Open Network Learning Environments, Personal Learning Environments: An Interacti


*Forward *

Justin Harding

Jonathan Stanciu



“The need to know the capital of Florida died when my phone learned the answer. The students

of tomorrow need to be able to think creatively: they wil need to learn on their own, adapt to

new chal enges, and innovate onthefly.”

Anthony Chivetta, High School Student

We welcome you to this eBook on Open Network Learning Environments (ONLE) and Personal

Learning Environments (PLE), both very promising teaching and learning concepts based in

connectivism and constructivism that are designed to expand, personalize, and promote one’s

pursuit of learning through the power of technology.

This eBook is designed and distributed to provide information and application for ONLE and

PLE including instructional strategies, specific technology tools, process and concept models,

development and practices for teaching with ONLE and PLE, and then final y emerging

technologies in the realm.

Our hope is that you wil be able to identify and implement these teaching and learning

approaches in your learning environment.

The project was completed by educational technology (ETC) graduate students at Northern

Arizona University as part of the Masters of Education program in the Fal 2015 session.



The students would like to recognize the exceptional support of Dr. ChihHsuing Tu, professor

at Northern Arizona University for his guidance and support for this project and many others.



Foundations and Theory of PLE and ONLE

Jennifer Summers

Jessica Ybarra



Chapter Overview

Personal Learning Environments (PLEs) and Open Network Learning Environments (ONLEs)

work simultaneously to facilitate learning through participation, community, and accessibility.

Chapter 1 wil define these emerging approaches to education and explain their evolving roles.

Learning activities are provided to help readers create a PLE and engage with tools commonly

used to support ONLEs. The combination of these two theories of education are poised to move

educational technology into the future.

  • *

*Foundations and Theory of PLE and ONLEs *

Visualizing Open Network Learning Environments and Personal Learning Environments

requires a global lens which makes this Tagul an ideal representation of the concepts.

Expanding learning opportunities beyond traditional classrooms and mainstream online

platforms enables learners to engage in a learning community without borders.

Personalizing learning by utilizing PLEs is an emerging concept in education that facilitates a

connectivist approach. Individual preferences within a PLE create a studentcentric

methodology for experiencing true open network learning.


As the terms open, flexible, adaptable, studentcentric, public, and access flow between

contents, it is these terms that make learning communities possible. No longer are learning

communities defined by socioeconomic or geographical factors. Learners are able to determine

what information they access as wel as with whom they interact.

*Learning Objectives *

  • *

❏ Objective 1: Learners wil be able to locate, organize, analyze, evaluate,

synthesize, and apply information from a variety of online resources.

❏ _Learners wil create an Evernote account to save, organize and share _

_online resources they find meaningful to their online learning experiences. _

❏ Objective 2: Learners wil be able to evaluate and select information sources and

digital tools based on the appropriateness to specific tasks. _ _

❏ _Learners wil create a PLE account using Symbaloo or Netvibes to identify _

_and categorize web tools and resources that enhance their online _

_learning. _

❏ Objective 3: Learners wil be able to communicate information and ideas

effectively to multiple audiences using a variety of media and formats.

❏ _Learners wil research new Web 2.0 tools and design a EduGlogster page _

_to demonstrate how their selected Web 2.0 tool can benefit digital lifelong _

_learners. _

_Standards modified from ISTE students standards. _

[_http://www.iste.org/standards/istestandards/standardsforstudents _]

Chapter Content

  • *

[*Personal Learning Environment (PLE) *]

  • *

Traditional y instructors were sole providers of content, guiding learners in a direction that had

been determined before a course even began. With rapidly developing educational technology

and exponential y growing online resources, the shift from instructor to facilitator is inevitable.

Learners are increasingly moving toward creating a Personal Learning Environment (PLE) that

puts them in control of their learning.

A PLE by definition is a col ection of technology tools and resources integrated into a single

platform where they can be accessed, applied and mixed to facilitate learning for a specific

individual. There is not one design for a PLE but a flexible platform that meets the needs of its

owner. Creating and managing a PLE requires tools that al ow learners to easily aggregate

information. Several free services provide a place for learners to curate materials and organize

their PLE: SymbalooEDU and NetVibes.

PLEs support learning in a variety of ways: facility, interface, system, tools, knowledge network and social landscape (Buchem, 2010). In Learning Activity 2 of this chapter, information on


creating an interface and system are provided. Learning Activity 3 provides resources for Web

2.0 tools that can be added to your PLE platform. Once the interface and system are designed

and tools are integrated, a PLE becomes a place that facilitates learning via the knowledge

network and social landscape.

While many educators may see PLEs as merely an online notebook, acceptance that PLEs

facilitate learning has increased in recent years. In 2015, del BarrioGarcía, Arquero, and

RomeroFrías concluded “The educational design is based on the idea of the personal learning

environment (PLE 2.0), whose aim is to help students to develop academic and professional

uses of services (such as blogs, wikis, social networks, etc.) that are general y employed for

social purposes. By doing so, they could gain autonomy in their learning process and improve

their competences for lifelong learning.”

Personal Learning Environments wil continue to gain momentum and may ultimately become

the center of learning for al educational endeavors.

  • *

[*Open Network Learning Environment (ONLE) *]

  • *

Much like the rapid growth of PLEs, Open Network Learning Environments are on the verge of

becoming a primary resource for education.

In its infancy, online learning became a viable option for reducing costs and expanding a

studentbase. Unfortunately, the application of online learning did not live up to expectations as

“Most campuses have simply bolted new technologies onto a fixed plant, a fixed faculty, and a

fixed notion of classroom instruction. Under these circumstances, technology becomes part of

the problem of rising costs rather than part of the solution” (Twigg. 2003). As online learning

evolved, platforms such as Content Management Systems and Learning Management Systems

began to emerge in order to facilitate design and instruction. This option helped online learning

to move closer to its potential to reduce costs and expand student populations.

However, as early as 2010, higher education began to see structured online learning via a CMS

or LMS as “ a symbol of the status quo that supports administrative functions more effectively

than teaching and learning activities” (Mott, 2010). As a result, K12 education is now feeling the

pressure to prepare students to enter highereducation with the required technology skil s.

  • *

*Enter ONLE *

As defined by Tu (2014), an Open Network Learning Environment “is a digital environment that

empowers learners to participate in creative endeavors, conduct social networking, organize

and reorganize social contents, and manage social acts by connecting people, resources, and

tools by integrating Web 2.0 tools to design environments that are total y transparent, or open to

public view; the same architecture can be used to design the degree of openness users feel is

necessary to the situation.”


Key ideas within this definition center around the openness and the flexibility inherent to this

approach. Learners are participating in the environment by building information instead of

consuming information provided to them (Tu, 2014). ONLE surpasses the expectations of online

learning by operating at substantial y lower costs than a CMS/LMS platform and expanding

student populations global y.

Although the CMS and LMS delivery systems are pervasive in the online learning arena, the

potential exists for ONLEs to surpass them. The chal enges are to build the skil s necessary for

learners to use the technology required as wel as the intrinsic motivation to participate in a

studentcentric model for learning and to shift traditional education paradigms to support

learning in ONLEs.

*Network Learning Activities *

  • *

[*Activity 1: Creating an Evernote Account *]

  • *

Evernote is a digital notebook tool that al ows learners to capture and save any resources, such

as articles, videos, blogs, web 2.0 tools, or online books, and then store or share these

resources in an organized way using the features of folders, tags, and notes on the Evernote

website. Any online learner can create a free Evernote account by visiting Evernote.com, and

also download the Evernote mobile app and web clipper tool to make saving, organizing and

sharing information easy and accessible from anywhere at anytime.

1. Read David Andrade’s blog Evernote for Education to gain a better understanding of how and why Evernote can impact your daily online learning experiences.

2. Visit Evernote.com to create a free account.

3. Watch at least 2 videos from the list below.

● What is Evernote?

● How to Use Evernote Effectively


● The 11 Amazing Features That Make Using Evernote So Freaking Awesome

● How to use Evernote Web Clipper

4. Using Google, or your prefered search engine, search the topic “ _personal learning _

[_environments for online learners”. _]From your search locate an online resource (video, article, blog post, ebook) that interests you about Personal Learning Environments (PLEs).

5. Save the online resource you located from your Google search on “ _personal learning _

[_environments for online learners” _]to one of your Evernote folders. You can copy and paste the link of your PLE resource into one of your Evernote folders or use the web clipper tool to clip the

resource directly from the resource website page to save it directly to a folder on Evernote.

6. Open your saved or clipped PLE resource from your Evernote folder and click the share

button at the top right of the screen. Then click the link tab to get a link that can be shared for

others to have access to the same PLE resource.

7. Share this link on our class Padlet page so that your peers and instructor can also benefit from the resource on PLEs you located during your Google search.

8. You may also leave comments on your peers posts of resources on the Padlet page to share

your learning from interacting with these online resources.

9. Visit our Nabble discussion board topic Evernote for Online Learning and answer the discussion questions posted on this topic. Read your peers submissions to these discussion

questions and respond to at least 3 posts with your insights about their responses.

[*Activity 2: Creating a Personal Learning Environment (PLE) *]

According to the authors of Educause Learning Initiative, “The term _personal learning _

[_environment _](PLE) describes the tools, communities, and services that constitute the individual educational platforms learners use to direct their own learning and pursue educational goals”

(2009). With the vast amount of resources and web tools that inspire our daily learning, online

learners can enhance their online learning experiences by creating a PLE that wil support their

individualized learning needs and continue to grow as their everyday formal and informal

learning becomes more advanced over time.

1. Creating a PLE account. You may use Symbaloo or Netvibes to create your PLE


2. If you have chosen Symbaloo for your PLE account watch these introductory videos:

Symbaloo Tutorial

Using Symbaloo in Education

If you have chosen Netvibes for your PLE account watch these introductory videos:

What is Netvibes?

Video Tour of Netvibes

3. Think about how creating your PLE wil enhance your daily online learning and support your


future online learning by reflecting on Jeremy Hiebert’s model for Personalized Learning

Environments (2006).

When creating and sustaining our personalized learning environments we should also keep in

mind how our PLE can connect us with other online learners to broaden our sharing and

receiving of knowledge. Here are 4 activities that Jeremy Hiebert suggests make a strong and

inspiring PLE for online learners:

● Col ecting: aggregating, storing, organizing and filtering contacts, artifacts and


● Reflecting: reviewing, connecting concepts, synthesizing, blogging, working in

private/public groups

● Connecting: people and information, groupforming, shared goals and interests (and


● Publishing: select, modify, combine and publish; eportfolios, blogs, etc.

To read more about PLE models such as Jeremy Hiebert’s visit Models for Designing Your

Personal Learning Environment by Connie Malamed.


