Table of Contents
About the book
About the Author
Introduction of Operating Systems
Operating System Management Tasks
Functions of Operating System
Types of Operating Systems
Some Commonly Known os
Evolution of Operating Systems
Popular os versions
mac os versions
Operating Systems – Past and Future
S BOOK GIVES DETAILED KNOWLEDGE ABOUT OPERATING SYSTEM AND ITS
AND DETAILED INFORMATION ON
VARIOUS OPERATING SYSTEM’S.THIS BOOK CONTAINS MANY USEFUL ASPECTS
ABOUT OPERATING SYSTEM AND HOW IT WORKS.SO KINDLY READ THIS BOOK
AND GET THE MOST OUT OF IT.
[* *]Autho r
C opyright © 2016 G.S.SRIDHAR
his book may be purchased for educational, business, or sales promotional use. Online
di tion is also available for this title. For more information, contact our corporate/institutional s
s department: [email protected]
While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this book, the publisher and
authors assume no responsibility for errors or omissions, or for damages resulting from the
use of the information contained herein.
G.S.SRIDHA Ris an English instructor, freelance writer, and novelist. His short stories
have appeared in numerous publications, including android a deep knowledge.He also is a
regular contributor to many popular books.
For more information log on to www.gssridhar21.blogspot.com
This book was prepared exceptionally well by accurate data and information.I have tried
to maintain the book format with the enhancement of colored illustrations.I also add several
chapters especially the evolution of operating system.
I believe that whoever read this book will get clear and detailed idea about operating
system and it will enhance their knowledge.
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reproduced in any form or by any means,electronic ormechanical including recording
hotocopying, offset or by any storage aid.The information cannot be used or retrieved in
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n of author except the reviewers who may use
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k for print purpose with credits regarded to auth r.
OF OPERATING SYSTEMS
A computer system has many resources (hardware and software), which may be require
to complete a task. The commonly required resources are input/output devices, memory,
file storage space, CPU etc. The operating system acts as a manager of the above
resources and allocates them to specific programs and users as necessary for their task.
Therefore operating system is the resource manager i.e. it can manage the resource of a
computer system internally. The resources are processor, memory, files, and I/O devices.
T wo Views of Operating System
U ser View :
The user view of the computer refers to the interface being used. Such systems are designed for one user to monopolize its resources, to maximize the work that the user is
performing. In these cases, the operating system is designed mostly for ease of use, with
some attention paid to performance, and none paid to resource utilization.
System View :
Operating system can be viewed as a resource allocator also. A computer system
consists of many resources like – hardware and software – that must be managed
efficiently. The operating system acts as the manager of the resources, decides between conflicting requests, controls execution of programs etc.
OPERATING SYSTEM MANAGEMENT
P rocessor management which involves putting the tasks into order and pairing them into
manageable size before they go to the CPU.
M emory management which coordinates data to and from RAM (random-access
memory) and determines the necessity for virtual memory.
Device management which provides interface between connected devices.
Storage management which directs permanent data storage.
Application which allows standard communication between software and your computer.
User interface which allows you to communicate with your computer.
*OPERATING SYSTEM *
It boots the computer
It performs basic computer tasks e.g. managing the various peripheral devices e.g.
It provides a user interface, e.g. command line, graphical user interface (GUI)
It handles system resources such as computer’s memory and sharing of the central
processing unit(CPU) time by various applications or peripheral devices.
It provides file management which refers to the way that the operating system
manipulates, stores, retrieves and saves data.
Error Handling is done by the operating system. It takes preventive measures whenever
required to avoid errors.
*OPERATING SYSTEM *
Following are some of the most widely used types of Operating system.
Simple Batch System
Multiprogramming Batch System
Distributed Operating System
Realtime Operating System
SIMPLE BATCH SYSTEMS
In this type of system, there is no direct interaction between user and the computer.
The user has to submit a job (written on cards or tape) to a computer operator.
Then computer operator places a batch of several jobs on an input device.
Jobs are batched together by type of languages and requirement.
Then a special program, the monitor, manages the execution of each program in the
The monitor is always in the main memory and available for execution.
Following are some disadvantages of this type of system :
Zero interaction between user and computer.
No mechanism to prioritize processes.
MULTIPROGRAMMING BATCH SYSTEMS
In this the operating system, picks and begins to execute one job from memory.
