By: Enck Kanaj
Copyright © 2014, Enck Kanaj
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“The double-slit experiment “has in it the heart of quantum physics.
In reality, it contains the only mystery.”
“We say that inseparable quantum interconnectedness of the whole universe is the fundamental reality, and that relatively independent behaving parts are merely particular and contingent forms within this whole.”
This e-Book is for informational purposes only, and represents the author’s opinion only.
For nine decades, quantum theory has been troubling physicists. Because most physicists cannot accept the idea that reality can be created by observation, they restrict the application of Quantum Theory only to microscopic objects. But does the conscious observer create the macro reality, too? Are we the cosmic center? Is our individual consciousness enough to manifest our reality and health? This book will show you how we create this reality, and will describe what other books about manifestation neglect to tell you. It will tell you the extent to which the conscious observer influences the quantum experiment. It will also explore two different interpretations of quantum mechanics: first, the orthodox interpretation and second, the Bohm interpretation. The orthodox interpretation of quantum mechanics displays the probabilistic nature of reality while the Bohm interpretation displays the deterministic nature. Since experts disagree in their interpretations of reality, we may choose our expert.
This book will explain the quantum mystery, which has been troubling physicists for several decades, including the double-slit experiment at the heart of quantum physics. Because the quantum mystery is exhibited in this simplest quantum experiment, it can be comprehended with very little technical background.
Quantum theory emerged in its modern form in the 1920s with the Erwin Schrödinger equation. This new equation became the basis for the new universal law of motion. For large-scaled objects much larger than atoms, Schrödinger’s equation simply turns into Newton’s universal equation of motion. While Newton’s universal law of motion is valid only for the large-scaled world, Schrödinger’s equation describes not only molecular, atomic, and subatomic systems, but also macroscopic systems, even on the scale of the entire universe.
Schrödinger’s equation describes a moving object with a wave function. The equation states that a moving object is actually like a moving packet of waves. Waviness of the object is the absolute square of the wave function. While the waviness of the macro objects we face in the everyday world is inconsiderable, the waviness of micro-scaled objects such as electrons, atoms, and even large molecules cannot be neglected. How do we understand the waviness of micro-scaled objects? To begin, let us simplify the terms a little.
In simplified terms, a moving subatomic particle such as an electron (a micro-scaled object) is not compact in a certain location but is spread out over a wide region. Although the electron is not compact, it behaves as a wave. The waviness (described by Schrödinger’s equation) of the electron is the probability that we can find the electron in a particular spot after observation. It is very important to emphasize that the wave function does not describe the probability of the object being in a particular spot within the region. The object was not there before our observation. The electron didn’t exist before we found it there. It is our observation that caused the object to be there. So, while the waviness in a region is the probability of finding the object in that region, it is the probability of finding but not the probability of being. Prior to our observation, the object existed simultaneously in different positions, in a superposition state. The object was spread out over the region. However, although the object may be spread over a wide region, when one looks at a particular spot (an act of observation), one will find either a whole object or no object at all. Even the process of obtaining information through observation revealing that the object is not in the spot where we looked causes the whole object to manifest in compact form somewhere else. It is our observation that causes the wave function of the object to collapse into a concentrated thing. In terms of the subatomic particles, it is the observation that causes the wave function of the electron to collapse into a particle. Thus, the nature of subatomic particles is dual, also referred to as wave-particle duality.
The quantum theory is valid even for macro objects, although the waviness of macro objects is so small that we usually cannot perceive it.
Let us now clarify the concept of quantum probability in quantum theory. Unlike classic probability, quantum probability is objective, being the probability of finding the object after the observation. Quantum probability has to do with the unknowable, because the object did not exist in its compacted form prior to our observation of that particular spot, whereas classic probability has to do with the unknown or with our subjective knowledge. Because in the deterministic, large, inhabited world we can theoretically know all of the input factors in a classic system, we can predict the outcome or the future of the system. In other words, classic probability is related to that which is unknown on a practical level, but theoretically the unknown can be known. Unlike the classic form, quantum probability is related to the unknowable.
Now let us summarize the quantum mystery. The quantum mystery is found specifically in the act of observation and, more concretely, the conscious observation that physicists call the “measurement problem”.
