Psychological Manipulation with Consciousness at Elections
Copyright William Gore 2017
Published at Shakespir
Table of contents.
Opening in the field of political psychology, a research of socio-political development of the modern society allow to mark that in case of establishment of the authoritative principles of control formation of democracy is in a development stage. In the conditions of ideological non-uniformity and use of psychological technologies of handling by the power by society, relevance of a subject of psychological handling consciousness of voters is caused not only complexity of a political
situation in the country. The question of vulnerability of citizens from psychological handling lies as well in the plane of political and psychological education of citizens. In case of the low level of psychological and political education of citizens, often in curricula “Political science” isn’t provided at all. Therefore the observed tendency of psychological handling mass consciousness of voters with the low level of psychological and political education is certainly the braking factor of
formation of democratic principles in society of the 21st century.
In the 20th century in case of origin of new transmission media of information also new instruments of manipulation with consciousness of voters – television and the Wide area network (Internet) appeared. Boundless opportunities of the modern mass media use manipulation as a method of the hidden control of people. Citizens are psychological hostages of communication technologies where Mass media (further media), appearing as the very pointing device of the power, are the communicative means resounding this or that manipulation of the power.
Let’s note that decision making process depends on the logiko-analytical device of the individual and consists of process of adoption of information and its analysis.
Control of consciousness of voters on the eve of the upcoming elections is often exercised by means of technologies of a psychological manipulation and programming of consciousness of citizens. If the instrument of programming is the city newspaper – that as an object of a manipulation followers – residents of this city act. If the instrument of manipulation is the federal television channel – all residents of the country act as subject to manipulation. Psychological manipulation is performed by
means of as interpersonal manipulation, and by means of manipulation with consciousness of the person. A task of manipulators – transformation of views, opinions, installations of citizens and impact on their consciousness in the direction, necessary for the manipulator. At the same time the pilot manipulator involves both conscious, and unconscious components of mentality of the person. For example, in the course of psychological manipulation with consciousness of voters the factor of “the temporary memory size” which allows to reveal and characterize the messages facilitating storing is considered. The found “time memory size” consists in the following: the complete message shall keep within an interval from 4 to 10 seconds, and separate particles of the message – intervals from 0,1 to 0,5 seconds.
Consciousness of voters also use of a factor of recognition is among manipulative technologies. In the course of psychological manipulation with consciousness the recognition factor analysed by V. P. Sheyn plays a key role as it generates false feeling of acquaintance at citizens. The effect of recognition is much more important for the manipulator, than a conscious consent of voters with statements of the candidate. Effective use by the manipulator of a factor of recognition becomes further a prerequisite of receipt of the expected result – a consent of addressees to interaction with the manipulator as it is psychologically perceived “as the”.
Therefore it is so important for the manipulator by means of media to achieve recognition among voters. Fight which is conducted during the election campaign candidates for power structures for an air is explained by it. At the same time the crucial role is played by the factor which received the name "administrative resource". Different authors call various percent of influence of "an administrative resource" on results of elections (from 5% to 99%), however practically all agree
that it is necessary to consider influence of this factor. In practice of the electoral companies cases when the candidate manipulator refused televised debates with other candidates took place, thereby having deprived of them an additional air, but on a post rank daily had an opportunity to be present at reportings of a news at all regional TV channels.
By specialists psychologists in the field of a manipulation consciousness of the person a number of psychological laws including the law of storing which cornerstone involuntary storing is are opened. For example, through media the flow of chaotic messages, instead of one connected idea which the person will be able to consider and make the conscious decision is created. But the decision it can be not for benefit of the sender of information. Chaotic messages are postponed in memory and work latently, one subconsciousness more, at the same time the following psychological laws work:
. Law of the region: the message which is in the beginning or at the end is remembered quicker, than the data which are in the middle. This law is researched by the
German psychologist Mr. Ebbingauz.
. Law of incomplete action (or effect Zeygarnik): this psychological law says that incomplete action is remembered stronger, is remembered longer finished on average
for 50%. On the contrary, complete action promotes.
. Law of emotions: the more emotions information causes in the person, the better it is remembered. Emotions quicken associations, new images and messages which “awake” them. At the same time for the manipulator it is even unimportant how the person will treat the message which he will remember involuntarily.
. Law of interest: information attracting interest or curiosity is remembered easily. The domestic scientist Strekalov V. V. in the researches notes that “the selective technologies of intended distribution of rumors on an entrance to the polling precinct to ballot day and slogans on the district in the form of appeals to specific action concerning the candidate have a certain potential of impact on electorate”
. Law of strengthening of the first impression: the first impression from remembered is stronger, the image is brighter; than more channels on which there is information, that storing is stronger.
In system of a psychological manipulation consciousness of masses powerful weapon are rumors which shall be significant for object of impact (i.e. to infringe on urgent interests of social group or society in general); to be to the person clear both transferring, and accepting; to have considerable value for the accepting person; to be well prepared and to be under control. In practice for creation of hearing three methods are used: equalization, protrusion, likening. Let’s note that in case of equalization rumors shall be short and simple as are subject to oral transfer; in case of protrusion from the big text take only the key moments, when likening – hearing reflects the available stereotypes, ethnocentrism and prejudices.
In impact on the voter during the electoral company forms and methods of motivation to the “correct” vote are widely used. The media engaged by the power, creating an image of “elected representative of the people”, carry out the following political tasks: “make” the candidate the famous, recognizable, i.e. public politician; create positive image (image) of the candidate in the opinion of voters, doing it more attractive, than at competitors. Thus the power, keeping control over traditional mass communication channels influences forming of public opinion.
