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Long Term effects of ADHD Drugs (& Antidepressants)

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Long-Term Effects of ADHD Drugs

Published by Asli C. Theobald

This book is available in e-book format at most online retailers

License Notes

Thank you for choosing this e-book. This book remains the copyrighted property of the author, and may not be changed or redistributed to others for commercial or non-commercial purposes. If you enjoyed this book, please encourage your friends to download their own original copy from their favorite authorized retailer or from the author’s website http://adhddrugslongterm.com/download/Thank you for your support.

For inquiries, contact the author at [email protected]

Acknowledgements

I am grateful to neurologist Fred Baughman, MD for the useful information he’s taken the time to share.

I thank John Theobald for helping edit this book and for his useful opinions.

Copyright 2016: Asli C. Theobald

First Edition: November 2016

[]TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Differentiating Scientific Research from Drug Company Promotions

2. The Story of Alicia and Tom

3. The DEA or the Psychiatrists, Which to Believe?

4. The Government’s Contributions to the Schedule II Drug Prescription Epidemic

5. Misrepresenting the Abuse Potential, Cardiovascular Problems and Sudden Death Risk

6. Defrauding People and Treating Fines as the “Cost of Doing Business”

7. A Diagnostic Process Guided by Vested Interest

8. Selling Addictive Drugs Without Determining Long-Term Safety

9. The Paid-Off ‘Key Opinion Leaders’ of the Drug Industry

10. Long-term Studies on ADHD Drugs Before 2010

11. Long-Term Studies After 2010 Show Damage to People

12. Dopamine Deficiency and Inability to Experience Pleasure and Motivation in Long-term Stimulant Users

13. The Addiction/Abuse Vicious Cycle

14. Psychosis Which May Be Permanent, Parkinson’s Disease, Bipolar Disorder, Tics and Aggressive Behavior

15. Short-term Cognitive Enhancement at the Cost of Long-term Weakening of Cognition

16. Brain Shrinkage Caused by ADHD Medications

17. The Consequences of Chronic Stress Caused by Stimulants: High Blood Pressure, Peripheral Artery Disease, Significantly Reduced Cerebral Blood Circulation and More

18. The Most Fraudulent Business Intermediaries

19. The Largest American ADHD Study – The American Psychiatric Association Hides Long-Term Results from Parents and Lies About Drug Safety

20. The Corrupt Practices of Dr. Joseph Biederman – the Most Influential ADHD Researcher

21. Whistleblower Allen Jones Who Inspired Many Others

22. Antidepressant Studies – the Industry’s Tactics to Hide the Suicides and Fake Drug Effectiveness

23. Not Enforcing the Law Mandating the Disclosure of Unfavorable Research Findings

24. Corruption in the FDA

25. The Mostly Fake Research Literature Nobody Wants to Fix

26. The Case Against All Psychiatric Drugs and Drug-prescribing Psychiatry

27. Drug-free Options to Try and the Best-studied Alternative

Please Donate to Help Disseminate This Information to Others Like You

Please Take Five Minutes to Help Raise Awareness of the Fraudulent Marketing of Drugs

If You Wish to File Consumer Fraud Lawsuits or Participate in Class Action Lawsuits

About the Author Asli C. Theobald

REFERENCES

ADHD DRUGS / COGNITIVE ENCHANCERS AND THEIR LONG-TERM EFFECTS

Differentiating Scientific Research from Drug Company Promotions

In the TV series Breaking Bad, the fictitious scientist Walter White quickly got rich from selling drugs. In real-life too, countless scientists have been earning huge sums from unethical drug sales for decades. This has been taking place when, for half a century, the business model in marketing drugs has been to fund pseudo-science and spread misleading “expert knowledge” through influential MDs paid to favor the drug industry’s interests. The situation is particularly true of the drugs prescribed for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

This book is for everybody including physicians and parents, who need to make well-informed decisions. This is not a conspiracy theory. Every statement in the book is verifiable by credible electronic references. These references allow instant fact-checking by letting readers see the actual long-term studies, as well as allowing readers to verify the drug industry’s fraudulent marketing tactics including aggressively funding junk-science, disseminating false information, burying the unfavorable research findings, hiding the adverse reactions or unethically lobbying government officials. Both the current versions and saved copies of the original versions of the electronic references have been provided. The saved copies have been included to prevent information loss and to prevent the accused parties from obliterating their efforts to mislead or defraud. You can also find the clickable e-reference list online at http://adhddrugslongterm.com/bibliography/ (e-readers may not open the pdf files in this bibliography, you may want to view the references with your pc).

