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Referencing, Citation and Bibliography Style Guide

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Referencing, Citation and Bibliography Style Guide

Essay and Thesis Writing Series

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Grant Andrews

Academic Coaching

www.writeyourthesis.com

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Copyright © 2017 by Grant Andrews

 

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form or by any means, including photocopying, recording, or other electronic or mechanical methods, without the prior written permission of the author, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical reviews and certain other noncommercial uses permitted by copyright law. For permission requests, write to the publisher at the address below.

 

 

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Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction

Chapter 2: The Importance of Quotations and Referencing

Chapter 3: Style for Quotes and In-Text Citation

Chapter 4: Integrating Quotes

Chapter 5: Bibliography Style Guide: MLA, APA and Harvard Styles

Things to Remember

Academic Coaching

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The Academic Coaching team offers free content to help anyone writing a thesis, essay or article. We provide free short books on every topic relating to thesis writing, as well as step-by-step guides on how to plan, research and write your academic piece. If you would like to request that we compile a tutorial or eBook that you need, or if you have any questions, please email us at [email protected].

Our services also include editing, coaching and counseling. We coach our clients through all stages of essay and thesis writing, and host online workshops and writing marathons. You can find our pricing guide on our website, www.writeyourthesis.com.

We hope this short guide can help you to make a success of your academic work!

Chapter 1: Introduction

Referencing and citation are vital in academic writing. For many students and researchers, it can be challenging to know exactly what is expected when it comes to referencing. This guide will give you all of the basics on how to reference external sources, as well as style guides for three of the largest referencing styles, MLA, Harvard and APA.

In this guide, all of the steps and components of writing a good reference list will be explored. You’ll also learn about why referencing and citations are important, what kinds of citations to use and how to integrate quotes into sentences of your academic writing. There are many examples throughout the short guide to help you to see what your references should look like so that you can have a clear idea of how to effectively use citations and references in your writing.

Before we begin with this guide, take note that you can test your academic and thesis readiness levels, and get detailed advice and strategies on your unique challenges, in a free report written by the Academic Coaches. Take the quiz at the following link: http://www.writeyourthesis.com/p/quiz.html.

For now, let’s look at the importance of quoting and referencing.

Chapter 2: The Importance of Quotations and Referencing

Academic writing is primarily involved with the spreading of information and with analyzing data in meaningful ways. Since its inception, the academy has become an industry which trades in knowledge and understanding. Academics are employed by universities in order to do research and to produce knowledge, data and analyses as products that have great value.

The academic products produced by academics and researchers include books, academic papers, seminars and courses, and all of these products are part of a multi-billion dollar global industry. These products can be extremely valuable to individual academics or researchers, as they can sell them or use them to advance their careers. The products are also valuable to universities and research institutions, who receive funding based on their research outputs and teaching standards, or who sell their products to private industry.

For this reason, it is extremely important for academics and research institutions to protect their intellectual property. It is improper to use information which was produced by someone else, and which carries such great value, and then sell it as your own work or to advance your own career or qualifications. This is called plagiarism. If you use someone’s intellectual property without crediting them, it is like stealing the ideas that they have worked months or years to produce, and when you steal something of such great value, you can be held liable both legally and in terms of your academic qualification or career. Even plagiarizing yourself is an offense in some cases if you try to sell the same ideas to two different academic journals, or if you don’t explain that you’ve produced and profited from that intellectual property before.

Because of these factors, and because academia is also an industry which relies on building knowledge and understanding based on what came before, it’s necessary to give full credit to the person who originally developed an idea. We do this through citation and referencing. The system of referencing was developed in order to make sure that we can use the information which others have produced in order to create new understanding and develop ideas without stealing the intellectual property of others. By referencing, you are acknowledging that you were not the one who came up with a particular idea, and you give credit to the person or people who built the foundation for your own research.

In addition, it’s important to refer to the works of others because it shows that you have made an effort to understand your field as well as you possibly can. If you can show that you’ve read the works of multiple other researchers before conducting your own research, you demonstrate that you’re part of the academic conversation, and you show that you have broad knowledge in your field. It’s important to do a literature review before embarking on new research to make sure that you are not reinventing the wheel; someone else might have done the research in exactly the same way that you’ve done it, or they might have already developed research instruments that you could use in your study without inventing new ones. An extensive list of references shows that you’ve considered these possibilities and read widely.