The mystery is that the conscious observer creates the reality being observed. The physics become entwined with the consciousness observing them. How is it possible that the conscious observer manifests the micro objects? Do we create or manifest our reality by simply observing it? The fact that it is a mystery does not mean that we should automatically believe the various interpretations of the phenomenon. Interpretations are not necessarily the truth. Even physicists disagree amongst themselves and concretely with various solutions to what is called the measurement problem. Many believe that it is not only conscious observer who could have this effect, but any type of observer, including a measuring apparatus or a robot. A measurement apparatus, however, becomes entangled with the electron or subatomic particle. Without concretely observing the measuring apparatus and the Geiger counter, we will be unable to determine whether the electron is in a superposition state or has collapsed into a particle. The Geiger counter tells us that the electron is collapsed (created) when it fires. Only when the conscious (human) observer looks at the Geiger counter can he collapse the system composed of both the electron and the Geiger counter, which have been entangled.
In 1932, the physicist John von Neumann demonstrated that the conscious observer is theoretically inevitable in the collapse of a quantum system. He showed that the measuring apparatus will enter the superposition state with the electron, and that only a conscious observer will collapse the superposition state of the measuring apparatus, which entangles with the electron, because the conscious observer will see whether the Geiger counter is fired or unfired. Before the observation of the conscious human, the Geiger counter is in the superposition state of both fired and unfired. The most interesting idea in all of this is that the Geiger counter may have fired before the conscious observer observed it doing so, but the fired state is unknowable (we must be careful here: it is unknowable, not unknown).
Applied to everyday life, it is unknowable whether the reality that we observe is created before our conscious observation or is created at the present moment by our conscious observation. The greatest insight provided by quantum physics is that of the unknowable. It is unknowable whether it is the conscious observer or not doing the creating. Let us illustrate more clearly this quantum mystery with the famous thought experiment of Schrödinger’s cat.
The experiment is arranged in such a way as to send the same electron simultaneously into two boxes. In other words, the electron will be in a superposition state, that is, it will be sent simultaneously to both boxes. Inside one box is arranged a poisonous mechanism activated by the Geiger counter; a cat is placed inside the box, too. Therefore, when the Geiger counter encounters the electron, it fires and activates the poisonous mechanism, thereby killing the cat. As long as the electron is in a superposition state, it will not cause the Geiger counter to fire and kill the cat.
According to quantum theory, the atom does not exist in one particular box prior to the observation. When the observation is made, however, it collapses the electron and causes the entire electron to be in one of the boxes. It doesn’t matter whether we find the electron in one particular box or not, because if we don’t find the electron in a particular box it will be instantaneously collapsed in the other box. If we find one box empty, the electron will be entirely in the other box. We will randomly find either the whole electron in one particular box, or that box will be empty. Please remember the word randomly, because it will be discussed later. Now suppose that we send the electron simultaneously into both boxes and the Geiger counter serves as the observer (not a conscious observer). The Geiger counter is only in the box containing the cat. If the Geiger counter encounters the electron, then the poisonous mechanism will be activated and the cat will die. Conversely, if the Geiger counter does not encounter the electron, the poisonous mechanism will not be activated and the cat will be unharmed. The mystery is that the system will remain in a state of superposition until the conscious observation is made, regardless of whether the Geiger counter encounters the electron or not prior to the conscious observation. As long as the system is isolated to the conscious observer, the cat will be simultaneously alive and dead. When a conscious observer looks inside the box containing the cat, he or she will see the cat either alive or dead, not both alive and dead. This poses the question of when, exactly, quantum superposition ends and reality collapses into one possibility or the other. Do reality and the quantum superposition of the cat being simultaneously alive and dead collapse prior to the conscious observation or at the moment of conscious observation? This is unknowable. Quantum theory, however, tells us that before we looked, the cat was in a state of superposition, equally alive and dead. Our observation collapses the wavefunction of the entire system, including both the electron and the cat. Since our observation collapsed the superposition state of the cat, we are the cause of the cat’s death if we found it dead.
