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Mini Projects for Electronics and Communication Engineering Students

Drive-by-wireless for Vehicle Control and Monitor using Wireless Controller Area Network (WCAN)

 

 

 

communication wiring systems as shown in Figure 1. This causes complexity, heaviness and is expensive.

 

 

Figure 1. Existing System

 

 

B. Drive-by-wireless System

The Drive-by-wireless system ensures less weight, safety and comfort. The position of the sensor, motor and the wheel for the proposed Drive-by-wireless system is shown in Figure 2.

 

 

Figure 2. Drive-by-wireless System

 

 

III. BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE PROPOSED SYSTEM

The block diagram of the system is presented in Figure 3. The system has four microcontroller units and ZigBee over 802.15.4 protocol is used for wireless communication.

 

 

Figure 3. Block Diagram

 

The Steering, Brake, Accelerator sensors are associated with the Engine Control Unit. The Dashboard

unit contains the LCD, the D.C. Motor unit contains a D.C. motor with a motor drive and a temperature sensor. Finally, the Servo Motor Unit contains a Servo Motor and a level sensor.

 

IV. COMPONENTS DESCRIPTION

PIC18F45K22 is the microcontroller used in the project. Circular potentiometers are used for Brake- Acceleration and Steering. Servo Motor and a level sensor is used for the Servo Motor Unit and DC Motor unit contains a D.C. motor with a motor drive and a temperature sensor. LCD Display is used for displaying the engine temperature and fuel levels.

 

 

A. PIC18F45K22

PIC18F45K22 has 32k program memory, 1536 bytes of SRAM and 256bytes of EEPROM. It has three

8-bit timers and four 16-bit timers.All of the devices in

the PIC18F2X/4XK22 family offer ten different oscillator options, allowing users a wide range of choices in developing application hardware. These include:

• Four Crystal modes, using crystals or ceramic resonators

• Two External Clock modes, offering the option of using two pins (oscillator input and a divide-by-4 clock output) or one pin (oscillator input, with the second pin reassigned as general I/O)

• Two External RC Oscillator modes with the same pin options as the External Clock modes

• An internal oscillator block which contains a 16 MHz HFINTOSC oscillator and a 31 kHz LFINTOSC oscillator, which together provide eight user selectable clock frequencies, from 31 kHz to 16 MHz. This option frees the two oscillator pins for use as additional general purpose I/O.

• A Phase Lock Loop (PLL) frequency multiplier, available to both external and internal oscillator modes, which allows clock speeds of up to 64 MHz. Used with

the internal oscillator, the PLL gives users a complete

selection of clock speeds, from 31 kHz to 64 MHz – all without using an external crystal or clock circuit.

 

 

Figure 4. PIC18F45K22 Microcontroller

 

 

B. Potentiometers

A potentiometer is a three terminal resistor with a sliding contact forms an adjustable voltage divider and only two terminals are used one end and the wiper acts as a variable resistor or rheostat. Electric potential is measured by potentiometer device.

C. LCD Display

The HD44780U dot-matrix liquid crystal display controller and driver LSI displays alphanumerics, Japanese kana characters, and symbols. It can be configured to drive a dot-matrix liquid crystal display under the control of a 4- or 8-bit microprocessor. Since all the functions such as display RAM, character generator, and liquid crystal driver, required for driving a dot-matrix liquid crystal display are internally provided on one chip, a minimal system can be interfaced with this controller/driver. A single HD44780U can display up to one 8-character line or two 8-character lines. The HD44780U has pin function compatibility with the HD44780S which allows the user to easily replace an LCD-II with an HD44780U. The HD44780U character generator ROM is extended to generate 208 5×8 dot character fonts and 32 5 ×10 dot character fonts for a total of 240 different character fonts. The low power supply (2.7V to 5.5V) of the HD44780U is suitable for any portable battery-driven product requiring low power dissipation.

 

 

D. DC Motor

A DC motor has a two wire connection. All drive power is supplied over these wires. Most DC motors are pretty fast of about 5000 rpm. The DC motor speed is controlled by a technique called pulse width modulation or PWM.

 

Figure 5. D.C. Motor

 

 

E. Servo Motor

The function of the servo is to receive a control signal that represents a desired output position of the servo shaft, and apply power to its DC motor until the shaft turns to that position. It uses position sensing device to rotate the shaft. The shaft can turn a maximum of 200 degree so back and forth.

 

 

Figure 6. Servo Motor

 

 

F. Pressure Sensor

The MPX5010/MPXV5010G series piezoresistive transducers are state-of the-art monolithic silicon pressure sensors designed for a wide range of applications, but

particularly those employing a microcontroller or microprocessor with A/D inputs. This transducer combines advanced micromachining techniques, thin-film metallization, and bipolar processing to provide an accurate, high level analog output signal that is proportional to the applied pressure.

It’s features are

. 5.0% Maximum Error over 0° to 85°C

. Ideally Suited for Microprocessor or Microcontroller- Based Systems

. Durable Epoxy Unibody and Thermoplastic (PPS) Surface Mount Package

. Temperature Compensated over .40° to +125°C

 

 

Figure 7. Pressure Sensor

 

 

G. Temperature Sensor

The LM35 series are precision integrated-circuit temperature sensors, whose output voltage is linearly proportional to the Celsius (Centigrade) temperature. The LM35 thus has an advantage over linear temperature sensors calibrated in ° Kelvin, as the user is not required to subtract a large constant voltage from its output to obtain convenient Centigrade scaling. The LM35 does not require any external calibration or trimming to provide typical accuracies of ±1⁄4°C at room temperature and

±3⁄4°C over a full −55 to +150°C temperature range. Low cost is assured by trimming and calibration at the wafer level. The LM35’s low output impedance, linear output, and precise inherent calibration make interfacing to readout or control circuitry especially easy. It can be used with single power supplies, or with plus and minus supplies. As it draws only 60 μA from its supply, it has very low self-heating, less than 0.1°C in still air. The LM35 is rated to operate over a −55° to +150°C temperature range, while the LM35C is rated for a −40° to

+110°C range (−10° with improved accuracy). The LM35 series is available packaged in hermetic TO-46 transistor packages, while the LM35C, LM35CA, and LM35D are also available in the plastic TO-92 transistor package. The LM35D is also available in an 8-lead surface mount small outline package and a plastic TO-220 package.

 

H. CAN MCP2515

It is a Stand-Alone CAN Controller with SPI Interface, 18 pin I.C.

• Implements CAN V2.0B at 1 Mb/s: 0 – 8 byte length in

the data field, Standard and extended data and remote frames

• Receive Buffers, Masks and Filters:

Two receive buffers with prioritized message Storage, Six

29-bit filters and Two 29-bit masks

• Data Byte Filtering on the First Two Data Bytes (applies to standard data frames)

• Three Transmit Buffers with Prioritization and Abort

Features

• High-Speed SPI Interface (10 MHz): SPI modes 0,0 and

1,1

• One-Shot mode Ensures Message Transmission is

Attempted Only One Time

• Clock Out Pin with Programmable Prescaler: Can be used as a clock source for other device(s)

• Start-of-Frame Signal is Available for Monitoring the

SOF Signal: Can be used for time-slot-based protocols and/or bus diagnostics to detect early bus degradation

 

V. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

The system comprises of four control units which communicate with each other using Zigbee over 802.15.4 protocol. The four modules are Engine Control Unit, D.C. Motor Unit, Servo Motor Unit and the Dashboard Unit.

 

The input 220V A.C. power supply is converted to 12V D.C. by an adapter. Various units in the modules require only 5V D.C and 3.3 V D.C. power supply. Hence a regulator is used for this purpose. The PIC18F45K22 microcontroller is a 40 pin I.C. There are 5 ports. Port A, B, C and D have 8 pins each while Port E has 3 pins. The remaining 5 pins are used for MCLR, VDD and Ground. The ICSP (In Circuit Serial Programmer) is a 5 pin device which is used by PitKit 3 to dump the program from the computer to the microcontroller. Pin 1 of the ICSP is connected to a high voltage to erase any previous programs, Pin 2 is the clock, Pin 3 is the data, Pin 4 is connected to Ground while Pin 5 is connected to VDD.

 

The Dashboard Module circuit diagram is shown in

Figure 8. It consists of a 16×2 LCD display.

 

 

 

Figure 8. The Dashboard Module

 

SP1 and SP2 of the PIC18F45K22 are pins A5, C3, C4, C5 and A6, C3, C4, C5 respectively. A5 and A6 are the Enable Pin, C3 is the clock, C4 is the Data Input and C5 is the Data Output. UART1 and UART2 are pins 25, 26 and

29, 30 respectively. 25 and 29 are for transmission while

26 and 30 are for reception. In CAN, CANL is for transmission and CANH is for reception. In Zigbee Pin 2

is for transmission and Pin 3 is for reception.

 

As shown in Figure 9, Pin 1 of Port C is used for the motor drive circuit while Pin 1 of Port A is used for the pressure sensor.

 

Figure 9. The D.C. Motor Module

 

As shown in Figure 10, Pin 1 of Port C is connected to the servo motor while Pin 1 of Port A is connected to the temperature sensor.

 

 

Figure 10. The Servo Motor Module

 

In Figure 11, the first three pins of Port A are connected to the Accelerator Sensor, Brake Sensor and Steering Sensor respectively.

 

 

 

Figure 11. The Engine Control Module

 

 

VI. ALGORITHM

Some of the pseudo-codes for various control units are shown below. MPLAB IDE is the development platform used for coding.

tostring(adcvalue1, dispstring);

 

cantx(‘A’);

 

The above conditions are followed in the D.C. motor unit.

 

adcvalue1 = map(adcvalue1 , 0, 1023, 1, 150);

temp = adcvalue1; angle1_act = temp; angle11 = angle1_act/10;

d~~a~~t~~a~~re~~c~~eive~~d~~bi~~t = 0;

VIII. CONCLUSION

With the above experiments, that the concept of drive- by-wireless is feasible. Error detection is also made easier using this technique. Safety of the automobile system is also guaranteed. Complexity, bulkiness and heaviness of the system is reduced. The system is also made less expensive.

 

 

REFERENCES

 

[1] Hauke St¨ahle, Kai Huang, Alois Knoll, “Drive-by-Wireless with the eCar Demonstrator”, Proceedings of the 4th ACM SIGBED International Workshop on Design, Modeling, and Evaluation of Cyber-Physical Systems. ACM, pp. 1-4, 2014.

[2] Mary, Gerardine Immaculate, Zachariah C. Alex, and Lawrence Jenkins., “REAL TIME ANALYSIS OF WIRELESS CONTROLLER AREA NETWORK.”, ICTACT JOURNAL ON COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY, Volume.05, Issue. 03, pp.951-958, September 2014.

[3] J.-R. Lin, T. Talty, and O. Tonguz, “Feasibility of safety applications based on intra-car wireless sensor networks: A case study”, in Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Fall), 2011

IEEE, pp. 1–5, 2011.

[4] C. Buckl, A. Camek, G. Kainz, C. Simon, L. Mercep, H. Staehle, and A. Knoll, “The software car: Building ict architectures for future electric vehicles”, in Electric Vehicle Conference (IEVC),

2012 IEEE International, pp. 1–8, March 2012.

[5] M. Eder and A. Knoll, “Design of an experimental platform for an x-by-wire car with four-wheel steering”, in Automation Science and Engineering (CASE), 2010 IEEE Conference on, pp. 656–661,

2010.