4. Adding tiles or widgets to your PLE. Now that you have your PLE account you wil begin

adding tiles/widgets to your dashboard that wil support and enhance your learning goals and

provide outlets for connecting with other online learners.

First add these required tiles/widgets to your PLE:

● Gmail, YahooMail, or other prefered email account

● At least 1 social networking site (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram)

● Our Nabble Discussion Board

● Your Evernote account

● Google Calendar/Agenda

● At least 2 web 2.0 tools (EduGlogster, Prezi, EduBlog, Padlet)

Need some ideas? Here are 101 Web 2.0 Teaching Tools available to online learners.

5. After you add the required tiles/widgets above continue personalizing your PLE for your

individual learning needs by adding at least 3 more to your PLE dashboard.

Examples of optional online tools to add to your PLE:

● Top 15 Most Popular News Websites

● Online Dictionary or Thesaurus

● Your Google Drive account

● YouTube or TeacherTube

● Online ebooks

● Favorite Blog pages

Here is an example of my PLE using Symbaloo. As I continue as an online learner and my

knowledge and online network connections grow, my PLE wil also continue to grow, change,

and adapt to my personal learning needs.


6. Now that you have added multiple tiles/widgets to your PLE you wil need to organize these

online tools into categories or in a way that makes it easy for you to locate within your PLE

dashboard. You may choose to organize your tiles/widgets in any way that makes the most

sense to your learning goals and daily learning needs.

7. Take a screenshot of your PLE dashboard, like my screenshot above, and post the image on

our Nabble discussion board Organizing Your PLE to answer and communicate with others about the fol owing questions:

● What tiles/widgets wil benefit your current online learning the most, why?

● How did you choose to organize your PLE? How wil this setup of your PLE support your

learning needs?

● Thinking about your current PLE, and how it may change over time, how do you think

your PLE wil encourage you to be a digital lifelong learner?

● Do you have any questions or troubleshooting issues that we can communicate about?

8. Use this Rubric to determine if you successful y completed the tasks for Activity 2.

[*Activity 3: Exploring Web 2.0 Tools That Enhance ONLE Experiences *]

Applying Web 2.0 tools to your online learning experiences wil inspire you to build upon your

skil s of online communication, col aboration, creativity, and your contribution to producing

online content. Web 2.0 tools al ow learners to locate, produce, and share online content in the

forms of video, text, audio and images, making it possible for any learner to find online tools that

meet their every learning need. In this activity you wil explore various Web 2.0 tools that can

benefit your learning goals and chal enge you in participating in ONLEs as a lifelong digital



1. Explore new Web 2.0 Tools by visiting the webpage links listed below. Make sure you

try out the web tools that look most interesting to you and create accounts (most web 2.0

accounts are free) for each tool that you find meaningful to your online learning needs.

By creating accounts for the Web 2.0 tools you have an interest in you wil be able to

explore each tool on a deeper level and test out how it’s features work and how each

tool may benefit you as a lifelong learner.

Webpages for discovering new Web 2.0 tools:

● http://www.kidsdiscover.com/teacherresources/web20toolsclassroom/

● http://www.livebinders.com/play/play?id=130510

● http://www.emergingedtech.com/2014/05/20excel entfreetoolsforinteractivecol abora


● https://21centuryedtech.wordpress.com/2012/01/31/tensitessupportingdigitalclassroo

mcol aborationinprojectbasedlearning/

2. From the Web 2.0 tools you explore select one tool that you find most valuable to your

current online learning goals. Make sure that you have created an account with the tool you

select so that you gain experience with using the features that this tool provides, and that you

have an understanding of how it works. Spend time researching this tool so that you are

knowledgeable about how it can impact online education in ONLEs. Think about how this tool

connects learners on the web and how those network connects enhance personal learning

experiences. It would be beneficial to locate articles, videos and examples of how other

learners have applied this Web 2.0 tool to their educational needs.

3. You wil create a Glog page using EduGlogster.com that teaches other learners about the Web 2.0 tool you selected in step 2. If you are a new user to EduGlogster here is a Glogster

presentation tutorial of how to create a free account and an overview of the tools needed to create your Glog page. Visit our Glogster for Education Glog page if you would like to view a completed Glog for inspiration. Your Glog page should have:

● A description of the Web 2.0 tool you have selected

● A video tutorial or images of the features provided by your Web 2.0 tool

● At least 2 resources links to other web pages, videos, blogs of how other online learners

implement this Web 2.0 tool for their learning needs.

● A description of why this tool wil benefit online learners and enhance their ONLE


Here is an example of a Glog page that introduces the Web 2.0 tool Glogster to other online users. If you prefer you may locate a premade Glog page from the Glogpedia Library for templates that you can remix with your own information about the web 2.0 tool you have

selected to create your Glog page about.

4. Share your completed Glog page link on our Nabble discussion board Web 2.0 Tools That

Support ONLEs. Along with submitting your link answer the fol owing questions on the discussion page:

● How does your Web 2.0 tool inspire ONLE instructional strategies?


● What features of this Web 2.0 tool make it valuable for digital lifelong learners?

5. Visit at least 3 of the Glog pages submitted on the discussion board by other learners and

provide feedback about your learning or questions from the information on each Glog. Make

sure to try your best to support the learning of others by answering their questions or locating

resources that can help guide them to an answer.

*Readings *

○ Required Readings

○ Chapter 2: Concepts of PLE & ONLE

○ Open For Learning: The CMS and the Open Learning Network

○ Optional/Suggested readings

○ Personal Learning Environments Acceptance Model: The Role of Need for

Cognition, eLearning Satisfaction and Students’ Perceptions

  • *

*Teaching Resources *

○ Academic Identity and the PLE

  • *

*Discussion Questions *

Please think about, answer, and communicate about the fol owing discussion questions on our

Chapter 1 Discussion Questions Nabble board.

○ How can applying web tools like Evernote to your ONLEs enhance your personal online

learning experiences and your online col aboration with other learners?

○ What are 3 of the web tools/resources in you PLE that wil inspire col aboration with your

online peers?

○ How can sustaining your PLE support your lifelong learning goals?

○ How can your PLE support your ONLE experiences? * *

  • *

[*Network Learning Resources & References *]

○ To view al the resources used in this chapter please visit JYDelicious and JSDelicious

pages and search for the tags listed below.

○ [_ETC655, ch1foundations/theories textbook, PLE, ONLE, online learning, Web _]

2.0, EduGlogster, Symbaloo, Netvibes, Evernote, _ [_* *] _Personal Learning _

_Environment, Open Network Learning Environment, PLE, ONLE, ETC655, _

Chapter1 * *


○ *Glossary *

○ Personal Learning Environment (PLE): a col ection of technology tools and resources integrated into a single platform where they can be accessed, applied

and mixed to facilitate learning for a specific individual

○ Open Network Learning Environment (ONLE): An online learning network open to al online users that involves the communication and col aboration of learners

using web tools to gain and share knowledge.

○ Tiles/Widgets: Buttons or tools with embedded codes that you can add into your web pages that link to interactive multimedia tools.

○ Connectivism: the integration of principles explored by chaos, network, and complexity and selforganization theories

○ Online Learning Community: In an online learning community, people share knowledge via textual discussion (synchronous or asynchronous), audio, video,

or other Internetsupported media. Blogs blend personal journaling with social

networking to create environments with opportunities for reflection.

● References

101 Web 2.0 teaching tools. (2013). Retrieved December 14, 2015, from


Andrade, David. (n.d.). Evernote for education. Educational technology guy. Retrieved

December 14, 2015, from


Ash, Katie. (2013). Personal learning environments focus on the individual. Education


Retrieved from

http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2013/05/22/32elpersonal earning.h32.html

Buchem, Ilona. (2010). Definitions of personal learning environment. Retrieved from



Dabbs, Lisa. (2012). Using web 2.0 tools in the classroom. Retrieved December 14, 2015,

from http://www.kidsdiscover.com/teacherresources/web20toolsclassroom/

del BarrioGarcía, S., Arquero, J. L., & RomeroFrías, E. (2015). Personal Learning

Environments Acceptance Model: The Role of Need for Cognition, eLearning

Satisfaction and Students’ Perceptions. [_Journal Of Educational Technology & _]

Society, 18(3), 129141.



DiscoverBusiness.us. (2015). How to use evernote effectively: top 5 things you’l want to

know. Retrieved December 14, 2015, from https://youtu.be/djQr5STdIxs

Educause Learning Initiative. (2009). 7 things you should know about personal learning

Environments. Retrieved December 14, 2015, from




Evernote. (2013). How to use evernote web clipper. Retrieved December 14, 2015, from


Evernote Scott. (2012). Evernote tips: the 11 amazing features that make using evernote

so freaking awesome. Retrieved December 14, 2015, from


Glogpedia. Retrieved December 14, 2015, from http://edu.glogster.com/glogpedia

Glogster. Retrieved December 14, 2015, from


Good, Robin. (2006). What are web widgets? (1/5). Retrieved December 15, 2015, from


Gorman, Mike. (2012). Ten sites supporting digital classroom col aboration in project

based learning. (2012). Retrieved December 14, 2015, from


ssroomcol aborationinprojectbasedlearning/

Greer, Michael. (2013). Video tour of netvibes: a power tool for selfdirected learning &

research. Retrieved December 14, 2015, from https://youtu.be/moVpU4_JSbA

Hal , Lynda. (2012). Symbaloo tutorial. Retrieved December 14, 2015, from


How to create a personal learning environment to stay relevant in 2013. (2013). Retrieved

December 14, 2015, from



ISTE Standards for Students. (2007). International standards for technology education.

Retrieved December 15, 2015, from


Malamed, Connie. (n.d.). Models for designing your personal learning environment. The

elearning coach. Retrieved December 14, 2015, from



Marshal , D. Academic Identity and the PLE. [Prezi]. Retrieved from


Mims, Lisa. (n.d.). Edudemic’s best web 2.0 classroom tools chosen by you. Retrieved

December 14, 2015, from http://www.livebinders.com/play/play?id=130510

Mott, Jon. (2010, March 3). Envisioning the postLMS era: the open learning network.

Educause. Retrieved from http://er.educause.edu/

Mott, J. and Wiley, D. (2009). Open for learning: the CMS and the open learning network.

in education. 15.2. Retrieved from


Ms. Computer Teacher. (2013). Using symbaloo (a bookmarking service) in education.

Retrieved December 14, 2015, from https://youtu.be/Kbp2CSS7cnk

Netvibes. (2011). What is netvibes? Retrieved December 14, 2015, from


Siemens, George. (2005). Connectivism: a learning theory for the digital age. International

Journal of Instructional Technology & Distance Learning, 2.1. Retrieved from



Think Switch. (2013). What is evernote? (Animated Infographic). Retrieved December 14,

2015, from https://youtu.be/1p_7snQhdLI

Top 15 most popular news websites. (2015). Alexa. Retrieved December 14, 2015, from


Twigg, Carol A. (2003). New models for online learning. Educausereview. Retrieved from


Tu, C. H., SujoMontes, L., Yen, C. J., Chan, J.Y., & Blocher, M. (2012) The integration of

personal learning environments & open network learning environments.

