaching methodology
Respect of teacher
A person who teaches others is a teacher. While
teaching means to impart on someone knowledge, that
maybe specific or common. Teaching may be about
religion, science, mathematics, social life, economics, or anything else. In fact, even a person who tells you
something new, which you do not know before, is your
Teaching is a good profession. However, teaching is
as rewarding a profession, but also a difficult a profession.
This is because effective teaching requires guts, and a number of special qualities. These attributes are not
found in everyone, and as such, it is no small feat to
teach. This means, that individuals require multiple
impressive, and rare qualities, to make good teachers.
Different teachers have different temperaments.
o Some teachers are strict. Their strictness is due to
their own attitude and lifestyle. They do not like to
engage in causal talk with students, and maintain
strict environment of study.
o Some teachers have soft attitude, and an easy
temperament. However, they do not bear any
disturbance by students in their own presence. They
pay their duties, deliver lectures, and leave the class.
Generally, they do not interfere with student
matters. Usually, such attitude is due to their
consistent work routine.
o The teachers of other type of temperament do not
bear any disturbance created by students.
Sometimes, they disgrace the students, and force
students to leave the class. While other times,
teachers are compelled to leave the class, because of
the students’ behaviours not meeting their
o Other teachers are causal with students, but do not
bear any disturbance in class. They may lose temper
o A few teachers are friendly with students, and reward the students for paying attention, by their own lovely
o Many teachers are cool, and have such amazing
affection for their students, that the students cannot
create any disturbances during classes.
o Some teachers place pressure on students. They do not punish, but rather, their attitude, temperament,
teaching methods, and lifestyle creates respect, out
of fear, in the mind of students.
o Many teachers, in primary classes, use punishment to
discipline their students. This leaves students
confused and stressed during classes.
o Several teachers have cool behaviour, and follow
punishment and reward style. They deal student
according to their behaviour, and life style.
o Some teachers follow their own mood. When they
are angry, they punish the students. Yet, when they
are happy, they show kind behaviour, and follow
appreciation and reward style.
Knowledge is necessary for teaching. One should
have full mastery of the subject, one wants to teach. To obtain more detailed knowledge about specific topic, with the intension of delivering a concept to students, every teacher consults books and other sources of knowledge.
There is also another different ideology about this
point. This ideology is that: every teacher is always more qualified than their students. So, this means, a teacher is qualified person. As everyone knows, that qualified
person must have knowledge. When a teacher is
qualified, of course, they have knowledge. Those who
have any problems, must consult sources of knowledge.
After this ideology, it is clear, that it is not only
knowledge, but many other important factors, that have
greater effect on teaching. By understanding these
factors, teaching can be improved.
THE ATTITUDE OF
Each and every student has different attitude.
o Some students sit on first bench, see to the teacher, show full expressions of attention, but they are not
present in class mentally. They are present physically, but they are thinking some other things in mind.
o Some students show that they are busy in writing in
notebook, when actually, they are not listening to the
lecture, and are writing something else in their
o Some students, with their head down, are asleep.
They are present in class physically but not mentally.
o Some students talk, through gestures, with other
students, and do not pay heed to lecture.
o Some students feel bored during lecture, and do not
o A few students believe that they will study at home,
after the lecture.
o Those students who are interested in extracurricular
activities, remain busy about their activity during
lecture, and cannot pay heed to study.
Teaching methodology is a process, by which
different ways are adapted to improve teaching style, and to teach in convenient way.
Teaching methodology includes all the factors that
affect teaching. It also determines the impression of the teacher on students. Teaching methodology helps in
clearing the concepts to the students. It is also a measure of how much is memorized by students during lecture. In this way, it expresses the personality, and ability of a teacher.
Teaching methodology includes countless ways of teaching, but not all of these ways are impressive. In fact, some methods do not leave good impression on students.
Good teaching methods have good effects for students.
There are different the most important factors
included in teaching methodology:
o Control the attention of students.
o Understanding the psychology of students.
o Make the lecture simple and easy.
o Leaning of psychological factors affects students
o Control the attitude of students.
_“To control the attention of students _
[_is the most important of these.” _]
Every teacher has their own teaching method.
Usually, teachers have very effective, and impressive
teaching methods. However, some teachers have normal
teaching methods. There are different teaching methods
found in teachers.
o Start of a lecture and end of a lecture. Lecture ends in short time. In some case, students understand well
but in other cases, students are sitting blank.
o Some teachers observe the different movements of
students, but do not care about, what are they doing,
what are they thinking, or if are they paying
attention. They just deliver the lecture.
o Sometimes teachers are experts, and they just call the names of those students who are not paying
attention, and control the attention of students.
o Some teachers make diagrams, and write whole
lecture on board, and students found it easy to
understand the lecture.
o Some teachers advise their students to write notes
during the lecture.
o In some situations, teachers create fear, and then
students are forced to focus on the lecture.
o Some teachers just use their own energy, and their
energy helps the students in memorizing the lecture.