[6] Lin, Jiun-Ren, Timothy Talty, and Ozan K. Tonguz, “An empirical performance study of Intra-vehicular Wireless Sensor Networks under WiFi and Bluetooth interference”, In Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), 2013 IEEE, pp. 581-

586, 2013.

[7] Torbitt, C., Tomsic, K., Venkataraman, J., Tsouri, G. R., Laifenfeld, M., & Dziatczak, M.,“Investigation of waveguide effects in intra-vehicular environments”, In Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium (APSURSI), pp.

599-600, July,2014.

[8] Ahmed, Mohiuddin, Cem U. Saraydar, Tamer ElBatt, Jijun Yin, Timothy Talty, and Michael Ames, “Intra-vehicular wireless networks”, In Globecom Workshops, 2007 IEEE, pp. 1-9, 2007.

[9] Lin, Jiun-Ren, Timothy Talty, and Ozan K. Tonguz. “On the potential of bluetooth low energy technology for vehicular

applications.” Communications Magazine, IEEE , Vol.53, Issue. 1, pp. 267-275, 2015.

[10] Iturri, Peio Lopez, Erik Aguirre, Leire Azpilicueta, Uxue Garate, and Francisco Falcone, “ZigBee Radio Channel Analysis in a Complex Vehicular Environment [Wireless Corner]”, Antennas and Propagation Magazine, IEEE, Vol.56, no. 4, pp.232-245, 2014.

[11] Deng, Han, Jia Li, Liuqing Yang, and Timothy Talty, “Intra- vehicle UWB MIMO channel capacity”, In Wireless Communications and Networking Conference Workshops (WCNCW), 2012 IEEE, pp. 393-397, 2012.

[12] Lu, Ning, Nan Cheng, Ning Zhang, X. S. Shen, and Jon W. Mark, “Connected Vehicles: Solutions and Challenges”, pp. 1-1, 2014.

[13] Firmansyah, Eka, and Lafiona Grezelda, “RSSI based analysis of Bluetooth implementation for intra-car sensor monitoring”, In Information Technology and Electrical Engineering (ICITEE),

2014 6th International Conference on, pp. 1-5, 2014.

[14] Salahuddin, Mohammad A., Ala Al-Fuqaha, and Mohsen Guizan, “Software Defined Networking for RSU Clouds in support of The Internet of Vehicles”, 2012.

[15] Gerla, Mario, Eun-Kyu Lee, Giovanni Pau, and Uichin Lee, “Internet of vehicles: From intelligent grid to autonomous cars and vehicular clouds”, InInternet of Things (WF-IoT), 2014 IEEE World Forum on, pp. 241-246. IEEE, 2014.

 

Gerardine Immaculate Mary received her M.Tech degree with specialization in Wireless Communication from Pondicherry Engineering College, Pondicherry. She is now Assistant Professor (Selection Grade), School of Electronics Engineering, Vellore Institute of Technology (VIT), Vellore.

She also has over 12 years of industrial experience as computer hardware engineer. Her research areas include wireless communication in automation and vehicular

environments, indoor wireless positioning and Ultra Wide-Band Technology applications. She has published several research papers in international journals and conferences.

 

 

S.Srinath is currently studying final year B.Tech Electronic and Communication Engineering in VIT University, Vellore, India.

 

International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication Engineering

 

(]*An IS**O 329**7:] 20**07 Cer**ti**fi**ed Or**ga**ni**zati**on[)*]

 

Vol. 2, Issue 6, June 2014

 

Design of 4^th^ Order Parallel Coupled Microstrip Bandpass Filter at Dual Frequencies of 1.8 GHz and 2.4 GHz for Wireless Application

 

 

S.Srinath

 

UG Student, Dept. Of ECE, Vellore Institute Of Technology, Vellore, Tamilnadu, India

 

 

ABSTRACT: Design of a parallel-coupled microstrip bandpass filter is presented in this paper. The aim of this paper is to present the design technique, parameter analysis, real prototype fabrication and measurement results at dual simulation frequencies of 1.8GHz and 2.4GHz. Half wavelength long resonators and admittance inverters are used to design the filter. The filter is simulated using AWR Microwave Office software (Advanced Wave Research).

 

KEYWORDS: Bandpass filter; Microstrip; 1.8 GHz & 2.4GHz; Parallel Coupled Line; Microwave Engineering; AWR Simulator.

 

 

I.INTRODUCTION

 

The microwave filter is a two port network which used to control the frequency response by providing transmission at frequencies within the passband and attenuation in the stopband of a filter. Filters are an essential part of telecommunications and radar systems. Of its low-cost fabrication, easy integration and simple designing procedure, the parallel coupled-line/edge-coupled filters are widely used in microwave microstrip circuits with a required bandwidth up to 20 % of central frequency . A bandpass filter only passes the frequencies within a certain desired band and attenuates others signals whose frequencies are either below a lower cutoff frequency or above an upper cut-off frequency. The range of frequencies that a bandpass filter let’s to pass through is referred as passband. A typical bandpass filter can be obtained by combining a low-pass filter and a high-pass filter or applying conventional low pass to bandpass transformation . The architecture demonstrated here is a coupled line type filter, since this is among the most practical and common filter types which can meet the stated specifications. In Coupled Transmission Lines, coupling between two transmission lines is introduced by their proximity to each other. Coupling effects may be undesirable, such as crosstalk in printed circuits, or they may be desirable, as in directional couplers where the objective is to transfer power from one line to the other . Another of their major use is using them in filtering the Microwave range frequencies.

 

The filter response will be based on the Chebychev transfer function. Chebychev type filters are popular for their high selectivity, i.e., they have a relatively fast signal cut off between pass and stop band. Filters operating in gigaherz frequency ranges rely on distributed transmission line structures to obtain the desired frequency response. Dimensions of the coupled transmission lines can be derived with published formula or minimal simulation software capability.

 

 

II.RELATED WORK

 

This paper presents the design of a parallel-coupled microstrip bandpass. The design is based on the use of half wave long resonators and admittance inverters. The dual center frequencies of 1.8 GHz & 2.4GHz are selected, the bandwidth (BW) is about 5%, the minimum attenuation amounts to -30 dB and the pass-band ripple is obtained equal to

0.5 dB.The design technique, parameter analysis, real prototype fabrication and measurement results of a 4t^h^ order

coupled line bandpass filter at a dual simulation frequencies of 1.8GHz & 2.4GHz is presented in this paper.

 

International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication Engineering

 

(]*An IS**O 329**7:] 20**07 Cer**ti**fi**ed Or**ga**ni**zati**on[)*]

 

Vo~~l~~. 2~~, I~~s~~s~~ue 6, Ju~~n~~e 2~~0~~14

 

III. THEORY

A general layout of a parallel coupled microstrip bandpass is shown in figure 3.1 . The filter structure consists of open circuited coupled microstrip lines . These coupled lines are quarter wavelength , (λ/4) long and are equivalent to shunt resonant circuits. The coupling gaps correspond to the admittance inverters in the low-pass prototype circuit. Even- and odd- mode characteristic impedances of parallel-coupled half-wave resonators are computed using admittance inverters. These even- and odd- mode impedances are then used to compute physical dimensions of the filter. Now consider a bandpass filter composed of a cascade of N + 1 coupled line sections, as shown in Figure 3.1. The sections are numbered from left to right, with the load on the right, but the filter can be reversed without affecting the response. Since each coupled line section has an equivalent circuit of the form, the equivalent circuit of the cascade is as shown in Figure 3.2.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 3.1 : Layout of an (N + 1)-section coupled line bandpass filter.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 3.2 : Using the equivalent circuit of Figure 3.1 for each coupled line section.

 

International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication Engineering

 

(]*An IS**O 329**7:] 20**07 Cer**ti**fi**ed Or**ga**ni**zati**on[)*]

 

Vo~~l~~. 2~~, I~~s~~s~~ue 6, Ju~~n~~e 2~~0~~14

 

IV. IMMITANCE INVERTER

 

Immittance inverters play a very important role in filter design. They are used to transform a filter circuit into an equivalent form that can be easily implemented using various microwave structures. Immittance inverters are either impedance or admittance inverters. Making use of the properties of immittance inverters, bandpass filters may be realized by series (L-C) resonant circuits separated by impedance inverters (K) or shunt (L-C) parallel resonant circuits separated by admittance inverters (J). To design a bandpass filter, first of all a low-pass prototype circuit is modified to include immittance inverters. These low pass structures are then converted to bandpass circuits by applying conventional low-pass to bandpass transformation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 4.1 : Equivalent circuit of the admittance inverters.

 

 

V.SIMULATION MODELING AND DISCUSSION

 

The design equations for the coupled line are as follows:

The order of the filter was calculated assuming an equi-ripple (Chebyshev type 1) response with an insertion loss (L) of

30dB at the center frequency of 1.8Ghz and 2.4Ghz and the passband ripple amplitude (G) of 0.5dB. The fractional

b^^a^^n^^d^^w^^i^^d^^t^^h Δ = 5^^%^^.

H^^e^^n^^c^^e t^^h^^e upp^^e^^r a^^n^^d l^^o^^w^^e^^r c^^u^^t^^o^^ff f^^r^^e^^qu^^e^^n^^c^^i^^e^^s of t^^h^^e p^^a^^ss^^b^^a^^n^^d a^^r^^e 2^^.^^52 G^^H^^z a^^nd 2^^.^^2^^8 G^^H^^z r^^e^^s^^p^^ec^^ti^^v^^e^^l^^y^^. U^^s^^i^^n^^g t^^h^^e

s~~t~~a~~n~~d~~a~~r~~d C~~h~~e~~b~~y~~s~~h~~e~~v m~~o~~d~~e~~l~~:

ܿ^^݋^^ݏ^^ℎ^^ି^^ଵ ට^^(^^10^^ଵ^^଴ 1^^)^^/^^(^^10^^ଵ^^଴ 1^^)

= ݊
p(((((((((())))))))))={color:#000;}.

݂ ܿ^^݋^^ݏ^^ℎ^^ି^^ଵ (^ ݂ ^)
p(((((((((())))))))))={color:#000;}.

 

<>.
<>.
<>.
<>.
<>.

 

T^^h^^i^^s g^^i^^v^^e^^s us ݊ = 4^^. N^^o^^w^^, w^^e g^^e^^t t^^h^^e l^^o^^w^^p^^a^^s^^s p^^r^^o^^t^^o^^t^^y^^pe v^^a^^l^^u^^e^^s f^^r^^o^^m t^^h^^e s^^ta^^n^^d^^a^^rd C^^h^^e^^b^^y^^s^^h^^e^^v t^^a^^b^^l^^e^^:
p<>{color:#000;}.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Now, we use the following design equations to get the inverter constants for a coupled line filter with N+ 1 sections:

√^^Π^^Δ

ܼ^^଴ ܬ^^ଵ =

ඥ^^2^^݃^^ଵ

 

ΠΔ

ܼ^^଴ ܬ^^௡ = ଶ^^ඥ^^௚^^೙ష^^భ^^௚^^೙ ; ݊ = 2^^,^^3^^,^^4 . ܰ

 

International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication Engineering

 

(]*An IS**O 329**7:] 20**07 Cer**ti**fi**ed Or**ga**ni**zati**on[)*]

 

Vo~~l~~. 2~~, I~~s~~s~~ue 6, Ju~~n~~e 2~~0~~14

 

 

<>.
<>.
<>.
<>.