Citation can be done through paraphrase or through direct quotations. You’ll use different methods depending on the context. Paraphrase should be used most often, especially for studies that fall outside of the literature analysis field. You should rephrase the information in your own words to show that you have a good understanding of the meaning. Sometimes, when you only rely on quoting information in the direct words of the author you refer to, you don’t show that you truly understand what the work discusses. If you can paraphrase it and explain it briefly for the reader, you demonstrate a closer engagement with the source material.

For example, a quote in an article might look like this:

The fundamental difference between the micro and macro factors involved in utilitarian systems are the rights and perspectives of individuals. Individuals might perceive micro factors as unfair; however, macro factors might be deemed much fairer.”

 

If this quote is from page 35 of a book by Robert Phillips, published in 2013, you could paraphrase it as follows:

 

Robert Phillips holds that micro factors might seem unfair to individuals, even when they understand macro factors to be more fair. The individual rights and perspectives constitute the main disjuncture between the micro and macro factors (2013, p.35).

 

You’ve given the same information in your own words, and shown that you understand the point that the author was making. You won’t need to provide quote marks around this paraphrase, since it doesn’t take the words of the author directly. The reference is included at the end of the information taken from the individual author. If the information comes from more than one page, give a reference for each page next to the relevant information, or, at the end, reference it as (p. 35-37).

Direct quotations are used when the author has given a highly technical definition which would be very difficult to reproduce in your own words, or when the way that the author says something is important for the work you are writing. In literature or poetry analysis, it’s important to use direct quotations so that the meaning of the lines won’t be lost. If you really can’t find a way to say something more clearly than the author, or in a way that adds to the understanding within the context of your work, then you can give it as a direct quotation. For most fields, direct quotations should be avoided as far as possible, unless they are absolutely necessary, as it comes off as though you are not processing the information but merely reproducing it. Paraphrasing shows that you are taking the work of others, thinking about it, and explaining it within the context of your own work.

In the next chapter we’ll look at the style for direct quotes and for in-text citation.

Review Your Learning:

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p<>{color:#000;}. Academic writing constitutes a product which is the intellectual property of the author and/ or of the institution which produced it.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Plagiarism is using the ideas of others without crediting them for their work.

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p<>{color:#000;}. You should try as far as possible to paraphrase the information of other thinkers or researchers rather than giving only direct quotes.

Chapter 3: Style for Quotes and In-Text Citations

Direct quotations are an important part of essay writing, especially for complex concepts or for capturing the full meaning and nuances which the original author intended. Make sure that you use direct quotes sparingly unless you are writing a literature or poetry analysis, in which case it’s important to show the original text so that the context can be fully understood.

Direct quotes should always be placed in quotation marks, and the in-text reference should be placed after the quotes but before the full stop of the sentence. A direct quote will thus look as follows:

Gene therapy has been shown to be effective in treating certain types of developmental challenges” (Perry, 2014: 35).

 

The reference used in-text, or next to the direct quotes or paraphrases, looks different to the reference you add in the bibliography or reference list of your work. It will be shorter, and only contain limited information. Most in-text references include the surname of the author, the year that the work was published, and, in the case of direct quotes, the page number from which the quote is taken. The style will differ slightly depending on the referencing method you are using, but these components are almost always present.

For in-text references, if some of the information is included in another part of your sentence, you won’t have to repeat it between brackets after the information. For example, if you give the name of the author within the paraphrase, you won’t have to include the surname again in the reference. See the example below for how certain information is included within the body of your work:

Jonathan Perry explains that developmental challenges might be treated through gene therapy (2014: 35).

 

In his book Understanding Gene Therapy, published in 2014, Jonathan Perry explains that “[g]ene therapy has been shown to be effective in treating certain types of developmental challenges” (35).

 

Because the surname and year are included in the sentence, it’s not necessary to repeat them.

Let’s look briefly at some of the most widely-used referencing styles and how in-text citations look for each of them.