It is necessary for a student to pay attention for
understanding lectures. Usually, a few full mature
students try to pay attention on lecture but others don’t.
Sometimes, the continuous speak of teacher diverts
student attention from lecture. In teaching methodology, hard and very important factor is to control the attention of student. When students will pay attention, they will understand the whole lecture. So, understanding
psychology of students and adopting amazing methods
for controlling psychology of students leads to control of the attention of students.
SIMPLE AND EASY
In teaching methodology, it is very important that
lecture should be simple and easy. In fact, simple and
easy lectures, attract the attention of students.
Furthermore, simple and easy lecture also consumes less time.
There are following key points in making the lecture
easy and simple:
o Draw sketch diagrams. Sketch diagram creates a
sketch in the brain of students, and helps to
memorize in short time.
o Draw simple diagram, and label different things related to the topic.
o Make flow charts as they help in making the concept
o Arrange the lecture in story form, because stories are easy to memorize, and understand.
o Students learn more easily by watching videos.
o Create amazing and easy mnemonics.
o Express lecture in simple and easy words.
CONTROL THE ATTENTION OF
Teaching is not only to teach the students (just
deliver the lecture), and leave. Teaching includes,
delivering of lecture in such a way that each, and every student should learn, and memorize the lecture. This is possible, only by effective teaching methodology.
There are some important points related to effective
teaching methodology, and in controlling the attention of students. Actually, there are side techniques employed by the teacher during the lecture that make the teaching
effective. These include:
o Judge the movement of students.
o Observe all the students.
o Understand students’ mental psychology.
o Ask question during lecture.
o Keep test on next day of lecture.
o Repeat the lecture many time, ask questions
o Show such expression that every student should feel
that teacher is looking me.
o Ask the students for making notes of lectures.
In fact, all the factors included in teaching
methodology, like understanding mental psychology of
students, understanding effects of psychological factors on students, learning easy and simple lecture techniques, attention gaining simple techniques, etc., helps in
controlling the attention of student. So, “to control the attention of students” is necessary for effective teaching methodology.
Many teachers of mine have shown amazing teaching
methodology. There are a few examples that are
imprinted in my brain. These examples will reveal
impressive and effective teaching methodology, and the
best personality and best attitude of teachers.
o Khursheed Ahmed Malik, my teacher during Matric
classes, has amazing teaching methodology. He
makes flow charts, and says to students to write the
lecture in their notebooks. During his lecture, every
student learns and memorizes.
o Doctor Ashraf Hussain, my old biology teacher, has the most effective teaching methodology. Students
are compelled to pay attention during lectures. He is
very cool and causal with his students. His teaching
methodology is that he starts lecture by starting a
story, as the story ends, lecture is also complete. So, he teaches whole the lecture in story, and everyone
learns. Sometimes, he uses a second method, he
writes lecture on board, and tells the students to
write in their notebooks. Then, explains the written
lecture in a few minutes, and everyone learns his
lecture. He used a third method, according to the
topic, that was to make a diagram, and complete the
whole lecture simply.
o Khalid Hussain: the teacher of English, would set a
test for day after the lecture. During test, only those students who have learnt the lecture, would come
first. He just ignored the other students; those
students that cheated from book. Then Sir, wold say
that “I will listen from everyone individually”. Then everyone tries to memorize the written question.
Now, everyone has memorized the lecture.
o Muhammed Irfan Khan: the teacher of Chemistry. He
controlled the attention of students, by asking
questions suddenly, during the lecture, and utilizes
his own energy by repeating again and again. This
ensured that every student had memorized the
o Doctor Lubna: the teacher of Biotechnology, has
amazing way of teaching. She spoke softly, slowly and
with pauses. She judged the mental psychology of
student, and called the name of students to paying
attention. In this way, she retrieves the attention of
student. Everyone payed attention to the lecture.
o Professor Shazia Ali: the professor of Physiology. She speaks in normal frequency. Her effective teaching
methodology is that she reads the mental psychology
of students. She asks questions during lecture, and
also on the next day of lecture. So, each and every
student is compelled to listen her lecture.
