Original title: Statøpis – Statistični pregled Slovenije 2015
Published by the Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia
Issued and published by the Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, Ljubljana, Litostrojska cesta 54 – © SURS – Use and publication of data is allowed provided the source is acknowledged – ISSN ISSN 2385-9334
The Stat’o’book was launched a year ago. In one year it »walked« a long and beautiful road. It was presented at many conferences and other events in Slovenia, Europe and the United States. Perhaps even somewhere we don’t know. It appeared on TV, on the Internet and in social media. It was disseminated via mail and e-mail and many of its hardcopies were distributed as promotional gifts. Despite a large number of copies printed, we ran out a month before the new edition was ready. And what is the most important, all feedback was positive.
The concept of the second edition is the same as for the first one: concise, clear and interesting presentation of our data. Again only some of the most interesting and topical content was selected and presented with infographics and other graphical presentations and with short commentaries.
The titles of chapters match statistical domains on our upgraded website, so you will be able to access with ease the content that is not in the Stat’o’book. What is new this year is the chapter about health, which was produced in cooperation with the National Institute of Public Health as one of the authorised producers of national statistics.
You are invited to examine the new edition of the Stat’o’book and read the stories made from official statistical data.
COUNTRY AND DEVELOPMENT
PEOPLE AND SOCIETY
ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCES
ECONOMY AND FINANCE
MANUFACTURING AND SERVICES
The total area of Slovenia is 20,273 km2.
As regards the territory, Slovenia is 155th among the 257 countries of the world (www.cia.gov).
Slovenia’s land and river border is 1,322 km long. Half of Slovenia’s border is with Croatia.
In the past ten years Slovenia got
37 new settlements,
449 new streets and
39,441 new house numbers.
2014 was the warmest and wettest year in the past ten years. On average
1,957 mm (l/m2) of precipitation was recorded.
The least precipitation in the past ten years was recorded in 2011, 1,088 mm.
The average annual air temperature in 2014 was 10.3 °C.
The coldest year in the last decade was 2005 with the average annual air temperature of 8.3 °C.
In 2014 the average air temperature in July was 18.4 °C.
July 2014 was thus third coldest July in the past ten years. Only July 2011 (18.1 °C) and July 2005 (18.3 °C) were colder. The coldest month in the past ten years was February 2012 with the average air temperature of -3.2 °C.
Most rain in 2014 fell in February, 278 mm. The rainiest month in the past ten years was September 2010 (326 mm of precipitation); the driest were November 2011 and March 2012 (10 mm of precipitation).
Greenhouse gas emissions were the highest in 2008. At that time 21,384 Gg CO2 equivalent of these gases were emitted. A year later (in 2009) greenhouse gas emissions declined significantly; between 2009 and 2011 they were almost the same. Greenhouse gas emissions declined again in 2012 and in 2013 they were at the lowest level since 1995.
Greenhouse gases According to ARSO, the concentration of the most important greenhouse gas CO2 has increased by about 40% since 1750, while in the past 130 years the average global surface temperature increased by 0.85±0.2°C.
In 2013, carbon dioxide represented by far the largest share of greenhouse gases: 80%. The share of methane among greenhouse gases was 10% and the share of nitrous oxide 4%. The shares of other greenhouse gases were much lower.
Since 1992 the share of nitrous oxide has decreased the most, while the share of partially fluorinated hydrocarbons has gone up.
At the end of 2014 residents of Slovenia were on average 42.5 years old . Men (41 years) were on average 3 years younger than women (44 years). 18% of the population was aged 65+; according to population projections, in 2060 one in three residents are expected to be that old.
Seven largest settlements (Ljubljana, Maribor, Celje, Kranj, Koper, Velenje and Novo mesto) had a quarter of total Slovenia’s population.
Marija and Franc were the most common names in Slovenia.
In 2014, natural increase of Slovenia’s population was recorded for the ninth consecutive year: 2,279 people more were born than died.
For the first time after 2010 net migration was again negative: 490 persons more emigrated from Slovenia than immigrated to it.
Net migration of citizens of Slovenia was negative for the 15th consecutive year: 5,594 more citizens of Slovenia emigrated from the country than immigrated to it.
21,165 children were born in Slovenia.
The most popular girls’ name was Eva and boys’ name Luka. Of all births 351 were twin births and three were triplet births. The infant mortality rate was the second lowest so far.
One in four men and one in nine women who died in 2014 were less than 65 years old.
In 2014 6,571 couples were married.
Ten grooms were over 80 years old. 2,469 couples were divorced. 76% of dependent children from these unions were assigned to mothers.
Most residents who immigrated to Slovenia in 2014 came from Bosnia and Herzegovina (25%). Most residents who left Slovenia went to Austria (17%).
82% people who immigrated to Slovenia in 2014 were foreign nationals. 62% of them came from countries formed after the breakup of Yugoslavia and 27% from other EU Member States.
In 2014, the settlement of residence was changed by 113,000 residents, while the address in the same settlement was changed at least once by 56,000 residents.
On 1 January 2015 one in three households in Slovenia was a one-person household. 56% of women and 20% of men in these households were 65+ years old. 18 households had 15 or more members . 83% of the households with at least two members were one-family households.
On average the oldest were one- and two-person households (over 55 years), and on average the youngest were households with more than eight members (29 years). 38,000 of residents did not live in private households; most of them lived in old people’s homes (17,600).
On 1 January 2015 one in four families in Slovenia was a single-parent family. The number of consensual unions is growing fastest (since 2011 it has grown by a quarter). In 2015, for the first time the data on same-sex families (81) were published; 46 of them were between men and 35 between women.
Three out of four families had children; each family with children had on average a child and a half. There were 78 large families (with at least eight children) and 10,000 families in which both spouses/partners were younger than 30.
Compared to the 2013/14 school year, in the 2014/15 school year 1,050 more children were enrolled in kindergartens, 4,020 more pupils were enrolled in elementary schools, 1,389 fewer pupils were enrolled in upper secondary schools and 6,923 fewer students were enrolled in tertiary education.