This book emphasizes the fact that almost all ADHD medications are addictive stimulants which are amphetamine or methylphenidate mixtures classified by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) under Schedule II due to their abuse potential. Short-term studies constitute the research falsely promoted as demonstrating the “safety and effectiveness” of these drugs. The long-term studies showing the progressive damages these drugs cause have deliberately not been published for decades, while the drugs’ short-term benefits have been aggressively promoted in a misleading manner to increase drug sales. But in more recent years, a number of significant long-term studies have finally found their way into publication. These long-term findings show that the supposed “benefits” from ADHD drugs may be observed for at most two years, after which the accumulated damages can’t be ignored.

Before ADHD was first created in 1968, addictive stimulants like amphetamine were mainly popular among speed freaks or tweakers in the streets, ghettos, or motorcycle gangs. But this begun to change in 1937, when psychiatrist Charles Bradley first observed that troublesome kids who were given amphetamine became temporarily subdued in their emotional responses and better focused on the tasks given to them including school activities.[1] After taking stimulants, people can experience a temporarily reduction in restlessness and improvement in their ability to focus, work, and learn.[2] These effects have been observed in between 70-80% of children.[3] This represented a goldmine for the drug companies, which branded stimulants under new, medical sounding names that masked their street names. They called amphetamine "Adderall," or "Vyvanse," and the stimulant methlyphenidate "Ritalin" or "Concerta." They even branded methamphetamine as the medication "Desoxyn" which is also prescribed for ADHD. The pharmaceutical companies then began to unethically promote these drugs to psychiatrists, teachers and also directly to the public as the miracle pills that immediately solve parental and educational problems. Then the ADHD drug makers began to promote these drugs to adults too as the magic bullets to lead more productive and successful lives.

But what do these drugs really do in the long-run to people’s mental and physical equilibrium?

Among the long-term adverse effects of ADHD medications are the very undesired conditions that the drugs seem to improve in the short-term. These undesired conditions include weakened cognition and learning ability, aggression, lack of motivation, and diminished ability to feel pleasure from anything including the drugs themselves as tolerance builds up, causing people to tend to overdose. The adverse effects of ADHD medications also include vascular disease, high blood pressure and reduced circulation including 23-30% reduced cerebral blood circulation – all of which are caused by the prolonged emergency stress response the drugs create to induce alertness. Vascular problems caused by ADHD medications can result in sudden death as the FDA warns in boxed warnings on drug labels.

Before presenting all the data and research studies backing up the above statements and presenting the reports of investigations which have cost the drug makers billions in fraud settlements, I would like to relate a true story.

To protect the privacy of those involved, I have changed some names and details, but what I’m about to tell you deeply disturbed me. It involves someone I met through addforums.com. She allowed me to interview her for this book.

The Story of Alicia and Tom

We will call her Alicia. She was impressed with Tom, perhaps even infatuated. Tom was considerably younger than she. He was nice looking and had money. He bought her clothes and jewelry. He took her out on his boat and Alicia loved boating. He showered her with flattery and told her he loved her only one month after they’d met. He asked her if she’d live with him. Alicia found herself enthusiastically agreeing.

Alicia moved into Tom’s large house by the beach. But it took her only days to notice something was wrong. Very wrong.

Alicia had known Tom as a talkative guy, but now he sometimes talked non-stop for hours in an uncontrolled manner. Following such manic bursts of liveliness, oddly, Tom said almost nothing for many days. He was totally disinterested in interacting with Alicia during these periods, and her presence almost seemed to annoy him. He seemed one pointedly obsessed and enthralled with his tablet which he carried everywhere. He ate his meals with Alicia in silence quickly and went right back to his tablet. He refused to leave his tablet behind even when they went out on the boat. He lay in bed by Alicia in silence fixated on his tablet until dawn sometimes. He told Alicia he had migraines and this was why he often reached for “pain medications.”