Among methods of a psychological manipulation, in our opinion, the following is most effective: profitable comparison of candidates, "shutdown of mind of voters" on emotions, bribery of voters, vote in "image", deception, the false idea, making obviously impracticable promises by the candidate, falsification. In this context we will note that only 6% of our fellow citizens read and listen to election programmes. The others - are guided by the spontaneous principles "it is pleasant - it isn't pleasant". Moreover, most of voters badly imagines a limit of powers of a position for which the candidate applies. And candidates make any promises answering to requests of voters. Subsequently to avoid accusation in deception, these promises are stated in categories of intentions: "I know how to make it and it shall be made!", and voters, without having skills of the analysis of information blocks, perceive told as the direct promises matching their expectations. Thus, process of penetration into consciousness of voters of technologies of a manipulation in general bears negative impact on socio-political processes.
In modern communication process of the power and civil society has contradictory character. Integration of media into a communicative paradigm of the power does them by the very manipulator reflecting interests of the power, but not society. In this context the phenomenon of psychological manipulation with mass consciousness of voters practiced in the course of the electoral companies with use of methods of manipulation with consciousness of the person negatively influences the relation of citizens to institute of elections. Forming of mass political consciousness of citizens free from psychological handling technologies is important for natural
development of democracy in the country.
There is a large number of acceptances of psychological impact (manipulation). Some of them are available to mastering only after long practice (for example, the NLP),
some most of people in life freely uses, sometimes even without noticing it; it is enough to have ideas of some acceptances of manipulative impact already to be protected from them; for counteraction to others it is necessary quite good to own such acceptances (for example, the Gipsy psychological hypnosis), etc.
We will consider underwritten acceptances of a manipulation equivalent groups by efficiency. In spite of the fact that each block precedes the name inherent in it, nevertheless it is necessary to pay attention that specifics of acceptances of impact on subconsciousness very effectively affect one and all, irrespective of specific target audience or standard features of the identity of this or that person. It is explained by the fact that the mentality of the person in general has single components, and also the increased efficiency of developed techniques of the manipulations existing in the world differs only with insignificant details, and from
Manipulation methods mental consciousness of the person
1. False asking again, or deceptive amendments. In this case the manipulative effect is reached because the manipulator pretends that it wishes to understand better something for itself, asks again you, however repeats your words only in the beginning and further only partially, bringing in a sense you earlier told other sense, thereby changing a general meaning told to please itself.
In that case it is necessary to be extremely attentive, always to listen attentively to what speak to you about, and having noticed a dirty trick – to specify early you told; and to specify even if the manipulator, pretending what doesn’t notice your aspiration to refining, tries to pass to other subject.
2. Deliberate haste, or jumping of subjects. The manipulator in this case aims after scoring of any information – to pass hastily to other subject, understanding that your attention is right there reoriented on new information, so the probability that former information which wasn’t “protested” will reach subconsciousness of the listener increases; if information reaches subconsciousness, then it is known that after any information appears in unconscious (subconsciousness), through time it is
realized by the person, i.e. turns into consciousness. And if the manipulator in addition strengthened the information emotional loading, and even entered it into subconsciousness by a coding method, then such information will appear at the moment necessary to the manipulator which he also will provoke (for example, using the principle from the NLP, or, in other words, having activated a code).
Besides, as a result of haste and jumping of subjects, becomes possible for rather small period of time “to sound” a large number of subjects; so censorship of mentality won’t manage to pass everything through itself, and the probability that a certain part of information will get into subconsciousness increases, and will already influence from there consciousness of a subject to manipulations in profitable to the manipulator a key.
3. The aspiration to show the emotional neglect, or a pseudo-carelessness. In this case the manipulator tries as it is possible bezrazlichny to perceive both the interlocutor and the obtained information, thereby unconsciously forcing the person to try to convince by all means the manipulator of the importance for it. Thereby the manipulator needs only to manage information proceeding from subject to the manipulations, receiving those facts which earlier an object wasn’t going to spread.
The similar circumstance from the person to whom manipulation is directed is pledged in laws of mentality, forcing any person to aim to prove by all means the case, having convinced the manipulator (without suspecting that it is the manipulator), and using for this purpose the available arsenal of logical controllability of thoughts — that is a presentation of the new facts of the case, the facts which, in his opinion, can help it with it. What is to the good for the manipulator which
finds out information necessary for it.
As counteraction in this case it is recommended to strengthen own strong-willed control and not to give in on provocation.
4. False lameness, or imaginary weakness. This principle of manipulation is directed to aspiration from the manipulator to show to subject to manipulations the weakness and by that to achieve the desirable because if someone is weaker, the effect of condescension joins, so censorship of mentality of the person begins to function in the weakened mode, as if without perceiving information, postupayemy from the manipulator, seriously. Thus, information proceeding from the manipulator passes directly in subconsciousness, is postponed in the form of installations and patterns of behavior there, so the manipulator reaches the.
5. False love, or vigilance lulling to slip. Because one individual (manipulator) plays before another (subject to manipulations) love, excessive respect, honoring, etc. (i.e. expresses the feelings in a similar key), he tries to obtain incomparably bigger than than if openly about something asked.
6. Furious pressure, or unreasonable anger. Manipulation in this case becomes possible as a result of unmotivated rage from the manipulator. The person to whom such manipulations are directed will have a desire to comfort the one who is angry on it. For what he is subconsciously ready to make concessions to the manipulator.
Methods of counteraction can be various, depending on skills of a subject to manipulations. For example it is possible as a result of “fine tuning” (so-called calibration in the NLP) at first to dramatize in itself a spirit condition, similar in the manipulator, and after having calmed down, to comfort also the manipulator. Or, for example, it is possible to show the tranquility and an absolute emotional neglect to anger of the manipulator, thereby having confused him, so to deprive of it
a manipulative benefit. It is possible most to excite sharply rate of own aggression speech acceptances along with an easy contact of the manipulator (its brush, a shoulder, a hand …), and additional visual impact, i.e. in this case we intercept an initiative, and by means of simultaneous impact on the manipulator by means of a visual, audialny and kinaesthetic irritant – we enter it into a trance condition, so and dependences on you because in this condition the manipulator itself becomes object of our impact, and we can enter into his subconsciousness certain installations since it is known that in an anger condition any person is subject to coding (psychoprogramming). It is possible to use also other acceptances of counteraction. It is necessary to remember that in a condition of anger of the person it is easier to make laugh. It is necessary to know about such feature of mentality and in time to use.