MLA Style of Referencing: In-Text Citation

The Modern Language Association (MLA) style of referencing is used in many liberal arts and humanities departments around the world. It is a style that emphasises the page number of the source, since it is often used in conjunction with many direct quotes.

For in-text citations, the MLA style uses the format of only placing the author’s surname and page number between brackets next to the paraphrase or quote. For example, (Perry 35). Make sure that you don’t use any punctuation for in-text citations in the MLA format.

If you already use the author’s surname in the body of your work just before the paraphrase or quote, then you will only include the page number in brackets: (35). If you use more than one text from the same author, you can use a shortened title of the text (with a comma before it) in the bracket to distinguish the various works, for example: (Perry, “The Reckoning” 27) and (Perry, Times Gone By 35). Pay attention to the differences in format here: short texts, like poems, short stories, titles of chapters or songs would be placed in inverted commas in references, and longer texts, such as books, anthologies, films or the titles of dissertations would be placed in italics. In the examples from Perry, “The Reckoning” is the title of a poem, and Times Gone By is the title of a novel.

If you have two authors with the same last name, you can include their initials in the in-text citations: (K. Perry 35) and (R. Perry 166). For texts with up to three authors, you can place all of their names in the brackets: (Harrison, Turner and Viveck 47). For texts with more than three authors, give the name of the first author (the one listed first on the title), use the Latin abbreviation “et al.” to show that some names are omitted. Make sure to include the period after the abbreviation. For example: (Jameson et al. 33).

When quoting indirect sources, in the case where the author you are quoting from is already quoting from another text, include the abbreviation “qtd. in” in your reference. For example: (qtd. in Liebermann 291).

For electronic sources like websites where no page number is available, you can give the author’s surname and a shortened title of the text, for example (Erickson, “The Haunting”) would be the reference for a blog post by Thomas Erickson entitled “The Haunting of Elizabeth Priest in David Eileen’s Wanderlust”. The titles of individual web pages and articles will be in inverted commas, and the titles of the sites themselves will be in italics, such as Forbes.com.

Films, songs or other electronic or non-print media will all be referred to with surname and short title. For example, (Cameron, Avatar) will refer to James Cameron’s film Avatar. You can also refer to time ranges in your text if you refer to a specific moment in the film or media, although this is not always necessary as long as you describe the theme. The format of time-based references would be in hours, minutes and seconds: (Cameron, Avatar 01:25:16 – 01:25:30).

Harvard Style

The Harvard Style includes the year of publication for in-text citations. All of the rules are very similar to the MLA style highlighted above, so once you understand the basics, you can just adapt it to the rules outlined in the previous section.

In-text citations are written in the format of surname of author, year of publication and (only with direct quotes) the page number with the letter p. in front of it. For example, (Perry 2004: p. 35) for a direct quote where the page number is needed, or, if a paraphrase, you can simply have the author’s surname and year of publication: (Perry 2004). There should be no punctuation between the surname and the year of publication, and a colon between the year and the page number.

If you already use the author’s surname in the body of your work just before the paraphrase or quote, then you will only include the year of publication in brackets: (2004). If you use more than one text from the same author and written in the same year, you can use letters of the alphabet to distinguish the works, and then clarify which works each letter refers to in your reference list at the end of your work, for example: (Perry 2004a) and (Perry 2004b: p. 35). The second reference in this example follows a direct quote, so the page number is included as well.

If you have two authors with the same last name, you can include their initials in the in-text citations: (K. Perry 2007) and (R. Perry 2009). For texts with up to three authors, you can place all of their names in the brackets, and use the symbol “&” before the last name: (Harrison, Turner & Viveck 2006). For texts with more than three authors, give the name of the first author (the one listed first on the title), use the Latin abbreviation “et al.” to show that some names are omitted. Make sure to include the period after the abbreviation. For example: (Jameson et al. 1974).

When quoting indirect sources, in the case where the author you are quoting from is already quoting from another text, include the surname of the original author as well as the author you are quoting from in the following format: (Jung, cited in Marin 2012). In this example, you are quoting from the work of Marin, who is herself quoting from the original work of Jung.