Alicia tried to make herself believe that Tom must be working through something. She cried and prayed for things to go back to the way they were. But her prayers were not answered. Things kept getting worse and eventually got completely out of control.

There were many days that Tom was so tired and down he never worked at all. The fact that Tom was dysfunctional made Alicia doubt where his money came from. She looked up his criminal record. Tom had been arrested many times and jailed for inability to pay child support. Tom had also served 5 months in prison for beating up and injuring a furniture salesman in a store. The last child support incident had occurred 4 years earlier, after which Tom began living on the millions of dollars he had inherited from his father.

Although every instinct told Alicia to move out, she kept wondering if there was any way Tom could be helped, to make it possible for her to stay with him.

Alicia’s frustration kept growing and her hopes diminished the more Tom stopped trying to hide the reality of his condition. Tom did not seem to have even a single friend. Nobody ever called him except his mother. He did not enjoy socializing, going out to eat or dance, he did not really like boating or swimming or anything else most people enjoyed doing. He spent most of his time in bed either fixated on his tablet or sleeping. Days of never sleeping were followed by weeks where he could sleep up to 20 hours a day despite having consumed numerous caffeinated drinks in an effort to stay awake. Alicia had never seen someone who could drink about 10 large mugs of incredibly strong coffee one after another, in addition to guzzling many cans of caffeinated sodas the same day.

One afternoon, Tom exploded at Alicia for trying to pull him out of bed. He roughly pushed her away and started calling her derogatory names. He began punching the wall as he shouted obscene words. His large fists left dents in the drywall as he yelled. He then suddenly stopped hitting the wall, turned around, and started walking towards Alicia with his fists in the air. Screaming, Alicia ran out of the house. Tom followed her into the street shoeless and in pajamas. Alicia was still screaming with people in the street staring, when she spotted the police car which the neighbors must have called.

The police told Alicia they could not arrest Tom since he had not actually harmed her. Alicia told them that she could not go back into Tom’s house and had nowhere else to go. She was broke as she had been jobless for a while after relocating to that state before meeting Tom. She had no friends there that she could crash with. She let the police drive her to the abused women’s shelter for her to stay until she could rent her own place.

That night at the shelter, Alicia could not wink an eye and kept clutching her purse, when two of her roommates looked very much like meth addicts. Then her phone started buzzing relentlessly. She saw that Tom was trying to reach her. She tried to ignore it for a while, but eventually could not resist answering. Tom apologized profusely and told her that his temper was caused by his medication. Since he was a kid, he had been taking Adderall prescribed to him to treat his Attention Deficit Disorder. But now he was adamant about quitting his pills because he loved Alicia tremendously, he said, and was willing to do anything for her. Would Alicia agree to meet him for just a few minutes on the beach?

Alicia did go to meet Tom. Upon seeing her, Tom started sobbing as he told her how tired he was of the way he lived. If only she would give him one chance to fix things, he swore repeatedly he would not blow it. He sobbed for quite a while uncontrollably, which looked so sincere and real, Alicia believed him. When he and Alicia were back at Tom’s house, he showered her with flattery again just like he used to do when they’d first met. He kept reassuring her that he would make everything just fine for her. They flushed his pills down the toilet together.

Tom seemed to act normal for the next few days, but Alicia could not stop wondering if things would really be fine. She got on the Internet to try to learn about Tom’s disorder and medication. Googling brought up pages of search results which led to websites where renowned MDs explained the safety and effectiveness of stimulants in managing the symptoms of ADHD. Countless writers and bloggers covered what the influential psychiatrists said, also praising how well these stimulants worked. Alicia read that there were hundreds of research studies confirming the safety and benefits of these drugs. So why had Tom been doing so badly?

Alicia noticed advertisements about ADHD drugs in women’s magazines, on TV, and on the websites she visited. These ads and the articles she read claimed that in addition to boosting children’s grades, ADHD drugs could help adults get promoted or help prevent job loss. She read that stimulants also enhanced athletic performance. These drugs could reduce the appetite to make people lose weight and look great. Studies seemed to have shown that these meds could help with controlling emotions. One of the ads she saw even mentioned a study that had found ADHD drugs saved marriages. Wouldn’t it be great, Alicia thought, if a pill could really make people more successful at work and in relationships, making everyone richer, happier, and better looking? If only there really was a safe instantaneous fix that could sharpen people’s wandering minds to help them achieve great things.