TechTrends 56(3), 1319. Retrieved December 15, 2015, from



Tu, C. H. (2014). Concepts of PLE & ONLE. In C. H. Tu, Strategies for building a Web 2.0

learning environment. ABCCLIO. Retrieved from



Walsh, Kel y. (2014). Awesome free ed tech resources ebook. Retrieved December 14,

2015, from

http://www.emergingedtech.com/2014/05/20excel entfreetoolsforinteractivecol


Ybarra, Jessica & Summers, Jennifer. (2015). Glogster for education. Retrieved

December 14, 2015, from http://msjey.edu.glogster.com/glogsterforeducation/




Instructional Strategies for PLE and ONLE

Scott Icenogle

Gretchen Roberts



*About this Chapter *

  • *

This chapter is designed to introduce the concept of Personal Learning Environment

(PLE) and Online Networked Learning Environment (ONLE) Instructional Strategies to the

reader. A clear understanding of how and when to use PLE and ONLE strategies is essential for

success in the virtual classroom environment. In this chapter, we will explore PLE, ONLE, and

their strategies to help current and future instructors to improve and enhance learners’ academic

well being.

This chapter contains three exercises that will help the learner become familiar with

operating outside of a Learning Management System. In these exercises, teachers will

exeperience the creation of a PLE and will utilize digital tools that will support two of the sixteen

ONLE Instructional Strategies. Learners will explore different ONLE strategies in order to see

how they relate to learning strategies. Various tools and techniques will be used to gauge

understanding with this new teaching and learning environment.

*Learning Objectives *

❏ Learners will be able to describe PLE and ONLE Strategies.

❏ Learners will be able to state how PLE and ONLE relate to Online Learning.

❏ Learners will be able to select a strategy for use in the classroom.


*Instructional Strategies for PLE and ONLE *

There are many different instructional strategies that can be used to enhance Personal

Learning Environments (PLEs) and Online Networked Learning Environments (ONLEs), all of

which involve the use of computers and most of which require connection to the World Wide

Web or other networks. As seen in Fig. 1, all of these theories, methodologies, technologies, etc.

come together to form virtual learning environments.

PLE is essentially a space that is custom designed by a learner to suit their own learning

needs and interests. This environment, often in a dashboard form, may include a variety of tools,

resources, and databases, either embedded or linked. Some examples of tools might be

calculators, calendars, graphics generating software, document production software, and more.

Resources might be any variety of Web 2.0 and cloudbased applications that support the

learning process; indeed, the sheer volume of resources available today is so vast that listing

them would be impossible. These resources continue to be developed, published, and used every

day. A dashboard, itself, is a resource since it is a platform by which all of the learning tools,

resources, and data feeds can be linked and accessed. Google Docs could be considered to be

both a tool and a resource, and the same is true of Wikis. In fact, Wikis can also be a data base as


well. Social networks can also be considered tools, resources, and databases/feeds, depending on

the way the learner uses them.

Perhaps the PLE we are most familiar with is the Desktop of our personal computers. We

place links to all of those items we use most frequently for our computer use, but desktops are

limited in their linkage to online resources. PLEs can also be found in online courses, where all

the links and tools necessary to function in a course are linked or embedded in the Learning

Management System (LMS); however, LMSs are most often designed by an instructor who has

decided what the students will need to perform in the class, rather than allowing the student to

design this personal learning space as he or she deems best.

ONLEs, in contrast, are open to multiple learners simultaneously and develop from the

needs and interests of the entire community rather than strictly the individuals. These

environments are highly dynamic, changing constantly as the system develops. Many of the

same tools, resources, and databases can be found in ONLEs as you might find in PLEs. What is

significantly different between ONLEs and PLEs is that ONLEs serve an entire community,

whereas PLEs are primarily centered around individual needs and interests. So, we can find that

many PLEs will link to these ONLEs such that a vast web of interrelations is created. ONLEs

can be established through social networks like Myspace, Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, etc. or

they may be created in spaces like Google Sites where learners with common interests might use

Google Hangouts or something similar (i.e. Skype, Collaborate, Adobe Connect, etc.).

Furthermore, ONLEs can, and often do, build up through and utilize several networks at the

same time. Those who “Friend” someone on Facebook might also “Follow” that same person on

Twitter. When common interests lead to common goals, these following friends might also

decide to create a more exclusive private network in Google Hangouts that meets every

Wednesday at 4:00 pm for more detailed and focused conversation and collaboration.

ONLEs are often informal learning environments that rely more on common interests and

goals than on a structured environment. This is not to say that these environments cannot be

formally structured, but a formal structure can be limiting to the synergistic nature of networked

community based learning where the interests may shift over time. Structuring a course in an

ONLE with very specific learning objectives that are asserted in a formal way are limited to the

hierarchical structure of a formal course whether the instructor is essentially the governor.

However, it is possible for an instructor to play the role of a coach rather than instructor,

moderating and facilitating rather than dictating. This opens a space for learners to become more

actively engaged in the learning process rather than passively opening their heads for the

instructor to poor knowledge in.


*Content *

Instructional strategies are techniques that teachers use to promote self regulated

learning (Alberta Learning, 2002). We also know that students learn best when they have

opportunities to explore, debate, discuss, examine, defend, and experiment (DeCartes, 2015).

Chapter one provided an introduction to PLE and ONLE. In this chapter, we provide an

introduction to the Instructional Strategies that are available to enhance thee learning of students.

*Learning Interactions *

How leaners interact in the learning environment is an important part of an PLE and

ONLE. The following figure displays the connection between the various interactions in the

learning process.

The instructional strategies we would like to introduce are the following:

❏ Learning and Cognitive Theories: Instructional strategies based how information is absorbed, processed, and retained. These include the following substrategies.

❏ Situated Cognition

❏ Constructivism

❏ Information Processing


❏ Connectivism

❏ Social Constructivism

❏ Learnercentered Theories: A shift in focus where the leaner takes responsibility/

active role in learning.

❏ Adult Learning

❏ Creativity

❏ Affective Domain

❏ Multiple Intelligences and Learning Styles

❏ Motivation

❏ Inquirybased Strategies: Strategy that begins with asking questions, or posing problems and scenerios; rather than just presenting information.

❏ Casebased

❏ Ibased

❏ Problembased Instruction

❏ Constructionism

❏ Transformative Learning

❏ Conceptual Change

❏ Socialcentered Theories

❏ Learning Communities

❏ Cooperative Learning

❏ Directed Instruction Strategies: Teaching strategy that uses straighforeward methods to teach a particular lesson.

❏ Reading Recovery

❏ Reciprocal Teaching

*Conclusion *

In this chapter you have learned about instructional strategies that can be used in PLE and

ONLE. These included Learning and Cognitive Theories, Learnercentered Theories,

Inquirybased Strategies, SocialCentered Theories, and Direct Instruction Theories. The

strategies can be used alone or in combination with one another. It is important to use

Instructional Strategies, so that the learner meets the learning goals.

*Learning Activities *

Network Learning Activity 1: Creating an sample PLE

Network learning activity using” PLE, RRS Feed, 3rd party linkage, Mobile Learning,

LearnerInterface Interaction.

Platform Used: Netvibes

This activity supports:


Objective 3: Learners will be able to select a strategy for use in the classroom.

Objective: Learners will be able to create a PLE, that supports ONLE Philosophy, and can be

used for demonstration purposes for future audiences.

Task 1: Research, identify, and select a PLE that you will use as a demonstration for your future


*Task 1.1 Add tools and strategies *

  • *

Once you have selected you PLE, select five(5) Web 2.0 tools to add to your PLE.

● Add the Web 2.0 tools to your PLE

● Identify which 16 ONLE Strategies relates to your tools.

*Task 1.2 Discussion and Evaluation *

  • *

Use the Rubric to do the following:

● Share a screen shot of your PLE and Web 2..0 tools in the discussion area.

● Provide a brief description as to why you choose your selected PLE.

● Provide a description of your Web 2.0 tools, and indicate which ONLE

Strategy they relate to.

● Respond to at least two postings from others in the class.


Network Learning Activity 2: Using a Web 2.0 Tool

Networking learning activity using “Checking for Understanding”exit ticket, active learning,

student interaction, and mobile learning.

Platform used: Poll Everywhere

This activity supports:

2. Learners will be able to state how PLE and ONLE relate to Online Learning.

3. Learners will be able to select a strategy for use in the classroom.

Objective: Learners will be able to support the ONLE Philosophy by creating an exit ticket using

a web 2.0 tool.

Task 1: In this activity, you will be creating an Exit ticket. Consider what you have learned so far

in this chapter. When you select your question(s), consider the format of how you would like

students to respond. In other words, do you want them to respond to “Open Ended”, Closed, or

provide details. With this activity, Poll everywhere is a great tools that has mobile capabilities.

However learners may select a Web 2.0 tool of their choosing.

Task 2.1 After selecting a Web 2.0 tool of your choice create an Exit Ticket.

● Add your question(s) to the tool.

● Generate the Exit Ticket

● Optional: Have a fellow leaner try your exit ticket out


Task 2.2 Discussion and Evaluation

Use the Rubric to do the following: Share a screen shot of your Exit Ticket in the discussion area.

Provide a brief description as to why you choose your selected Web 2.0 tool.

Provide a description of your Web 2.0 tool, and indicate which ONLE Strategy they relate to.

Respond to at least two postings from others in the class

[*Network Learning Activity 3: Using a Mobile Video Tool *]

  • *

Networking learning activity using Mobile Learning, Video Production, Social Networking,

LearnerLearner Interaction.

Platform used: Periscope

This activity supports:

Objective 1: Learners will be able to describe PLE and ONLE Strategies.

Objective 2: Learners will be able to state how PLE and ONLE relate to Online Learning.

Objective 3: Learners will be able to select a strategy for use in the classroom.

Objective: Learners will explore and demonstrate their understanding of the ONLE Philosophy

by creating and sharing a video.

Task 3: In this activity you will create and share a video that you record through your mobile

device. When selecting what you will record, consider how it will enhance students

understanding of the lessons presented in class, and how it will help their understanding and

participation in being good digital citizens.


Task 3.1 After selecting a mobile tool for recording and sharing video do the following:

● Download the application on your device

● Select what you want to record

● Record and save your video

Task 3.2 After recording and saving your video do the following:

● Select a social networking site. Consider using a site that your students will have access

to. Perhaps you already have a class site/page.

● Post your video.

Task 3.3 Discussion and Evaluation

Use the Rubric and do the following:

● Share a link to your video post in the discussion area.