There were 57 elementary schools and institutions with adapted curriculum in Slovenia in 2014. They were attended by 1,852 pupils.
[* Almost 77% of children aged 1–5 were enrolled in kindergartens *] in 2014. Most of them were 3–5 years old.
There were on average 87 children per kindergarten (or kindergarten unit), which is on average eight children per educator and assistant educator.
There were 10,782 educators and assistant educators in Slovenia in 2014, 98% of them women.
At the beginning of the 2014/15 school year 170,668 children were enrolled in basic education, of whom 167,249 in schools with regular curriculum, 1,852 in schools with adapted curriculum and 1,567 in schools with special curriculum.
In all basic schools, irrespective of their organisational form, in the 2014/15 school year there were on average 20 pupils per class. A basic school or its branch had on average 214 pupils. In the 2014/2015 school year 1,046 pupils were enrolled in private basic schools, i.e. 803 more than in the 2007/2008 school year.
[* 91% of all 15-18-year-olds participated in upper secondary education. *] In the 2014/15 school year, enrolment in general upper secondary education was 1 p.p. lower and in technical and vocational upper secondary education 1 p.p. higher than in the previous school year. Enrolment in short-term vocational upper secondary education did not change.
In the 2013/14 school year 17,950 pupils finished upper secondary education , 43% of them finished technical upper secondary education.
In the 2014/15 academic year
almost half of people aged 19-24 in Slovenia participated in short-term higher and higher education. 11,485 students participated in higher vocational education and 72,214 students in higher education.
In the 2014/15 academic year the shares of part-time students were:
[* 40% in higher vocational education, *]
[* 15% in higher undergraduate studies, *]
[* 18% in higher postgraduate studies. *]
7,387 male and 11,013 female tertiary students graduated in 2014. The total number of graduates was three times higher than in 1980.
The first six students studying according to Bologna study programs graduated in 2005. Since then the share of Bologna graduates has been steadily rising; in 2014 [* 73% of all higher education graduates were Bologna graduates *].
Compared to 2013, in 2014
[* labour force increased by 0.5%, the number of persons in employment by 0.5% and the number of registered unemployed persons by 0.2%. *]
Registered unemployed persons are registered at the Employment Service of Slovenia and are actively seeking employment.
According to the Labour Force Survey, unemployed persons are persons who did not work in the week before the interview but are actively seeking work and are prepared to accept it immediately.
In the first half of 2015 the registered unemployment rate was 12.7%. Since 2005 it was the highest in January and February 2014 (14.2%). It has been declining since the beginning of 2015; in June 2015 it was 12%.
The registered unemployment rate was the lowest in 2008: 6.7%. At that time there were 63,216 registered unemployed persons, about half the number in the first half of 2015.
In 2014, [* 26% of registered unemployed persons had basic education or less *]. After 2008, when it was the lowest, the registered unemployment rate in Slovenia increased the most for people with basic education, by 13.8 p.p. For people with upper secondary education it went up by 6.9 p.p. and for people with tertiary education by 4.1 p.p.
Since 2008, the registered unemployment rate for people who were unemployed for more than a year has gone up by 3.1 p.p. and for those who were unemployed for more than two years by 1.7 p.p.
In 2014, young people aged 15-24 had the highest registered unemployment rate.
The registered unemployment rate for this age group was more than 30%; since 2010 it has gone up by 8 p.p. Among young people aged 25-29 years it was lower, but still above the average.
In 2014, the registered unemployment rate for people over 55 years of age was also higher than the average, although compared to 2010 it increased less (by 1.6 p.p.) than the total registered unemployment rate.
Most people, [* 22% of all persons in employment in Slovenia, *] work in manufacturing. The fewest people (0.3%) work in mining and quarrying.
According to the Labour Force Survey, in 2014 [* the unemployment rate in Slovenia was 9.7% and thus lower than the EU average *]of 10.2%.
The LFS unemployment rate was the highest in Greece (26.5%) and Spain (24.5%) and the lowest in Germany (5.0%) and Austria (5.6%).
In 2014, average monthly gross earnings in Slovenia were EUR 17 higher than a year before. Average monthly net earnings were EUR 8 higher than a year before.
Monthly earnings were received on average by 636,000 persons in paid employment, which is almost 5,400 more than in 2013.
Between 2006 and 2010 average monthly net earnings increased by 25%; between 2010 and 2014 they grew by only 4%.
Among activities in which earnings grew between 2010 and 2014, the largest increase was recorded in manufacturing, by 12%. In the same period earnings decreased in the following activities: education, arts, entertainment and recreation, human health and social work activities, and professional, scientific and technical activities.
Higher earnings in November are the result of 13th month earnings, which some employers pay at the end of the calendar year.
As regards activity, in 2014
the highest average monthly net earnings amounted to EUR 1,441, and the lowest to EUR 704. The former were paid in electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply and the latter in administrative and support service activities.
Labour costs per person [* in paid employment were 1% higher *] than a year earlier, mostly due to higher compensation of employees and higher employers’ social contributions.
A person in paid employment worked on average 136 hours per month. Most hours were worked on average in construction, and the fewest in accommodation and food service activities.
On average persons in paid employment were paid for 168 hours per month, although they actually worked only 80.8% of hours paid. The ratio between hours actually worked and hours paid was the highest in construction and the lowest in mining and quarrying.
[* Women’s earnings were on average 5% lower than men’s earnings. *]
The oldest employees earned almost two times more on average than the youngest employees.
Public sector employees earned on average EUR 330 more than private sector employees. Highly educated employees earned on average EUR 1,240 more than employees with elementary education and about EUR 980 more than employees with upper secondary education.
The monthly at-risk-of-poverty threshold in 2014 was EUR 596 net for a one-member household, EUR 1,251 net for a four-person household of two adults and two children younger than 14 and EUR 893 for a household of two adults.