7. Big speed, or unjustified haste. In this case we have to speak about aspiration of the manipulator due to the imposed excessively bystry tempo of speech to push some ideas, having achieved the statement by their subject to manipulations. Similar becomes possible and when the manipulator, being covered allegedly with lack of time, tries to obtain from subject to manipulations incomparably bigger than if similar occurred during the long period of time for which subject to manipulations would manage to consider the answer so and not to fall a victim of deception (manipulations).
In this case it is necessary to take a timeout (for example, to refer to an urgent call by phone, etc.), to bring down the manipulator from the speed set by him. For this purpose it is possible to play misunderstanding of some question and “stupid” asking again, etc.
8. Excessive suspiciousness, or calling of the compelled justifications. The similar type of manipulation occurs in case the manipulator plays suspiciousness in any question. As response to suspiciousness at subject to manipulations follows desire to justify oneself. Thereby the protective barrier of his mentality weakens, so, the manipulator tries to obtain the, “pushing” the necessary mental sets in his subconsciousness.
Option of protection is understanding of as persons and strong-willed opposition to attempt of any manipulative impact on your mentality (i.e. you have to show own self-confidence, and show that if the manipulator suddenly takes offense – that let takes offense and if wants to leave – you won’t run behind him following; similar should be adopted “lover”: don’t allow to manipulate itself.)
9. Imaginary fatigue, or a game in a consolation. The manipulator very clearly shows fatigue and impossibility something to prove and to listen to any objections. Thereby subject to manipulations tries to agree quicker with the words provided by the manipulator not to tire him with the objections. And, agreeing, he thereby follows the tastes of the manipulator which only and needs it.
Way of counteraction is one: not to give in on provocation.
10. Authoritativeness of the manipulator, or deception of the power. This type of manipulations proceeds from such specifics of mentality of the individual as worship of authorities on any area. Most often it turns out so that the area in which similar “authority” achieved result lies absolutely in other sphere, than its imaginary “request” now, but nevertheless subject to manipulations can’t do anything with itself as in soul most of people considers that there is always someone who reached
bigger, than they.
Opposition option – belief in own exclusiveness, the super personality; development in yourself belief in own selectness, that you are a superman.
11. The done favor, or a payment for the help. The manipulator reports about something to subject to manipulations as if advising friendly to make this or that decision. At the same time, being obviously covered with imaginary friendship (actually they can be for the first time familiar), as recommendation declines subject to manipulations to that version of the decision which is necessary first of all for the manipulator.
It is necessary to believe in himself and to remember that it is necessary to pay for everything. And it is better to pay directly i.e. before from you demand a
payment in the form of gratitude for the rendered service.
12. Resistance, or the played protest. The manipulator any words excites in soul of a subject to manipulations of feeling, the arisen barrier (censorship of mentality) directed to overcoming, in the aspiration to achieve the. It is known that the mentality is arranged in such a way that the person wants to a large extent what to him or is forbidden or for achievement of what it is necessary to make efforts. Whereas the fact that maybe it is better and more important, but lies on a surface,
actually often don’t notice.
Method of counteraction is self-confidence and will, i.e. it is always necessary to hope only for itself and not to move to weaknesses.
13. A particular factor, or from details to a mistake. The manipulator forces subject to manipulations to pay attention only to one specific detail, without having allowed to notice the main thing, and based on it to draw the corresponding conclusions made by consciousness of that for an uncontested basis of the meaning of what was said. It is necessary to notice that similar is very widespread in life when most of people dares to do the opinion on any subject, actually without having either
the facts, or more detailed information, and often and without having own opinion on what they judge, using opinion of others. Therefore such opinion is possible to impose to them, so to the manipulator to achieve the.
For counteraction it is necessary to work constantly on itself, on increase in own knowledge and the education level.
14. Irony, or manipulations with a smile. Manipulations are reached because the manipulator chooses initially ironic tone as if unconsciously calling into question any
words of a subject to manipulations. In this case subject to manipulations much quicker “flies into a rage”; and as in case of anger criticality of thinking is complicated, the person enters in CCC (the changed consciousness conditions) in which consciousness easily misses through itself early forbidden information.
For effective protection it is necessary to show the absolute indifference to the manipulator. The feeling of the superman, “electee”, will help to belong indulgently to attempt of a manipulation you – as to children’s entertainments. The similar condition intuitively right there will feel the manipulator because at manipulators sense organs are usually well developed that, we will notice, and allows them to feel the moment for carrying out the manipulative acceptances.
15. Perebivaniye, or leaving of a thought. The manipulator tries to obtain the fixed perebivaniye of a thought of a subject to manipulations, sending a conversation subject to the course necessary to the manipulator.
As counteraction it is possible not to pay attention to manipulator perebivaniye, or special speech psychotechnicians to achieve ridiculing it among listeners because if laugh at the person – all his subsequent words aren’t perceived seriously any more.
16. Ostensibility provoking, or artificiality of accusations. Manipulations of this sort become possible as a result of the message to subject to manipulations of those data which are capable to cause in it anger, so and decrease in criticality in assessment of expected information. Then such person is broken on some period for
which imposing to it the will is reached by the manipulator.
Protection – to believe in itself and not to pay attention to others.
17. An enticement in a trap, or imaginary recognition of benefit of the opponent. In this case the manipulator, performing the act of manipulation, hints at more advantageous conditions in which allegedly there is an opponent (subject to manipulations), thereby forcing the last to justify oneself in every possible way and to become open for manipulations which usually follow after this from the manipulator.
Protection – understanding of by the super personality, so quite reasonable “eminence” over the manipulator if it also considers itself(himself) “pettiness”. I.e. in this case it is necessary not to justify itself that like, isn’t present, I am not above you according to the status now, and to recognize, grinning that yes, I am higher than you, you in my dependence, and have to accept it or … Thus self-confidence, belief in own exclusiveness will help to overcome any traps on the way to your consciousness from manipulators.