Let us return to what was mentioned earlier, namely that the electron will be found randomly in whichever box it has collapsed. Indeed, we conscious observers create the concentrated electron by collapsing its wave function, but in no way co we control in which box the electron collapses. We have no influence on where the electron will collapse. We cannot choose whether the electron collapses in the box with the cat or the other box. We have no influence over the selection of the dead cat or the cat that is alive. It is nature which selects a dead or alive cat. We simply collapse the superposition state, and then nature decides whether the cat will be dead or alive. The most important thing to note is that the outcome in the presence of the conscious observer is completely random. In these particular conditions of the experiment in which there are only two boxes, the outcome will be random, and we will find a dead cat 50% of the time and a cat that is alive the other 50% of the time. In other words, nature decides based on randomness. The biggest implication then is that the universe at the subatomic level is probabilistic and not deterministic. Other books about manifestations do not tell you this information. They do not tell you that the conscious observer (you) is not enough to manifest your health and your reality. Let us suppose (as a joke) that we wish to manifest a certain amount of money that exists in a superposition state by being simultaneously in our house and in the neighbor’s house. We can observe them only once with a 50% chance of creating them in our house. During our observation, the money may collapse in the neighbor’s house. Our neighbor may be lucky. But don’t worry; that’s what quantum theory tells us for isolated quantum systems. Our everyday life or inhabited world is actually not isolated and is deterministic due to the quantum interconnectedness of reality, as explained in a later chapter. Remember though that that will merely be an interpretation, as quantum physics is unknowable to the intellect.
Now let us outline the double-split experiment, which lies at the heart of quantum mechanics. The quantum mystery arises in this simple quantum experiment. Its essence can be fully comprehended with little technical background. For greater insight into it, view the following video:
It is enough to contemplate this experiment to consider the mystery, as Richard Feynman has said, “it contains the only mystery.”
The double-slit experiment demonstrates that light and matter can display characteristics of both classically defined waves and particles. More importantly, it displays the fundamentally probabilistic nature of quantum mechanical phenomena mentioned earlier, especially for isolated micro objects.
In this experiment, particles, such as electrons, are fired in a straight line through two slits and are allowed to strike a screen on the other side. Classic physics would cause us to expect to see a pattern of two bands corresponding to the size and shape of the slits. However, when the double-slit experiment is actually performed, the pattern on the screen is an interference pattern, in which the electrons are spread out. Sending particles through the double-slits one at a time results in the appearance of a single particle on the screen, as expected, while an interference pattern is created when these particles are allowed to build up one by one.
In simplified terms, the fired electron passes simultaneously through both slits because, as previously stated, it is in a superposition state. The electron interferes with itself. This electron thus demonstrates wave-particle duality. The electron behaves as a wave at the slits before the observation or even the conscious observer. As mentioned previously, the conscious observer is theoretically inevitable, and it is experimentally impossible for a non-conscious observer to know the electron has collapsed because the non-conscious observer entangles with the electron by forming a quantum system, which in turns causes the whole system to enter a superposition state. How does it display the fundamentally probabilistic nature of the universe on a micro-scale level?
First, let us clarify that there are two observation planes: the slits plane and the screen plane. The screen observation plane is always observed by us (conscious observer) because we cannot see electrons with the naked eyes. The slits plane observation is the experimental observation, and our observation decides which property becomes reality. On the screen observation plane, we see either two bands or an interference pattern (many bands). We can consciously choose or decide which property will become reality (two bands or the interference pattern) simply by deciding whether or not to observe the slits observation plane. With the slits observation plane, we examine which slit the electron passes through. In other words, if we wish to determine which of the two slits through which the electron passes, we must observe it on the slit plane. Consequently, the interference pattern collapses and is replaced by the two bands on the screen plane. We decide at will which property to manifest on the screen, two bands or many bands. The manifestation of either property that can become reality is under our control. But what we cannot control is where the electron will fall in both cases (the two bands or the interference pattern). In the case of interference patterns, the electron will fall randomly on the screen. In the case of the collapsed electron at the slits, we cannot choose through which slit the electron passes or on which band it falls later. In other words, the conscious observer can know which slit the electron passes through but has no influence on which of the two slits, the left or the right, the electron passes through. Nature determines randomly where the particle is found. The conscious observer simply transforms quantum reality from one mode of randomness to another mode of randomness.
