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NARCOTICS CONTROL CONVENTION : CHINA'S SERIOUS CONTRIBUTION TOWARDS THE EVOLUTIO

Copyright © Hakimi bin Abdul Jabar (16 March 2016)

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NARCOTICS CONTROL CONVENTION : CHINA’S SERIOUS CONTRIBUTION TOWARDS THE EVOLUTION OF THE MODERN SYSTEM OF INTERNATIONAL LAWREFUTATION OF STARKE’S FALLACIOUS ASSUMPTION (1st. para, page 8, Starke’s International Law, Eleventh Edition, Butterworths, September 1994)

The International Opium Convention, signed at The Hague on January 23, 1912 during the First International Opium Conference, was the first international drug control treaty. It was registered in the League of Nations Treaty Series on January 23, 1922. The treaty was signed by Germany, the United States, CHINA, France, the United Kingdom, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Persia, Portugal, Russia and Siam. The Convention provided that “The contracting Powers shall use their best endeavours to control, or to cause to be controlled, all persons manufacturing, importing, selling, distributing, and exporting morphine, cocaine, and their respective salts, as well as the buildings in which these persons carry such an industry or trade.”

The Convention was implemented in 1915 by the United States, Netherlands, CHINA, Honduras and Norway. It went into force globally in 1919 when it was incorporated into the Treaty of Versailles. The primary objective of the convention was to introduce restrictions on exports as opposed to imposing prohibition or criminalising the use and cultivation of opium, coca and cannabis. This explains the withdrawal of the United States and CHINA, who were gravitating towards prohibitionist approaches, as well as the beginning of negotiations leading to the 1925 International Opium Convention in Geneva.

A revised International Opium Convention was signed at Geneva on February 19, 1925, which went into effect on September 25, 1928, and was registered in the League of Nations Treaty Series on the same day. It introduced a statistical control system to be supervised by a Permanent Central Opium Board, a body of the League of Nations. Egypt, with support from CHINA and United States recommended that a prohibition on hashish be added to the Convention.

CHINA had suffered the humiliation of “unequal treaties” which resulted from the opium trade and opium wars and had a population weakened due to its’ drug dependency, i.e. opium addiction.

Thus, the International Opium Convention, signed at The Hague on January 23, 1912 during the First International Opium Conference, which was the first international drug control treaty, should also be considered as CHINA’S SERIOUS CONTRIBUTION TOWARDS THE EVOLUTION OF THE MODERN SYSTEM OF INTERNATIONAL LAW WHICH REFUTES STARKE’S FALLACIOUS ASSUMPTION (1st. para, page 8, Starke’s International Law, Eleventh Edition, Butterworths, September 1994).

Copyright © Hakimi bin Abdul Jabar (16 March 2016)


NARCOTICS CONTROL CONVENTION : CHINA'S SERIOUS CONTRIBUTION TOWARDS THE EVOLUTIO

  • ISBN: 9781311241665
  • Author: Hakimi Abdul Jabar
  • Published: 2016-03-16 17:20:07
  • Words: 466
NARCOTICS CONTROL CONVENTION : CHINA'S SERIOUS CONTRIBUTION TOWARDS THE EVOLUTIO NARCOTICS CONTROL CONVENTION : CHINA'S SERIOUS CONTRIBUTION TOWARDS THE EVOLUTIO