 

Now, the even and odd mode impedances can be calculated as follows:

ܼ^^௢௘ = ܼ^^଴ [^^1 + ܬ^^ܼ^^଴ + (^^ܬ^^ܼ^^଴ )^^ଶ^^]

ܼ^^௢௢ = ܼ^^଴ [^^1 + ܬ^^ܼ^^଴ + (^^ܬ^^ܼ^^଴ )^^ଶ ]

T^^h^^e r^^e^^s^^u^^lt^^s o^^f t^^h^^e^^s^^e c^^a^^l^^c^^u^^l^^a^^ti^^o^^n^^s a^^r^^e t^^a^^b^^u^^l^^a^^t^^e^^d b^^e^^l^^o^^w^^:

 

<>.
p(((())))={color:#000;}. ܼ^^௢^^௘ (^^Ω^^)
<>.
p(())={color:#000;}. ܼ^^௢௢ (^^Ω^^)
<>.
<>.
<>.
<>.
<>.

T^^h^^e s^^u^^b^^s^^t^^r^^a^^t^^e u^^s^^e^^d i^^s a s^^ta^^n^^d^^a^^rd F^^R^^4 s^^u^^b^^s^^t^^r^^a^^t^^e (^^M^^S^^U^^B^^) w^^it^^h ߳^^௥ = 4^^.^^4 ܪ = 1^^.^^58^^݉^^݉^^,^^ܶ = 0^^.^^036^^݉^^݉ a^^n^^d ܶ^^௔௡ௗ = 0^^.^^005^^.

U^^s^^i^^n^^g a c^^o^^up^^l^^e^^d li^^n^^e c^^a^^l^^c^^u^^l^^a^^t^^o^^r^^, t^^h^^e w^^i^^d^^t^^h^^, l^^e^^n^^g^^t^^h a^^n^^d li^^n^^e s^^p^^a^^ci^^n^^g fo^^r e^^a^^c^^h c^^o^^up^^l^^e^^d l^^i^^n^^e w^^a^^s ca^^l^^c^^u^^l^^a^^t^^e^^d:

 

<>.
p(((())))={color:#000;}. W(mm)
<>.
p(()))={color:#000;}. L(mm)
<>.
p((<>{color:#000;}. S(mm)
<>.
<>.
<>.
<>.
<>.

B^^a^^s^^e^^d o^^n t^^h^^e a^^b^^o^^v^^e v^^a^^l^^u^^e^^s a^^nd t^^a^^k^^i^^n^^g s^^t^^a^^nd^^a^^r^^d p^^o^^rt i^^m^^p^^e^^d^^a^^n^^ce^^s a^^s ܼ^^଴ = 50^,^ t^^h^^e d^^e^^s^^i^^g^^n w^^a^^s s^^i^^m^^u^^l^^a^^t^^e^^d.

 

International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication Engineering

 

(]*An IS**O 329**7:] 20**07 Cer**ti**fi**ed Or**ga**ni**zati**on[)*]

 

Vo~~l~~. 2~~, I~~s~~s~~ue 6, Ju~~n~~e 2~~0~~14

 

V.SIMULATION DESIGN, RESULTS & DISCUSSION

 

The design was simulated using AWR Design Environment (9.00.4847) and a response was generated. The coupled line design used for simulation was MCFIL which is a non-floating line. This is a coupled line model with the end effect included for the open ended line. One side of each coupled line is the ground plane.

 

Figure 5.1 : Layout of the proposed 4t^h^ order filter design in AWR Software

H^^e^^r^^e^^, t^^h^^e p^^a^^r^^a^^m^^e^^t^^e^^r ܵ^^ଵଵ (d^^B^^) r^^e^^p^^r^^e^^s^^e^^n^^t^^s t^^h^^e i^^n^^s^^e^^r^^ti^^o^^n l^^o^^s^^s a^^t p^^o^^r^^t 1 a^^n^^d t^^h^^i^^s p^^a^^r^^a^^m^^e^^t^^e^^r w^^h^^i^^c^^h h^^a^^s a v^^a^^l^^ue o^^f -6^^.^^5^^2^^1dB a^^t

t^^h^^e ce^^n^^t^^e^^r f^^r^^e^^qu^^e^^n^^c^^y of 2^^.^^4 G^^H^^z w^^h^^i^^l^^e -^^6^^.^^587dB a^^t t^^h^^e c^^e^^n^^t^^e^^r f^^r^^e^^qu^^e^^n^^c^^y of 1^^.^^8^^G^^H^^z

T^^h^^e p^^a^^r^^a^^m^^e^^t^^e^^r ܵ^^ଶଵ (d^^B^^) r^^e^^p^^r^^e^^s^^e^^n^^t^^s t^^h^^e i^^n^^s^^e^^r^^ti^^o^^n l^^o^^s^^s f^^r^^o^^m p^^o^^r^^t 1 t^^o p^^o^^rt 2 w^^h^^i^^c^^h h^^a^^s a v^^a^^l^^ue o^^f -2^^.^^633dB a^^t t^^h^^e ce^^n^^t^^e^^r

f^^r^^e^^qu^^e^^n^^c^^y of 2^^.^^4^^G^^H^^z w^^h^^i^^l^^e -^^6^^.^^375dB a^^t t^^h^^e c^^e^^n^^t^^e^^r f^^r^^e^^qu^^e^^n^^c^^y o^^f 1^^.^^8^^G^^H^^z^^.

 

 

Figure 5.2 : Coupled Line Bandpass Filter at Dual Frequencies Result

 

The first design discussed above was simulated in AWR.The same was simulated using EM simulation. The schematic diagram for the same is given below:

 

International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication Engineering

 

(]*An IS**O 329**7:] 20**07 Cer**ti**fi**ed Or**ga**ni**zati**on[)*]

 

Vol. 2, Issue 6, June 2014

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 5.3 : Layout of the proposed 4t^h^ order filter design in AWR Software using EM simulation

H^^e^^r^^e^^, t^^h^^e p^^a^^r^^a^^m^^e^^t^^e^^r ܵ^^ଵଵ (d^^B^^) r^^e^^p^^r^^e^^s^^e^^n^^t^^s t^^h^^e i^^n^^s^^e^^r^^t^^i^^o^^n l^^o^^s^^s a^^t p^^o^^r^^t 1 a^^n^^d t^^h^^e p^^a^^r^^a^^m^^e^^t^^e^^r w^^h^^i^^c^^h h^^a^^s a v^^a^^l^^ue o^^f -2^^.^^606dB a^^t

t^^h^^e ce^^n^^t^^e^^r f^^r^^e^^qu^^e^^n^^c^^y of 2^^.^^4 a^^n^^d 1^^.^^8^^G^^H^^z

T^^h^^e p^^a^^r^^a^^m^^e^^t^^e^^r ܵ^^ଶଵ (d^^B^^) r^^e^^p^^r^^e^^s^^e^^n^^t^^s t^^h^^e i^^n^^s^^e^^r^^ti^^o^^n l^^o^^s^^s f^^r^^o^^m p^^o^^r^^t 1 t^^o p^^o^^rt 2 w^^h^^i^^c^^h h^^a^^s a v^^a^^l^^ue o^^f -1^^6^^.^^87dB a^^t t^^h^^e ce^^n^^t^^e^^r

f^^r^^e^^qu^^e^^n^^c^^y of 2^^.^^4^^G^^H^^z w^^h^^i^^l^^e -31^^.^^55dB a^^t t^^h^^e ce^^n^^t^^e^^r f^^r^^e^^qu^^e^^n^^c^^y of 1^^.^^8^^G^^H^^z^^.

 

 

 

Figure 5.4 : Coupled Line Bandpass Filter at Dual Frequencies EM Simulation Result

 

For the Stackup, the dielectric used is FR4 and the conductor is copper. The transmission lines used in the design are MCLIN which are essentially similar to MCFIL lines with their remaining ends left open. The thickness of the dielectric layer is taken as 1.58mm and air thickness is taken as 24mm.

 

The simulation is done on EMSight with X and Y cell resolution of 0.5mm and an extension of 1mm. The extracted

EM schematic is given below:

 

International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication Engineering

 

(]*An IS**O 329**7:] 20**07 Cer**ti**fi**ed Or**ga**ni**zati**on[)*]

 

Vo~~l~~. 2~~, I~~s~~s~~ue 6, Ju~~n~~e 2~~0~~14

 

 

 

 

Figure 5.5 :3D View of the Coupled Line Bandpass Filter

 

 

Figure 5.6 :3D View of the Extraced EM Strucure

 

VI.CONCLUSION

 

On a substrate with a dielectric constant of 4.4,with the dual center frequencies of 1.8 GHz & 2.4 GHz, a coupled line bandpass filter was simulated with the bandwidth of about 5%, with the minimum attenuation of 30 dB and with the pass-band ripple equal to 0.5 dB. Thus the design technique, parameter analysis, real prototype fabrication and measurement results at dual simulation frequencies of 1.8GHz and 2.4GHz of a 4th order coupled line bandpass filter was presented in this paper.

 

VIII.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

 

At the outset, I would like to express my gratitude for my institute – Vellore Institute of Technology (V.I.T.) for providing me with the opportunity to undergo my undergraduate training, and assimilate knowledge and experience hitherto unknown to me.

 

International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication Engineering

 

(]*An IS**O 329**7:] 20**07 Cer**ti**fi**ed Or**ga**ni**zati**on[)*]

 

Vo~~l~~. 2~~, I~~s~~s~~ue 6, Ju~~n~~e 2~~0~~14

 

REFERENCES

[1] D. M. Pozar, “Microwave Engineering”, John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1998.

[2] Miguel Bacaicoa, David Benito, Maria J. Garde, Mario Sorolla and Marco Guglielmi, “New Microstrip Wiggly-Line Filters with Spurious

Pass-band Suppression”, IEEE Transactions on microwave theory and techniques, vol. 49, no. 9, September 2001. [3] John T. Taylor and Qiuting Huang, “CRC Handbook of Electrical Filters”, CRC Press, pp. 22-23, 1997.

[4] “Tuning, Optimization and Statistical Design”, Agilent Technologies, May 2003.

R. Levy, S. B. Cohn, “A History of Microwave Filter Research, Design, and Development”, Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1055,1067, Sep 1984.

[5] A. Naghar, O. Aghzout, F. Medina, M. Alaydrus, M. Essaidi, “Study and Design of a Compact Parallel Coupled Microstrip Band-Pass Filter for a 5 GHz Unlicensed Mobile WiMAX Networks,” International Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 2, No. 6, June 2013.

Sina Akhtarzard, Thomas R. Rowbotham, and Petter B. Johns, “The Design of Coupled Microstrip Lines”, IEEE Transactions on Microwave

Theory and Techniques, vol. MTT-23, no. 6, pp. 486-492, June 1975.

E. O. Hammerstard, “Equations for microstrip circuit design,” in Proceedings of the European Microwave Conference, Hamburg, Germany,

1975, pp. 268–272.