Once this job needs an I/O operation operating system switches to another job (CPU and
OS always busy).
Jobs in the memory are always less than the number of jobs on disk(Job Pool).
If several jobs are ready to run at the same time, then system chooses which one to run
In Non-multiprogrammed system, there are moments when CPU sits idle and does not do
In Multiprogramming system, CPU will never be idle and keeps on processing.
Time-Sharing Systems are very similar to Multiprogramming batch systems. In fact time
sharing systems are an extension of multiprogramming systems.
In time sharing systems the prime focus is on minimizing the response time, while in multiprogramming the prime focus is to maximize the CPU usage.
A multiprocessor system consists of several processors that share a common physical
Multiprocessor system provides higher computing power and
multiprocessor system all processors operate under single operating system. Multiplicity of
the processors and how they do act together are transparent to the others.
Execution of several tasks by different processors concurrently, increases the system’s throughput without speeding up the execution of a single task.
If possible, system divides task into many subtasks and then these subtasks can be
executed in parallel in different processors. Thereby speeding up the execution of single tasks.
DISTRIBUTED OPERATING SYSTEMS
The motivation behind developing distributed operating systems is the availability of
powerful and inexpensive microprocessors and advances in communication technology.
These advancements in technology have made it possible to design and develop
distributed systems comprising of many computers that are inter connected by
communication networks. The main benefit of distributed systems is
Following are some advantages of this type of system.
As there are multiple systems involved, user at one site can utilize the resources of systems at other sites for resource-intensive tasks.
Less load on the Host Machine.
REAL-TIME OPERATING SYSTEM
It is defined as an operating system known to give maximum time for each of the critical
operations that it performs, like OS calls and interrupt handling.
The Real-Time Operating system which guarantees the maximum time for critical
operations and complete them on time are referred to as Hard Real-Time Operating
While the real-time operating systems that can only guarantee a maximum of the time, i.e. the critical task will get priority over other tasks, but no assurity of completeing it in a defined time. These systems are referred to as Soft Real-Time Operating Systems.
The evolution of operating systems is directly dependent to the development of computer
systems and how users use them. Here is a quick tour of computing systems through the past fifty years in the timeline.
1945: ENIAC, Moore School of Engineering, University of Pennsylvania.
1949: EDSAC and EDVAC
1949 BINAC – a successor to the ENIAC
1951: UNIVAC by Remington
1952: IBM 701
1956: The interrupt
1954-1957: FORTRAN was developed
Operating Systems by the late 1950s
By the late 1950s Operating systems were well improved and started supporting
following usages :
It was able to Single stream batch processing
It could use Common, standardized, input/output routines for device access
Program transition capabilities to reduce the overhead of starting a new job was added
Error recovery to clean up after a job terminated abnormally was added.
Job control languages that allowed users to specify the job definition and resource
requirements were made possible.
Operating Systems In 1960s
1961: The dawn of minicomputers
1962 Compatible Time-Sharing System (CTSS) from MIT
1963 Burroughs Master Control Program (MCP) for the B5000 system
1964: IBM System/360
1960s: Disks become mainstream
1966: Minicomputers get cheaper, more powerful, and really useful
1967-1968: The mouse
1964 and onward: Multics
1969: The UNIX Time-Sharing System from Bell Telephone Laboratories
Supported OS Features by 1970s
Multi User and Multi tasking was introduced.
Dynamic address translation hardware and Virtual machines came into picture.
Modular architectures came into existence.
Personal, interactive systems came into existence.
Accomplishments after 1970
1971: Intel announces the microprocessor
1972: IBM comes out with VM: the Virtual Machine Operating System
1973: UNIX 4th Edition is published
1974 The Personal Computer Age begins
1974: Gates and Allen wrote BASIC for the Altair
1976: Apple II
August 12, 1981: IBM introduces the IBM PC
1983 Microsoft begins work on MS-Windows
1984 Apple Macintosh comes out
1990 Microsoft Windows 3.0 comes out
1992 The first Windows virus comes out
1993 Windows NT
2008: Android OS
And the research and development work still goes on, with new operating systems being
developed and existing ones being improved to enhance the overall user experience while making operating systems fast and efficient like they have never been before.
POPULAR OS VERSIONS-WINDOWS
Operating System Version windows
The following summarizes the most recent operating system version numbers.