This is described well by quantum physicists Časlav Brukner and Anton Zeilinger, who have succinctly expressed these ideas as follows:
“The observer can decide whether or not to put detectors into the interfering path. That way, by deciding whether or not to determine the path through the two-slit experiment, he can decide which property can become reality. If he chooses not to put the detectors there, then the interference pattern will become reality; if he does put the detectors there, then the beam path will become reality. Yet, most importantly, the observer has no influence on the specific element of the world which becomes reality. Specifically, if he chooses to determine the path, he has no influence whatsoever which of the two paths, the left one or the right one, Nature will tell him is the one where the particle is found. Likewise, if he chooses to observe the interference pattern he has no influence whatsoever where in the observation plane he will observe a specific particle. Both outcomes are completely random.”
Do not be discouraged by the randomness of quantum reality because we offer the interpretation below that due to quantum interconnectedness, the probabilistic nature of quantum reality becomes deterministic in our large inhabited world. The indeterminism and chance of isolated quantum systems transforms into determinism as a result of quantum interconnectedness and the wholeness. Even though quantum particles’ behavior will be theoretically deterministic, we cannot know the position and velocity of particles in practice, making them appear to behave randomly.
Again, it should be noted that the following will be an interpretation, as the quantum mystery is unknowable.
The quantum theory works perfectly for isolated quantum systems. For all practical purposes, we can be satisfied with the predictions of the theory, which are accurate. But if we consider the quantum theory beyond practical purposes, we find that it has numerous great unresolved implications. As explained previously, Einstein, David Bohm, and many others were dissatisfied with this orthodox approach. They did not believe the quantum world to be characterized by absolute indeterminism and the probabilistic nature of the universe at its deepest level.
But the implications of theories are not that important on a philosophical level if theories work well on an experimental level and are able to predict phenomena. It doesn’t matter how we interpret reality. The interpretations are merely different angles of view of the same thing. I personally do not agree with the idea of the indeterminism and probabilistic nature of the universe. We may have different theories for the same thing that may all be valid if they work well on an experimental level. But no theory can encompass the wholeness. The quantum theory has attempted to consider the true nature of reality and has thus approached describing the wholeness. The Quantum Theory aims to encompass and describe the wholeness. However, no theory can totally encompass the wholeness. The quantum theory is thus incomplete and will forever remain incomplete. The wholeness is unreachable and unknowable to the intellect. With his Incompleteness Theorem, the mathematician Kurt Gödel proved that any logical system contains propositions whose truth cannot be proven. Gödel’s Incompleteness Theorem definitively proves that science can never fill its own gaps, including the gaps in the quantum theory. In simplified terms, Gödel’s Incompleteness Theorem states that if a circle is drawn around an individual’s concepts and theories, what is inside the circle cannot be proven without referring to something outside of the circle. If we draw a bigger circle, something will always remain outside of the circle. The radius of the circle can approach infinity, as the wholeness is infinite. The unknowable is inevitable to the intellect. The intellect can deal only with the known and unknown. However, intuition can deal with the unknowable. As a result of insight and intuition, we can know the answer. Even math is based on axioms that are starting points of reasoning. Axioms are self-evident principles accepted as true without proof. They cannot be proven. Axioms are improvable.
Quantum mechanics makes us aware of the unknowable. Anyone who believes that he or she has understood quantum mechanics does not really understand it. The great theoretical physicist Richard Feynman once said, “I think I can safely say that nobody understands quantum mechanics.” Although physicists have faced the quantum mystery for nine decades, it remains unresolved. Quantum physics is exclusively for empty-minded physicists.
I believe the greatest insight gained from quantum physics lies in the idea of the unknowable. We cannot know the wholeness. The wholeness cannot be known. Without being, the wholeness itself cannot be known. The only way to know it is to sense the wholeness by means of intuition and to connect with the wholeness and go with it.
The only meaning of life and the universe is that it is unknowable. Life would be meaningless if the meaning of life and the universe were known. Imagine for a moment knowing the course of your life. What would you want to do anymore? The beauty of life lies in the very fact that it is unknowable.
As previously stated, the orthodox quantum theory is to be admired for its ability to predict phenomena in isolated quantum systems and can even be applied to the entire universe.