[6] Annapurna Das and Sisir K Das, “Microwave Engineering”, MacGraw Hill, p305, 2001.

[7] Hong, J.S., M.J, “Microstrip Filter for RF/Microwave Applications”, A Wiley- Interscience Publication, Canada, 2001. [8] C. A Balanis, “Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design”, 3rd edition, Wiley, 2005.

[9] S. B. Cohn, “Parallel-Coupled Transmission-Line-Resonator Filters,” Microwave Theory and Techniques, IRE Transactions on , vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 223-231, April 1958.

[10] S. Seghier, N. Benahmed, F. T. Bendimerad, N. Benabdallah, “Design of parallel coupled microstrip ba ndpass filter for FM Wireless

applications”, Sciences of Electronics, Technologies of Information and Telecommunications (SETIT), 6th International Conference , pp.207-

211, 21-24 March 2012.

A. R Othman, I.M. Ibrahim, M. F. M. Selamat, M. S. A. S. Samingan, A. A. A. Aziz, H. C. Halim, “5.75 GHz microstrip bandpass filter for

ISM band”, Applied Electromagnetics, APACE Asia-Pacific Conference on , pp. 1-5, 4-6 Dec. 2007.

I. Azad, Md. A. H. Bhuiyan, S. M. Y. Mahbub, “Design and Performance Analysis of 2.45 GHz Microwave Bandpass Filter with Reduced

Harmonics”, International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, vol. 5, no. 11, pp. 57-67, 2013.

[11] John T. Taylor and Qiuting Huang, “CRC Handbook of Electrical Filters”, CRC Press, pp. 22-23, 1997.

 

 

BIOGRAPHY

 

S.SRINATH passed 10t^h^ C.B.S.E. Board with a mark of 475/500(95%) and 12th C.B.S.E. Board from D.A.V. Boys Senior Secondary School,Gopalpuram,Chennai with a mark of 458/500(91.6%).Currently he is studying B.Tech, ECE, School of Electronics Engineering in VIT University,Vellore, India.

 

D~~e~~si~~g~~n a~~nd Re~~a~~l P~~roto~~t~~y~~pe F~~a~~b~~ri~~ca~~t~~i~~on Of a F~~r~~e~~e

Space Optical Transmitter and Receiver

 

S.Srinath

 

UG Student, ECE, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, India

 

 

Abstract: We are communicating with each others for every purpose. Different modes of communication are used. Free space optics is one of the mode of communication. Free space optics is widely used by satellites for transmitting with each other. Design and real prototype fabrication of a low cost portable free space optical transmitter and receiver is presented in this paper. Using this prototype wireless communication is possible. Light from a laser torch is used as the carrier in the circuit. The laser torch can transmit light up to a distance of about 500 meters. The transmitter circuit comprises of condenser microphone transistor amplifier BC548. The gain of the op-amp can be controlled with the help of 1-mega-ohm potmeter. The transmitter uses 9V power supply. The receiver circuit uses an npn phototransistor as the light sensor that is followed by a two-stage transistor preamplifier and LM386-based audio Power amplifier. This paper deals with the designing of a very low cost free space optical system which is perfect for information transmission of general conversation, using an ordinary available Laser torch of cost. The circuit is designed using National Instrumentations Multisim11.0 (N.I. Multisim 11.0) and National Instrumentations UltiBoard11.0 (N.I. UltiBoard 11.0).

 

Keywords: Battery driven design, Free space optics, Laser torch, Low cost design, N.I. Multisim and N.I. UltiBoard

S~~im~~u~~l~~at~~o~~r~~, V~~o~~i~~c~~e o~~r d~~at~~a t~~r~~a~~n~~s~~m~~i~~ss~~i~~o~~n.

 

table<>. <>. |<>.
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black, orange)

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(103) 2 Nos.

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preamplifier phase. Then, the signal is transmitted through laser light. The phototransistor at receiving side converts the signal into electrical signal. The electrical signal is passed through two transistor amplifier phases. Then LM386 audio amplifier amplifies the signal and drive speaker to generate voice output.

 

F~~l~~ow Ch~~a~~r~~t fo~~r T~~r~~a~~n~~s~~m~~i~~tt~~e~~r C~~i~~r~~c~~u~~i~~t ~:~

 

 

S~~t~~a~~r~~t

 

 

 

G~~e~~t i~~n~~p~~u~~t f~~r~~o~~m u~~s~~e~~r

 

 

 

P~~r~~e –~~A~~m~~p~~l~~i~~f~~i~~e~~r S~~ta~~ge

 

 

 

 

Modulation and Tx of Signal

 

 

 

F~~l~~ow Ch~~a~~r~~t fo~~r R~~ece~~i~~v~~e~~r C~~i~~r~~c~~u~~i~~t ~:~

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig. 9 3D View of my Design Showing PCB Connections for Receiver Design

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig. 10 3D Side View of my Design Showing PCB Connections for Receiver Design

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig. 11 3D View Showing Connections Appearing at the back-side of the PCB for Receiver Design

 

IX. ADVANTAGES

Light from a laser torch is used as the carrier in the circuit

instead of RF and FM signals. The laser transmission is very secure because it has a narrow beam6. The main advantage of this system is high reliability as it is impossible to track the data on the way of transmission. This design of Laser voice transmission system can be made at anywhere with low cost and can be used for frequent conversation at free of cost instead of using cell phone.

 

X. CONCLUSION

This paper is completely based on wireless communication

system. Presently there are various techniques which are being successfully used for transmission of data. The data transmission techniques employ RF, FM signals for transmission of data. Laser Torch Based Transmission

 

and Reception are cheaper and simpler in construction than RF transmitter and receiver. Although, wireless communication predominantly means the use of radio frequency for communication, the use of light based carriers for transfer of information is explored in this paper. This design can be made and used successfully at political assembly, lecture halls and for general conversation between two houses. The main problem with lasers is the beam dispersion can occurs due to external factors. In order to overcome these problems most advanced powerful lasers are to be employed.Although the optical data communication technology is prevailing from last decade as optical fiber communication devices available in the market, this design was presented to get all ideas that are behind such wireless system.

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

At the outset, I would like to express my gratitude for my

institute – Vellore Institute of Technology (V.I.T.) for providing me with the opportunity to undergo my undergraduate training, and assimilate knowledge and experience hitherto unknown to me.

 

REFERENCES

[1] I. Melngailis, “Laser development in Lincoln laboratory”, The

Lincoln Laboratory Journal, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 347, 1990.

[2] I. R. Sinclair and J. Dunton, “Practical Electronics Handbook”,

6thed. Oxford, U.K, Newnes, 2007, pp. 252-255.

[3] Sedra, Adel.S and Smith, Kenneth C, “Microelectronic Circuits”,

Oxford University Press, 1998.

[4] T. L. Floyd, “Electronic Devices”, 6th ed. Singapore, Pearson

Education, 2002, pp. 559-561.

[5] C. M. M. Paschoal, D. Do N. Souza, and L. A. P. Santo,

“Characterization of three photo detector types for computed tomography dosimetry”, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, no. 56, pp. 92-95, August 2011

[6] “Laser and its applications,” Popular Science & Technology Series, DRDO Publications, 2009.

[7] O. Bishop, “Electronics Circuits and Systems”, 4th ed. Oxford,

U.K, Newnes, 2011, pp. 14.

[8] I. R. Sinclair and J. Dunton, “Practical Electronics Handbook”, 6th ed. Oxford, U.K, Newnes, 2007, pp. 252-255.

[9] M. S. Islam and M. A. Rahman, “Design and fabrication of line follower robot,” Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 27-32, 2013.

[10] W. Tomasi, “Advanced Electronic Communication System”, 6th ed.. New Jersey, U.S.A, Prentice-Hall, 2004, pp. 3, 41-42.

[11] S. Gibilisco, “The Illustrated Dictionary of Electronics”, 8th ed.

New York, U.S.A, McGraw-Hill, 2001, pp. 399.

[12] S. C. Singh, H. B. Zeng, C. L. Guo, and W. P. Cai, “Nanomaterials: Processing and Characterization with Lasers”, 1sted. Wiley-VCH

Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA., 2012, ch. 1, pp.1.

 

BIOGRAPHY

 

S.SRINATH passed 10t^h^ C.B.S.E. Board with a mark of 475/500(95%) and 12t^h^ C.B.S.E. Board from D.A.V. Boys Senior Secondary School, Gopalpuram, Chennai with a mark of

458/500(91.6%).Currently he is studying B.Tech, ECE, School of Electronics Engineering in VIT University, Vellore, India.

 

L~~ow Pass F~~i~~l~~ter D~~e~~s~~i~~g~~n C~~ompa~~r~~ison Using

Agilent Genesys

 

S.Srinath

 

Student, ECE, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, India

 

Abstract: Wireless communication is becoming more and more popular. In this paper, a maximally flat low-pass filter and a equal-ripple low-pass filter have been designed for Ultra High Frequency (UHF) band ie I.T.U. band 9 (Frequency 300Mhz – 3000Mhz; Wavelength 1m – 100mm).Application of UHF band includes television, microwave ovens, mobile phones, wireless LAN, Bluetooth, etc. The filters are designed from the method of „Impedance and Frequency Scaling‟. The design parameters and return loss are discussed. Also the amplitude (attenuation in dB) vs frequency graph is obtained for both the filters and their results are compared and suitable conclusions are drawn. The filters are designed using Agilent Genesys 2010.05

 

Keywords: Agilent Genesys Simulator; Low Pass Filter; Equal-ripple filter; Smith chart; Polar Chart; Maximally flat filter; Wireless communication; UHF Band Spectrum; S Parameters.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig. 8. The amplitude (attenuation in dB) vs frequency results for the 7th

order minimum Inductor type filter.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.9. Gain and return loss on a smith chart of the filter .

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.10. Gain and return loss on a polar chart of the filter .

 

The Minimum Capacitor type 7t^h^ order filter layout is shown below.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.11. Minimum Capacitor type 7t^h^ order filter layout.

 

The required results were obtained for the minimum capacitor type filter. A plot of S21 and S11 are produced.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.12. The amplitude (attenuation in dB) vs frequency results for the 7th

order minimum Capacitor type filter.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.13. Gain and return loss on a smith chart of the filter.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.14. Gain and return loss on a polar chart of the filter.

 

 

IX. SIMULATION DESIGN, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION FOR CHEBYSHEV FILTER

 

The design was simulated using Agilent Genesys 2010.05 nd a response was generated. The filter is a lowpass hebyshev filter with input resistance = 50 ohm, cutoff requency = 700 MHz and Order = 7.

 

a C f

s The Minimum Inductor type 7t^h^ order filter layout is hown below.