In 2014, the share of persons living in the worst situation was the highest in households in which no member was in employment (40% below the threshold), particularly if these households had dependent children (77% below the threshold).
In 2014, one in seven people in Slovenia was living below the at-risk-of-poverty threshold and one in five was at risk of social exclusion. If family and social benefits were not considered as income, the at-risk-of-poverty rate would rise to 25.1%.
Most of the people living below the at-risk-of-poverty threshold in 2014 were retired (26%) and unemployed (24%), followed by underage children (19%), persons in employment (18%) and other inactive persons (13%).
Women are more vulnerable to poverty than men, particularly women after 64 years of age (22% of them are below the at-risk-of-poverty threshold).
In households’ opinion, [* housing costs represented a heavy burden for 37% of households in 2014 *] , while for 52% of households they were somewhat a burden.
19% of households were in arrears of paying housing costs due to financial difficulties at least once in the 12 months before the survey. 30% of households were faced with problems such as leaking roofs, damp walls/floors/foundation or rot in window frames or floors.
In 2014, people subjectively assessed overall life satisfaction by an average assessment of 6.9 (on the scale from 0 – not at all dissatisfied to 10 – completely satisfied).
Compared to 2009, in 2014 the share of persons aged 16+ who could not afford leisure activities (e.g. sport, cinema, concert, etc.) increased the most (by 5 percentage points).
More than half of materially deprived persons (51%) could not afford to replace worn-out clothes by some new ones.
[* Households with the lowest income spent almost 23% of their assets on food and non-alcoholic beverages in 2012. *] The fifth of households with the highest income (5th quintile) spent 3.4-time as much on food and non-alcoholic beverages as the fifth of households with the lowest income (1st quintile).
Expenditure on food and non-alcoholic beverages and on housing represents almost half of total consumption expenditure of the households in the lowest income quintile and only a quarter of total consumption expenditure of the households in the highest income quintile.
9,410 adults and 319 juveniles were convicted in 2014. The introduction of pre-trial hearings and the agreement on the admission of guilt caused a large increase in the number of convictions in 2013. The number of adults convicted in 2014 was lower than in the previous year, but mostly on account of the mentioned changes in the criminal proceedings.
The number of convictions for offences in the field of economic crime increased significantly during the 2010–2014 period . 62% of all legal persons’ convictions referred to only two offenses: business fraud and violation of basic rights of employees.
EUR 8,959 million was spent on social protection schemes in 2013, which is about the same as in 2012. The highest share of expenditure on social protection schemes was (mostly on account of pensions) spent on social benefits in cash, namely 67%.
Total health expenditure amounted to EUR 3,278 million in 2013 , of which 28.2% was financed by the private sector.
In the 2004–2013 period social protection expenditure and health expenditure each increased by just over 40%.
About half of social protection expenditure is for pensions, while as regards health expenditure about half is for curative care.
[* In 2013, 25% of GDP was spent on social protection schemes. *]
The largest share of these funds (42% or EUR 3,710 million) was spent on old age, followed by sickness and health care (almost a third or EUR 2,709 million).
The main source of financing social protection schemes is social contributions (63.7%), and within them contributions by protected persons (37.6%) and contributions by employers (26.1%).
More than a quarter of total health expenditure is financed by the private sector. Social security funds, which are the main financier of health care, contributed almost two thirds of total health expenditure in 2013.
Almost three quarters of health expenditure in 2013 was spent on financing services of curative care and medical goods.
Total long-term care expenditure amounted to EUR 471 million in 2013, which is almost 2% less than in 2012. The ratio between health and social components of long-term care has not changed since 2003: two thirds of the funds are spent on health services and a third on social services of long-term care.
Three quarters of long-term care expenditure in 2013 were financed from public sources, mostly social security funds.
59,125 people in Slovenia were receiving long-term care in 2012 , i.e. almost one in six people aged 65+ was receiving at least one service or benefit within the long-term care system.
The share of those who were receiving long-term care services in institutions was about the same as the share of those who were receiving these services at home: about a third of each (about 21,000).
The next large group was persons receiving only cash benefits for paying various services within long-term care (over a quarter or around 17,000).
There were 5,760 physicians and 5,135 nurses in Slovenia in 2014; compared to 2013, the number of physicians per 10,000 population went up by 0.6 and the number of nurses by 1.2.
Compared to 2013, the number of hospital beds decreased by 21 to 9,356.
More than 17 million prescriptions were issued in Slovenia in 2014, which is 8.3 prescriptions per person.
The leading cause of death is still diseases of the circulatory system; they caused [* more than 40% of all deaths in 2014 *]. Many deaths were caused by ischemic heart diseases (myocardial infarction) and cerebrovascular diseases (brain hemorrhage or stroke).
Diseases of the circulatory system are the leading cause of death for women, while for men the leading cause of death is cancer.
The number of deaths due to injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes has been falling since 2007.
On average men in employment are absent from work the longest due to injury and poisoning (almost 4 days a year) and due to diseases of the musculo-skeletal system (on average just over 2 days a year). These are followed, with much lower shares, by respiratory diseases and diseases of the circulatory system.
On average women in employment are absent from work the longest due to diseases of the musculoskeletal system (just over 3 days a year), followed by injury and poisoning and by diseases related to pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium (almost 2 days a year).
Among people with the highest income in 2014 more than three quarters assessed their health status as good or very good. Among people with the lowest income the share was just over a half.
The first quintile covers 20% of persons with the lowest disposable income and the fifth quintile 20% of persons with the highest disposable income.
In 2014 a person in Slovenia aged 15+ consumed
on average almost 5 litres
of wine, more than 5 litres
of beer and almost 1 litre
of spirits per year.
Alcohol abuse is one of the main public health problems in the country as it leads to premature mortality, many diseases, injuries and violence.
Four in ten 15-year-olds have already smoked, and one in eight 15-year-olds smokes at least once a week.
3.3% of 11-, 13- and 15-year-olds smoke every day (3.7% of boys and 2.9% of girls).