18. Deception on a palm, or bias imitation. The manipulator it intends puts subject to manipulations in the certain set conditions when the person chosen as subject to manipulations, seeking to take away from itself suspicion of excessive bias in relation to the manipulator, allows to be carried out over himself to manipulations due to unconscious belief in good intentions of the manipulator. That is he as if itself would allow itself installation not to react crucially to words of the
manipulator, thereby unconsciously gives an opportunity to words of the manipulator to pass in the consciousness.
19. Intended delusion, or specific terminology. In this case the manipulation is carried out due to use by the manipulator of the specific terms not clear to subject to manipulations, and at the last, because of danger to seem illiterate, there isn’t enough courage to specify that these terms designate.
Way of counteraction – to ask again and specify unclear for you.
20. Imposing of false nonsense, or through humiliation. The manipulator seeks to reduce in every possible way a role of a subject to manipulations, hinting at his nonsense and illiteracy thus to destabilize a positive spirit of mentality of a subject to manipulations, to cast his mentality into a condition of chaos and temporary confusion, and thus to achieve performance over him the will by means of verbal manipulations and (or) coding of mentality.
Protection – not to pay attention. It is recommended to pay in general less attention to sense of words of the manipulator, and it is more on a detail around, gestures and a mimicry, or in general to pretend that you listen, and think “of the”, especially if before you the skilled swindler or the criminal hypnotist.
21. Repeatability of phrases, or imposing of thoughts. At this type of manipulation, at the expense of repeatedly repeated phrases, the manipulator accustoms subject to manipulations to any information of which is going to inform him.
Protective installation – not to fix attention in words of the manipulator, to listen to him “with half an ear”, or special speech receptions to give the conversation another turn, or to intercept an initiative and most to enter installations necessary to you into subconsciousness of the interlocutor manipulator, or many other options.
22. Wrong domyslivaniye, or reticence necessarily. In this case manipulations reach the effect for the account:
1) deliberate reticence manipulator;
2) wrong domyslivaniye subject to manipulations.
At the same time even in case of deception detection, subject to manipulations has an impression about own guilt because he hasn’t so understood, or something was caught.
Protection – exclusive self-confidence, education of super will, formation of “selectness” and the super personality.
23. Imaginary carelessness. In this situation subject to manipulation gets to a trap of the manipulator playing on a carelessness own allegedly that then, having achieved the to refer to what he allegedly hasn’t noticed (has listened) to a protest from the opponent. And as a result of similar the manipulator actually presents subject to manipulations with a fait accompli perfect.
Protection – it is accurate to find out sense of “the reached agreements”.
24. Tell “yes”, or a way to a consent. Manipulations of this sort are carried out because the manipulator seeks to construct so dialogue with subject to manipulations that that agreed with his words all the time. Thereby the manipulator skillfully brings subject to manipulations to pushing through of the idea, so and implementation of manipulation over him.
Protection – to bring down a conversation orientation.
25. Unexpected citing, or words of the opponent as the proof. In this case manipulative influence is reached due to unexpected citing by the manipulator of earlier told words of the opponent. Similar reception affects discouragingly the chosen subject to manipulations, helping the manipulator to achieve result. At the same time in most cases words can be partially invented, i.e. make other sense, than on the matter early told subject to manipulations if, in general, spoke. Words of a subject
to manipulations can be simply invented or have only insignificant similarity.
Protection – too to apply reception of false citing, having chosen in this case allegedly told words of the manipulator.
26. Effect of observation, or search of common features. As a result of preliminary observation of subject to manipulations (including in the course of dialogue), the manipulator finds or invents any similarity among themselves and an object, unostentatiously draws the attention of an object to this similarity and by that partially weakens protective functions of mentality of a subject to manipulations then pushes the idea.
Protection – it is sharp to mark out with words the dissimilarity for the interlocutor manipulator.
27. Choice imposing, or initially right decision. In this case the manipulator asks a question in such a way that doesn’t leave to subject to manipulations of a possibility of acceptance of other choice, than than that which is sounded by the manipulator. (For example, you wish to do that or it? In this case the keyword – “to do” whereas initially, perhaps, nothing to do subject to manipulations and didn’t gather. But didn’t leave him an option except as choice between the first and second.)
Protection – not to pay attention, plus strong-willed control of any situation.
28. Unexpected revelation, or sudden honesty. This type of manipulation is what after the short conversation the manipulator suddenly confidentially reports to the object chosen by it as manipulations that he intends to report something confidential and important that intends only to it because this person very much was pleasant to it, and he feels that he can entrust it the truth. At the same time subject to manipulations unconsciously has a trust to such revelation, so it is already possible to speak about weakening of protective mechanisms of mentality which by means of weakening of censorship (a criticality barrier) passes in consciousness subconsciousness a lie from the manipulator.
Protection – not to give in on provocation and to remember that it is always possible to hope only for himself. Other person can always bring (consciously, unconsciously, on coercion, as a result of hypnosis and so forth)
29. Sudden counterargument, or artful lie. The manipulator unexpectedly for subject to manipulations refers to the words which are allegedly told those early according to which the manipulator as if simply develops a subject further, making a start from them. Subject to manipulations after similar “revelations” has a sense of guilt, in its mentality the barriers pushed on the way of those words of the manipulator which before he perceived with a certain share of criticality shall break finally. Similar is possible also because most of those to whom manipulation is directed are internally unstable, has the increased criticality in relation to itself, and
therefore, the similar lie from the manipulator turns in their consciousness into this or that element of truth which as a result and helps the manipulator to achieve the.
Protection – education of will power and exclusive confidence and respect for.