● Provide a brief description as to why you choose your selected Mobile Video


● Provide a description of your Mobile Video Tool and indicate which ONLE

Strategy they relate to.

● Respond to at least two postings from others in the class.

Chapter Assessment Rubrics


*Readings *

  • *

Exit Tickets Teach Like a Champion

How to use Periscope

How to use Netvibes

The Role of Teachers in Personal Learning Environments, by ZA Shaikh

Instructional Design Models and Theories: The Cognitive Flexability Theory

Five Characterisics of Leaner Centered Teaching

What is Inquiry Based Learning

Direct Instruction Teaching Method: Definition, Examples, and Strategies

*Teaching Resources *

Presentation Instructional Strategies for PLE and ONLE

Teach Like a Champion, by Lemov, D.—great resource for teachers. Can be bought at Amazon.

Turn Your Classroom Into a Personal Learning Environment

ISTE Standards for Teachers

ISTE Standards for Students

*FollowUp Discussion Questions *

1. What did you find most interesting in creating your PLE?

2. Did you find the Mobile Video Activity engaging? Did you enjoy its capabilities?

3. What instructional strategy fit best with your activities?

4. Do see the potential power in creating Exit Tickets?

*Glossary *

PLE: Personal Learning Environment. Digital tool that enables learners to develop and expand

on their learning content.

[*Web 2.0 Tool: *]Digital Tool that allows learners to connect their learning in interactive ways.

[*ONLE: *]Open Network Learning Environment

[*Exit Ticket: *]A strategy by which teachers can check to see if their students understood the

lesson, concept, or term.


[*Video: *]Visual medium that often records subjects in action.

[*Mobile Device: *]A device that can travel anywhere. Includes Smartphones, Laptops, and

Wearable tech.

*Resources and References *

Social Tagging

Delicious: Chapter 2 ETC 655 Icenogle Roberts


Direct Instruction Teaching Method: Definition, Examples & Strategies Video & Lesson

Transcript | Study.com. (n.d.). Retrieved December 17, 2015, from



Ellis, W. Retrieved December 17, 2015, from



Inquirybased Learning: Explanation. (n.d.). Retrieved December 17, 2015, from


Instructional Design Models And Theories: The Cognitive Flexibility Theory eLearning

Industry. (2015, May 30). Retrieved December 17, 2015, from


Instructional Strategies. (2014, June 24). Retrieved December 17, 2015, from


Lemov, D. (2010). Teach like a champion: 49 techniques that put students on the path to college.

San Francisco: JosseyBass Inc Pub

(n.d.). Retrieved December 17, 2015, from


(n.d.). Retrieved December 17, 2015, from http://edutechwiki.unige.ch/en/Casebased_learning

(n.d.). Retrieved December 17, 2015, from https://education.alberta.ca/media/352984/is.pdf

(n.d.). Retrieved December 17, 2015, from


(n.d.). (2013). Retrieved December 17, 2015, from


(n.d.). Retrieved December 17, 2015, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conceptual_change

(n.d.). Retrieved December 17, 2015, from


(n.d.). Retrieved December 17, 2015, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cooperative_learning

(n.d.). Retrieved December 17, 2015, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learning_community

(n.d.). Retrieved December 17, 2015, from


(n.d.). Retrieved December 17, 2015, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reading_Recovery


(n.d.). Retrieved December 17, 2015, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reciprocal_teaching

(n.d.). Retrieved December 17, 2015, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_constructivism

(n.d.). Retrieved December 17, 2015, from


(n.d.). Retrieved December 17, 2015, from


(n.d.). Retrieved December 17, 2015, from


(n.d.). Retrieved December 17, 2015, from http://web.cortland.edu/frieda/id/IDtheories/46.html

(n.d.). Retrieved December 17, 2015, from http://www.etsu.edu/fsi/learning/infoprocessing.aspx

(n.d.). Retrieved December 17, 2015, from


(n.d.). Retrieved December 17, 2015, from


(n.d.). Retrieved December 17, 2015, from


Pappas, C. Retrieved December 17, 2015, from




Web 2.0 Technologies in PLE and ONLE

Amy Faul

Eileen Geronimo

Janice Hoyt



Chapter Overview

  • *

“Web2.0technology integration requires a high level of learnercentered skil s to create a

Personal Learning Environment (PLE) and Open Network Learning Environments(ONLE).

This is a new dilemma that educators and students face because Web 2.0 integration requires

a shift from a more teacher and institution centered mindset to a more distributed, personalized

efforts and col aboration. To resolve potential negative learning impacts by Web 2.0

integrations, educators should create an effective ONLE and invite students to build their own

PLEs to achieve effective open network communication, interaction,and col aboration.”

*Web 2.0 Technologies in PLE and ONLE *

_*The Tagul image above depicts some of the most essential and effective Web 2.0 technologies _

_used in conjunction with ONLE and PLE. _


❏ Objective 1 Demonstrate how web 2.0 tools can be utilized in a PLE

❏ Objective 2 Evaluate web 2.0 tools that can be applied to their own PLE

❏ Objective 3 Il ustrate how web 2.0 in PLE can enhance the learning environment

Introduce Web 2.0 and PLE

What is Web 2.0? Web 2.0 is a change in how users interact with information found on

the web. Internet users no longer have a 1 dimensional interactions with content but have taken

the role of generating content by sharing and col aborating through various network

communities. In Web 2.0, there is an increase in the use and development of various social

media applications, social networking websites (Facebook, Twitter, & Instagram, etc.), and content sharing sites (YouTube, Dropbox, & Google Drive, etc.) (Stern, J., n.d. para 2). In education, technology tools and resources have become more integrated to help create an

enhance learning environment. More specifical y, the application of the learning model

constructivism have increased in education and shifted the way learners interact with the

content and their peers in online learning. Learners have taken a larger role in enhancing their

learning environment by either creating or contributing content and resources in network


But how can learners create an interactive, organized, and effective learning

environment? Personal Learning Environment provides a method that users can apply to help

them create an environment where information is meaningful and useful. PLE creates an

environment online that is individual y customized. In other words, learners or any online users

can create a PLE that can be changed and manipulated in any way that can assist in creating a

learning environment that is effective for themselves. Learners can enhance their learning

environment by integrating Web 2.0 tools such wikis, discussion boards, blogs, RSS feeds,

social networking medias, social bookmarking tools, etc. But how can a learner design a PLE

that fits them best with the use of Web 2.0 tools?

  • *

  • *

  • *

  • *

[*Objective 1: Demonstrate how Web 2.0 tools can be utilized in a Personal Learning *]

[*Environment (PLE). *]


Personal Learning Environments, such as Symbaloo, al ow learners (be them ful or parttime students or informal lifelong learners to create a personalized, webbased home page to col ect

resources,tools, and communities that the individual utilizes in daily life and learning. Once you

create and use a PLE such as Symbaloo, you wil wonder how you lived and learned without it!

[*To create your own PLE in Symbaloo: *]

Create a Symbaloo account, simply click on “Create an Account” (If you choose to signin automatical y by using your Google account, you can login with one click in the future).


Add, delete, and organize your page. As you develop your PLE, you wil continue to add,

delete, and rearrange your Symbaloo PLE and webmixes

Symbaloo Tutorial on YouTube

Try organizing your tiles according to how you use these tools and resources in your life. Some

possibilities include social media accounts like Twitter and Facebook, Pinterest and Delicious,

Linkedin or YouTube, Google apps like Gmail, Google Docs, Google Sheets, and Google

Calendar. CMS links like BbLearn, Canvas, or Moodle. Users can add RSS feeds, workrelated websites and tools like www.nau.edu or Quality Matters.


Activity: Students wil create their own Symbaloo account and begin to build their PLE, using

the YouTube tutorial.

Learners wil share their Web 2.0 tools, resources, and communities with others by adding at

least three stickies to the Symbaloo Col aboration Padlet.

Rubric to Assess PLE

  • *

[*Objective 2: Evaluate web 2.0 tools that can be applied to their own PLE *]

  • *

Personal Learning Environment (PLE) and Open Network Learning Environment (ONLE) are concepts that al ow students to customize their online

learning environments through evaluating which

resources, Web 2.0 tools, widgets, and people they want

to include. These concepts are derived from the learning

theory, Connectivism. Connectivist learners seek out the

most current information related to their learning, through

maintaining connections to people and resources within

their networks. How do instructors/students evaluate


which tools they would like to include in their PLE? The best way to evaluate a Web 2.0 tool comes from: “the old adage “trial and error.”” There are many ONLE technologies. Are they al

effective and appropriate to support ONLE and PLE? Remember to apply Connectivism theory

to assist us to analyze Web 2.0 technologies. Do not forget we need think from “environment”


[*Activity: *]Select 3 Web 2.0 tools using the information in the fol owing links. In Google docs

write a paragraph for each tool stating why you selected it and how you would use it. Explain

how these tools can be beneficial to your Personal Learning Environment (PLE)?



*Here are the Top 100 Tools for Learning 2015 classified in 30 categories under 4 main headings *

● http://c4lpt.co.uk/directory/top100tools/bestofbreedtools2015/

● http://ww2.kqed.org/mindshift/2015/07/29/teacherrecommended50favoriteteachingapps/

● Technology Integration Matrix

*Objective 3 Illustrate how web 2.0 in PLE can enhance the learning environment *

Personal Learning Environment application extends

beyond from personal use but can also be utilized

professional y and academical y. In education, PLE and

Web 2.0 tools can be utilized to help increase student

performance and comprehension by providing an online

environment that is relevant to their learning. But how can

you apply PLE using Web 2.0 tools in teaching online?

Activity: Demonstrate and explain how you can use a

Personal Learning Environment with Web 2.0 tools by

providing lessons, strategies, or ideas that can help with

enhancing student learning. In addition, provide evidence

that can be used to show students’ academic growth

through use of a PLE and Web 2.0 tools.


In the provided Google SIte, Choose a “Teacher” tab and insert your lesson or strategies. The lesson should include specific instructions on how students use a PLE and Web 2.0 tools to

help them achieve the learning objectives in their class.

Educational App Evaluation Rubric

iEvaluate App for Students with Special Needs

  • *

*Teaching resources *

*11 Ways to Use Symbaloo in the Classroom *

[*Pinterest Board: Symbaloo Tutorials *]

[*Symbaloo Webmixes for Teachers by Grade/Subject *]

*PLE and ONLE Instructional Strategies *

[*Rubrics, Rubrics, Rubrics! (Thank you, Kathy Schrock) *]

*Web 2.0 Tools on Pinterest *

  • *

Discussion questions

1. What tools and resources did you add to your “first incarnation” of your PLE?

2. How has your PLE changed over time?

3. Are there Web 2.0 tools that each learner has in common with several other students?

4. Are you connected with your classmates in that environment?


5. After this class is over, how wil you stay informed on new innovations of WEB 2.0 tools?


Web 2.0 An umbrella term for the second wave of the World Wide Web, which was coined in a conference on the subject in 2004 by O’Reilly Media and CMP Media (later taking its parent name of

United Business Media). Sometimes called the “New Internet” as well as “Internet 2.0,” Web 2.0 is not a specific technology; rather, it refers to two major paradigm shifts. The one most often touted is

“user-generated content,” which relates more to individuals. The second, which is equally significant, but more related to business, is “cloud computing.”