[* 24.2% of adults (aged 15 years or more) in Slovenia smoked in 2014. *]
Radio and television organisations prepared almost 900,000 hours of programme in 2014.
Theatrical performances, cinema films, exhibitions in galleries, museums and exhibition grounds, and performances in houses of culture were seen by almost 9 million people in 2014.
In 2014, the number of cinemagoers was a fifth lower than in 2005. [* Theatre attendance was 20% lower than in 2005 *]. In the same comparison attendance in museums, museum collections, galleries and exhibitions grounds went up by 35%.
Among 3.1 million visitors in museums, museum collections, galleries and exhibition grounds, 22% were children and youth. An exhibition was seen on average by 1,115 people.
In 2014, most theatregoers watched drama performances (51%) . Puppet shows were seen by 15%, opera performances by 9% and ballet performances by 8% of theatregoers.
Slovenian theatres produced 287 new works in 2014, 151 of which by Slovenian authors. In theatre headquarters 3,854 own performances and 894 performances on tour were held. In addition, 2,089 performances were held outside theatre headquarters (on tours).
One theatre performance was seen on average by 157 visitors.
Cinema performances in 48 cinemas were seen by 1.9 million cinemagoers in 2014.
In the same year, 431 long films were distributed to cinemas in Slovenia, half of which were redistributed and half were distributed for the first time.
As regards the origin of long films, 31 were Slovenian and 400 were foreign . Slovenian long films were seen by 5.5% of cinemagoers.
In 2014, 15 long films (11 of them feature films) and 60 short and medium-length films (28 of them feature films) were created and shown for the first time.
Houses of culture held 12,014 cultural performances in 2014. Almost a quarter of all performances in houses of culture were musical concerts (instrumental and choir, rock, jazz, contemporary music).
Cultural performances in houses of culture were attended by 3.1 million people in 2014; on average one performance was attended by about 254 people.
In 2014, 5,331 titles of books and brochures were published, 5% more than in 2013.
1,434 titles of literature were published, i.e. 713 Slovenian and 721 foreign literary works. Most literary works were novels.
In 2014, 1,812 titles of newspapers and other serial publications were issued in Slovenia; 22% occasional, 21% annual and 19% monthly.
Almost 4.7 million tons of waste was generated in Slovenia in 2014, i.e. 1% more than a year earlier.
In the same year, on average 79.6 m3 of water per person was abstracted and 56.8 m3 of water per person was consumed.
In 2014, 5% more waste was recovered than a year earlier. In the same year Slovenia imported 401,000 tons of waste more than it exported.
[* Of all municipal waste collected by public waste removal services in 2014, almost 65% was separately collected. *]
[* Almost 28% of this waste was biodegradable, *] more than 21% was paper and cardboard waste, almost 30% was mixed packaging and 6% was bulky waste.
[* Almost 3.8 million tons of waste was generated in 2014 in production and service activities, which is 81% of all types of waste generated in that year; *] 4% of this waste was hazardous.
More than half (56%) of waste generated in 2014 in production and service activities was generated in two activities: manufacturing (1.3 million tons) and construction (0.8 million tons).
In the last ten years the sewerage network in Slovenia was extended by 75%.
In 2014, 183.2 million m3 of waste water was discharged from the sewerage network or almost 3% more than a year earlier.
About 93 million m3 or 50.6% of waste water was rainwater and run-off water and the remaining 49.4% was waste water from agriculture, forestry and fishing, from households, from industrial activities and from other activities. 88% of this water was treated and 12% was not treated before discharge.
18,166 Gg of CO2 equivalent of greenhouse gases were emitted in 2013 , which is 3.9% less than in 2012.
The energy sector contributed most of these emissions: 78.7%. The second largest source of greenhouse gas emissions was agriculture (8.9%).
Slovenia is one of the five EU Member States with the highest environmental taxes.
State budget revenues from environmental taxes amounted to EUR 1.425 billion in 2014.
EUR 378.5 million or 1.1% of GDP was invested in environmental protection in 2013, while current expenditure for environmental protection amounted to EUR 445.4 million or 1.2% of GDP.
In 2014, indigenous production of bovine meat declined (by 3.6%) compared to 2013 , while production of poultry meat and pig meat increased (by 3.6% and 2.1%, respectively).
173,000 tons of wheat (and spelt), the main bread cereal in Slovenia, was produced in 2014, i.e. on average 5.2 tons per hectare. The total output was a quarter and the average yield per hectare a fifth (18%) larger than in 2013.
Between 2000 and 2013 the number of agricultural holdings decreased by 16% to 72,377.
The number of annual work units (AWU) in agriculture declined by almost 30% between 2000 and 2010 and then increased again by 7%, so that in 2013 total labour input in agriculture was 82,746 AWU.
Expressing agricultural labour input in annual work units (AWU) is based on the ratio between the number of hours spent in one year working in agriculture and one person in full-time employment in agriculture in one year (1,800 hours), which is used by national labour force statistics.
In 2013, there were 477,023 hectares of utilised agricultural area (without common pastares) or 23.5% of the territory of Slovenia.
More than half (276,000 hectares) of this area was permanent grassland and just over a third (almost 174,000 hectares) was arable land. The remaining almost 6% (almost 27,000 hectares) were permanent crops (vineyards, orchards and olive groves).
[* In 2013, 80% of agricultural holdings in Slovenia were engaged in livestock production *]. They mostly bred cattle (311,564 LSU) and pigs (33,213 LSU).
Between 2010 and 2013 the number of all livestock, except poultry, declined; the number of pigs (LSU) declined the most (by 25%).
Livestock unit (LSU) is a standard measurement unit that allows the aggregation of the various categories of livestock in order to be able to compare the data for individual years. One LSU is 500 kg of live weight of an animal.
Aquaculture in Slovenia increased by 17% in 2014. Most of it was freshwater fish farming, 945 tons, much less was marine fish and shell farming, 496 tons.