30. Accusation in the theory, or imaginary lack of practice. The manipulator as an unexpected counterargument makes the demand according to which words of the subject to manipulation chosen by it as if are good only in the theory whereas in practice the situation allegedly is other. Thereby unconsciously letting know subject to manipulations that all words which are just heard by the manipulator are nothing and are good only on paper, and in a real situation everything will develop in a different way, so, actually, it is impossible to rely on such words.
Protection – not to pay attention to conjectures and assumptions of other people and to trust only in force of the mind.
Impact methods on mass media audience by means of manipulations
1. Principle of a first priority. The essence of this method is based on specifics of mentality which are arranged in such a way that takes on trust information, the first arrived in handling by consciousness. The fact that later we can obtain more reliable information often doesn’t play a role any more.
In this case the effect of perception of primary information as the truth especially as directly it is impossible to understand its contradictory nature works. And after – it is already rather difficult to change the created opinion.
The similar principle is rather successfully used in political technologies when to the competitor (by means of media) a certain accusatory material (compromising evidence), thereby is transferred:
a) creating negative opinion on it at voters;
b) forcing to justify oneself.
(In this case impact on masses way of widespread stereotypes that if someone justifies himself, it means goes it is guilty).
2. “Eyewitnesses” of events. There are allegedly eyewitnesses of events who with necessary sincerity give information beforehand transferred to them by manipulators, issuing it for own. The name of similar “eyewitnesses” is often concealed allegedly for the purpose of conspiracy, or the false name is told that along with counterfeited information nevertheless reaches effect at audience since influences on unconscious mentalities of the person, causing in it heat of feelings and
emotions as a result of which censorship of mentality is weakened and capable to miss information from the manipulator, without having determined its false essence.
3. Image of the enemy. By artificial creation of threat and thereof intensity of emotions, weight plunge into the conditions similar with CCC (the changed consciousness conditions). As a result it is easier to manage such masses.
4. Shift of accents. In this case there is a conscious shift of accents in the given material, and something not absolutely desirable for manipulators is presented on the second plan, and highlighted on the contrary – necessary for them.
5. Use of “leaders of opinions”. In this case manipulations with mass consciousness happen proceeding from the fact that when making any actions individuals are guided by leaders of opinions. Various figures which became authoritative for a certain category of the population can act as leaders of opinions.
6. Reorientation of attention. In this case becomes possible to present practically any material, without being afraid of its undesirable (negative) component. There is possible it proceeding from the rule of reorientation of attention when information, necessary for concealment, as if falls back into the shadow as if accidentally highlighted events serving to derivation of attention.
7. Emotional loading. This technology of a manipulation is based on such property of mentality of the person as emotional susceptibility to infection. It is known what in the course of life of people builds certain protective barriers on the way of obtaining information, undesirable to him. To bypass a similar barrier (censorship of mentality), it is necessary that manipulative influence has been directed to feelings. Thus, “having loaded” the necessary information with necessary emotions, becomes possible to break a barrier of reason and to cause explosion of passions in the person, having forced it to worry on some moment of the heard information. Further the effect of emotional loading which gains the greatest distribution in crowd where, as we know, the threshold of criticality is lower comes into effect. (Example. The similar effect of manipulation is applied during a number of a reality show when participants speak with voices raised and show sometimes considerable emotional excitement that forces to look behind peripetias of the events shown by them, empathizing after the main characters. Or, for example, at a performance on television of
a number of especially ambitious politicians who are impulsively crying out the ways of an exit from crisis situations thanks to what information influence feelings of individuals, and there is an emotional susceptibility to infection of audience, so a possibility of similar manipulators to force to pay attention to the given material.)
8. Ostentatious perspective. Depending on supply of the same materials it is possible to try to obtain various, time of opposite opinions from audience. That is some event can artificially “be not noticed”, and to something on the contrary, to pay special attention moreover on different channels of television. At the same time the truth as if fades into the background. Also depends on desire (or not desires) manipulators to highlight it. (For example, it is known that daily in the country there
is a set of events. Naturally, lighting all of them is impossible already purely physically. However often occurs so that any events are shown rather often, many times and on various channels; whereas something else that for certain too deserves attention – as if consciously isn’t noticed.) It is worth noticing that submission of information by means of the similar manipulative equipment leads to artificial inflating of nonexistent problems behind which aren’t noticed something important that can cause anger of the people.
9. Unavailability of information. This principle of manipulative technologies is called an information blockade. There is possible similar when the certain part of information undesirable to manipulators – consciously isn’t allowed in air.
10. Blow on an advancing. A manipulation type, osnovny on advance emission of information, negative for the main category of people. At the same time this information causes the maximum resonance. And by the time of the subsequent receipt of information and need of adoption of the unpopular decision, the audience will already be tired of a protest, and won’t react too negatively. Using a similar method in political strategies, at first endow an insignificant compromising evidence then when on the politician advanced by them the new compromising evidence appears, masses already so doesn’t react. (Are tired to react.)
11. False intensity of emotions. The manipulation method by mass media audience when the false intensity of emotions at the expense of a presentation of allegedly sensational material therefore the mentality of the person doesn’t manage to react properly is used, is created an unnecessary agiotage, and information presented later doesn’t make any more such impact because the criticality pushed by censorship of mentality decreases. (In other words, the false limit of time for which the
obtained information shall be estimated that often leads to the fact that it practically without notes from consciousness gets in unconscious the individual is created; then exerts impact on consciousness, distorting a sense of the acquired information, and also taking the place for obtaining and the corresponding assessment of information of more truthful. And in most cases we speak about impact in crowd in which the principle of criticality is difficult already in itself).
12. Effect of credibility. In this case the basis for possible manipulation consists of such component of mentality when the person is inclined to trust information, not contradicting information which is earlier available for him or representations on a case in point. In other words, if by means of media we face information with which internally don’t agree, then we consciously block the similar channel of receipt of information. And if we encounter information which isn’t contradicting our
understanding of a similar question – we continue to absorb similar information which strengthens early the created patterns of behavior and installation in subconsciousness. So becomes vozmozht also dispersal for manipulations since manipulators will consciously wedge in information, plausible for us, a part false, which as if automatically we would perceive for this. Also, according to the similar principle of a manipulation, initial submission of information, obviously adverse for
the manipulator (allegedly criticism of itself) is possible at the expense of what the belief at audience that this mass media source rather fair and truthful increases. And already later in the submitted information information necessary for manipulators is interspersed.