After completing several ‘ADHD Checklist’ quizzes advertised online, Alicia wondered if she too might have this neuro-biological illness. She noted that the quizzes had coached her exactly what to tell a psychiatrist if she ever wanted stimulants. All of this could have started her mind dreaming about her new and improved self and her accomplishments on “smart drugs”, making her look for a prescriber – if only she hadn’t seen Tom’s condition.

Contrary to the picture the Internet painted of the people thriving on stimulants, Tom was an almost completely a lifeless, drained shell of a man. His emotions, behavior and mind could get out of control in a way that was quite opposite to what his prescription was supposed to accomplish.

Tom could appear to act normally for only a week before lapsing back into his old patterns. After searching Tom’s car, Alicia found another Adderall prescription bottle. She called Tom’s mother Yvette and told her what had happened. Yvette told that she had once counted Tom’s pills when he was younger, seeing that her son was taking more than three times the daily dosage of Adderall prescribed for him at that time. Alicia did not tell Yvette that Tom’s condition seemed even worse now. When his medication ran out after the first week of the month, he kept lying for weeks collapsed like a puppet without strings.

Over the years, Tom had gone through numerous different prescribers. Yvette had eventually managed to inform them all of her son’s condition. But each time Yvette reported Tom, her son had easily found a new prescriber after a little doctor shopping. Yvette told Alicia that her countless attempts to have Tom get help had failed.

Yvette had let Tom be put on amphetamines when he was only five years old. This was why, Alicia realized, Tom did not seem to recall enjoying life without pills or having any energy or motivation naturally. He seemed incapable of even imagining the possibility of this as he argued against it. When Yvette heard this from Alicia, she started crying loudly. Between her sobs, she regretfully admitted that working as a department store manager had left her with little patience and energy in the evenings to deal with her wild son. Yvette had also gotten fed up with the way Tom’s teachers complained about his mischievous behavior and poor grades. The teachers had kept relentlessly insisting there were pills Tom could take that would make him sit still in class, become obedient and pay attention to them. Yvette was handed a brochure describing ADHD as a serious neuro-biological illness, followed by a list of the terrible things that could happen to children with this disease if they were left untreated. With the help of the psychiatrist the school referred her to, Yvette let herself be coaxed into believing the hypothesis that the brain chemistry of difficult children can be corrected. Years later, when she looked back, it felt like she’d been hypnotized into ignoring that the drugs she had given her son were classified by the DEA as addictive Schedule II substances in the same class as cocaine or morphine.

Yvette begged Alicia that they should try one more time to help her son. Or else Tom could drop dead any day from so much amphetamine, doctors had told her. Yvette and Alicia both confronted Tom, asking him to go to rehab. But Tom exploded again and did not hesitate to even cuss at his mother, calling her obscene names. This made Alicia face the fact that there was nothing anyone could do to help him. Before Alicia could finish putting her belongings in Yvette’s car, Tom had calmed down and again tried to use his charm to stop Alicia from leaving. He told her that his cousin was on Adderall too, and also kept his pill bottle hidden. His brother’s son and his daughter’s toddler had also been prescribed stimulants scientifically proven to be safe, effective, and beneficial for them. Alicia was told that just about every other person used these drugs – Tom was doing nothing wrong and nothing different than what everybody did nowadays.

Horrified, Alicia finished moving out as fast as she could. She never talked to Tom again and does not know if he’s still alive.

The DEA or the Psychiatrists, Which to Believe?

How many children like Tom have been prescribed ADHD medications, and how many adults may be living their lives dependent on these drugs? Was Tom just an exception to the claim that these drugs are beneficial, safe, and well tolerated by most children and adults diagnosed with ADHD?