Marine fishermen caught 254 tons of fish, cephalopods, crustaceans, shells and snails in 2014, which is [* 7% more than in 2013. *]
Anglers caught 147 tons of freshwater fish in 2014, which is 4% less than in 2013. In marine free time fishing 6.2 tons of marine organisms were caught.
[* Forests cover 58.5% of Slovenia. *]
As regards the area under forest, Slovenia is third among European countries behind Finland and Sweden. Annual increment in 2014 was 25% larger than in 2000; it stood at around 8.6 million m 3.
In Slovenian forests the removal of almost 6.4 million m3 of gross wood weight was recorded in 2014, 62% more than in 2013 (mostly on account of the ice storm), of which 3.5 million m 3 of conifers and 2.9 million m3 of non-conifers.
In 2014, the recorded removal represented 103% of the allowable removal under forest management plans.
In 2014, the energy dependency of Slovenia was 44%. This was the lowest energy dependency rate in the past 14 years.
In 2014, per capita electricity consumption was 6,094 kWh, which means that each of us consumed on average
17 kWh of electricity per day.Renewable energy sources are hydro energy, geothermal energy, solar and wind energy, biomass, biogas, biofuels and industrial and municipal waste.
[* Slovenia met 22% of its energy needs from renewable energy sources. *]
In the past ten years the share of renewables increased by 6 percentage points. The target that Slovenia should achieve by 2020 is 25% of energy from renewable sources in gross final energy consumption.
The share of renewable sources increased the most in heating and cooling ; by 14 percentage points from 2005 to 34% in 2014.
A third of electricity produced in Slovenia in 2014 was from renewable sources.
Among energy sources used for space heating in 2014 the highest share was that of wood fuel (59%), followed by extra light heating oil (17%) and natural gas (10%). As regards energy products for space heating, in the past five years the consumption of geothermal energy went up the most. The share of solar energy in total energy sources used for heating was only 0.04%.
In mid-2014 100 kWh of electricity cost almost EUR 16, i.e. almost EUR 5 more than in mid-2008.
In this period the price of natural gas went up by 24%. In mid-2014 a standard cubic metre (Sm3) of natural gas cost EUR 0.73.
Extra light heating oil and district heat also became more expensive. In 2014,
1,000 litres of extra light heating oil cost EUR 851 or EUR 131 more than six years ago. People using district heat paid in January 2014 EUR 60 per 1 MWh or EUR 17 more than in January 2008.
About 195,000 TJ of energy was consumed in Slovenia in 2014.
In the structure of final energy consumption petroleum products represented 48%, electricity 23%, renewables 14% and natural gas 11% of all energy sources.
Electricity and natural gas represented [* almost 80% of energy sources *] used by manufacturing enterprisers in 2014.
Slovenia’s gross domestic product in 2014 was EUR 37,303 million or EUR 18,093 per capita.
The national economy generated EUR 2,600 million surplus , which is 61.3% more than in the previous year.
[* Gross domestic product increased by 3% over 2013. *] In the past ten years GDP growth rate was the highest in 2007 (6.9%) and the lowest in 2009, when GDP shrank by 7.8%.
The dynamics of GDP is mostly influenced by industry and services.
The highest household final consumption expenditure in 2014 was for housing, followed by transport, and food and non-alcoholic beverages.
Between 2007 and 2014 the share of expenditure on recreation and culture declined the most (by 2 p.p.), while the share of expenditure on transport went up the most (by 0.7 p.p.).
In the 2007–2014 period the share of household expenditure on non-durable goods increased by 5.1 percentage points.
On the other hand, the shares of household expenditure on durable goods declined by 3.3 p.p., on semi-durable goods by 0.5 p.p. and on services by 1.3 p.p. We think that in the uncertain situation households postponed buying durable and semi-durable goods that are not absolutely necessary.
[* General government debt more than tripled in the last ten years: at the end of 2014 it was 80.8% of GDP. *]
In the 2005–2014 period Slovenia had a budget deficit, which increased significantly in 2013, when the government increased the capital of banks.
During the economic crisis households were saving increasingly less. The household saving rate declined from 16.0% in 2007 to 11.3% in 2012. After four years of decline, in 2013 the household saving rate went up again, to 13.5%.
In 2014 it went up by 0.8 p.p. over the previous year.
During the crisis, households also invested increasingly less: between 2007 and 2013 the household investment rate declined by almost a half to 5.5%. In 2014 the rate went up (by 0.2 p.p.) for the first time in five years.
In 2014, inflation stood at 0.2%. This means that the annual growth of consumer prices was the lowest in the past ten years. In calculating the annual inflation rate prices in December of the current year are compared with prices in December of the previous year.
[* Real estate prices decreased in 2014 by 4.4% compared to the previous year. *] Import prices, output prices of the domestic market and producer prices of agricultural products also decreased, while output prices of the foreign market and services producer prices increased.
In 2008, the average annual inflation rate stood at 5.7%. This was the highest inflation in the past ten years. The second lowest inflation was recorded a year later (in 2009); 0.9%. Inflation was even lower in 2014 at 0.2%. The average inflation rate shows price changes from the beginning to the end of the year compared to the prices in the same period of the previous year.
Price developments that are felt by consumers correspond to the actual situation. According to consumers’ opinion, prices grew the most in 2008 and the least in 2006 and in 2014.
In 2014, a kilogram of white bread cost on average 12 cents less than in 2013. In the same year, the price of edible oil, table salt, dessert apples and cinema ticket went down.
The average price of a monthly train ticket increased by EUR 5.76 compared to 2013. The price of cough syrup, pizza and a cup of coffee in restaurants and similar establishments also went up.
[* In 2014 consumer prices in the EU overall and Slovenia were on average 0.1% lower than in 2013. *]
Among Member States, the prices went up the most in Romania (by 1%), Austria (by 0.8%) and Finland (by 0.6%) and down the most in Greece (-2.5%), Bulgaria (-2.0%) and Spain (-1.1%). Price growth in the international environment is measured by the harmonised index of consumer prices, which is used for comparing inflation rates between countries and groups of countries that calculate it. The index is an economic indicator that measures changes in prices over time of goods and services bought by households for final consumption.