13. Effect of “information storm”. In this case it is necessary to say that the squall of useless information in which the truth is lost per capita collapses. The people who were exposed to a similar form of a manipulation just are tired of information flow, so, the analysis of similar information becomes difficult and manipulators have an opportunity to hide information necessary for them, but undesirable to demonstration to broad masses.
14. Boomerang effect. In case of the similar fact of manipulation there is an emission of such number of the negative information to some person that this information reaches opposite effect, and instead of the expected condemnation the similar person begins to cause pity.
15. The everyday story, or angrily with a human face. Information which can cause undesirable effect, is said by regular tone as if nothing terrible would occur. As a result of a similar form of a presentation of information, certain critical information in case of penetration into consciousness of listeners loses the relevance. Thus, criticality of perception by mentality of the person of the negative information disappears and there is an accustoming to it.
16. Unilaterality of covering of events. This method of manipulation is directed to an unilaterality of covering of events when an opportunity to express to only one party of process therefore the false semantic effect of the obtained information is reached is given.
17. Principle of contrast. This type of manipulation becomes possible when necessary information moves against the background of another, initially negative, and negatively perceived by the majority audience. In other words, against the background of black it will be always noticeable white. And against the background of bad people it is always possible to show the good person, having told about his good deeds. The similar principle is widespread in political strategies when at first possible crisis in the camp of competitors in details understands, and the correct nature of actions of the candidate necessary to manipulators which has no such crisis and can’t be is shown later.
18. Approval of the imaginary majority. Application of this technique of a manipulation masses is based on such specific component of human mentality as admissibility of making of any actions, after initial approval by their other people. As a result of a similar method of manipulations in mentality of the person the criticality barrier after such information caused approval in other people is erased. Here works the principles of imitation and susceptibility to infection – that does one, pick
up also the others.
19. Expressional blow. In case of implementation this principle shall have effect of psychological shock when manipulators try to obtain due effect intended broadcasting of horrors of modern life that causes the first reaction of a protest (due to sharp increase in an emotional component of mentality), and desire by all means to punish guilty persons. At the same time aren’t noticed that focus in case of a material feed can be consciously shifted towards competitors unnecessary
manipulators or against information seeming to them undesirable
20. False analogies, or diversions against logic. This manipulation removes an actual reason in any question, replacing it with false analogy. For example, there is the wrong comparison of various and mutually exclusive investigations which in this case are issued for one.
21. Artificial “pro-reading” of a situation. The set of various information is intentionally brought to market, interest of the public in this information thereby is tracked, and information which didn’t receive relevance in subsequent is excluded.
22. Manipulative commenting. By means of accent necessary for manipulators this or that event is covered. At the same time any event, undesirable to manipulators, when using similar technology can accept an opposite color. Everything depends on how manipulators will present this or that material with what comments.
23. Effect of presence. The link to presence on any event allows to direct a manipulative technique to the maximum achievement of necessary result. On type – the eyewitness is always right.
24. The admission (approach) to the power. The similar type of manipulation is based on such property of mentality of most of individuals as cardinal change of the views in case of investment of the similar person with necessary powers of authority.
25. Repeating. The similar method of a manipulation is rather simple. Only repeated repeating of any information that similar information was postponed in memory of mass media audience is necessary and further was used. At the same time manipulators should simplify as much as possible the text and to achieve its susceptibility counting on low-intellectual public. Strangely enough, practically only in that case it is possible to be sure that necessary information not only will be informed the gross audience, the reader or the listener, but also by them it will be correctly apprehended. And such effect can achieve repeated repeating of simple phrases. In this case information at first firmly is fixed in subconsciousness of listeners, and will influence then their consciousness, so making of acts which semantic shade is secretly pledged in information for mass media audience.
26. The truth – half. This method of manipulation is that only a part of reliable information while other part explaining a possibility of existence of the first part, is concealed by manipulators is presented to public.
In case of similar influence it is forbidden to apply the methods of direct information influence told by order, substituting the last for a request or the offer, and at the same time applying the following verbal tricks:
1. Truisms. In this case the manipulator says what is actually, but actually in his words deceptive strategy is hidden. For example, the manipulator wishes to sell in the deserted place goods in beautiful packing. He doesn’t speak: “buy”! And speaks: “Well and cold! Excellent, very cheap sweaters! All buy, won’t find such cheap sweaters anywhere!” also plays with packages of sweaters.
Such unostentatious offer of purchase is more turned on subconsciousness, works better as corresponds to the truth and there passes the critical barrier of consciousness. Really “cold” (it already one unconscious “yes”), really the package and a pattern of a sweater are beautiful (the second “yes”), and is really very cheap (the third “yes”). Therefore without any words “Buy!” at subject to manipulations is born as it seems to it, the independent, made by him decision to buy at a
bargain and occasionally an excellent thing, often even without developing a package but only having asked the size.
2. Choice illusion. In this case as, it seems, in the usual phrase of the manipulator about existence of any goods or the phenomenon some hidden statement which smoothly affects subconsciousness is interspersed, forcing to carry out will of the manipulator. For example, you aren’t asked, you will buy or not, and speak: “What you nice! And it suits you, and this thing perfectly looks! What you will take, that or this?”, and the manipulator with sympathy looks at you as though the question
that you buy this thing, is already solved. The last phrase of the manipulator contains the trap for consciousness imitating your right for the choice. But actually you are deceived as “to buy the choice – not to buy” it is replaced with the choice “to buy it or to buy that”.
3. The teams hidden in questions. In a similar case the manipulator hides the team installation under the guise of a request. For example, you should cover a door. You can tell someone: “Go and close a door!”, but it will be worse than if to issue your order a request in a question: “I very much ask you, you couldn’t cover a door?” The second option works better, and the person doesn’t feel deceived.