Connectivism: Connectivism is based upon the idea that knowledge is occurs through a network of connections and knowledge is not acquired, but is formed through the set of connections

through actions and experience.

Constructivism: a student centered theory of learning asserting that learners construct knowledge and meaning through their experience.

Personal Learning Environment (PLE): An organizational system that helps learners control their own learning by setting their own goals, managing their

content and learning strategies and communicating and col aborating with others.

Open Network Learning Environment (ONLE): Students independently locate and utilize their

own resources and are actively involved in the establishment of the learning context and

learning activities utilizing a range of Web 2.0 technologies.

ONLE Instructional Strategies Open Network Learning Environment Instructional Strategies is an environment that promotes students to expand their learning through many Web 2.0

technologies that are linked to one area.

  • *


6 Possible Roles For Teachers In A Personalized Learning Environment. (2012, December 23).

Retrieved December 14, 2015, from


zedlearningenvironment/ * *


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Buchem, I. (2012).Psychological Ownership and Personal Learning Environments: Do sense of

ownership and control real y matter?. Proceedings of the 3th PLE Conference, Aveiro,

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Buchem, I., Attwel , G., Torres, R.: Understanding Personal Learning Environments: Literature

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Conference 2011 (pp. 133), 1012 July 2011, Southampton, UK (2011)

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Designs of PLE, ONLE, and Linkage Design Model

Jeanine Walashek

Sheryl Wel s



Chapter Overview

In this chapter, you wil learn about Personal Learning Environments, Open Network Learning

Environments, and Linkage Design Model. Along with reading the chapter, you wil be asked to

explore and create using tools introduced to you. We also ask that you take time to reflect on

your learning and answer the online discussion questions to share your thoughts with others.

*Designs of PLE, ONLE, and Linkage Design Model *

  • *

As you can see in the Tagul image, our main focus in this chapter wil be how using a PLE, an ONLE, and Linkage tools assist individuals in being active participants and learners on the web.

These environments and tools help connect individuals to content as wel as other people from

across the globe. Networking formal y and informal y by accessing web 2.0 tools wil expand the

learner’s knowledge base and broaden their exposure to their personal learning.

Personalization of learning takes place alongside social interactions in this type of environment

which makes the interactions more meaningful. Students are more vested in this type of

learning and seek to gain more information within their learning social circle. They are also more

wil ing to share their knowledge base with others throughout the world. View this video on The


Future of Learning Environments by Educause for an overview on what the future holds for learning.

Chapter 4 Learning Objectives

  • *

❏ Explain what a Personal Learning Environment (PLE), Open Network Learning

Environment (ONLE), and Linkage Design Model is.

❏ Create a Personal Portal for a Personal Learning Environment and/or Open

Network Learning Environment.

❏ Explain how a Personal Learning Environment, an Open Network Learning

Environment, and Linkage Design Model can work together.

[*Open Network Learning Environment (ONLE) *]

An open network learning environment (ONLE) is a col aborative learner centered method,

different from the traditional learning environment where the learning is teacher lead, an ONLE

is learnercentered. ONLE fol ows more of a distributed col aboration with personalized efforts

accessed via the internet. An ONLE is a free digital environment that combines web 2.0 tools,

social networking, resources, and an opportunity to work on creative activities with like minded

people with the same interests. This environment can be accessed by anyone at any time and is

open to the public. This “new learning should move away from a centralized learning system to

a more distributed personal learning environment that al ows these separate tools to be easily

aggregated in one place.” (Tu, 2014, p.24) Learners in an ONLE can participate and take away

as much or as little information from their experience as they need with no specific timeline to

abide by to obtain the information.

  • *

Personal Learning Environment (PLE)

A Personal Learning Environment (PLE) is a learning concept that al ows individuals to

personalize, control, and manage tools and resources associated with their learning goals. No

two PLEs wil be exactly the same. EDUCAUSE [_ ](2009) defines a PLE as [“_]the tools,

communities, and services that constitute the individual educational platforms learners use to

direct their own learning and pursue educational goals” (p. 1). Most PLEs include tools that

al ow learners to communicate with others and easily access content from a variety of sources.

Personal portals are used to col ect and manage al of the Web 2.0 tools chosen by an

individual to include in their PLE. The PLE concept is a contrast to a more formal and rigid

learning management system (LMS). In this short lighthearted video, Patricio Bustamante wil help you understand how PLEs are different than a traditional eLearning experience.

  • *

*Linkage Design Model *

The Linkage Design Model connects the user to resources, PLE’s, web 2.0 tools, other learners

and instructors. This is accomplished by using widgets, RSS feeds, social tagging, personal


portals, social networks, and information visualization. Learners develop personal learning

environments (PLE) and online network learning environments (ONLE) with this model that

assists in learning and making needed connections. (Tu, 2014, p.56)

  • *

  • *

*Personal Portal Linkage *

A Personal Portal Linkage is a tool used to personal y customize and link to web 2.0 tools in one

location for the user. A personal portal linkage tool such as iGoogle al ows learners to organize

their own learning content, email portal, and information tools to manage their learning. This

environment is always evolving and as the learner’s needs change, updates to their personal

portal linkage web 2.0 tools are necessary to meet these ever changing needs.

  • *

*Widget Linkage *

Widgets are standalone tools that al ow users to access their Web 2.0 resources in a quick and efficient manner. Most personal portals include features that al ow the user to add widget

linkages in order to embed tools such as calendar, weather, RSS feeds, videos, quick links to

other websites, news, webmail, calculators, maps, and more. In order to embed a widget on a

page, blog, wiki, etc you wil need to have rights of authorship. By using widget linkage, learners

and instructors, can access preferred network resources with a single click of needing to visit

each tool site (Tu, 2014, p.78). Some widgets al ow for display of the tool automatical y when

the page is accessed. The user is in control of how and where they wish to display and use their

widget linkages.

  • *

*RSS Linkage *

A RSS (Rich Site Summary or Real y Simple Syndication) Linkage is a tool that learners can

use to get updated summaries to the selected RSS feeds by subscribing to each RSS feed

pertinent to their learning environment. Learners can get updated information from news

headlines, blog entries, and websites that they are linked to. Once the learner signs up for the

selected RSS feeds, regular live updates wil be sent to the learner.(Tu, 2014, p.89) This tool

helps learners receive notifications without having to log on and visit multiple websites and a

way to access this information in a less time consuming manner. * *

  • *

*Third Party Linkage *

“Third Party Linkage can support learners and instructors in better social network content

management and organization” (Tu, 2014, p. 8). This type of linkage al ows users to post using

one tool, such as Twitter, and have the same message go out to their contacts on other sites

such as Facebook. Of course, this is just one example of what is possible with third party

linkage. There are several applications that can be utilized to create linkages between third

party Web 2.0 tools. IFTTT (If This, Then That), al ows for customized linkages/connections between the applications and websites you use. You choose which content and/or resources

you want to stream between tools. Zapier is another third party linkage service that works on the premise of using triggers and actions to create connections between the applications that

you use on a regular basis. Both IFTTT and Zapier use event based automation to help their


users avoid repetitive posts and tasks. These are just two of the services available. Some

applications, such as Twitter, offer their users ways to create third party linkages within their

own site. * *

  • *

*Social Tagging Linkage *

Social Tagging Linkage is a way to link learners to network resources. This is done by attaching

tags or keywords/phrases to content so that it is easily searchable by other learners,

communities, and people interested in that subject. This structure al ows learners to share

information relevant to a particular topic that have an interest. An example of this type of

structure is how Twitter is searchable by attaching a hashtag (#) to a word/phrase or tag in order

to categorize that topic (Tu, 2014, p.9).

  • *

*Social Network Linkage *

Social Network Linkages are used for both formal and informal communications and

connections. Most adults and many young people, in our digital age, are a member of at least

one social network whether it be Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, Flickr, Instagram, Vine, Pinterest,

or one of the many others. As members of a social network, individuals are able to share

information and resources with others, view others’ information and resources, and search for

individuals with similar interests, viewpoints, hobbies, careers, etc. Members can friend, fan, or

fol ow others in order to build their social network.

Members of social networks use them for varying reasons and purposes. These may include:

keeping up with or reconnecting with acquaintances, meeting with a group of people online,

keeping up to date with news and research, creating learning communities, share opinions,

share nonprofit activities, share visual content, and make professional connections (Wolf,

2015). Whatever the reason, social network linkages help keep individuals around the world

connected and learning from each other.

  • *

*Mobile Linkage *

Mobile Linkage refers to using a mobile device such as an iPhone, iPad, smartphone, or tablet

to access web 2.0 tools. This has transformed how students acquire information by connecting

learners to information from any device at any time, by having the ability to access content via

the internet (Tu, 2014, p.1112).

[*Information Visualization (InfoViz) *]

Information Visualization (InfoViz), or infographics, is a way for information to be designed in the

form of pictures, words, symbols, and/or colors in order to represent relationships or il ustrate

ideas and concepts to assist the viewer to gain understanding (Tu, 2014, p.5). In a video

produced by Lemonly, an infographic is defined as a “graphic visual representation of information data or knowledge intended to present complex information quickly and clearly”

(Farris, 2013). The visual of the Earth provided at the beginning of in each of the chapters in this

book is an example of how a word cloud image can be used as a information visualization.


Providing InfoViz linkages on webpages or in lessons can give visual learners another tool in

understanding what is being presented oral y or in writing. * *

  • *

[*Network learning activities/assignments *]

  • *

[*Assignment 1—creating a personal portal using iGoogle *]

Step 1: go to iGoogle click on the “Login” button and log in using your existing gmail account.

Step 2: watch the fol owing tutorials: iGoogle Online Tutorial part 1 and

iGoogle Online Tutorial part 2

Step 3: After viewing these videos, customize your own personal portal in iGoogle using sites

and information that interest you.

(example of an iGoogle Personal Portal)

Assignment 1 Rubric


*Assignment 2 Third Party Linkage *

Step 1: Create an account in either IFTTT or Zapier.

Step 2: Create at least one third party linkage that wil make your life just a little easier.

Step 3: Share the linkage that you created, and your reasoning behind the linkage, with

someone else in your online course and someone in your broader ONLE.

Step 4: Ask the individuals you share with what linkages they would most like to have and why.