Real estate prices were falling in 2014. They have been falling since 2012. Compared to the same period of the previous year, real estate prices dropped the most in the second quarter of 2014.
The average price of a newly built flat was EUR 2,064 per m2 of useful floor area.
The average price of an existing flat was EUR 1,442 per m2 of useful floor area.
The average price of an existing family house with land was EUR 1,179 per m2 of useful floor area.
[* Producer prices of some agricultural products were between 20% and 40% of final prices *] of comparable products sold in retail outlets.
The prices of cucumbers and dessert pears were less than 25% of the retail price, the prices of carrots, desert apples, cauliflower, fresh cow’s milk and onions were between 25% and 30% of the retail price, and the prices of eggs, tomatoes and quality wine around 40% of the retail prices of comparable products.
In 2014, Slovenia exported EUR 22.9 billion of goods and imported EUR 22.6 billion of goods.
Compared to 2013, exports increased by 6.4% and imports by 2.1%.
The trade balance was positive for the first time in ten years . In 2014, Slovenia exported 2% more goods than imported. The difference between exports and imports was the largest in 2008, when the value of imports was EUR 3 billion higher than the value of exports.
The value of exports in 2014 was 14.4% higher than in 2008; in the same comparison the value of imports was 2.0% lower. Between 2005 and 2014 the values of exports and imports decreased the most over the previous year in 2009: exports by 19% and imports by 25%.
Slovenia exports most goods to EU Member States . In 2014, Slovenia exported to EU Member States 76% of total exports. 14% of exports were to other European countries and 9% to non-European countries. Compared to 2013, the share of exports to EU Member States increased by 1.4 percentage points.
The EU Member State that exported most goods to other EU Member States was Germany; in 2014 it exported 22.4% of total exports of all EU Member States to the EU. Germany was followed by the Netherlands (13.1%), France (9.0%), Belgium (8.5%) and Italy (7.4%).
Slovenia imports most goods from EU Member States . In 2014, 78% of total Slovenia’s imports came from EU Member States; 13% of total imports came from non-European countries and 7% from other European countries.
The EU Member State that imported most goods to the EU market was Germany, i.e. 21.0% of total imports of all EU Member States in 2014. Germany was followed by France (12.2%), the United Kingdom (9.6%), Belgium (7.8%), Italy and the Netherlands (7.1% each).
[* Slovenia exports 20% of its total exports to Germany. *] This is still the highest share of goods exported by Slovenia to any country; however, in 2014 the share was 0.3 of a percentage point lower than a year earlier. In this period the share of exports to France also went down. On the other hand, the shares of exports to Italy, Austria and Croatia went up.
[* Slovenia imports 18% of its total imports from Germany *]. In 2014, the share was 0.8 of a percentage point lower than a year earlier. Only the share of imports from Italy increased, by 0.4 of a percentage point.
7,494 different enterprise groups operated in Slovenia in 2013, which is 51% more than in 2008. In the 2008–2013 period the number of all-resident enterprise groups increased the most (by almost 83%). In 2013, most of them were controlled by natural persons (80%).
Compared to 2008, in 2013 the number of multinational enterprise groups increased by 23%. Among multinational enterprise groups, the number of domestically controlled groups decreased by almost 9%, while the number of foreign controlled groups increased by 32%.
The number of completed buildings has been declining since 2008.
In 2014, 3,351 buildings were completed; 2,496 of them residential.
The floor area of all dwellings completed in 2014 was
458,939 m2 , which is 14% less than in 2013.
The value of construction put in place in 2014 was EUR 1.9 billion , which is 15% more than in 2013.
In 2014, 3,166 building permits for buildings were issued, which is 277 fewer than in v 2013.
In 2014, [* 46% fewer buildings permits for buildings *] than in 2007 were issued; 74% fewer dwellings were planned.
The value of construction put in place on buildings in 2014 was EUR 658 million.
[* EUR 659 million or 34% of the total value *] of construction put in place was done on transport infrastructure, which is 30% more than in 2013.
The value of construction put in place in one-dwelling buildings was EUR 118 million
or EUR 5 million more than in 2013, while the value of construction put in place in multi-dwelling buildings was EUR 65 million or EUR 20 million less than in 2013.
Of all buildings completed in 2014, [* 71% were one-dwelling buildings *]. The total floor area of one-dwelling buildings completed in 2014 was 593,356 m2.
Of all buildings completed in 2014, [* 83% were new constructions *] , 14% were extensions and 3% were obtained by conversion-improvements.
[* 87% of investors of buildings *] completed in 2014 were natural persons.
According to the Housing Fund of the Republic of Slovenia, there were 859,874 dwellings in Slovenia in 2014. The total floor area of these dwellings was 69,412,491 m2.
The average floor area of a dwelling was 81 m2. On average dwellings were larger in non-urban settlements.
There were on average 2.4 people per dwelling. In urban settlements the average floor area per person was 31 m2 and in non-urban settlements 37 m2.
[* More than 90% of dwellings *] had electricity, kitchen, plumbing, toilet and bathroom.
[* 79% of dwellings had central heating. *]
[* 56% of dwellings were connected to the public sewage system. *]
Most of the dwellings (21%) were built between 1971 and 1980, followed by dwellings built between 1981 and 1990 (17%), dwellings built between 1961 and 1970 (14%) and dwellings built before 1918 (14%).
Industrial enterprises in Slovenia sold EUR 19.4 billion of industrial products and services in 2014. Industry covers mining and quarrying, and manufacturing.
[* More than 70% of turnover *] of industrial products and services was generated with sale on foreign markets.
Sale increased in both sections of activities: in manufacturing by 5% and in mining and quarrying by 120%.
In Slovenia the index of industrial production was on average 1.6% higher in 2014 than in 2013; in the first half of 2015 it was still growing.