4. Moralny Deadlock. This case represents consciousness deception; the manipulator, asking opinion on any goods, after obtaining the answer asks the following question in which installation on performance of the action necessary for the manipulator is concluded. For example, the seller manipulator persuades not to buy, and “only to try” the goods. In this case we have a trap for consciousness as nothing dangerous or bad is it seems offered to it and it seems full freedom of any decision remains, but it is actually enough to try as the seller asks other cunning question at once: “Well as, it was pleasant? It was pleasant?”, and though the speech it seems goes about feelings of taste, but actually the question sounds: “You will buy or not?” And as a thing objectively tasty, you can’t tell on a question of the seller that it wasn’t pleasant to you, and answer that it “was pleasant”, thereby as if giving an involuntary consent to purchase. Especially as as soon as you answer the seller that it was pleasant how that, without waiting for other your words, already weighs goods and it is as if already inconvenient to you to refuse purchase especially as the seller selects and imposes the best that he has (from what is visible). A conclusion – it is necessary to think hundred times before accepting it seems as well as the harmless offer.
5. Speech reception: “than … – that …”. The essence of this speech psychoequipment is that the manipulator connects what occurs with the fact that it is necessary for it. For example, the seller of caps, seeing that the buyer long plays with a cap, deliberating to buy or not to buy, says that the client was lucky as he has found that cap which to him goes best of all. Like, the more I look at you, the more I am convinced that it so.
6. Coding. After manipulation worked, manipulators code the victim on amnesia (zabyvaniye) of all events. For example, if the Gipsy (as the specialist of top-class in hypnosis in reality, to a street manipulation) took away a ring or a chain from the victim, then she will surely say the phrase before parting: “You don’t know me and never saw! These things – a ring and a chain – strangers! You never saw them!”. In this case, if hypnosis was superficial, the charm (“charm” – as an obligatory component of suggestion in reality) passes in a few minutes. In case of deep hypnosis coding can remain years.
7. Stierlitz’s method. As the person in any conversation remembers the beginning and the end better, it is necessary not only to enter a conversation, but also proper
words which subject to manipulations shall remember to deliver in the end of a conversation correctly.
8. Speech trick “three histories”. In case of similar acceptance the following acceptance of programming of mentality of the person is performed. You are told some three histories. But unusually. To you start anew tell story No. 1. In the middle of it interrupt and begin to tell story No. 2. On the middle and it is interrupted, and begin to tell story No. 3 which is told completely. Then the manipulator doskazyvat history No. 2, and later finishes history No. 1. As a result of a similar method of programming of mentality, the history No. 1 and No. 2 are realized and remembered. And the history No. 3 is quickly forgotten and not realized, so, having been forced out from consciousness, is located in subconsciousness. But the point is that just in history No. 3 manipulators pledged instructions and teams for subconsciousness of a subject to manipulations, so it is possible to be sure that a time later this person (object) will begin to carry out the mental sets entered into his subconsciousness, and will consider at the same time that they proceed from it. Entering of information in subconsciousness – a reliable method of programming of the person on accomplishment of the installations necessary for manipulators.
9. Allegory. As a result of similar impact of handling of consciousness, information necessary to the manipulator is hidden among history which the manipulator states allegorically and metaphorically. The point is that just the hidden sense is also a thought which the manipulator in your consciousness decided to pledge. And, the more brightly the story is also more picturesquely told, the easier similar information to round a barrier of criticality and to implement information in subconsciousness. Later such information “will begin to work” often just at the moment which approach either was pledged initially, or the code, activating which the manipulator every time was pledged it is necessary to try to obtain effect.
10. Method “as soon as … that …”. Very curious method. This speech acceptance trick is in what the Gipsy guessing, for example, expecting any for certain forthcoming action of the client, tells, for example: “As soon as you will see the lifeline, directly will understand me!” Here subconscious logic of a view of the client of the palm (on “lifeline”) the Gipsy logically attaches building-up of trust to herself and all that it does. At the same time the Gipsy dexterously inserts a trap for
consciousness the end of the phrase “directly will understand me” which intonation designates another, hidden from consciousness this sense – “directly agree with everything that I do”.
11. Dispersion. Method rather interesting and effective. It is that the manipulator, telling you some story, allocates the installations with any method breaking monotony the speech, putting including so-called “anchors” (the yakoreniye equipment belongs to acceptances of neurolinguistic programming). It is possible to select the speech with intonation, loudness, a touch, gestures, etc. Thus, similar installations as if would dissipate among other words of which the information flow of this history consists. And in a consequence subconsciousness of a subject to manipulations will react only to these words, intonations, gestures and so forth. Besides the hidden teams dissipating among all conversation are very effective, and work much better, than stated otherwise. For this purpose it is necessary to be able to speak with expression and to emphasize – when it is required – proper words, it was able to allocate pauses and so forth.
Allocate the following methods of manipulative impacts for subconsciousness (equipment) for the purpose of programming of behavior of the person (subject to manipulations):
— Kinaesthetic methods (most effective): a touch to a hand, a touch to the head, any stroking, pat on a shoulder, handshake, a touch to fingers of hands, imposing of brushes on the client’s brush from above, capture of a brush of the client in both brushes, etc.
— Emotional ways: increase in emotion at the right time, decrease in emotion, emotional exclamations or gestures.
— Speech ways: change of loudness of the speech is (louder, more silent); change of tempo of speech (quicker, more slowly, than a pause); change of intonation (increase decrease); the accompanying sounds (percussions, a poshchelkivaniye fingers); change of localization of a source of a sound (on the right, at the left, from above, from below, in front, behind); change of a timbre of a voice (imperative, command, rigid, soft, insinuating, lingering).
— Visual ways: mimicry, expansion of eyes, gesticulation of hands, movements of fingers of hands, change of position of a body (inclinations, turns), change of position of the head (turns, inclinations, rises), characteristic sequence of gestures (pantomimiky), potiraniye of own chin.