In the United States, 11% of all children (6.4 million) 4-17 years old received an ADHD diagnosis in 2011, according to the latest statistics published by the Centers For Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). [4] Most of these children diagnosed have been treated with ADHD medications, which constituted 6.1% of all children in the United States in 2011.[4] This means that there were at least 2.5 million children in the United States on ADHD medications in 2011.[5]

In recent years, as the drug industry convinced the public that adults too can have ADHD, the number of adult ADHD drug prescriptions overtook those of children in 2014. Including adults, the number of Americans who use medication to treat ADHD symptoms in 2012 totals more than 4.8 million privately insured individuals.6 Experts predict that this growth will keep increasing at an annualized rate of 6%, to reach $17.5 billion in 2020, which will put these drugs in one of the market’s top psychopharmaceutical categories.7

Thus the ADHD drug use epidemic still seems to be spreading in an unstoppable manner, despite the way the official warning of the DEA about these drugs states: “Schedule II drugs, substances, or chemicals are defined as drugs with a high potential for abuse, with use potentially leading to severe psychological or physical dependence. These drugs are also considered dangerous.”8

Due to the euphoria and supposed “clarity” and “well-being” these addictive drugs seem to create shortly following drug intake, their illegal and recreational use is also highly popular. This means that there may be millions of more individuals using these drugs than the statistics report.

Conflicting with the efforts of the DEA to warn to the public, the psychiatric community has for decades popularized the use of ADHD drugs not due to legit scientific findings, but due to having been corrupted by the drug industry. The situation is best summarized in a statement by Gene R. Haislip, deputy assistant administrator of the Office of Diversion Control, Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) of the United States Department of Justice. At the conclusion of the DEA’s Conference on Stimulant Use in the Treatment of ADHD (San Antonio, Dec. 10-12, 1996), Haislip wrote:9

When we see that in some localities as many as 15 to 20 percent of the children have been put on Ritalin or a similar stimulant, there is good reason to conclude that this is “quick-fix” bogus medical practice which is nevertheless producing large profits. This far exceeds any professional estimates of actual need. Parents need to understand that we are talking about very potent, addictive and abusable substances … parents need to educate themselves and protect their children by adopting an attitude of proper parental caution. Regrettably, much of the literature and promotion of the drug in recent years has ignored or understated the potency and abuse potential of methylphenidate and Ritalin. This appears to have misled many physicians into prescribing the drug as a quick-fix for learning and behavior problems.

The success of the promotion of ADHD medications is largely attributed to a drug-company-funded front group called Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (CHADD).10 The large amounts of money CHADD had been taking from Ritalin’s manufacturer Ciba-Geigy was first uncovered by PBS’s reporters and publicized in October 1995 in a feature called “The Merrow Report-Attention Deficit Disorder: A Dubious Diagnosis?”.11 In this feature, PBS revealed that CHADD deceived the public by hiding its connection to the drug companies, misrepresenting itself as an independent national support organization for ADHD (in PBS’s referenced video, the section about CHADD starts in 27 minutes).11 Education Week, which helped produce PBS’s 1995 feature exposing CHADD’s misleading practices, stated that “strong evidence indicates that the epidemic of Attention Deficit Disorder… is to a large extent man-made, one result of a long-term, unpublicized financial relationship between the company that makes the most widely known A.D.D. medication and the nation’s largest ‘A.D.D. Support Group.’”11

In 1995, CHADD teamed up with the American Academy of Neurology and lobbied the DEA to try to get methylphenidate (Ritalin) taken out of Schedule II.12 But their evidence failed to convince the DEA in part due to the way CHADD’s drug company connections had come out. The DEA also reports having conducted its own extensive review of the use, abuse liability, actual abuse, diversion and trafficking of methylphenidate, deciding not to change its classification.12 The Background Paper of this 1995 review of the DEA states that: [12]

Of particular concern is that most of the ADHD literature prepared for public consumption by CHADD and other groups and available to parents, does not address the abuse potential or actual abuse of methylphenidate. Instead, methylphenidate (usually referred to as Ritalin by these groups) is routinely portrayed as a benign, mild substance that is not associated with abuse or serious side effects. In reality, however, there is an abundance of scientific literature which indicates that methylphenidate shares the same abuse potential as other Schedule II stimulants… The documentation in this report directly refutes the assertions that methylphenidate is a benign, mild stimulant that is not associated with abuse or serious side effects.

The way the American Academy of Neurology was compromised to aid CHADD’s lobbying efforts to get methylphenidate taken out of Schedule II is just one example of the corruption responsible for the difference of opinion between the medical community and the DEA on the dangers of Schedule II substances. This book includes numerous other examples of how far the drug companies have gone to sell Schedule II drugs legally.

But as the next section demonstrates, it was not only the psychiatric community that allowed itself to be corrupted by the pharmaceutical industry.