Trends in the industrial production index have been very similar in Slovenia and in the EU-28 since 2007 . Compared to 2008, in 2014 the average annual growth of the index was 6.6% lower in the EU-28 and 10.2% lower in Slovenia.
The highest share of turnover in 2014 was generated in manufacture of electrical equipment (11.9%) . More than 8% shares were recorded by these activities: manufacture of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers (11.4%), manufacture of basic metals (9.6%) and manufacture of fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment (8.7%).
In 2014, the value of the sale of industrial products and services was 18% higher than during the greatest recession in 2009, but also 7% lower than in 2007 and 3% lower than in 2008, when it reached the highest value after euro adoption.
[* 92% of enterprises invested in 2015 *] , which is 12% more than in 2014. In 2016, also 92% of enterprises are expected to invest.
In 2015, enterprises invested the most in replacing old equipment (30%), followed by extension of production capacity (29%) and automation and mechanisation (21%).
Labour productivity in 2014 was the same as in 2013 . Labour productivity has been growing since 2005; it only declined in 2009 (economic crisis), i.e. by 8.1% compared to 2008. Growth continued after 2009.
The labour productivity index is the ratio between the industrial production index and the index of persons in employment.
The competitive position of enterprises improved in 2014 compared to 2013 on all markets, the most on the markets outside the EU (by 9 percentage points); on the domestic market it improved by 6 p.p. and on the markets of other EU Member States by 8 p.p. The values of these indicators were the lowest in 2009.
There were just over 130,000 enterprises with almost 580,000 persons employed in Slovenia in 2014.They generated EUR 81,591 million of turnover.
Compared to 2013, the number of enterprises went up by 2.6%, the number of persons employed by 1.3% and turnover by 3%.
21,405 enterprise births were recorded in 2013; they employed 23,507 persons. As regards the organisational form, most of these enterprises were natural persons (77%).
12,232 enterprise deaths were recorded in 2013 , which is 11% less than in 2012; they employed 13,837 persons. As regards the organisational form, most of these enterprises were natural persons (81%).
Half of all enterprise births in 2008 were still active in 2013. In 2013, the five-year survival rate of enterprises was 3 percentage points lower than a year before.
Most of the enterprises that were born in 2008 and were still active in 2013 had no employees (70.6%) and the fewest had 10 or more employees (0.6%).
Enterprises that have no employees are mostly sole proprietors.
There were 570 high-growth enterprises in Slovenia in 2013. They employed 33,000 persons, which is 62% less than in 2008.
A high-growth enterprise is an enterprise with average annual growth greater than 10% over a three-year period and at least ten employees at the beginning of the growth period. Growth is measured with the number of employees.
[* In 2013, 12,396 enterprises were integrated into enterprise groups, which is 5% more than in 2012 *] . Among enterprises integrated into enterprise groups, 75.8% were micro enterprises, 15.6% were small enterprises and 8.6% were medium-sized and large enterprises. Only the number of micro enterprises was higher (by 7.5%) than in 2012; the number of medium-sized and large enterprises declined by 3.2% and of small enterprises by 1.6%.
There were [* 95% national enterprises and 5% inward foreign affiliates in Slovenia *] in 2013.
Even though there were not many inward foreign affiliates, they were economically important since they employed around 19% of all employees in non-financial activities and generated 26% of total turnover. The shares of value added, investment and personnel costs in these enterprises were 22% of the total value of all enterprises.
Inward foreign affiliates are enterprises operating in Slovenia that are under majority ownership and control of enterprises or natural persons that are residents of other countries.
In the first quarter of 2015, [* 78% of households in Slovenia had Internet access; *] the same share of households (78%) had computers. 60% of households had portable computers, 46% had desktop computers and 24% had tablet computers.
In the first quarter of 2015, [* around 581,000 or 51% of regular Internet users aged 16–74 participated in social networks *]. Most of them used social networks every day or almost every day (70%). The share was the highest among 16–24-year-olds (90%).
Enterprises use social media mostly for development of enterprise image and for marketing goods and services. 74% of enterprises with a profile on social media used social media for these purposes; 49% of enterprises used them for obtaining or responding to customer opinions, reviews, questions, 24% for recruitment of employees and 17% to involve customers in development or innovation of goods or services. 17% of enterprises with a profile on social media didn’t use them.
In 2014, people in Slovenia sent almost 2.4 billion SMSs or 307% more than in 2007. They also sent 47 million MMSs.
Compared to 2007, outgoing traffic from fixed locations in 2014 dropped by more than a half (by 54%), while outgoing traffic from mobile networks increased by 42%.
[* In the 2010–2012 period more than 46% of observed enterprises were innovation active *]. In 2012, EUR 536 million was spent on innovation activity in manufacturing and EUR 213 million in service activities.
In 2013, EUR 935 million was spent on R&D. [* 57% of all persons employed in R&D were researchers *]. The shares of women among all R&D employees and among all researchers were the same, 36%.
The largest share of the sources of funding R&D in Slovenia in 2013 was contributed by companies, EUR 597 million or 64%.
Most of the funds for R&D were spent by the business enterprise sector, i.e. EUR 715.5 million or 77% of total R&D expenditure.
Most researchers, 46%, were employed in the business enterprise sector , 36% in the higher education sector, 18% in the government sector and only 0.1% in the private non-profit sector.
According to the final budget 2014, government budget appropriations or outlays on R&D in Slovenia amounted to EUR 161.3 million ; this is the lowest amount in the past ten years and 8% less than in the previous year, when the amount was EUR 174.5 million.
In 2014, passenger cars in Slovenia were on average 9.4 years old. In the 2005–2014 period the average age increased by 1.9 years.
Compared to 2013, in 2014 around 200,000 fewer passengers were carried in urban scheduled transport and around 1.6 million fewer passengers were carried in railway transport.
There were 18,251 road traffic accidents in Slovenia in 2014, which is 40% less than ten years ago (in 2005).