 

 

International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering

 

(]*An IS**O 32**97:] 2007 Ce**rt**ifi**ed Or**ga**niz**at**ion[)*]

 

Vol. 3, Issue 12, December 2014

 

Optisystem based CATV System-Performance Improvement by Using External [* Light- Inj ection Technique*]

 

S.Adithyan1, S.Srinath2

 

U.G. Student, Department of EEE, C. Abdul Hakeem College of Engineering & Technology, Vellore, Tamilnadu, India1

Fi~~n~~al Ye~~a~~r S~~t~~u~~d~~e~~nt~~, B~~.~~T~~e~~c~~h~~, D~~e~~p~~a~~r~~t~~m~~e~~n~~t o~~f E~~C~~E~~, Vell~~or~~e I~~n~~s~~tit~~u~~te o~~f T~~e~~c~~hn~~o~~l~~og~~y~~, Ve~~l~~l~~or~~e~~, T~~a~~m~~i~~l~~n~~a~~d~~u~~, ~I~~n~~d~~i~~a~^2^

 

 

ABSTRACT: Cable Television (CATV) is designed with erbium-doped amplifier-repeated system that uses an external light – injection technique and a directly modulated wave using amplitude modulation. The external light – injection technique can greatly enhance the frequency response of the laser diode, and hence improve the overall performance of the fibre optical CATV system. It implemented using Optiwave Optisystem 10.0.

 

KEYWORDS: External Light–Injection Technique, Semiconductor Lasers, Optical Communication, Directly

Modulated Transmitter.

 

I.INTRODUCTION

 

CATV is a shared cable system that uses a tree-and-branch topology in which multiple households within a neighborhood share the same cable. Cable television is a system of distributing television programs to subscribers via radio frequency (RF) signals transmitted through coaxial cables or light pulses through fiber-optic cables. The abbreviation CATV is often used for cable television. It originally stood for Community Access Television or Community Antenna Television, from cable television’s origins in 1948, in areas where over-the-air reception was limited by distance from transmitters or mountainous terrain, large “community antennas” were constructed, and cable was run from them to individual homes.

 

II.RELATED WORK

 

Lu et al [7] developed a CATV system Based on Lower-Frequency Sidemode Injection-Locked Technique with an injection power level of 4.8 dBm.

 

Wen et al [8] proved that Injection-locking enhances the resonance frequency of the laser and the electrical feedback achieves strong resonance at the base-rate frequency of the injected data streams.

 

Our paper is based on directly modulated transport system which employs the external light-injection technique. The external light-injection technique greatly enhances the frequency response of the laser diode, and thus improves the overall performance of the fibre optical CATV system. The idea is implemented using Optisystem 10.0 and we analyse how the output power varies with and without the external light-injection technique. Using external light-injection technique we are analysing how the output power varies with 3dBm, 4dBm, 5 dBm and 8 dBm external injected power.

 

III.INTODUCTION TO THE EXTERNAL-LIGHT INJECTION TECHNIQUE

 

The recent changes in telecommunication regulations and changing market forces are making the market for broadband network services to the home an extremely lucrative and competitive area. Out of many competing technologies for such broadband services, major CATV companies are banking heavily on various methods of making the network more

 

International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering

 

(]*An IS**O 32**97:] 2007 Ce**rt**ifi**ed Or**ga**niz**at**ion[)*]

 

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and more fast and efficient. Most of the interest exists in broadband network services to deliver a variety of products to consumers, such as Internet access, telephony, interactive TV, and video on demand. But due to its cost efficiency, we need to find a better way to do that. When we send any optical signal, we find there is some loss in the transmission and hence there is the loss in data. So to increase the fibre transmission distance, achieve high quality for the given system and increase the performance is the ultimate goal of the fibre optical cable television (CATV) transport systems. However, nonlinear distortions introduced by laser chirp, fibre dispersion effects can degrade the system performance as well as limit the maximum transmission distance. Till now many techniques have been devised to circumvent these problems, but many of them just increase the complexity of the system. In a recent study, external light -injection technique has been employed in a hybrid radio–fibre system to improve the bit-error-rate performance but it has not been employed as a system-performance improvement technique in an analog light wave system. We suggest that the external light injection technique can be used to meet all the goals of CATV system efficiently. The external light- injection technique can greatly enhance the frequency response of the laser diode. It is expected to have good performances in analog fibre optical CATV systems.

 

IV.THE CATV NETWORK

 

A CATV network is made up of three main parts: the trunk, the feeder, and the customer drop. The trunk is usually intended to cover large distances of tens of miles. The feeder portion of the cable is used by the consumers for tapp ing signal. Its maximum length is only a few miles since energy is tapped off to feed homes (subscribers) which require relatively high power levels. The drop is the flexible cable which goes to the home and it has a maximum length of approximately 600 feet and is made up of lower quality co-axial cable than the feeder or trunk. Older generation CATV systems used co-axial cables in the trunk and feeder portions of the network and therefore experienced many problems related to (a) interference from spurious radiation, (b) distortions introduced by amplifiers and © limited bandwidth. Long-distance transmission of fibre AM-VSB 80-channel CATV systems is used widely and is spread throughout the cable industry. Whereas, the maximum transmission distance of such systems is still limited by RF parameters and it is difficult to obtain better CNR performance due to full channel loading. In an optical CATV system, the signal is directly or externally modulated with light wave before it communicates. Directly modulating signal with LD is an economic method whereas the transmission distance and performance are significantly limited by laser chirping issues. In order to provide an economic structure with advanced transmission performance in external modulation system, direct modulation method is often combined with other techniques or components to compose higher performance and lower cost CATV system. By increasing the wavelength numbers, major parts of CSO distortions from each communication band are automatically removed from each communication channel. External light technique in particular have been experimented and proved as efficient method to enhance laser output power and laser resonance frequency.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig. 1 General Block Diagram of CATV System

 

International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering

 

(]*An IS**O 32**97:] 2007 Ce**rt**ifi**ed Or**ga**niz**at**ion[)*]

 

V~~o~~l~~. 3, I~~s~~s~~u~~e 12, De~~c~~em~~b~~er 20~~1~~4

 

V. SIMULATION DESIGN

 

Our proposed directly modulated transport system employs the external light-injection technique. Without external light injection (Fig 3), CH 2-40 (ranging from 55 – 320 MHz) are directly fed into the first Continuous Wave (CW) laser diode and CH 41-78 (325 – 550 MHz) are directly fed into the second one. The CATV frequency bands are up – converted to the first microwave frequency bands (14.75 – 15.25 GHz) and then fed into the Continuous Wave (CW) laser diodes. The second CATV frequency bands are up-converted to the second microwave frequency bands (18.25 –

18.75 GHz) and then fed into the CW laser diodes. The central wavelengths of the two CW laser diodes are 1550.5nm and 1555.7nm, respectively. Without external light injection, the relative intensity noise (RIN) of the two CW laser diodes is about -170 dB/Hz. With external light injection, the RIN of the two DFB laser diodes are lower than -170 dB/Hz. Light is injected in the counter propagation direction through an optical isolator and a 3-dB optical coupler. The wavelengths of the injected light are 1550.7nm and 1555.6nm, respectively. In the system the optical power was coupled into the EDFA - I by a 2x1 optical coupler. After a 50 km single-mode fibre (SMF) transmission, the received optical signal was split by a 1x2 optical splitter, went through two separate optical band pass filters in order to select the appropriate wavelength, and detected using two broad-band analog optical receivers. This system can be used to increase the power of the sent signal to a larger extent while maintaining the efficiency at the same time.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig. 2 Normal CATV system without external light-injection technique

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig. 3 Directly modulated CATV system employing external light-injection technique

 

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VI. SIMULATION, RESULT AND DISCUSSION

 

When the power injected into the laser diode is increased, the power launched into the EDFA-I is also increased. This is due to the fact that the external light injection will reduce the laser diode threshold current and hence increase the optical output power of the laser diode. The higher the input power launched into the EDFA, the better the CNR performance we can obtain in the system.

 

 

Fig. 4 CATV system without external light-injection technique simulated using Optisystem 10.0

 

 

Fig. 5 CATV system employing external light-injection technique simulated using Optisystem 10.0

 

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(]*An IS**O 32**97:] 2007 Ce**rt**ifi**ed Or**ga**niz**at**ion[)*]

 

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table<>. <>. |<>.
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(dBm)


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Table. 1 Output to Injected Power Variation

 

In the normal case (without light injection) by using the 30dBm source light the electrical power output of the system is

2.34dBm . By using the 3dBm, 4dBm, 5 dBm and 8 dBm external light injection technique the electrical power output is 4.45dBm, 5.21dBm, 6.53 dBm and 8.34 dBm respectively.

 

 

A plot of „Injected Power‟ vs „Output Power‟ is shown below. This plot concludes that as injected power through the

external light injection technique is increased then the output power also increases.

 

Fig. 5 Graphical Variation of Output to Injected Power

 

The output power as seen through a „Electrical Power Meter Visualizer‟ for a CATV system without external light

injection is shown below.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig. 6 Electrical Power Output (Without Injection)

 

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The output power as seen through a „Electrical Power Meter Visualizer‟ for a CATV system employing external light

injection (3dBm injection) is shown below.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig. 7 Electrical Power Output (With 3dBm Injection)

 

The output power as seen through a „Electrical Power Meter Visualizer‟ for a CATV system employing external light

injection (4dBm injection) is shown below.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig. 8 Electrical Power Output (With 4dBm Injection)

 

The output power as seen through a „Electrical Power Meter Visualizer‟ for a CATV system employing external light injection (5dBm injection) is shown below.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig. 9 Electrical Power Output (With 5dBm Injection)

 

The output power as seen through a „Electrical Power Meter Visualizer‟ for a CATV system employing external light

injection (8dBm injection) is shown below.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig. 10 Electrical Power Output (With 8dBm Injection)

V~~o~~l~~. 3, I~~s~~s~~u~~e 12, De~~c~~em~~b~~er 20~~1~~4

 

VII.CONCLUSION

 

We propose and demonstrate a directly modulated AM- CATV EDFA-repeated system that uses the external light- injection technique to improve the systems‟ performance. The external light-injection technique greatly enhances the frequency response of the laser diode, and thus improves the overall performance of the fibre optical CATV system. The efficiency of the CATV system can be further increased by feeding the customers using the optical fibre i.e. fibre to home in place of coaxial cable. This can increase the efficiency by 10 times as compared to normal co-axial cable.

 

REFERENCES

 

[1] D. Piehler, C. Y. Kuo, J. Kleefeld, and C. Gall, “Nonlinear intermodulation distortion in an optically amplified analog video transport system

with dispersion compensation fiber,” in Eur. Conf. Opt. Communications, Paper WeP.02, pp. 3217–3220, 1996.

[2] J. Helms, “Intermodulation and harmonic distortions of laser diodes with optical feedback,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 9, pp. 1567–1575, Nov.1991.

[3] S. H. Lee, J. M. Kang, I. H. Choi, and S. K. Han, “Linearization of DFB laser diode by external light-injected cross-gain modulation for radio- over-fiber link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 14, pp. 1545–1547, Jul. 15, 2006.

[4] Y. Hong and K. A. Shore, “Locking characteristics of a side-mode injected semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 35, no. 11, pp. 1713–1717, Nov. 1999.

[5] S. K. Mondal, B. Roycroft, P. Lambkin, F. Peters, B. Corbett, P. Townsend, and A. Ellis, “A multiwavelength low-power wavelength- locked

slotted Fabry–Pérot laser source forWDMapplications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 744–746, May 15, 2007.

[6] X. J. Meng, T. Chau, and M. C. Wu, “Experimental demonstration ofmodulation bandwidth enhancement in distributed feedback lasers with external light injection,” Electron. Lett., vol. 34, pp. 2031–2032, 1998.