For electronic sources or media you should still include the author’s surname and year of release, for example, (Cameron 1997) for the film Titanic by director James Cameron.

For media or websites with no publication date indicated, you should use the abbreviation n.d.. For example, (Julies n.d.) or simply (n.d.) if the author’s name is already in the body of your work. Media or electronic sources with no author listed, such as certain websites, should simply include the name of the media, for example (Wikipedia.com 2014) or (“Greensleeves” 1845).

APA Style Referencing

The American Psychological Association (APA) style is often used within the social sciences. The main difference to the in-text citations from the Harvard style is the inclusion of a comma after the author’s name: (Peterson, 2004).

In-text citations are written in the format of surname of author, year of publication and (only with direct quotes) the page number with the letter p. in front of it. For example, (Perry, 2004, p. 35) for a direct quote where the page number is needed, or, if a paraphrase, you can simply have the author’s surname and year of publication: (Perry, 2004). There should always be a comma between the surname and the year of publication, and another comma between the year and the page number in the case of direct quotes.

If you already use the author’s surname in the body of your work just before the paraphrase or quote, then you will only include the year of publication in brackets: (2004). If you use more than one text from the same author and written in the same year, you can use letters of the alphabet to distinguish the works, and then clarify which works each letter refers to in your reference list at the end of your work, for example: (Perry, 2004a) and (Perry, 2004b, p. 35). The second reference in this example follows a direct quote, so the page number is included as well.

If you have two authors with the same last name, you can include their initials in the in-text citations: (K. Perry, 2007) and (R. Perry, 2009). For texts with up to three authors, you can place all of their names in the brackets, and use the symbol “&” before the last name: (Harrison, Turner & Viveck, 2006). For texts with more than three authors, give the name of the first author (the one listed first on the title), use the Latin abbreviation “et al.” to show that some names are omitted. Make sure to include the period after the abbreviation, and a comma after the period. For example: (Jameson et al., 1974).

When quoting indirect sources, in the case where the author you are quoting from is already quoting from another text, include the surname of the original author as well as the author you are quoting from in the following format: (Jung, as cited in Marin, 2012, p. 413). In this example, you are quoting from the work of Marin, who is herself quoting from the original work of Jung. If you use Jung’s name in the body of your work, simply leave it out of the reference.

For electronic sources or media you should still include the author’s surname and year of release, for example, (Cameron, 1997) for the film Titanic by director James Cameron.

For media or websites with no publication date indicated, you should use the abbreviation n.d.. For example, (Julies, n.d.) or simply (n.d.) if the author’s name is already in the body of your work. Media or electronic sources with no author listed, such as certain websites, should simply include the name of the media, for example (Wikipedia.com, 2014) or (“Greensleeves,” 1845).

Review Your Learning:

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p<>{color:#000;}. Direct quotes are placed in quotation marks

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p<>{color:#000;}. In-text references need to follow every reference to an external source, and need to fit with the convention of your field by sticking to one referencing style

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p<>{color:#000;}. Some of the most widely-used referencing styles are the MLA, the Harvard and the APA styles of referencing. While the in-text citations look very similar, you should always use the correct one for your field.

Chapter 4: Integrating Quotes

While it is important to cite the research of others in order to make your writing better, it can be very challenging to integrate these sources effectively into your own research. Quotes can often make the writing of beginners sound clunky or unnatural. Good academic writing is able to integrate quotes seamlessly into paragraphs so that they don’t become intrusive, making the work disjointed or confusing the reader.

Quotes should always be kept as short as possible, and you should aim to always analyze and discuss the quotes for most of your essay, paper or dissertation, rather than spending the bulk of your time reproducing the ideas of others through large block quotes. However, sometimes it’s necessary to use extended quotes in order to share particularly important passages or to express very complex ideas which can’t be paraphrased or summarized without losing some of the original meaning. If you have to use long quotes, make sure that you follow the conventions of your referencing style.