— Written ways. It is possible to insert into any written text by means of technology of dispersion the hidden information, at the same time proper words allocate:
font size, other font, in other color, paragraph space, new line, etc.
12. Method of “old reaction”. According to this method it is necessary to remember that if in any situation of people strongly reacts to any irritant, then after a while it is possible to treat this person to action of such irritant again, and at him old reaction will automatically work though conditions and a situation can differ from that in which reaction was shown for the first time considerably. The classical example of “old reaction” is when the child walking in the park was unexpectedly attacked by a dog. The child strongly was frightened also in the subsequent in any, even of the safest and harmless, situations at the sight of a dog at him automatically, i.e. unconsciously, there is “an old reaction”: fear.
Similar reactions happen painful, temperature, kinestetichesky (touches), flavoring, acoustical, olfactory, etc. therefore on the mechanism of “old reaction” it is
necessary to satisfy a number of the main conditions:
a) Reflektativny reaction should be fixed whenever possible several times.
b) The applied irritant shall match as much as possible according to the characteristics the irritant applied for the first time.
c) The best and more reliable is the complex irritant using response of several sense organs at the same time.
In need of establishment of dependence on you of other person (subject to manipulations), it is necessary:
1) to cause in the course of inquiries in an object response of joy;
2) to fix similar response by any of signal methods (so-called “anchor” in the NLP);
3) in need of coding of mentality of an object “to activate” “anchor” at the necessary moment. In this case in response to your information which in your judgement shall be postponed in memory of an object the person selected for an object role will have the positive associative array, so the barrier of criticality of mentality will be broken, and such person (object) will “be programmed” on implementation conceived by you after the coding entered by you. At the same time it is recommended to check beforehand several times itself before fixing of “anchor” that on a mimicry, gestures, the changed intonation and so forth to remember reflex response of an object to the positive words for its mentality (for example, pleasant memories of an object), and to try a reliable key (a ducking, voice, a tangency, other)
Manipulations of means by television
1. Fabrication of the facts. The effect of a manipulation results from the small deviations used in case of a material feed, but operating always in one direction.
Manipulators tell the truth, only when the truth can be easily checked. In other cases try to present material in a key necessary to them. And the lie becomes the most effective when relies on the stereotype pledged in subconsciousness.
2. Selection for material of events of reality. An effective condition of programming of thinking is control of media for the purpose of submission of single information, but various words. At the same time activities of oppositional media are allowed. But their activities shall be under control and not be beyond the broadcasting permited them. Besides media use the so-called principle of democracy of noise when unnecessary the manipulator the message just die under powerful
emission of versatile information.
3. Gray and black information. In the second half of the XX century of media began to use technologies of a psychological warfare. “It is the systematic propaganda actions exerting impact on views, emotions, line items and behavior of enemy, neutral or friendly foreign groups for the purpose of support of national policy”. In a management (1964) it is said that the purpose of such war – “blasting political and social structure of the country … to such an extent degradations of national consciousness that the state becomes incapable of resistance”.
4. Big psychoses. Secret tasks of media is transformation of citizens of the country into the single weight (crowd), for the purpose of general regulation of distribution of a flow of information which processes consciousness and subconsciousness of people. As a result, it is easier to manage such crowd, and the average inhabitant implicitly trusts the most ridiculous statements.
5. Statement and repeating. Information moves in the form of ready templates which actively involve the stereotypes which are available in subconsciousness. Statement in any speech means refusal of discussion as the power of the idea which can be exposed to discussion loses any credibility. In thinking of the person there was a so-called mosaic type of culture. Media are a factor of strengthening of this kind of thinking, accustoming the person to think of stereotypes and not to include intelligence in the analysis of materials of media. By means of repeating information takes root into subconsciousness depths, there, where motives of the subsequent actions of the person arise. Excessive repeating dulls consciousness, forcing any information practically without changes to be postponed in subconsciousness. And from subconsciousness, through a certain period, such information turns into consciousness.
6. Crushing and urgency. In this technique of a manipulation used by media, complete information is divided into fragments that the person couldn’t connect them in a whole and comprehend a problem. For example, articles in the newspaper are segmented and located on different pages; the text or the telecast break advertizing.
Efficiency of this acceptance speaks so. When complete nature of a social problem is intentionally avoided, and the fractional information on it is offered as authentic “information”, results of such approach are always identical: misunderstanding … apathy and, as a rule, emotional neglect. Breaking off information on an important event on pieces, it is possible to reduce sharply impact of the message or in general to deprive of it a sense.
7. Simplification, stereotypification. This type of manipulation is based on the fact that the person – a product of mosaic culture. His consciousness is created by media. Media, unlike high culture, are intended for weight. Therefore in them tough restrictions for complexity and originality of messages were set. For this purpose that rule excuses that the representative of weight is capable to acquire adequately only simple information therefore any new information is adjusted to a stereotype
that the person perceived information without efforts and the internal analysis.
8. Sensational nature. In this case the principle of such presentation information when from separate parts it is impossible remains or it is very difficult to constitute a whole. At the same time any pseudo-sensation is allocated. And already under its cover – important news is suppressed on the present (if this news for some reason is dangerous to the circles controlling media).
Continuous bombing of consciousness, especially “bad news”, performs important function of maintenance in the society of the necessary level of “nervousness”. Such nervousness, feeling of continuous crisis, sharply increases suggestibility of people and reduces ability to critical perception.
9. Change of sense of words and concepts. Manipulators from media in this case it is free interpret words of any person. At the same time the context changes, often taking the form opposite or at least distorted.
Opening in the field of political psychology, a research of socio-political development of the modern society allow to mark that in case of establishment of the authoritative principles of control formation of democracy is in a development stage. In the conditions of ideological non-uniformity and use of psychological technologies of handling by the power by society, relevance of a subject of psychological handling consciousness of voters is caused not only complexity of a political situation in the country.