[7] Lu, H.-H., Patra, A. S., Tzeng, S.-J., Peng, H.-C., and Lin, W.-I., “ Improvement of Fiber-Optical CATV Transport Systems Performance

Based on Lower-Frequency Sidemode Injection-Locked Technique.”, IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 20, 351-353, 2008.

[8] Attygalle, M., and Wen, Y. J. ,“Injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser with electronic feedback for clock recovery from high-speed OTDM

signals.” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 18, pp. 478-480, 2006.

[9] Choi, K. M., Baik, J. S., and Lee, C. H. ,“ Broad-band light source using mutually injected Fabry-Perot laser diodes for WDM-PON.”, IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 17,pp. 2529-2531, 2005.

[10] Hann, S., Kim, D. H., and S., P. C. ,“ Uni-lambda bidirectional 10/1.25 GbE access service based on WDM-PON.”, Electronics Letters 40, pp.194-195, 2004.

[11] Ni, Y., Zhang, L., An, L., Peng, J., and Fan, C., “ Dual-core photonic crystal fiber for dispersion compensation.”, IEEE Photonics Technology

Letters 16, pp. 1516-1518, 2004.

[12] Lu, H.H., Huang, H.-H., Su, H.-S., and Wang, M.-C., “ Fiber Optical CATV System-Performance Improvement by Using External Light Injection Technique.” , IEEEPhotonics Technology Letters 15,pp. 1017-1019, 2003.

[13] Kaszubowska, P. Anandarajah, and L. P. Barry, “Improved performance of a hybrid radio/fiber system using a directly modulated laser transmitter with external injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.14, pp. 233–235, Feb. 2002.

[14] H. H. Lu, C. T. Lee, and C. J. Wang, “Dispersion compensation in externally modulated transport system using chirped fiber gr ating as well as

large effective area fiber,” Opt. Eng., vol. 40, pp. 656–657, 2001.

[15] Srinath, S. “Performance Analysis of 2.5 Gbps GPON.”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics and

Instrumentation Engineering , Vol.3 , Issue.6, pp:10148-10155, June,2014,.

[16] L. P. Shen, W. P. Huang, G. X. Chen, and S. S. Jian, “Design and optimization of photonic crystal fibers for broad-band dispersion compensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 540-542, 2003.

[17] Y. J. Wen, C.-J. Chae, and H. F. Liu, “Time-domain polarization interleaving of signal to allow polarization-insensitive all-optical clock

recovery,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1304–1306, Jun. 2005.

[18] H. H. Lu, C. L. Ying, W. I. Lin, Y. W. Chuang, Y. C. Chi, and S. J. Tzeng, “CATV/ROF transport systems based on light

injection/optoelectronic feedback techniques and photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Commun., vol. 273, pp. 389–393, 2007.

[19] J. L. Thomas, “Cable Television Proof-Of-Performances,” in Hewlett- Packard Professional Book, ch. 8, pp. 158–193,1998. [20] S. Kawanishi, “High bit rate transmission over 1 Tbit/s,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E84-B, no. 5, pp. 1135–1141, 2001.

 

 

BIOGRAPHY

 

S.SRINATH is currently studying final year ( 8t^h^ Semester), B.Tech, ECE, School of Electronics Engineering in

VIT University, Vellore, India.

Vol. 3, Issue 6, June 2014

 

Performance Analysis of 2.5 Gbps GPON

 

S.Srinath

 

B.Tech , Department of ECE, Vellore Institute Of Technology, Vellore, Tamilnadu, India

 

 

ABSTRACT: The ITU-T G.984 is Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Networks (GPON) standard. In this paper, 2.5 Gb/s GPON link is presented. The quality or performance of a digital communication system is specified by its BER or Q value with respect to other parameters such as receiver sensitivity . The system performance is presented through various parameters such as Q factor, eye diagram. The proposed models have the nominal bit rate 2.5 Gbit/s with required bandwidth. It implemented using Opti-System 7.0.

 

KEYWORDS: GPON, Bit Error Rate(BER), Q Factor, Eye Diagram.

 

 

I.INTRODUCTION

 

Fiber optics uses light signals to transmit data. As this data moves across a fiber, there needs to be a way to separate it so that it gets to the proper destination. A passive optical network does not include electrically powered switching equipment and instead uses optical splitters to separate and collect optical signals as they move through the network. A passive optical network shares fiber optic strands for portions of the network. Powered equipment is required only at the source and receiving ends of the signal. GPON (Gigabit Passive Optical Network) network consists of three important units ie Optical Line Terminal (OLT), Optical Network Unit (ONU) and Optical Splitters. The data is transmitted from the central office to a single optical fibre which runs from the central office to the optical splitters. This splitter then divides the power into N separate paths that goes to different subscribers. The number of splitting paths can vary from 2 to 64.Optical Line Terminal is a device that serves as the service provider endpoint of a passive optical network. It has two main functions: To perform conversion between the electrical signals used by the service provider’s equipment and the fiber optic signals used by the passive optical network. To coordinate the multiplexing between the conversion devices on the other end of that network (called Optical Network Units).Optical Network Unit is used in combination with an Optical Line Terminal (OLT). It is a device that terminates any one of the endpoints of a fiber to the premises network. It transforms incoming optical signals into electronics at a customer's premises. Optical Splitters are used to divide the incoming light beam from a single fiber into two or more fiber channels.GPON offers many advantages:It supports triple play service. It is a term for the provisioning of two bandwidth intensive service- high speed internet access and television and a less bandwidth demanding service, telephone over a single broadband connection.It has a high bandwidth transmission and long reach service coverage (20 km).Since PON uses the same fiber for upstream as well as downstream transmission, it utilizes WDM (Wave Division Multiplexing) for bidirectional transmission. It adopts two multiplexing techniques. In the downstream direction the data packets are transmitted in a broadcast manner. 1,490 nm wavelength is used for downstream traffic while in the upstream direction the packets are transmitted in a TDMA manner. The wavelength used for upstream traffic is 1310 nm. 1550 nm is reserved for overlay services, typically RF video (analog).

 

In this paper different characteristics like jitter, minimum Bit Error Rate (BER), Q factor and optical power for different wavelengths are compared. We will also see the variation of these factors when there is a change in the fiber attenuation.

 

II.RELATED WORK

 

While previous survey and research papers focussed on the downstream performance of a GPON system for data rates less than 2Gbps, this paper focuses on both the upstream and downstream performance of a GPON for data rate above

2Gbps ie 2.5Gbps(ITU-T G.984.1 standard).Higher data rate simulation is performed in this paper as high speed GPON network are the need of the hour. The performance measure of a GPON system presented in this paper analyses how the BER , Q-Factor and Optical power changes as wavelength and attenuation changes and how effective these factors are for better communication. The downstream performance analysis of GPON system is analysed for ‘single user’ case

 

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and ‘multiple user’ case. The upstream performance analysis of GPON system is analysed for ‘multiple user’ case. For analysing the performance of multiple user GPON system ‘Bi-Directional Optical Fibres’, ‘Bi-Directional Circulators’ and ‘Bi-Directional Splitters’ available in Optisystem 7.0 software were used.

 

III. THEORY

 

Bit Error Rate (BER) is defined as the number of bit errors is the number of received bits of a data stream over a communication channel that has been altered due to noise, interference, and distortion or bit synchronization errors. BER is the number of bit errors divided by the total number of transferred bits during a studied time interval ie

= ܤ^^ܧܴ (+][+^௧^^[+)+]^ w^^h^^e^^r^^e E^^(^^t^^) i^^s t^^h^^e n^^u^^m^^b^^e^^r o^^f b^^it^^s r^^ece^^i^^v^^e^^d i^^n e^^r^^r^^o^^r ov^^e^^r t^^i^^m^^e t^^, a^^n^^d N^^(^^t^^) i^^s t^^h^^e t^^o^^t^^a^^l n^^u^^m^^b^^e^^r o^^f b^^i^^t^^s
p(((<>{color:#000;}. ே^^(^^௧^^)

t^^r^^a^^n^^s^^mi^^t^^t^^e^^d i^^n t^^i^^m^^e t^^. B^^E^^R i^^s a u^^n^^i^^t l^^e^^s^^s p^^e^^r^^fo^^r^^m^^a^^n^^c^^e m^^e^^a^^s^^ur^^e^^, of^^t^^e^^n e^^xp^^r^^e^^ss^^e^^d a^^s a p^^e^^r^^ce^^n^^t^^a^^g^^e^^.^^Q F^^a^^c^^t^^o^^r d^^e^^s^^c^^r^^i^^b^^e^^s h^^o^^w

under damped an oscillator or resonator is. Higher Q factor indicates a lower loss of energy.Higher Q indicates a lower rate of energy loss relative to the stored energy of the resonator. A high-Q tuned circuit in a radio receiver would have more selectivity and hence better job of filtering out signals from other stations that lie nearby on the spectrum.Eye Diagram patterns are a widely used tool for studying the quality and stability of optical communication systems. The quality of the signals can be judged from the appearance of the eye. It is an experimental tool for the evaluation of the combined effects of channel noise and inter symbol interference on the performance of a baseband pulse-transmission system. It is the synchronized superposition of all possible realizations of the signal of interest viewed within a particular signaling interval. It is a composite view of all the bit periods of a captured waveform superimposed upon each other. If the bottom appears to have a smaller amplitude variation than the top, the signal seems to carry more 0s than 1s.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.3.1. Eye Diagram

T~~h~~e fo~~ll~~o~~w~~i~~n~~g ca~~n b~~e ob~~t~~a~~i~~n~~e~~d f~~r~~o~~m a~~n e~~y~~e d~~i~~a~~g~~r~~a~~m~~.

table<>. <>. |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. 1 |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. Zero level |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. Zero Level is a measure of the mean value of the logical 0 of an eye diagram.

| <>. |<>. p<>{color:#000;}. 2 |<>. p<>{color:#000;}. One level |<>. p<>{color:#000;}. One Level is a measure of the mean value of the logical 1 of an eye diagram | <>. |<>. p<>{color:#000;}. 3 |<>. p<>{color:#000;}. Rise time |<>. p<>{color:#000;}. Rise time is a measure of the transition time of the data from the 10% level

to the 90% level on the upward slope of an eye diagram. | <>. |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. 4 |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. Fall time |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. Fall time is a measure of the transition time of the data from the 90% level to

the 10% level on the downward slope of an eye diagram | <>. |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. 5 |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. Eye height |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. Eye height is a measure of the vertical opening of an eye diagram. The eye

height measurement determines eye closure due to noise.

| <>. |<>. p<>{color:#000;}. 6 |<>. p<>{color:#000;}. Eye width |<>. p<>{color:#000;}. Eye width is a measure of the horizontal opening of an eye diagram. Jitter

may appear on the waveform and influence the eye opening.

| <>. |<>. p<>{color:#000;}. 7 |<>. p<>{color:#000;}. Deterministic jitter |<>. p<>{color:#000;}. Deterministic jitter is the deviation of a transition from its ideal time caused

by reflections relative to other transitions | <>. |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. 8 |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. Eye amplitude |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. Eye amplitude is the difference between the logic 1 level and the logic 0

level histogram mean values of an eye diagram.

| <>. |<>. p<>{color:#000;}. 9 |<>. p<>{color:#000;}. Bit rate |<>. p<>{color:#000;}. Bit rate (data rate) is the inverse of bit period (1 / bit period). The bit period

is a measure of the horizontal opening of an eye diagram at the crossing points of the eye.

|

Table 3.1. Definations

 

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IV.OVERVIEW OF GPON SYSTEM

 

Recommendation ITU-T G.984.1 describes a flexible optical fibre access network capable of supporting the bandwidth requirements of business and residential services and covers systems with nominal line rates of 2.4 Gbit/s in the downstream direction and 1.2 Gbit/s and 2.4 Gbit/s in the upstream direction. Both symmetrical and asymmetrical (upstream/downstream) gigabit-capable passive optical network (GPON) systems are described.GPON standard defines a lot of different line transmission rates for downstream and upstream direction.