For quotes of four lines or longer, regardless of how many sentences make up the quote, you will insert the quote on a new line. Make the font one size smaller than the font of your paragraphs, and indent the quote so that it stands out from the rest of the text. Indented block quotes also don’t require inverted commas around them, since the quote is already clearly distinguished from the rest of your text. An example of what this would look as follows:

This is an example of a block quote, which is separated from the rest of your text by using a different font size and indenting it. The quote should only be indented if it is four lines of text or longer, and you should end it off with the reference based on the referencing style you are using. (Andrews, 2017, p.9)

The indented block quote still forms part of the paragraph which introduced it, and you should also try to spend a few lines after the block quote to give an analysis or explanation of the contents of the quote and how it relates to your research.

Even when you have shorter quotes, they can often cause your writing to become difficult to read if you don’t integrate them artfully. Many students simply place a quote as a sentence on its own, and then proceed to discuss it afterwards. The reader might be left very confused if a quote is suddenly thrown at them in your essay without any context to prepare them. For this reason, good academic writers integrate their quotes within sentences. For example, if you want to use the following quote from a book by Oliver Stephens:

Every child deserves a good education.” (1935: p. 22)

 

This quote would be much more effective if the reader knew why and how you were using it to strengthen your research. Giving some context first will make the quote resonate more with the reader. You could introduce the quote first by doing something like the following:

Children benefit greatly from education. Oliver Stephens believed that education should be seen as a basic human right, and he argued that “[e]very child deserves a good education” (1935: p. 22).

By first giving some context for the quote, it makes much more sense to the reader, and your writing becomes stronger. The quote becomes part of the sentence, rather than a separate entity which might cause the paragraph to feel clumsy.

Notice also how the capital “E” from the word “Every” has been changed when the quote was integrated into the sentence. In order to make the quote flow with the rest of the sentence, the letter was changed to the lowercase “e”, and the change was noted with square brackets. This is a widely-accepted method for integrating quotes and making slight changes in direct quotes to help the reader understand the context.

Let’s look at a final example of integrating quotes. If you want to use the following quote in your research:

Little did he know that I was already waiting for him at his home.” (Warwick 75)

 

You could integrate the quote as follows:

The character Donaldo is ready to pounce on Bertrand when he arrives at home. He explains that Bertrand had no idea that Donaldo “was already waiting for [Bertrand] at his home” (Warwick 75).

 

In this integrated quote, the word “him” was changed to “Bertrand” so that the reader would know who it was referring to. Some parts of the quote were omitted so that it flowed with the rest of the sentence.

Even though square brackets can help you to alter your quotes slightly to fit in with your sentences, you should always reproduce the ideas of the quote exactly with the original context. Misrepresenting the ideas of another author is also a form of intellectual dishonesty, and could also have implications for your academic career or your grades.

Review Your Learning:

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p<>{color:#000;}. Block quotes of 4 lines or longer should be separated onto a new line, indented away from the margin, and formatted to a smaller font size.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Integrating quotes is important in order to make your academic writing easier to read. Whenever possible, try to integrate quotes so that they flow from your own ideas.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Square brackets can be used whenever words are changed within a direct quote in order to clarify meaning or to help with integrating the quote.

Chapter 5: Bibliography Style Guide: MLA, APA and Harvard Styles

The final step in effective academic referencing and citation is to have a list of resources or a bibliography at the end of your document. The word bibliography typically refers to a list of only books, and refers to sources that might not have been cited in your text but which you consulted as well, which is why the more specific headings List of Resources or Works Cited are usually used for essays and dissertations.

The list should be given as an appendix and started on a new page. You should arrange the references alphabetically based on the surname of the author, so that it is easy for the reader to find more details on a citation that they notice within your written work.

A list of references contains much more information than the in-text citations. This is so that your readers can have everything they need in order to find the original sources which you consulted if they wish to do so. A brief guide to the various styles of referencing for the list of resources will be given below.

MLA Style

Your reference list entries should follow the format of:

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p<>{color:#000;}. Author’s surname followed by their first name (and optionally middle names or initials where needed

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p<>{color:#000;}. The title of the text in either quote marks or italics, depending on whether it is a short work or a larger work respectively

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p<>{color:#000;}. The publisher’s name

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p<>{color:#000;}. The date of publication

For example, a simple book entry for John Milton’s Paradise Lost will look as follows:

Milton, John. Paradise Lost. Penguin Classics, 2003.