Step 5: Create one more third party linkage based on your discussions, interests, and needs.

Step 6: Share your linkages and reflections regarding this assignment with your instructor

through the Nabble discussion, email, chat, blog, or other preferred communication mode.

(Example of third party linkage. Favorited Tweets can be saved in Evernote)

Assignment 2 Rubric

*Assignment 3 Infographic *

  • *

  • *

Step 1: Choose a chapter from this book. It could be chapter 4 or any other chapter you


have read.

Step 2: Choose a Web 2.0 tool to assist you in creating the infographic. Some tools to choose

from that offer free accounts include: Canva, Wordle, Tagul, and Piktochart.

Step 3: Create an infographic to represent the most important concepts covered in the chapter

you chose.

Step 4: Bookmark your infographic in Delicious and tag it with the word Chapter and the number

of the chapter (example: Chapter4). Add any other relevant tags that wil help your classmates

more easily locate it for their learning purposes.

Step 5: Share your infographic and reflections regarding this assignment with your instructor

through the Nabble discussion, email, chat, blog, or other preferred communication mode.

Assignment 3 Rubric

*Readings *

Required readings

PLE, ONLE, and Linkage Design ModelConcepts of PLE & ONLE

Choose one of the PLE articles from the list from the 2012 PLE Conference in Melbourne.

PLE Article from the 2012 PLE Conference in Melbourne: Designing and

Implementing PLEs in a Secondary School Using Web2.0 Tools

Personal Learning EnvironmentsThe Future of ELearning[* *]

Building an Online Learning Community


Optional/Suggested readings and videos

Online Learning Communities: from Personal to Social Learning Environments

Developing Work Based Personal Learning Environments in Smal and Medium


Information Visualization Tools

Using SymbalooEDU as a PLE Organizer in Higher Education

3 Ideas About Future Learning

7 Things You Should Know About Personal Learning Environments

A Study of the Predictive Relationship Between Online Social Presence and ONLE


*Teaching resources *

The Prezis shared below were created by a professor who teaches ETC 655 and other

educational technology courses that focus on online learning and social media.

  • *

Linkage Design Model Prezi by ChihHsiungTu and Michael Blocher

ONLE & PLE Prezi by ChihHsiung Tu

PLE Prezi by ChihHsiung Tu, Michael Blocher, and CherngJyh Yen *Discussion questions *

1. Explain how your personal portal that you created in iGoogle wil benefit you personal y

and professional y.

2. Which network linkage tools do you use in order to stay connected in your PLE and

ONLE? Why did you choose these linkages? Have you used any third party linkages in

order to make connections between any of these tools? How do these connections

improve your PLE and/or ONLE?

3. How can information visualization, also known as infographics, assist online learners?

Please share the infographic you created for assignment 3 and what you learned while

creating it.

Discussion Rubric:


[*Network Learning Resources & References *]

Chapter 4 Delicious Resources

Social Tagging Architecture: Personal Learning Environment, PLE, Open Network Learning

Environment, ONLE, ETC655, Chapter4, Linkage Design Model, InfoViz

*Glossary *

Linkage A linkage is a connection or relationship between two or more things.

Open Network Learning Environment (ONLE) An Open Network Learning Environment is a digital environment that empowers learners to participate in creative endeavors, conduct social

networking, organize and reorganize social contents, and manage social acts by connecting

people, resources, and tools by integrating Web 2.0 tools to design environments that are total y

transparent, or open to public view.

Personal Learning Environment (PLE) A Personal Learning Environment is a selfdirected and evolving environment of tools, services and resources organized by a person seeking a way to

accomplish lifetime learning, to create, and to connect with others of similar interests.

Real y Simple Syndication (RSS) RSS (Rich Site Summary; original y RDF Site Summary; often cal ed Real y Simple Syndication), uses a family of standard web feed format to publish frequently


updated information: blog entries, news headlines, audio, video. An RSS document includes ful

or summarized text, and metadata, like publishing date and author’s name.

Tag In information systems, a tag is a nonhierarchical keyword or term assigned to a piece of information (such as an Internet bookmark, digital image, or computer file). This kind of

metadata helps describe an item and al ows it to be found again by browsing or searching. Tags

are general y chosen informal y and personal y by the item’s creator or by its viewer, depending

on the system.

Widget In computing, a web widget is a software widget for the web. It’s a smal application with limited functionality that can be instal ed and executed within a web page by an end user. A

widget has the role of a transient or auxiliary application, meaning that it just occupies a portion

of a webpage and does something useful with information fetched from other websites and

displayed in place. Other terms used to describe web widgets include: portlet, web part, gadget,

badge, module, snippet and flake. Widgets are typical y created in DHTML or Adobe Flash.

*References *

Attwel , G. (2007). Personal Learning Environmentsthe future of eLearning?. Elearning papers,

2(1), 18. * *

EDUCAUSE. (2009). 7 things you should know about personal learning environments.

Retrieved from https://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/eli7049.pdf

Linkage. (n.d.) Retrieved December 8, 2015 from MeriamWebster: http://beta.merriam


Malamed, C. ( 2014). Models for designing your personal learning environment. Retrieved from


RSS. (n.d.) Retrieved December 8, 2015 from RSS Wiki: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RSS

Tag (metadata). (n.d.) Retrieved December 8, 2015 from Tag Wiki: https://en.wikipedia.org


Tu, C. H. (2014). Concepts of PLE & ONLE. In C. H. Tu, Strategies for building a Web 2.0

learning environment. ABCCLIO. Santa Barbara, CA.

Tu, C.H., Yen, C.J., Blocher, M., & Chan, J.Y. (2012). A study of the predictive relationship

between online social presence & ONLE interaction. _International Journal of Distance _

[_ Education Technologies, 10_](3), 5366.


Web widget. (n.d.) Retrieved December 8, 2015 from Web widget Wiki: https://en.wikipedia.org/


Wolf, D. (2015, April 27). Reasons why social networking is good for our society. Retrieved from




*5 *

PLE and ONLE: Development & Teaching Practices

Kevin Castil o

Elizabeth Ismail



  • *

Chapter Overview

Leading up to this chapter, we hope that you have an understanding of what PLEs and

ONLE are. The opportunity to use the internet in a way that al ows users to create custom

learning environments, that fit their educational and/or professional needs, and the “openness”

of ONLE have changed the landscape of online learning. In this chapter, we wil go into

discussion about the development and practices/teaching for PLE and ONLE usage and how to

successful y implement strategies and techniques which wil focus on creating an interactive

learning environment for your students.

PLE and ONLE: Development & Teaching Practices

*Learning Objectives *

❏ Understanding how PLEs and ONLE can affect classroom environments for the



❏ Explore and discover the benefits of WEB 2.0 tools for PLE and ONLE


❏ Educators wil understand their roles in shift of instructor to content facilitator

  • *

*Technological Capabilities of Today *

In today’s world of technological greatness, we are privileged to have the means to be

able to use computer devices, from desktop to mobile, that are able to connect with perhaps the

greatest information source known, the internet. This was not always the case, as I am sure

most of us have experienced life without these capabilities in one way or another. Back when

the internet and computers were relatively new, and expensive to own, individuals had to use

others ways of information finding in order to successful y complete necessary educational or

other work. This perhaps meant trips to the local library, where books were the main

information source one could rely on.

Fast forward to today, and take a look around your surroundings to see what technology

based on internet connectivity is being utilized. Keep in mind though, even though a piece of

technology equipment may not fit in the palm of your hand, doesn’t mean it is not receiving and

transmitting data and loads of information. Let’s list a few of the items that you may see:

computer, smart phone, bluetooth device, television, gaming console, tablets, etc. What we

have come accustomed to has not always been available, or even some not invented yet, but

that has changed with the widespread availability of the internet.

What users are able to do today is remarkable when compared to 20, or even 10, years

ago. The explosion in popularity of devices that have internet connectivity has been felt al over

the world, but focusing on the United States soar in connectivity is astounding. “Today, 68% of

U.S. adults have a smartphone, up from 35% in 2011, and tablet computer ownership has


edged up to 45% among adults” (Anderson, 2015). As you can see, users are seeking the easy,

and now relatively cheap, alternative to the classic desktop/laptop computer in devices that can

fit in your hand and pocket, is easy to transport, and offers technological capabilities that could

have been easily been written off as “science fiction” years ago.

[*PLE Development and Practices / Teaching *]

The Professional Learning Environment (PLE) is a user created technology interface

which can be used with many formats. In short, think of it as a starting point and even ending

point where WEB 2.0 tools are utilized in order to accomplish extensive, or even simple, tasks

that are required for students or professional to perform. As mentioned, there are many formats

and webrelated content pages that offer users the ability to custom create a desirable

workplace. Later on in this chapter, you wil be given the opportunity to explore these resources

and experience what mil ions of other users have already had the opportunity to realize, that

there are tools out there that are specifical y designed with lifelong learners in mind.

“The Personal Learning Environment (PLE) is defined as a set of applications and tools,

social media that provide a natural connection between formal and informal learning” (Dabbagh

& Kitsantas, 2012). Using the PLEs for creating educational instruction for a classroom can

seem like a large burden to the always working instructor. What we must not do is overlook the

value that something so simple to create and use can have an enormous impact on how

students in a classroom regulate their own learning desires with the WEB 2.0 tools that they

may already be familiar with using.

In order to successful y implement the PLE for student use and success, we must make

sure that the purpose of it is intended to help organize, connect, and utilize the ever expanding

development of WEB 2.0 tools. What instructors need to realize, if they haven’t done so already,

is to understand that every student that they work with is equipped with their own way about

going about succeeding in their educational agenda. When instructing students to create their

own PLE, it’s wise to set minimal requirements for PLE tools to be shown, in that we want the

users to use what they are and have been comfortable sing in the past, but to also tel them that

it is a benefit to look beyond their comfort zone and try new programs and applications which

can either help them with their work or at least let them know that something new that they tried

is not the right fight for them and to continue looking for something new that that can place in

their arsenal of learning opportunities.

As the instructor, whether utilizing formal or informal teaching, it is of utmost importance

to al ow the students to sense a feeling of creating and using a PLE as a benefit. It would be a

waste of time for the student to be asked to create a valuable tool and not al ow them the

opportunity to “test drive” it with engaging learning activities. With such activities in place, so

that they may expand their wil ingness to add more and more tools to their PLE belt. Engage

students to expand in the area of their current specialty, if they have one. “In each specialty, the

students add some components directly related to their area of specialization” (Gal ego &

Gamiz, 2014). As mentioned before, students usual y, but not always, come to any classroom


environment with predetermined expectations of what they plan on using when it comes to the

tools available online, but there must be solutions generated by instructor or even fel ow peer

students on what programs and apps can benefit the students best, technological y speaking.

“PLE solutions should provide facilities for empowering learners in using this kind of technology”

(Mödritscher, F., & Krumay, B., 2011).