 

<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. BIT RATES
<>/4.
<>.
<>.
<>.
<>/2.
<>.

Table.4.1. Bit rates

The simulation was performed for a bit rate of 2.5Gbps.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.4.1. GPON simulation Properties

 

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V.SIMULATION DESIGN, MODELING & RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

 

The proposed 2.5 Gbps simulation model of GPON was done in optisystem software.The model was designed for a

‘single user’ scenario and a ‘multiple user’ scenario. It consist of pseudo random sequence generator, NRZ pulse

generator, continuous wave laser source, Mach- Zehender modulator, It also has an ONT receiver should have photodiode, low pass filter,3R generator, BER analyzer, Bessel optical fiber filter. The link, sometimes called channel, is consists of 20 km/50km of single mode fiber SMF28 and optical attenuator so as to add the loss for all the ODN class.

S~~I~~NG~~L~~E U~~S~~E~~R ~:~

In C~~A~~S~~E 1 , t~~h~~e w~~a~~v~~e~~l~~e~~n~~g~~t~~h o~~f 1490 nm w~~a~~s c~~h~~o~~s~~e~~n w~~i~~t~~h a f~~i~~b~~r~~e l~~e~~ng~~t~~h o~~f 50km a~~n~~d f~~i~~b~~r~~e a~~tt~~e~~n~~u~~a~~ti~~o~~n o~~f 0~~.~~7d~~b~~/~~k~~m~~.

table<>. <>. |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. JITTER |<>\2.
p<>{color:#000;}. 0.625 bit period | <>. |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. Q FACTOR |<>\2.
p<>{color:#000;}. 5.22659 | <>. |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. MINIMUM BER |<>\2.
p<>{color:#000;}. 8.5987e-008 | <>. |<>/2.
p<>{color:#000;}. OPTICAL POWER |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. Before

transmission |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. 6.785 dBm | <>. |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. After

transmission |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. -29.418

dBm |

Table.5.1.Results Table

 

In figure 5.1 an open eye pattern is obtained which indicates less jitter and signal distortion. Figure 5.2 represents the Q factor which is high and its sharp graph indicates low loss. Figure 5.3 indicates the BER which is less. The optical power at the end of the fiber through which the signal has been transmitted has reduced from 6.75 dBm to -29.418 dBm.

 

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Fig.5.1.Eye Diagram Fig.5.2.Q Factor Fig.5.3.Min. BER

 

 

 

CASE 2:

In C~~A~~S~~E 2 , t~~h~~e w~~a~~v~~e~~l~~e~~n~~g~~t~~h o~~f 1699~~.~~9~~83 nm w~~a~~s c~~h~~o~~s~~e~~n w~~i~~t~~h a f~~i~~b~~r~~e l~~e~~n~~g~~t~~h o~~f 50km a~~nd f~~i~~b~~r~~e a~~t~~t~~e~~n~~u~~a~~t~~i~~o~~n o~~f 0~~.~~6~~d~~b~~/~~k~~m~~.

table<>. <>. |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. JITTER |<>\2.
p<>{color:#000;}. 0.0443748 bit period | <>. |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. Q FACTOR |<>\2.
p<>{color:#000;}. 20.8075 | <>. |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. MINIMUM BER |<>\2.
p<>{color:#000;}. 3.02532e-07 | <>. |<>/2.
p<>{color:#000;}. OPTICAL POWER |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. Before

transmission |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. 6.785

dBm | <>. |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. After

transmission |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. -24.501

dBm |

Table.5.2. Results

Figure 5.4 has more number of amplitude variation at the one level than the zero level. Hence there are more number

of one’s in the signal than zero’s. Figure 5.5 represents the Q factor which is around 20. Figure 5.6 indicates the BER

which is low. The optical power at the end of the fiber through which the signal has been transmitted has reduced from

6.785 dBm to -24.501 dBm.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.5.4.Eye Diagram Fig.5.5.Q Factor Fig.5.6.Min BER

 

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CASE 3:

In C~~A~~S~~E 3 , t~~h~~e w~~a~~v~~e~~l~~e~~n~~g~~t~~h o~~f 1700 nm w~~a~~s c~~h~~o~~s~~e~~n w~~i~~t~~h a f~~i~~b~~r~~e l~~e~~ng~~t~~h o~~f 50km a~~n~~d f~~i~~b~~r~~e a~~tt~~e~~n~~u~~a~~ti~~o~~n o~~f 0~~.~~2~~d~~b~~/~~k~~m~~.

 

table<>. <>. |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. JITTER |<>\2.
p<>{color:#000;}. 0.402938 bit period | <>. |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. Q FACTOR |<>\2.
p<>{color:#000;}. 3.15213 | <>. |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. MINIMUM BER |<>\2.
p<>{color:#000;}. 0.000757 | <>. |<>/2.
p<>{color:#000;}. OPTICAL POWER |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. Before

transmission |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. 6.785 dBm | <>. |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. After

transmission |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. -5.473

dBm |

Table.5.3. Results

In figure 5.7 the eye opening is very small indicating lot of noise and crosstalk in the signal. Figure 5.8 represents the Q factor which is low. Figure 5.9 indicates the BER which too has increased from the previous cases. The optical power at the end of the fiber through which the signal has been transmitted has reduced from 6.785 dBm to -5.473 dBm.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.5.7.Eye Diagram Fig.5.8.Q Factor Fig.5.9.Min BER MULTIPLE USER:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.5.10. Bi-Directinal Link GPON simulation in Optisystem for Multiple User

 

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T~~h~~e w~~a~~v~~e~~l~~e~~n~~g~~t~~h o~~f 1550 n~~m w~~a~~s c~~h~~o~~s~~e~~n w~~i~~t~~h a f~~i~~b~~r~~e l~~e~~n~~g~~t~~h o~~f 20km a~~n~~d f~~i~~b~~r~~e a~~tt~~e~~n~~u~~a~~ti~~o~~n o~~f 0~~.~~2~~d~~b~~/~~k~~m~~.

table<>. <>. |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. Power(dBm) |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. Wavelength(nm) |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. Maximum

Q factor And BER At OLT |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. Maximum

Q factor At ONU |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. Minimum Bit

Error Rate At

ONU | <>. |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. -3 |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. 1550 |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. 5.3621 – Q Fac.

|<>. p<>{color:#000;}. 7.11595 – ONU 1 |<>. p<>{color:#000;}. 5.53183e-013 | <>. |<>. p<>{color:#000;}.   |<>. p<>{color:#000;}.   |<>. p<>{color:#000;}. 4.085e-008 -BER |<>. p<>{color:#000;}. 7.37012 – ONU 2 |<>. p<>{color:#000;}. 8.47126e-014 | <>. |<>. p<>{color:#000;}.   |<>. p<>{color:#000;}.   |<>. p<>{color:#000;}.   |<>. p<>{color:#000;}. 6.99794 – ONU 3 |<>. p<>{color:#000;}. 1.29797e-012 | <>. |<>. p<>{color:#000;}.   |<>. p<>{color:#000;}.   |<>. p<>{color:#000;}.  
<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. 6.99794 – ONU 4
<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. 1.29797e-012

Table.5.4 Results

In figure 5.11 an open eye pattern is obtained which indicates less jitter and signal distortion. Figure 5.12 represents the Q factor which is high and its sharp graph indicates low loss. Figure 5.13 indicates the BER is less. The optical power at the end of the fiber through which the signal has been transmitted has reduced from -6.172 dBm to -13.172 dBm.

 

 

 

Input Power : Output Power :

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig.5.11.Min BER Fig.5.12.Q factor Fig.5.13. Eye Diagram

 

 

VI.CONCLUSION

 

SINGLE USER - From the graphs we can see that as the wavelength is changed from 1490 nm to 1700 nm the eye diagram changes. In the first case i.e. 1490 nm an open eye pattern is obtained which indicates less jitter and signal distortion. The Q factor is high and its sharp graph indicates low loss. Also the BER is less. The optical power at the end of the fiber through which the signal has been transmitted has reduced from 6.75 dBm to -29.418 dBm.

 

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(]*An IS**O 329**7:] 20**07 Cer**ti**fi**ed Or**ga**ni**zati**on[)*]

 

V~~o~~l~~. 3~~, Iss~~u~~e 6~~, J~~une 2~~0~~1~~4

 

The second case 1699.983 nm has more number of amplitude variation at the one level than the zero level. Hence there are more number of one’s in the signal than zero’s. The jitter has increased from the previous cases. The Q factor has reduced to a mere 20 and there is a small BER too.

In the third case of 1700 nm, the eye opening is very small indicating lot of noise and crosstalk in the signal. There is a huge amount of jitter and it has a very low Q factor. The BER too has increased from the previous cases.

Thus performance of the network is best obtained at a wavelength of 1490 nm.

MULTIPLE USER USING BI-DIRECTIONAL LINK – From table 5.4,the wavelength was chosen to be 1550 nm in which Q factor was found out to be around 6 for the ‘Optical network units’ and the BER was found out to be 10^-12. Similarly for the uplink Q factor was found out to be around 6 for the ‘OLT’ and the BER was found out to be 10^-8. Thus, we see that the Q factor and the BER was exceptionally good for the GPON system operating at a wavelength of

1550nm and an input power of 10dbm using an optical fibre of length 20km with an attenuation of 0.2db/km.

 

VIII.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

At the outset, I would like to express my gratitude for my institute – Vellore Institute of Technology (V.I.T.) for providing me with the opportunity to undergo my undergraduate training, and assimilate knowledge and experience hitherto unknown to me. I would like to sincerely thank my teacher, Prof. Revathi.S Assistant Professor(Selection Grade), for her constant support during the course of my activities. I will forever be obliged to madam for her assistance, encouragement and guidance.

 

 

REFERENCES

[1] X. Z. Qiu, J. Vandewege, F. Fredricx, and P. Vetter, “Burst Mode Transmission in PON Access Systems”, 7th Eur. Conf. networks Optical

Communication, pp.127–132,2002.

[2] Xing-Zhi Qiu,“Development of GPON Upstream Physical-Media-Dependent Prototypes,” Journal of Lightwave Technology,Vol.22,

Issue.11, pp.2498 – 2508,2004.

[3] P. Vetter ,“Study and Demonstration of Extensions to the Standard FSAN BPON” ,Int. Symp. Services Local Access,pp.119–128, 2002. [4] ITU-T recommendation G.984.1, “Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Networks (GPON): General Characteristics”, International

Telecommunication Union, March 2003.