Nevertheless, Einstein and Bohm and many other physicists were unsatisfied with the orthodox approach of quantum theory.
David Bohm was one of the most distinguished theoretical physicists of his generation, and fearlessly sought to challenge scientific orthodoxy. His interests, work, and influence extended far beyond physics, embracing biology, psychology, philosophy, religion, and art.
I prefer David Bohm’s interpretations. Since experts disagree, we must decide which expert to believe. Nonexperts therefore can come to their own conclusions.
The Bohm approach to quantum mechanics centers on the wholeness. In others words, once we gain an understanding of the wholeness, we can understand the behaviors of the various parts of the whole, such as those of subatomic particles. Bohm did not accept the idea that subatomic particles have no objective existence and are created as concentrated things only when physicists observe and measure them. Like Einstein, he also did not believe that the quantum world was characterized by absolute indeterminism and chance. He theorized the existence of a deeper structure behind the apparently random behavior of subatomic particles. He called that structure the implicate order or enfolded order, which can be regarded as a deeper and more fundamental order of reality. In contrast, the explicate or unfolded order includes what humans normally perceive.
Bohm was surprised by the electrons’ behaviors in plasma. When the electrons were in a plasma, they stopped behaving like individuals and began behaving as though they were part of a larger and interconnected whole. In some sense, electrons in plasma behave as though they are alive.
This wholeness is characterized by the interconnectedness. The wholeness only becomes alive when every part is interconnected with every other part of the whole. An undivided wholeness extends to the entire universe.
Bohm believed in deeper, subtler levels of reality. In his view, subatomic particles, such as electrons, are not simple particles, but rather complex, dynamic entities.
He rejected the view that the motion of subatomic particles is fundamentally probabilistic, instead proposing that they follow a precise path that is determined not only by conventional physical forces but also by a subtler force that he refers to as the quantum potential. The quantum potential guides the motion of particles by providing information about the whole environment. In Bohm’s interpretation, the quantum potential of an object depends instantaneously on everything else in the universe. The Bohm interpretation describes a physical reality that is completely deterministic. Quantum randomness appears only because we cannot know the precise initial position and velocity of each particle. As explained in the first chapter, according to the orthodox view, the electron does not exist as a concentrated thing prior to observation and collapses after observation, whereas in the Bohmian view, there is no collapse. In the double-split experiment, a Bohmian electron entering a single slit is also aware of the position of the other slit as a result of the quantum potential. Each particle has a well-defined trajectory that passes through exactly one of the slits. The final position of the particle on the detector screen and the slit through which the particle passes is determined by the particle’s initial position. As previously mentioned, such an initial position is unknowable by the experimenter, causing the pattern of detection to appear random.
According to the Bohmian view, the electron is in contact with the device that fired the electron earlier, as the quantum potential connects the electron with the rest of the world. The electron is guided by the quantum potential, which determines where the electron lands on the interference pattern. The human who arranged the experiment also influences the quantum potential. Nothing in the physical world is separate from the observer in the Bohm interpretation. Everything is quantum-interconnected in the undivided universe. Bohm’s quantum interconnectedness is proved experimentally to some degree. In the phenomenon known as the Aharonov-Bohm effect, electrons are able to detect the presence of a nearby magnetic field, even when traveling in regions of space in which the field strength is zero. Moreover, John Bell’s theorem and experiments based on his theorem have demonstrated in laboratories the existence of quantum interconnectedness. The Bell experiments demonstrate that subatomic particles that are far apart are able to communicate instantaneously in ways that cannot be explained by the transfer of physical signals traveling at speeds less than the speed of light.