Operating system Version number
Windows 10 10.0*
Windows Server 2016 10.0*
Windows 8.1 6.3*
Windows Server 2012 R2 6.3*
Windows 8 6.2
Windows Server 2012 6.2
Windows 7 6.1
Windows Server 2008 R2 6.1
Windows Server 2008 6.0
Windows Vista 6.0
Windows Server 2003 R2 5.2
Windows Server 2003 5.2
Windows XP 64-Bit Edition 5.2
Windows XP 5.1
Windows 2000 5.0
A mobile operating system (mobile OS) is an OS built exclusively for a mobile device, such as a smartphone, personal digital assistant (PDA), tablet or other embedded mobile OS. Popular mobile operating systems are Android, Symbian, iOS, BlackBerry OS and
A mobile OS is responsible for identifying and defining mobile device features and
functions, including keypads, application synchronization, email, thumbwheel and text
messaging. A mobile OS is similar to a standard OS (like Windows, Linux, and Mac) but is
relatively simple and light and primarily manages the wireless variations of local and broadband connections, mobile multimedia and various input methods.
below picture is a screenshot of iphone running ios
*AND FUTURE *
Operating systems such as Microsoft Windows, Linux and Apple OSx are the software
“bridge” between application code and computer hardware. It’s the operating system (OS)
that defines the capabilities and character of the applications that run on a given platform, and operating system evolution is a driving force behind application innovation.
The first generation of operating systems was tightly coupled to specific hardware, and was little more than libraries of drivers and control modules that allowed a program to interface with computer services. The development of time-sharing systems that allowed more than one program to run simultaneously led to more sophisticated operating systems
that included scheduling, security and other services. Nevertheless, each operating system
remained linked to the underlying mainframe or microcomputer architecture.
The emergence of the IBM personal computer represented a paradigm shift in the nature
of operating systems. The IBM PC was capable of running different operating systems
(CPM or DOS) and, more significantly, the OS was developed by a separate company. In short succession, a set of more standardized operating systems emerged, and these were
not always tightly coupled to hardware. Microsoft Windows became the defacto standard for desktops, while UNIX (and later Linux) became the standard for servers. Apple
continued to provide a tightly coupled hardware/OS offering, but, during most of the ‘80s and ‘90s, remained somewhat of a niche player.
The emergence of the web browser threatened to undermine the role of the OS. It was realized early on that some applications could be delivered purely in a web browser. Maybe
a “thin client” computer with virtually no operating system and running only browser-based applications could replace Microsoft Windows on the desktop?
The thin-client movement was premature. Browsers of that time (around the millennium) lacked the capabilities, such as AJAX, that we now know are required to build compelling applications. However, there still are active efforts to establish a browser-only operating system – Google’s ChromeOS being the most significant example.
The next OS paradigm shift occurred when Apple released the iPhone in 2007. While the
iPhone was not the first smartphone by any means, it was the first to gain widespread traction and the first that developed an active application ecosystem. Initially, Apple indicated that only “web” (e.g., browser-based) applications would be permitted on the iPhone, but very soon an SDK for iOS was released, and the iPhone application store created a new market for software applications.
Google’s Android OS has a similar relationship to Linux, effectively as a fork of Linux designed specifically for mobile platforms.
The success of the iPhone quickly led to the release of the iPad, which rapidly and more significantly disrupted the desktop market. The iPad ran a slightly modified version of Apple’s iOS, and Android-based tablets soon followed.
Microsoft – having lost its early lead in smartphone operating systems – responded by creating a version of Windows designed to support the desktop, tablet and smartphone.
Although Microsoft would claim that Windows 8 provides an integrated experience across all platforms, it’s really two operating systems – the traditional Windows for the desktop and the “modern” UI (dubbed “Tileworld” by David Pogue of the New York Times) for
These desktop and mobile OS are also increasingly integrated with distributed system
frameworks that control resources in the cloud. These frameworks can be thought of as
“cloud” operating systems that are managing access to cloud-based resources in a way similar to how the traditional OS manages hardware resources.
Ironically, although the thin client advocates were right about many things – the success of browser-based applications, in particular – they were dead wrong about the diminishing
role of the OS. More than ever, the OS is the source of competitive differentiation between
various platforms, and a clear focus of innovation for the foreseeable future.
This Ebook gives detailed information about various operating in a simple way so that everyone can understand.if you want to know about os then just give this book a try.