[*ONLE Development and Practices / Teaching *]

Open Network Learning Environments (ONLE) are networks that al ow users the

opportunity to explore the outofthebox thinking and workings that instructors are asking their

students to perform with their learning opportunities. As mentioned before when discussing

PLEs, there is a need for the students to enhance their skil s with the WEB 2.0 tools they are

familiar with already, expand on them, but to also look for other avenues that they might not be

familiar with when given a task to perform. With ONLE, instructors act more similar to guides, in

that they point their students in the right direction when given an assignment or task, and ask

them to go about their own way in creating the work necessary to complete and satisfy the

requirements of the lesson. When this type of student engagement is set into place, the

students are then provided the opportunity to become creative masters and conductors in their

own learning.

With al of this freedom given back to the students, it’s imperative for instructors to create

engaging, effective, and of course, knowledge expanding, assignments and activities. There

must be an understanding that “network learners in ONLE do not consume learning content

solely; they create and edit learning content col aboratively with other network learners” (Tu &

Yen, 2012). The col aboration piece of ONLE stems from the opportunity to use tools

established in the learner’s PLE, ranging from social media sites to instant messaging on mobile

and computer devices. Working with fel ow peers al ows students the opportunity to express

their ideas in their specialized field with others who are in the same or similar fields themselves.

Content is then created, analyzed, and shared within the class for others to read, or use if

programs and/or apps are created, to enhance learning about the material.

To put it ONLE into perspective, think of it being a sandbox. You may be told to build a sand

castle, or even perhaps multiple castles, but you are given the opportunity to bring in your own

tools in order to connect, create, and share any new learning that you have come across on

how to become an expert in building sand castles. The instructor lays out the base, or starting

point, for the work expected to be done and then lets the students play with the WEB 2.0 tools in

their PLE that they have used before or are wil ing to try new ones. The whole network is wide

open to explore and establish new content and present it in a way that real y exemplifies what

an open network, seen perhaps as an open opportunity, has to offer.

*Conclusion *

We have just discussed PLEs and the benefits that it can provide to those who take the

chance to get out, but not to far, of their comfort zone and explore the amazing WEB 2.0 tools

that are found in abundance on the internet. In al , I like to vision a PLE as a menu, offering


different types tools and gadgets that can be ordered, used, and also combined together to

create great tasting content.

When instructors and students are involved in an ONLE, there must be great care taken

by both sides to ensure that there is clear understanding of expectations of al participants. As

mentioned before, the instructor is guiding the students, no longer holding their hands al

through the class assignments and projects. This is a giant step for anyone to take when it

comes to learning and it must be taken seriously, or there is great risk of not being able to

complete work needed. The tools from the PLE are there to use, and they should be employed

to ensure new discovered or expanded finding in content are shared and presented correctly.

*Chapter 5 Learning Assignment Rubric *

[*Learning Activity 1: Investigating the Impact of PLE & ONLE *]

A. Individual y, explore Di go and Delicious Social Tagging Architecture.

● Di go:

○ Di go Video Library

● Delicious:

○ About Delicious


B. Set up a preferred account. You do not need to have an account for both tools; simply

choose one that you are more comfortable working with.

● Di go

● Delicious

C. Using your chosen Social Tagging Architecture and the tags “PLE, ONLE, Activity1,

Resources, ETC655”, bookmark 57 resources that help to understand PLE & ONLE and

their capabilities.

D. Using your preferred platform, explore at least 2 other bookmarked resources with the

same tags (“PLE, ONLE, Activity1, Resources, ETC655”).

Learning Activity 2: Creating Your Own PLE

A. Research Symbaloo and Netvibes

● Watch these videos to get a better idea of each tool

○ Symbaloo Introduction

○ Netvibes Introduction

● Explore both websites:

○ Symbaloo

○ Netvibes


B. Create an account of your preference, either Symbaloo or Netvibes.

C. Add the fol owing tiles or widgets to your PLE:

● Email (i.e., Gmail, Outlook, etc.)

● Social Networking tools (i.e., Twitter, Facebook, etc.)

● An RSS feed (i.e., Nabble Discussion, blog, etc.)

● A tool you use for informal learning (i.e., YouTube, TED, etc.)

[*Learning Activity 3: Creating Your Own ONLE *]

A. Explore the TEDEd website and create an account

B. Watch the lesson on how to create a flipped video lesson with TEDEd

● You wil be marked on whether or not you engage in this lesson; it is a required

component of this activity.

C. Based on your informed understanding of PLE and ONLE, create your own TEDEd

lesson to teach others about the strengths and weaknesses of PLE and ONLE.

● You can use an existing video or create your own.

● Be sure to involve al 5 components of the lesson:

○ Watch

○ Think

○ Dig Deeper

○ Discuss

○ …And Final y

● Your Dig Deeper section should incorporate a link to your chosen Social

Bookmarking tool (i.e., di go or Delicious) as wel as any other resources used

throughout each activity.

● Publish your lesson, ensure it is public, and share it via at least one Social

Networking platform.

● The standard of your lesson should be comparable to the example lesson about

creating a flipped video lesson with TEDEd


*Readings *

*Required Readings *

Dabbagh, N., & Kitsantas, A. , Personal Learning Environments, social media, and selfregulated

learning: A natural formula for connecting formal and informal learning, Internet and Higher Education (2011), doi:10.1016/j.iheduc.2011.06.002

Gal ego, M., & Gamiz, V. (2015). Personal Learning Environments (PLE) in the Academic

Achievement of University Students. Australian Educational Computing, 29(2).

Macal an, M. (2012). Issues of ONLE & PLE’s in learning design. Musings by Mo.

Mott, J. (2010). Envisioning the postLMS era: The open learning network. Educause Quarterly, 33(1), 19.

Saadatmand, M., & Kumpulainen, K. (2012). Emerging Technologies and New Learning

Ecologies: Learners’ Perceptions of Learning in Open and Networked Environments. In Proc. of the 8th Int. Conf. on Networked Learning (pp. 266275).

Tu, C. H. (2014). Concepts of PLE & ONLE. In C. H. Tu, Strategies for building a Web 2.0

learning environment. ABCCLIO. Santa Barbara, CA. (Read p. 14) Book

[*Optional/Suggested Readings *]

Mott, J., & Wiley, D. (2013). Open for learning: The CMS and the open learning network. in education, 15(2).

Tu, C. H., Blocher, M., & Gal agher, L. (2010). Asynchronous network discussions as

organizational scaffold learning: threaded vs. flatstructured discussion boards. Journal of Educational Technology Development and Exchange, 3(1), 4356.

Tu, C.H., Yen, C.J., Blocher, J.M. & Chan, J.Y. (2012). A Study of the Predictive Relationship

between Online Social Presence and ONLE Interaction. International Journal of Distance Education Technologies. 10 (3), pp. 5366.

[*Resources & References *]

Technology Device Ownership: 2015

A Study of the Predictive Relationship Between Online Social Presence and ONLE Interaction

Putting the PLE into PLD: Virtual Professional Learning and Development

An Investigation into Social Learning Activities by Practitioners in Open Educational Practices

  • *


Teaching Resources

Prezi Presentation * *

  • *

[*Social Tagging: *]

https://delicious.com/kevin.castil o/Chapter5

*Discussion Questions *

1) How can educators and students employ PLE to enhance their overal learning

experience? Be sure to acknowledge how PLE can impact both teacher and


2) How do ONLE support educators and students in the pursuit and exchange of

information? Again, be sure to examine this question from the perspective of both

a teacher and a student. What features distinguish this approach to learning from

FacetoFace environments?

3) Given your experience working with PLE and ONLE, what kind of strengths and

weaknesses can you identify? Do you believe that PLE/ONLE provide more

assistance to the educator experience or the learner experience? If so, please

give your reasoning.

4) Consider how you might further develop PLE and ONLE. What features do you

consider necessary for the continued enhancement of PLE/ONLE as global

connectedness becomes more ubiquitous?

*Glossary *

CommunityCommunity Interaction – Communitycommunity interaction extends beyond the reach of a single semester; in fact, communitycommunity interactions are

essential y not bound by space or time. Within an ONLE, these types of interactions

can be observed across semesters, schools, communities, etc. This notion general y

excludes the idea of interactions occurring within the same course.

Open Network Learning Environment (ONLE) – Learning environment design that is

delivered in an online format within which the learner engages with with peers,

resources, and Web 2.0 tools

Personal Learning Environment (PLE) – Designed to keep pace with continuous knowledge

development, a PLE is a system that al ows learners to control their learning interface

by supporting the integration of multiple tools and resources


Social Bookmarking/Tagging – a usergenerated catalog for bookmarks whereby users tag resources to organize their information and content. Social bookmarking can be used to

build a user’s PLE.

Web 2.0 – World Wide Web sites that embody an active upgrade to its static character;

this is characterized by supporting usergenerated content, the integration of social

media, and dynamic operability.


Dabbagh, N., &Kitsantas, A. (2012). Personal learning environments, social media, and

selfregulated learning: A natural formula for connecting formal and informal learning.

Internet and Higher Education, 15(1), 38. doi:10.1016/j.iheduc.2011.06.002

Gal ego, M., & Gamiz, V. (2014). Personal Learning Environments (PLE) in the

Academic Achievement of University Students. 29(2). Retrieved December 16,

2015, from http://journal.acce.edu.au/index.php/AEC/article/view/30/PDF

Mödritscher, F., & Krumay, B. (2011, December 1). May I Suggest? Comparing Three PLE

Recommender Strategies. Retrieved December 18, 2015, from


“Technology Device Ownership: 2015.” Pew Research Center Internet Science Tech RSS. 29

Oct. 2015. Web. 18 Dec. 2015.

Tu, C.H., Yen, C.J., Blocher, J.M. & Chan, J.Y. (2012). A Study of the Predictive Relationship

between Online Social Presence and ONLE Interaction. International Journal of Distance

Education Technologies. 10 (3), pp. 5366.

“Web 2.0 vs. Web 3.0 What Real y Is the Difference?” Randy Matusky Digital Portfolio. 03 Apr.

2015. Web. 15 Dec. 2015.



Emerging Technologies for PLE & ONLE

Nola Czarnik

Dominique Henry



Chapter Overview:

New technologies have changed the educational landscape (Kop & Fournier, 2010) so

much that students expect elearning to be part of the learning experience (Newland & Byles,

2014). Emerging technologies create a new form of learning which requires different

pedagogical approaches such as col aborative learning and the social construction of

knowledge (Newland & Byles, 2014). * *

Emerging Technologies for PLE & ONLE:

This chapter wil explore how emerging technologies are influencing open network

learning environments and personal learning environments. With emerging technologies being

defined as technology that is stil being developed that are expected to significantly impact

social, business, and educational environments we currently know, we are just beginning to

real y understand the true impact that it wil have on PLEs and ONLEs.