[5] ITU-T Recommendation G.984.2, “Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Networks (G-PON): Physical Media Dependent (PMD) layer specification”, International Telecommunication Union, March 2003.

[6] ITU-T Recommendation G.975, “Forward error correction for Submarine systems”, International Telecommunication Union, Oct. 2000.

[7] ITU-T recommendation G.984.4, “Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Networks (GPON): ONT management and control interface specification”, International Telecommunication Union, June 2004.

[8] Bakarman H.A. ,Shaari . S, Ismail.M , “Simulation of 1.25 Gb/s downstream transmission performance of GPON-FTTx”, International

Conference on Photonics (ICP), pp. 1 – 5, 2010

[9] V. Alwayn, “Optical Network Design and Implementation”, Cisco Press,2004.

[10] J. H. Franze and V. K. Jain, “Optical Communications: Components and Systems”, Narosa Publishing House, 2000.

[11] T. Antony and A. Gumaste,“WDM Network Design”, Cisco Press, ch. 4,2003.

[12] Lallukka, Sami & Raatikainen,“Pertti. Passive Optical Networks. Transport concepts”, Espoo,2006. [13] F. J. Effenberger and E. Shraga,“Status of GPON and B-PON standards”, Flexlight-networks,2004.

 

 

BIOGRAPHY

 

S.SRINATH Currently studying B.Tech, ECE, school of electronics engineering in VIT University, Vellore, India.

International Journal of Engineering Science Invention ISSN : 2319 – 6734, ISSN [_2319 6726 www.ijesi.org Volume 3 Issue July 2014 ǁ PP.11-17

 

Design and Electromagnetic Modeling of E-Plane Sectoral Horn

Antenna For Ultra Wide Band Applications On WR-137 & WR-

62 Waveguides

 

S.Srinath

(Final Year Student,ECE, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, India)

 

ABS**TRACT [*:*] The Design and EM modeling of a E-Plane Sectoral Horn Antenna for Ultra Wide Band Application on WR-137 and WR62 standard waveguides are presented in this paper. In E-plane sectoral antenna, the EPlane is much narrower as the flaring and dimensions of the horn are much greater in that direction. The horn flare angle, horn size, wall thickness, etc of the E-plane sectored horn antenna are examined. The return loss, input impedance, total gain and field pattern of the E-plane sectored horn antenna are observed. The antenna is simulated using ANSOF**T HFSS 14.**0.

 

 

*KEY**WORD*S : Ansoft HFSS Simulator, Beam width, Directivity, E-Plane Horn Antenna, Electromagnetic modeling, Radiation Pattern, Return Loss

 

I. INTRODUCTION

An antenna is an electrical device which converts electric currents into radio waves, and vice versa. To

transmit the signal a transmitter applies an oscillating radio frequency electric signal to the antenna’s terminals, and the antenna radiates the energy in the form of electromagnetic waves.Horn antennas are used as antennas at UHF and microwave frequencies, above 300 MHz. They are used as feeders for larger antenna structures such as parabolic antennas. Over the hundred years, horn antennas have given the best directive and high power operation for Microwave Frequencies. Design Simplicity and large gain with best matching properties are added advantage of Horn antenna. Applications include Radar, Satellite tracking, Radio astronomy and Communication dish antennas. Other applications are Reflector feeds, Gain standards for antenna measurements, EMC/EMI tests, Communication systems, Direction finding (DF), mm-wave systems.

 

 

Fig 1 : A Practical Horn Antenna

 

A E-plane sectoral horn is one in which the opening is flared in the direction of the E-field.

 

 

Fig 2 : E-Sectored Horn Antenna

 

The E-Plane sectored horn antennas are chosen because of their directional radiation pattern, ability to achieve high gain and directivity, and their ease of fabrication. The horn antenna which is designed was subject to the following constraints:

 

 

 Operating frequency around 8 GHz (C Band) for first case and 16 GHz (Ku Band) for second case.

 Maintain a gain of 10 dB over the entire operating frequency range

 

II. ANTENNA DESIGN

The C and Ku frequency bands were selected as the operating frequency. These bands are selected as

they pertain to the communication frequency bands. The design was performed to accomplish an ultra-wide bandwidth. (i) For the first case of 8Ghz (C Band) the operating frequency was chosen to be 8Ghz. The waveguide dimensions are a = 34.85mm, b = 15.8mm, waveguide length = 31.75mm. These indicate the standard WR-137 waveguide. Horn size dimensions are b=44.45mm, horn flare length = 95.25mm, wall thickness = 1.626mm. (ii) For the second case of 16Ghz (Ku Band) the operating frequency was chosen to be

16Ghz. The waveguide dimensions are a = 15.8mm, b = 7.9mm, waveguide length = 15.88mm. These indicate the standard WR-62 waveguide. Horn size dimensions are b=22.23mm, horn flare length = 47.63mm, wall thickness = 1.016mm. For both the cases the outer boundary condition is Radiation Boundary Condition. The Radiation Boundary Condition are as follows :

 Absorption achieved via 2nd order radiation boundary

 Place at least λ/4 from strongly radiating structure

P~~lace at least λ/10 f~~r~~o~~m w~~e~~a~~k~~l~~y r~~a~~d~~iati~~n~~g s~~t~~r~~u~~ct~~u~~r~~e

 The radiation boundary will reflect varying amounts of energy depending on the incidence angle. The best performance is achieved at normal incidence. Avoid angles greater then ~30degrees. In addition, the radiation boundary must remain convex relative to the wave

 

In HFSS to properly model the far field behavior of an antenna, an appropriate volume of air must be included in the simulation. Truncation of the solution space is performed by including a radiation boundary condition on the faces of this air volume that mimics free space. The appropriate distance between strongly radiating structures and the nearest face of the air volume depends upon whether a radiation boundary condition is used. HFSS also uses Finite Element Method (FEM) as analysis & solution to Electromagnetic problems by developing technologies such as tangential vector finite elements, adaptive meshing, and Adaptive Lanczos- Pade Sweep (ALPS).

 

Fig 3 : Structure of the proposed E-Plane Horn Antenna

 

III. PROPOSED MODEL IN ANSOFT HFSS 14.0 FOR CASE 1

The 3D view of the designed E-Plane Horn Antenna in HFSS for a solution frequency of 8Ghz (C-

Band ) is shown below. The boundaries for the air-box are set as an ideal propagation space and and the ground plane as perfect electric conductor.

 

 

 

Fig 4 : 3D View of the E-Plane Horn antenna in HFSS for a solution frequency of 8Ghz

 

 

Fig 5 : Figure showing the direction of excitation for a solution frequency of 8Ghz

 

 

IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION FOR CASE 1

The parameters which verify the success of antenna design are beam width, impedance matching , etc.

These are analysed here. The gain of the antenna versus frequency with return loss is -44dB at 8Ghz is shown below.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig 6 : Return loss in db over frequency range for a solution frequency of 8Ghz

 

The Radiation pattern for the antenna design in 3D is shown in below.

 

 

Fig 7 : 3D Radiation pattern of the antenna in HFSS for a solution frequency of 8Ghz

 

The 2D plot is total gain for phi = ‘0 deg’ and phi = ’90 deg’ is shown below.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig 8 : 2D Plot for total gain versus theta (deg) with phi for a solution frequency of 8Ghz

 

 

V. PROPOSED MODEL IN ANSOFT HFSS 14.0 FOR CASE 2

The 3D view of the designed E-Plane Horn Antenna in HFSS for a solution frequency of 16Ghz (Ku-Band ) is

shown below.

 

 

Fig 9 : 3D View of the E-Plane Horn antenna in HFSS for a solution frequency of 16Ghz

 

Fig 10 : Figure showing the direction of excitation for a solution frequency of 16Ghz

 

 

VI. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION FOR CASE 2

The parameters which verify the success of antenna design are beam width, impedance matching , etc.

These are analysed here. The gain of the antenna versus frequency with return loss is -49dB at around 16 Ghz is shown below.

 

 

Fig 11 : Return loss in db over frequency range for a solution frequency of 16Ghz

 

 

Fig 12 : The range of input impedance is shown below for a solution frequency of 16Ghz

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig 13 : 3D Radiation pattern of the antenna in HFSS for a solution frequency of 16Ghz

 

 

 

Fig 14 : 2D Plot for total gain versus theta (deg) with phi for a solution frequency of 16Ghz

 

VII. CONCLUSION

An Ultra Wide Band E-Plane sectored Horn Antenna operating at solution frequencies of 8Ghz and

16Ghz frequency range was designed. The horn antenna which was designed satisfied the following constraints: (i)Operating frequency around 8 GHz (C Band) for first case and 16 GHz (Ku Band) for second case; (ii)Maintain a gain of 10 dB over the entire operating frequency range. The return loss for both the cases was found to be greater than -40db.Thus the desired results are achieved and the simulated structures are suitable for various applications.

 

VIII. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

At the outset, I would like to express my gratitude for my institute – Vellore Institute of Technology

(V.I.T.) for providing me with the opportunity to undergo my undergraduate training, and assimilate knowledge and experience hitherto unknown to me.

 

REFERENCES

[1] Lei Yang, Weihua Tan, Zhongxiang Shen, and Wen Wu, Wide-Band Wide-Coverage Linear Array of Four Semi-Circular Sector

Horns, IEEE transactions on antennas and propagation, vol. 60, no.8, August 2012.

[2] Thomas A Milligan, Modem Antenna Design (John Wiley & Sons INC, Second Edition.)

[3] Constantine. A. Balanis, Antenna Theory Analysis & Design (John Wiley, & Sons INC, Third Edition.)

[4] M. M. Tentzeris, J. Laskar, J. Papapolymerou, S. Pinel, V. Palazzari, R. Li, G. DeJean, N. Papageorgiou, D. Thompson, R.Bairavasubramanian, S. Sarkar, and J.-H. Lee, 3D Integrated RF and millimeter-wave functions and modules using liquid crystal polymer (LCP) system-on-package technology, IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 332–340, May 2004.

[5] D. M. Pozar and D. H. Schubert, Microstrip Antennas—The Analysis and Design of MicrostripAntennas and Arrays (New York: IEEE Press, 1995.)

[6] F.Mohamadi Monavar , N.Komjani and P.Mousavi, Application of Invasive Weed Optimization to design a broadband Patch antenna with symmetric radiation Pattern, IEEE antennas and wireless propagation letters,Vol.10,2011.

[7] Qi wu ,ronghong jin, and junping geng, A Single layer ultrawideband microstrip antenna, IEEE antennas and wireless

propagation letters,vol.1,January 2010.

[8] A. W. Love, Antenna Engineering Hand book (R. C. Johnson and H. Jasik, Ed. New York, 1984.)

 

 

BIOGRAPHY

 

S.SRINATH passed 10th C.B.S.E. Board with a mark of 475/500(95%) and 12th C.B.S.E. Board from D.A.V. Boys Senior Secondary School, Gopalpuram, Chennai ,India with a mark of 458/500(91.6%).Currently he is studying final year B.Tech, ECE, School of Electronics Engineering in Vellore Institute of Technology , Vellore, India.


Mini Projects for Electronics and Communication Engineering Students

  • Author: Srinath S
  • Published: 2016-02-27 17:32:05
  • Words: 15983
Mini Projects for Electronics and Communication Engineering Students Mini Projects for Electronics and Communication Engineering Students