1,068,362 passenger cars were registered in Slovenia in 2014, which is 11% more than ten years ago.
In 2014, most road traffic accidents happened in September (1,729) and as regards the days of the week on Fridays (17%).
In 2014, almost 18 million tonnes of goods were carried by railway or 10% more than ten years ago and 4,110 million tonne kilometres were travelled or 27% more than ten years ago (in 2005).
82% of these goods were carried in international railway transport. In 2014, road good vehicles registered in Slovenia carried 74.1 million tonnes of goods.
50.7 million tonnes of goods or just over two thirds were carried in national and 23.4 million tonnes in international road transport.
In international transport 8.1 million tonnes of goods were carried from Slovenia and 6.7 million tonnes of goods were carried in the opposite direction. 6.7 million tonnes of goods were carried between two foreign countries and 2 million tonnes of goods were carried within a foreign country (cabotage).
18 million tonnes of goods were handled in the Port of Koper in 2014 , which is 23% more than in 2010.
As regards the type of cargo, most of it was dry bulk goods (6.6 million tonnes or 37%), followed by cargo in containers (6.0 million tonnes or 33%) and liquid bulk goods (3.0 million tonnes or 17%).
1.3 million passengers travelled through the Ljubljana Jože Pučnik Airport in 2014. Most of them travelled between Slovenia and Germany (215,000 or 16%).
[* 88% of all passengers travelled by scheduled flights *] and the remaining 12% by unscheduled flights. As regards scheduled flights, compared to the previous year the number of passengers increased the most between Slovenia and Serbia and as regards unscheduled flights between Slovenia and Grecee.
EUR 12,091 million of turnover was generated by retail enterprises in Slovenia in 2014. Retail trade is buying of goods and selling them to end customers.
EUR 11,762 million of turnover was generated by wholesale enterprises in Slovenia in 2014. Wholesale is buying of goods and selling them to retailers.
[* In 2014, 16% of enterprises were engaged in web sales *], which is 1 percentage point more than in 2013.
Compared to 2013, in 2014 the nominal turnover increased in service activities (by 3%) and in wholesale (by 4%). In retail trade it slightly declined (by 1%). In calculating the nominal turnover price growth is not taken into account.
EUR 8.9 billion of turnover was generated by retail enterprises (excluding those selling motor vehicles) in 2014.
EUR 161 million less turnover than in 2013 was generated by retail sale of fuels, lubricants, brake fluid and coolants.
EUR 229 million more turnover than in 2013 was generated by retail sale in non-specialised stores.
In 2014, the highest share of turnover in retail was generated by the sale of food (19%) and fuels, lubricants, brake fluid and coolants (16%); at least 5% of total turnover was generated by the sale of motor cars (10%), clothing and footwear (7%), medical products, appliances and equipment (6%), beverages (5%) and tobacco (5%).
EUR 7.6 billion of turnover was generated by wholesale trade, except of motor vehicles and motorcycles in 2014.
Wholesale of food, beverages and tobacco generated EUR 105 million more turnover than in 2013.
Enterprises dealing with wholesale of information and communication equipment generated EUR 29 million less turnover than in 2013.
In 2014, the highest share of turnover in wholesale was generated by the sale of pharmaceutical products and medical equipment (10%) and coke and refined petroleum products (10%) ; at least 5% of total turnover was generated by the sale of food (9%), motor cars (9%), tobacco (6%), chemicals and chemical products (6%), computers, electronic and optical equipment (5%), non-processed wood, metal and ores (5%) and other products, residues, waste materials and other (5%).
123,235 bedplaces (permanent and auxiliary) were available to tourists in Slovenia in 2014. 40% of bedplaces were available to tourists in hotels and similar establishments, 19% in camping sites and 41% in other accommodation establishments.
In 2014, 3.5 million tourist arrivals and 9.6 million overnight stays were recorded in tourist accommodations in Slovenia. 65% of overnight stays were generated by tourists in hotels and similar establishments, 13% in camping sites and 22% in other accommodation establishments.
Foreign tourists in Slovenia generated about 6.1 million and domestic tourists 3.5 million overnight stays in 2014.
Foreign tourists generated about 14% more and domestic tourists about 12% fewer overnight stays than in 2008.
Foreign tourist generated 64% of all overnight stays in tourist accommodations in 2014.
Half of overnight stays of foreign tourists were generated by tourists from Italy, Austria, Germany, the Russian Federation and the Netherlands.
In the 2008–2014 period, the number of tourists from the UK, Croatia and Italy decreased, while the number of tourists from the Russian Federation, Serbia and the Czech Republic increased the most.
Slovenia is visited by an increasing number of tourists from non-European countries. In the 2008–2014 period, the number of their overnight stays went up by 73%: from 409,000 to 708,000.
In 2014, residents of Slovenia aged 15 years or more went on [* 4.5 million tourism trips; 89% of them were private *].
[* 63% of residents of Slovenia went on at least one private trip in 2014 *] . Together they went on 4 million private trips, of which 56% abroad. The most frequent destination of private trips abroad was Croatia (65%). Slovenian tourists spent on a private trip on average EUR 45 per person per day; in Slovenia EUR 36 and abroad EUR 48.
In 2014, residents of Slovenia aged 15 years or more went on 1.7 million one-day private trips abroad. Most frequently they visited Italy (613,000 trips) and Austria (576,000 trips). For each such trip they spent on average EUR 50 per person. They spent the most (EUR 58 per person) in Austria and the least (EUR 39 per person) in Croatia.
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Stat’o’book was first published a year ago. In one year it became generally recognised and we received many positive responses. What is new this year is the chapter about health, which was produced in cooperation with the National Institute of Public Health as one of the authorised producers of national statistics. The concept of the second edition is the same as for the first one: concise, clear and interesting presentation of our data. Again only some of the most interesting and topical content was selected and presented with infographics and other graphical presentations and with short commentaries. Enjoy reading the book and discovering new facts about Slovenia.