Furthermore, she emphasizes on flow charts and
diagrams. Simple and easy lectures are memorized by
students in a short time.
o Iqbal Khan: the teacher of Chemistry, tells the
students to note the lecture, and he speaks with
pauses. Furthermore, he is expert in judging the
psychological factors of students.
o Majeed Ahmed: the teacher of Mathematics, is
expert in teaching with easy methods. He teaches by
solving the questions in different simple methods and
o Iftakhar Hussain: the teacher of Physics. He takes the verbal test on the next day of lecture with
punishment. So, every student pays attention in the
This is a list of factors that affects the attention of students, and so, affects the teaching methodology.
o General Psychology of students
o Mental Psychology of students
o Student memory
o Appreciation and reward
o Causal behaviour
o Strict behaviour
Sometimes, affection with students motivate them to be
attentive in lectures, and also compels them to study well in order to maintain that affection. But some students
become over confident, due to a lot of affection and
waste their time in other activities. They do not pay heed to the lectures and studies. They pass their time without paying attention.
Some teacher express special expressions. These
expressions usually have the feelings of strictness.
Similarly, such expressions are expressed by teacher, can instil an amazing feeling in student. Each will student feel
that the teacher is watching them. This will insight a feeling to pay heed to lecture. So, facial expressions have amazing role in controlling the attention of students.
GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY OF STUDENTS
General psychology and internal attitude of student is
difficult to understand. But it is very important factor that only a few teachers are experts in understanding the
general psychology of student. If any teacher can judge the psychology of student, he can judge the ways by
which student understand and memorizes well. Then
teacher can deliver lecture in that way.
MENTAL PSYCHOLOGY OF STUDENTS
It’s like brain reading. Teacher judges the student
attention. Sometimes, student looks attentive but student is not paying attention, and is not in class mentally. A few teachers are so experienced in judging the mental
psychology of student, they realize that student is not
attentive. So, in this way attention of the student is controlled by judging their mental level and their thinking.
Some students have better long term memory, and some
have better short term memory. Some have low picking
and reasoning power. A student with short term memory
learns, but cannot memorize immediately. During such
condition, “repeat and repeat” method is best. More
concentration, and repeating lecture method helps in
memorizing the lectures to students.
APPRECIATION AND REWARD
Appreciation and reward play an important role in
teaching methodology. Teacher can gain the attention of student the attention of student by appreciation and
reward method. However, in a few situations, students
get bad impression of over appreciation and reward and
do not pay attention due to over-confidence.
Punishment is such psychological factor that sometimes
make the student more efficient, but in a few conditions, it leads to one’s failure. Student habituates to
punishment, and do not feel any change.
Due to the frank behaviour of the teacher, some students show good progress, while a few students get bad effect and create disturbances.
Strict behaviour or attitude has different effects on
different students. Mostly, student show good progress, but some students show bad progress. Actually, those
students who have spent most of their time in strict
environment, they are addict of showing progress in strict environment. They will show good progress but others do not.
During developmental period of children, different psychological factors are inculcated in them. By
understanding these psychological factors, the teacher
will be able to control the attention of the student. So, it is necessary to understand these psychological facts.
Fear is other important factor. Fear of failure, fear of parents, fear of teachers, or other things can be
motivation for paying attention towards studies.
However, fear can lead to depression, and therefore must be managed effectively.
A student suffering from depression is confused cannot
pay attention to lectures. Depression can be resolved by psychological treatment. Affection, causal environment, and similar other factors have effect in decreasing
depression of student, and promotes studying and paying attention to lectures.
Under confidence leads to depression in pressurized
environment. So, such a student can be treated by
applying affection, appreciation and frank environment.
While over-confident student needs strictness and reward and punishment rule.
It is seen that those students who are habitual to
strict environment do not pay heed to lectures without
strictness and punishment rule. In fact, they are
accustomed to that condition, because of their similar
We should take care of them from their childhood.
There are following important factors that are needed by a child and helps in the grooming of children.
When children pass through such environment, after
that during mature age, they are able to pay heed to
lectures without strictness and punishment.
No doubt, every teacher has different teaching
methodology. Sometimes, students have objection about
the teacher’s methods. The point to be noted, is that if student try to pay attention, they can learn. Further, the teachers are not supposed to memorize the lessons to
students. So, students should try to understand the
attitude of teacher, and should pay attention on the
lectures, and lessons.
RESPECT OF TEACHER
As it is, the duty of a teacher to teach the nation.
Similarly, it is also duty of a student to do respect
teachers. It is possible, that a teacher does not have
effective teaching methodology, but there are many
other things that helps the students in coming forward.
The praise of teachers is also a key factor for the success of the students.
It is obligatory for the students, to pay attention
during lecture, keep the silence and peace in class.
Making any kind of disturbance, bad movements, and bad
attitudes create bad impression.
[_“Imagination is _]
_more important _
[_than knowledge.” _]
This book describes the effective teaching methodologies and also reflects the effects of teaching methodologies on the life of a student. It describes the psychology of students.