The data visualization, or Tagul of some of the terms introduced in this chapter wil guide your understanding as you begin to explore further into emerging technologies. The Tagul for

this chapter emphasizes on ONLE and PLE as they are the environments in which learning is

occurring. ONLE enhances the the learning experience, while PLE’s aide in the management of

online resources. There is a constant emergence of technology that it can be overwhelming to


maintain, this is where Linkage Design Model can assist with the evaluation of resources to

implement within a learner’s PLE.

*Learning Objectives *

Upon completion of this chapter, learners wil be able to:

❏ Define PLE and ONLE.

❏ List at least two ways to use PLE and ONLE.

❏ Identify three types of emerging technologies.

❏ Discuss potential benefits, chal enges, and implementation strategies of PLE and


❏ Create a representation of each of the three emerging technologies.

  • *

  • *

  • *

[*What is a personal learning environments (PLE)? *]

Personal Learning Environments or PLE’s al ow individual learners to personalize their learning by managing digital resources through personalized portals. These portals al ow the learner to control their own learning process and provides support of their learning goals, al ows

them to manage their learning, and al ows learners to communicate with others (Tu,

SujoMontes, Yen, Chan, & Blocher, 2012) . As the learner progresses, their PLE can also

progress and change as necessary.

Symbaloo is an example of a personal portal.


  • *

  • *

[*What is an Open Network Learning Environment (ONLE)? *]

ONLE shifts the learning atmosphere from a teachercentered environment to a

learnercentered environment. These digital environments al ow learners to col aborate through

social networking, cloud sharing, discussion boards, as wel as to have the creative license to

share and adapt online resources. No cost Web 2.0 tools can be integrated to further enhance

col aborative and participatory learning. Overal , the theory of constructivism encompases

ONLE. The primary benefit of constructivism is its closer match to how people real y

learn—through direct engagement with their worlds, general y leading to more meaningful

learning outcomes (Reiser & Dempsey, 2011).

The available resources within an ONLE can be overwhelming. Using the Linkage

Design Model helps organize web resources by evaluating which tools are most useful to the

overal learning objectives.

○ *Linkage Design Model * helps link several digital web tools.

■ Customized Personal Portal Linkage

■ Widget/Gadget/Embedded Scripts Linkages

RSS Linkage

■ Third Party Linkage

■ Social Tagging Linkage

■ Social Networking Linkage

■ Mobile Apps Linkage

■ Information Visualization Linkage


*Emerging Technologies *

Like any environment, the learning landscape continual y changes. These changes can

influence the way we use existing technology. A few emerging technologies within ONLE are

Information visualization, massive open online course (MOOC), and mobile learning.

Information Visualization is the display of information and/or data through a visual

representations such as pictures, graphs, maps, etc. This tool is not only used to help students

interpret data, but to also give learners another way to understand the content you have

provided them. As stated in Data Visualization; What it is and why it is important, ‘Visualizations convey information in a universal manner and make it simple to share ideas with others’. With

this said, using Information Visualization through a digital learning medium would al ow al

participants, no matter their background, to understand the content being shared and discussed.

Retrieved from http://www.sci.utah.edu/research/infovis.html?cat=InfoVis

Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are free webbased learning environments that

are designated for large quantities of participants from al over the world. This environment is

not only used to facilitate structured coursework, but it also enables the general public to

participate to enhance their lifelong learning.


Retrieved from http://whyleadnow.com/tag/mooc/

Mobile Learning is a method of obtaining information via handheld electronic devices

including mobile phones, tablets, handheld computers, or any other means of mobile

technology. This al eviates the constraint of having to be in a classroom or in front of a computer

to learn. Mobile Learning can take place at any place or time as students are now able to obtain

the materials necessary to participate and complete tasks at a time convenient for their busy

schedule. Rather than being its’ own learning method, Mobile Learning is more of an added

component of the learning taking place.

Retrieved from http://www.learndash.com/7randommobilelearningstats/

*Conclusion *

To meet the ever demanding needs of today’s digital learners, instructors must be wel versed in

the many technologies emerging from Open Network Learning Environments. The role of


emerging technologies in education is to create environments conducive to learners of various

skil sets in a creative and meaningful way. Continual professional growth in this field wil

provide instructors with the tools they need to meet the needs of online learners. As we have

examined three emerging technologies within this chapter, it is pertinent to understand that this

is not intended to be an extensive list of emerging tools, but more of a glimpse of what is

becoming available to online educators. Not al emerging technology wil be appropriate to every

learner or situation, however with al of the tools becoming available, educators can now create

effective, differentiated, and extensive online courses.

Network learning activities/assignments

Activity 1: Information Visualization Activity

Use what you have learned and extra research to create an activity using InfoViz.

● Participants wil review 50 Great Examples of Data Visualization found in the Required Readings section of this chapter. Use the resources and examples from your reading to

help guide your creation of an example of Information Visualization.

● Choose one of the sites listed in the reading to create a visual representation of a topic

of your choice.

● Participants wil now post their unique visual to the discussion board with an explanation of which tools were used and what the data represents.

● Comment on at least two other InfoViz representations.


Approach, 0-79%

Target, 80-100%

Information Visualization

Did not use in text resources to

Successfully utilized in text


create an InfoViz or did not attempt

resources to create an InfoViz.

to create an InfoViz

Posted InfoViz with an

Posted InfoViz without an

Successfully posted completed


explanation or did not post InfoViz

InfoViz to the discussion board with

at all.

clear explanation.

Commented on other InfoViz

Commented on less that two InfoViz

Commented on two or more InfoVi



Activity 2: MOOC Activity

Explore various MOOC providers and compare them via Google Docs.


● Participants wil watch a one minute video about MOOC.

● Participants wil visit http://oli.cmu.edu/learnwitholi/seeourfreeopencourses/ and explore the site.

● On this page, participants wil choose one of the courses under the Open+Free tab in the

center of the page.

● Participants wil then choose Enter Course under *Enter Without an Account. *

● Participants are now free to browse through the various modules throughout the course

they have chosen.

● Once participants are familiar with the course, they wil share their likes and dislikes of

the format of the site and/or class that they chose to explore.

● Participants wil then research another MOOC provider to compare to the previous one.

● Participants wil use Google Docs to create a chart comparing and contrasting the two

courses/providers they explored. This Google Doc wil be shared via Delicious Tags of this book, chapter name, and activity number.


Approach, 0-79%

Target, 80-100%

Upload document to

Document not uploaded properly.

Participants successfully upload


google document to Delicious

Document is not tagged correctly.

Document is correctly tagged in



Compare and Contrast of

Document compare and contrast is

Document clearly and strongly


not clearly written.

compares and contrasts the two


Activity 3:

Submit a scenario or create a mindmap of how to implement Mobile Learning

● Participants wil use what they have learned as wel as any additional research needed.

● Participants wil use a tool of their choice to display a list or explanation of how mobile

learning can be used in Elementary, Secondary, and Postsecondary learning

environments. Include at least two learning theories and/or strategies in your



● Participants wil add a link to their mindmap or scenario in delicious and tag it with the book and chapter names.


Approach, 0-79%

Target, 80-100%


Mindmap created, but do not

Successful creation of a mindmap

discuss all target topics.

discussion all target toppics.


Explanation for mobile learning

Explanation for mobile learning

implementation not clearly

implementation is clearly given,

discussed. Less that two learning

discussing two or more learning

theories and/or strategies are

theories and/or strategies.



Link is not properly tagged in

Links are properly tagged in




_Required readings _

● Personal Learning Environments (PLEs): Visions and Concepts

● Tech Tools of the Flipped Classroom

● 50 Great Examples of Data Visualization

[_Optional/Suggested readings _]

● Case Study 2: Designing PLE for Higher Education

● Characterisation of a Personal Learning Environment as a Lifelong Learning Tool

● Emerging Technologies: Mobile Apps for Language Learners

● Emerging Technologies: Personal Learning Environments

Teaching Resources _ _

From ELearning to Open Network Learning [_ ] _A Presentation for Singapore Institute of [_Technology by ChihHsiung Tu. _]

Discussion questions

1. What distinguishes PLE from ONLE?


2. How does connectivism contribute to learning? How do these contributions support


3. Do you think ONLE provides a comparable learning experience as a facetoface

learning environment does?

*Glossary *

● Mobile Learning

● Personalized Portal

● Pedagogy

● Cloud Sharing

PLE (Personal Learning Environment)

ONLE (Open Network Learning Environment) _ _

_ _

[*Network Learning Resources & References: *]

*Social Tagging via Delicious *



*References *

Kop, R. & Fournier, H. (2010). New dimensions to selfdirected learning in an open networked learning environment. International Journal of SelfDirected Learning, 7(2),2. Retrieved from


Newland, B., & Byles, L. (2014). Changing academic teaching with Web 2.0

technologies. Innovations In Education & Teaching International, 51(3), 315325.

doi:10.1080/14703297.2013.796727. Retrieved from



Reiser, R., Dempsey, J., (2011). Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology (3rd

Edition) (Page 50). Pearson HE, Inc.. Kindle Edition. Retrieved from


Tu, C., SujoMontes, L., Yen, C., Chan, J., & Blocher, M. (2012). The Integration of Personal Learning Environments & Open Network Learning Environments. [_Techtrends: Linking Research & _]

Practice To Improve Learning, 56(3),1319. doi:10.1007/s1152801205717




From the Editors

Justin Harding and Jonathan Stanciu


*Concluding Thoughts *

  • *

Similar to how the steam engine is widely regarded as the proponent for the industrial

revolution, could it be that technology wil be the disruptor for the educational or learning

revolution? The answer appears to be twofold; First, digital technology and the internet have

produced tools and products that are exceptional in the power to produce and access content.

Yet, as the saying goes, technology is the means and not the ends. Therefore, using technology

we must apply established and emerging learning strategies to empower, personalize, and

promote learning throughout al stages of a student’s life.

When connectivsm and constructivist learning theories are cross referenced with technology

that produces the Open Network Learning Environment and Personalized Learning Environment

models. These new learning models are based in the ideas that learning can occur outside of

the traditional classroom through peer to peer interactions and also in al owing learners to

create their own path through learning.

We hope that in this eBook you have found the ability to synthesize the theories of ONLE and

PLE for usage in your toolset in teaching and learning with technology and that you were

introduced to a new strategy or specific tool along with a plan for application and usage. * *


Open Network Learning Environments, Personal Learning Environments: An Interacti

  • ISBN: 9781310524684
  • Author: Jonathan Stanciu
  • Published: 2015-12-21 04:40:14
  • Words: 16463
Open Network Learning Environments, Personal Learning Environments: An Interacti Open Network Learning Environments, Personal Learning Environments: An Interacti