Notice the placement of commas and periods. Periods are placed after the author’s details, and again after the book’s title. Commas separate the author’s first name from their surname, and the year of publication from the publisher’s name.

For books with two authors, give the first (primary) author’s surname, a comma and the first name, and follow that with the second author’s first name and last name in this format:

Rollins, Jacqueline, and Peter Johnson.

For three or more authors, use the Latin term “et al.”:

Jansen, Keith, et al. The Vacation. Bloomberg, 1977.

If you are using an article within a book, or any shorter work which appears as part of a larger collection like a poem in an anthology or a scholarly paper within a journal, then you will include both the name of the short work in quotation marks as well as the name of the long work in italics. You’ll also have to include the pages that the short work appears on, if these are available:

Titus, Joe. “The Raging Sea.” Poems About Water. Purple Publishers, 2006, pp. 25-33.

 

Note the use of “pp” in front of the page numbers. For a single page, the letter “p” is used, but for multiple pages, “pp” should precede the numbers.

For scholarly journals, you can also include the edition details, such as the volume and the number of the journal:

Azua, Maria. “Phenomenology in the Workplace.” Journal of Workplace Philosophy, vol. 22, no. 5, 2003, pp.38-77.

 

For electronic sources such as websites, you can keep the same format and simply leave out any information which is not available, such as author’s name or date of publication.

You should include the URL of any sites that you visit in place of page numbers, and the date that you accessed the information.

Rice, Harvey. “10 Things You Didn’t Know You Were Doing Wrong.” FuzzBeed, 22 Apr. 2017, www.fuzzbeed.com/10_things.html. Accessed 15 May 2017.

 

In this example, the date of publication is included after the title of the website, and the date that you accessed it is included at the end. For online scholarly articles, you can use the usual format given for physical journal articles, and simply include the URL and the date you accessed it.

Harvard Style

Your reference list entries should follow the format of:

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p<>{color:#000;}. Author’s surname followed by initials

*
p<>{color:#000;}. The year of publication

*
p<>{color:#000;}. The title of the text in either quote marks or italics, depending on whether it is a short work or a larger work respectively

*
p<>{color:#000;}. The publisher’s name

*
p<>{color:#000;}. The place of publication

In contrast to the MLA format which uses periods, the Harvard style separates each aspect of the reference with a comma. For example, a simple book entry for John Milton’s Paradise Lost will look as follows:

Milton, J 2003, Paradise Lost, Penguin Classics, London.

Notice the placement of commas. Commas separate the author’s initials from their surname, and the year of publication from the name of the text.

For books with two or more authors, give the first (primary) author’s surname, a comma and the initial, and follow that with the second author’s surname and initial, in this format:

Rollins, J, Thompson, P & Johnson, P 2007

There is no limit on the number of authors listed in the reference list in the Harvard style, and the term “et al.” should only be used for in-text citations. Each author should appear in the reference list.

If you are using an article within a book, or any shorter work which appears as part of a larger collection like a poem in an anthology or a scholarly paper within a journal, then you will include both the name of the short work in quotation marks as well as the name of the long work in italics. You’ll also have to include the pages that the short work appears on, if these are available:

Titus, J 2006, “The Raging Sea”, Poems About Water, Purple Publishers, New York, pp. 25-33.

 

For scholarly journals, you can also include the edition details, such as the volume and the number of the journal:

Azua, M 2003, “Phenomenology in the Workplace”, Journal of Workplace Philosophy, vol. 22, no. 5, pp.38-77.

 

For electronic sources such as websites, you can keep the same format and simply leave out any information which is not available, such as author’s name or date of publication.

You should include the URL of any sites that you visit in place of page numbers, and the date that you accessed the information.

Rice, H 2017, “10 Things You Didn’t Know You Were Doing Wrong”, FuzzBeed, viewed 22 April 2017, http://www.fuzzbeed.com/10_things.html.

 

In this example, the date of viewing the site is listed after the title of the website. For online scholarly articles, you can use the usual format given for physical journal articles, and simply include the URL and the date you accessed it.