Bohm’s approach indicates that quantum particles can exist independently of the human mind (observer), offering an alternative to Bohr’s prevailing Copenhagen view (the orthodox interpretation). Bohm’s view requires another layer of reality—a deeper level of reality. Bohm introduced the notion of an implicate order (enfolded order). To understand the implicate order, Bohm presents the ink droplet analogy. An ink droplet can be introduced into a highly viscous substance (such as glycerine) between two concentric glass cylinders, and the substance is rotated very slowly, such that it is diffused into the viscous substance. In this example, the droplet becomes a thread, which, in turn, eventually becomes invisible. When we rotate the substance in the reverse direction, the droplet can essentially reform. When it is invisible, according to Bohm, the order of the ink droplet is implicate or enfolded within the substance. When the droplet reforms, it is in the explicate order or unfolded order. See the following site for a clearer illustration of this example:
Bohm understood the nature of reality and of consciousness as a coherent whole or a quantum-interconnected whole. Bohm believed that life and consciousness are enfolded deep in the higher implicate order. Higher implicate orders organize lower ones, which, in turn, influence the higher implicate orders. The idea that the lower orders influence the higher ones is extremely important, as it implies that physical reality influences higher orders. Thus, for example, the physical body influences the layers of our consciousness, as addressed later. Mind and body influence each other reciprocally.
Our individual consciousness is the result of quantum-interconnected or the coherent whole—first of our body and then of the universe. Individuality unfolds from the wholeness.
In the first chapter, according to the orthodox interpretation of quantum physics, we explained that the reality of subatomic particles is created by the act of observation and that the conscious observer is inevitable, or more accurately, that it is unknowable whether reality is created by the inanimate observer or the conscious observer.
However, this observer-created reality is still probabilistic. In other words, the reality that we created is completely random. In the double slit experiment, the observer collapses the electron, but it is nature that determines randomly upon which of the two bands on the screen the electron will land.
On the other hand, contrary to the orthodox interpretation, Bohm’s interpretation of quantum mechanics states that reality is deterministic and governed or guided by the quantum potential. In other words, due to quantum interconnectedness, the behavior of every part of this reality is determined by wholeness; in no way is it determined by randomness. In the double-slit experiment, the electron is not created by the conscious observer (there is no collapse), but this observer influences the behavior of the electron as part of this wholeness. In the end, we are part of this wholeness. In other words, our individual consciousness changes the behavior of the electron in the double-slit experiment, but we are not the only influence. The electron is influenced in part by us but mostly by wholeness. The band on which the electron lands is thus determined by nature.
According to the Bohmian interpretation, we may very well have free will, but our will must be aligned with the will of wholeness. I like the idea of the interconnected whole because it is in accordance with the teachings of Lao Tzu, as explained in Ignorant, Pathless, Characterless, Spontaneous, Inactive: How These Qualities Will Make You Happy.
The teaching of Lao Tzu maintains that we should go with the natural flow and be in tune with wholeness. According to Lao Tzu,
“Life is a series of natural and spontaneous changes. Don’t resist them; that only creates sorrow. Let reality be reality. Let things flow naturally forward in whatever way they like.”
With regard to the statement “Life is a series of natural and spontaneous changes,” life is not spontaneous but it appears spontaneous because we cannot know the “will” of wholeness—just as in the double-slit experiment in which quantum randomness appears only because we cannot know the precise initial position and velocity of each particle. The initial position and velocity of each particle are determined by the wholeness. But we have influence in this experiment as well, as we are part of the wholeness.
In the grand scheme of life, we have the free will to live life as we wish, but our life should go with the flow and be in tune with the wholeness. Going with the flow should not be regarded as a limitation, as there are infinite ways to be in tune with the wholeness. One of these ways can be the path that you select with your free will to lead the life that you wish to lead.
In my opinion, the best scientists are intuition-oriented and thus wholeness-oriented. Einstein and Bohm were intuition- and wholeness-oriented and attempted to understand the part through the wholeness. These scientists are truly intelligent. Meanwhile, intellect-oriented scientists like Bohr seek to understand the wholeness through its parts. But reality cannot be known by the intellect, which is part-oriented. The intellect will always encounter the unknowable. Only intuitive scientists will advance science, as intuition can sometimes transcend the unknowable.
“Deep down, the consciousness of mankind is one.”
Bohm believed that consciousness makes up much more of the implicate order than matter and that at a deeper level, matter and consciousness are actually inseparable and interwoven.
The profound idea that consciousness and matter are interwoven stems from an enlightened mind, as our individual consciousness is interwoven with our physical body. Our individual consciousness is the result of a coherent whole of the body (including the brain). Our individual consciousness is a byproduct of the quantum-interconnected whole of the body, which in turn is quantum-interconnected with the entire universe.
Let us explain how the quantum interconnectedness in our body is maintained. We will divide individual consciousness into two parts: brain consciousness and body consciousness. These two terms can be found in the most evolved book on living organisms, namely in The Rainbow and the Worm: The Physics of Organisms by Mae Wan Ho.
Mae Wan Ho is a scientist who has studied the living organism from a wholeness perspective. Based on empirical and theoretical findings, she presents extraordinary ideas regarding how the organism functions as a coherent whole. Her work focuses on the notion of quantum coherence (quantum interconnectedness) and the instantaneous nonlocal intercommunication within living organisms as an expression of the wholeness. She suggests that an organism’s wholeness is based on a high degree of quantum coherence. According to Mae Wan Ho, consciousness is distributed throughout the entire body, brain consciousness being embedded in body consciousness. There is thus a complete coherence of brain and body.
Intercommunication can proceed extremely rapidly in the liquid crystalline structure of the cells and connective tissues, which can be referred to as the liquid crystalline matrix. According to Mae Wan Ho, organisms are “liquid crystals”—a fourth state of matter between liquid and solid. Liquid crystals are piezoelectric and interconvert mechanical energy into electricity (as we will see later).
She suggests that a "body consciousness" works in tandem with, but independently of the "brain consciousness," constituting the nervous system and that instantaneous coordination of body functions is mediated, not by the nervous system, but by the body consciousness residing in the liquid crystalline continuum of the body. This liquid crystalline continuum is responsible for the direct current (electricity) permeating the entire body of all animals. As stated previously, the liquid crystalline matrix encompasses the crystalline structure of the cells and the connective tissues. Up to 70% of the proteins in the connective tissues consist of collagens that exhibit constant patterns of alignment, as characteristic of liquid crystals. According to recent studies, collagens have electrical conductive properties. The electrical properties depend, to a large extent, on bound water molecules in and around the collagen triple-helix. The existence of an ordered network of water molecules connected by hydrogen bonds and interspersed within the protein fibrillar matrix of the collagens is expected to support rapid jump conduction of protons—positive electric charges. The conductivity of collagen increases a great deal when water is absorbed, which is why hydration and drinking natural water is extremely important.
Mae Wan Ho proposes that the acupuncture system (from Traditional Chinese Medicine) and the DC body field both inhere in the continuum of liquid crystalline collagen fibers making up the bulk of the connective tissues. As mentioned above, bound water layers on the collagen fibers provide proton conduction pathways for rapid intercommunication throughout the body, enabling the organism to function as a coherent whole.
I encourage anyone to read The Rainbow and the Worm: The Physics of Organisms by Mae Wan Ho in order to gain a greater understanding of the technical background. The next chapter will clarify several of these concepts.
Meanwhile, in Body Electric, Robert Becker hypothesized that the myelin sheath (crystalline structure) of nerve cells forms the basis of a second communication system that controls such important processes as healing, growth, and development. His experiments on salamanders, in which he measured the healing currents following limb amputation, led him to discover a direct current semiconductive system that serves as an alternative pathway for the transmission of electrical information along the nerves throughout the body.
However, Ho’s hypotheses are more complete and with more general applicability, while Becker’s hypotheses can be regarded as specific cases of Ho’s hypotheses.
As you may already have guessed, the chi (life energy) described in ancient teachings of Taoism and in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) may very well be this direct current (electricity) conducted along liquid crystalline collagen fibers. The main channels of chi (energy channels) or meridians are described in TCM as pathways by which chi circulates to maintain the health of the body.
The meridians as presented appear to travel on the surface of the body because that is the only way to paint them in two-dimensional paintings. In actuality, however, meridians begin inside the body and concretely in organs and travel across connective tissues, ending up on the surface of the body. For more accurate information, you can refer to books by modern masters who have acquired ancient knowledge that has been passed on from generation to generation.
“Believe nothing, no matter where you read it or who has said it, not even if I have said it, unless it agrees with your own reason and your own common sense.”
The Rainbow and the Worm: The Physics of Organisms by Mae Wan Ho
The Body Electric: Electromagnetism and the Foundation of Life by Robert Becker and Gary Selden
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