APA Style

Your reference list entries should follow the format of:

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Author’s surname followed by initials

*
p<>{color:#000;}. The year of publication

*
p<>{color:#000;}. The title of the text in, with short texts in standard format and longer texts in italics

*
p<>{color:#000;}. The place of publication

*
p<>{color:#000;}. The publisher’s name

The APA style is very similar to the Harvard style, yet the placement of some punctuation needs to change. For example, a simple book entry for John Milton’s Paradise Lost will look as follows:

Milton, J. (2003). Paradise Lost. London: Penguin Classics.

Notice the placement of commas and periods. Commas separate the author’s initials from their surname. Periods separate the different components of the reference, and a colon separates the place of publication from the publisher’s name.

For books with two or more authors, give the first (primary) author’s surname, a comma and the initial followed by a period. Follow this with the second author’s surname and initial, in this format:

Rollins, J. P., Thompson, P. W., & Johnson, P. (2007).

For APA style, there is a limit of seven authors listed per reference, so if you have more than seven, place an ellipse (…) after the sixth author’s name and then simply give the final author’s details.

If you are using an article within a book, or any shorter work which appears as part of a larger collection like a poem in an anthology or a scholarly paper within a journal, then you will include both the name of the short work in standard formatting as well as the name of the long work in italics. You’ll also have to include the pages that the short work appears on, if these are available:

Titus, J. (2006). The Raging Sea. Poems About Water (pp. 25-33). New York: Purple Publishers.

 

Notice the pages that the poem appears on are given after the title of the larger work.

For scholarly journals, you can also include the edition details, such as the volume and the number of the journal. The volume is placed next to the journal’s title after a comma, and the number is placed in brackets directly next to the volume number. These are then followed by the pages on which the article appears.

Azua, M. (2003). Phenomenology in the Workplace. Journal of Workplace Philosophy, 22(5), 38-77.

 

For electronic sources such as websites, you can keep the same format and simply leave out any information which is not available, such as author’s name or date of publication.

You should include the URL of any sites that you visit in place of page numbers, and the date that the document was published.

Rice, H. (2017). 10 Things You Didn’t Know You Were Doing Wrong. FuzzBeed. Retrieved from http://www.fuzzbeed.com/10_things.html.

 

In this example, the date of publication is included. For online scholarly articles, you can use the usual format given for physical journal articles, and simply include the URL and the date you accessed it with the ‘Retrieved from’ format.

[]Things to Remember

This guide has shown how cite your sources correctly in many of the widely-used referencing styles. Make sure that you consult the guide to understand the basics of referencing every time you write an essay, and for more detailed rules for other types of resources you can consult the Academic Coaching website.

Writing an essay or dissertation can be challenging, but there are many resources that can help you along the way. The Academic Coaching team offers editing and guidance for your academic writing, and we’re able to help you at any point from the initial idea stage to the final edit. We’ll help you come up with a plan and to refine your ideas, and we’ll give you expert feedback on your rough work so that you can write your essay or thesis with confidence. Go to www.writeyourthesis.com to find out more.

This book is part of a series for researchers and students writing essays and theses. We offer many more books and resources at our website, www.writeyourthesis.com/p/resources.html.

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All the best with your studies!

Grant and Malan

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Referencing, Citation and Bibliography Style Guide

A Step-by-Step, Quick and Easy Guide to Citation and Referencing in Academic Writing Everything you need to know about in-text citations and writing a reference list is contained in this short guide. The guide covers three of the most widely-used referencing styles, including the MLA, the APA and the Harvard styles. Learn how to use sources effectively, why using multiple sources is important for your writing, and how to integrate all of the information into your own writing without losing your academic voice. This guide will be useful for making sure that you start off your journey of academic writing on the right foot. It will cover all of the basic elements, and will take 30 minutes to work through. The guide is written by Dr. Grant Andrews, who has been teaching academic writing for years, and who knows the common pitfalls that students experience in academic writing. This book is part of the Essay and Thesis Writing Series.

  • ISBN: 9781370898718
  • Author: Grant Andrews
  • Published: 2017-08-30 18:20:12
  • Words: 6300
Referencing, Citation and Bibliography Style Guide Referencing, Citation and Bibliography Style Guide