The Government’s Contributions to the Schedule II Drug Prescription Epidemic

Numerous government policies have served to accelerate the astronomic rise of ADHD drug sales, as well as the sales of other psychotropic meds. The ADHD drug manufacturers’ profits started to rise in the 1990s, when the lobbying efforts of CHADD succeeded at getting ADHD added to the Social Security Administration’s list of covered impairments that allow for disability benefits (42:26 minutes into PBS’s referenced video).11 After the Welfare Reform in 1996, the law was tightened to allow Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefits to be approved for not all ADHD cases but only severe ones. But this has not discouraged numerous low income families from getting their unruly kids diagnosed with ADHD and put on medications to guarantee that their cases look serious enough for SSI approval, the Boston Globe reports.13 The Globe points out that this can bring up to $700 a month for each “disabled” child. This December 2010 article of the Boston Globe adds that there has been a “stunning rise over the past two decades” in the number of children who receive SSI checks because of mental disorders, with ADHD being one of the top two “mental disabilities.” The article states that “this little-scrutinized $10 billion federal disability program has gone seriously astray, becoming an alternative welfare system with troubling built-in incentives that risk harm to children.”

ADHD diagnosis rates also spiked after U.S. states passed accountability laws that penalize schools which can’t produce successful students. This has been analyzed by clinical psychologist Stephen Hinshaw and health economist Richard Scheffler, both of whom received the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Investigator Awards in Health Policy Research.14 [15] The accountability laws that were passed in many states include the way high school seniors must pass exams to qualify for graduation.15 Then the ‘No Child Left Behind’ legislation was signed by President George W. Bush, which became federal policy in 2002. This legislation made school funding available dependent on the success of students in standardized tests. “Local state laws often held teachers and principals directly responsible for the results,” reports NBC news.14 This provides the incentive for schools to diagnose under-performing children with ADHD and prescribe stimulants to improve the poor test scores. Even though in many jurisdictions the test scores of children diagnosed with ADHD do not count in determining the school’s performance, this continues to provide an incentive to diagnose underachieving children with ADHD, to prevent their test scores from affecting the schools’ performance.15 Thus all cases have helped ADHD diagnoses rates soar as a quick-fix “solution” to make schools appear to be teaching better.

The number of prescriptions for stimulant medications further soared due to a project called TeenScreen. This project was launched in 2004 by the New Freedom Commission on Mental Health which was again established by George W. Bush.16 The TeenScreen project’s goal was to screen all middle and high school children to identify mental disorders and suicide risks.16 By January 2012, TeenScreen had established more than 2800 active sites in 47 US states and 10 foreign nations.17 Brief surveys done at these sites became the first step for millions of children to enter the mental health care system.

Retired psychologist Dr. Philip Hickey, PhD explains what actually happened to these schoolchildren who ended up seeing psychiatrists. Dr. Hickey states that by the end of the 70’s almost all psychiatrists had turned into drug pushers no longer doing talk therapy.18 “A psychiatrist can earn $150 for three 15-minute medication visits compared with $90 for a 45-minute talk therapy session,” Dr. Hickey points out. He cites other articles in explaining how the system lets psychiatrists make considerably more profits by diagnosing and medicating the suffering people who seek them out. “The widespread medicalization of human problems for profit is a destructive rot within our society,” Dr. Hickey adds.

In 2012, the highly controversial TeenScreen project was finally shut down with the resignation of its director and codirector.16 The project did not provide a reason for its closure, and the people running it never responded to the countless reporter inquiries. The project’s director who resigned was formerly the director of an organization called the National Alliance on Mental Illness, which receives most of its funding from the drug companies. The organization was forced to acknowledge this due to congressional investigations.19 More will later be said on the reason why TeenScreen was shut down and why its directors resigned.

After Bush’s term ended, ADHD medication sales continued to soar due to other policies like the Affordable Care Act (ACA) initiated by President Obama, which allows insurance companies to extend coverage to behavioral disorder treatments.20 As reported by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Obama provided “the largest expansions of mental health and substance use disorder coverage in a generation,” also requiring most health plans to “now cover preventive services, like depression screening for adults and behavioral assessments for children, at no additional cost.”20

In 2014, the unpopular TeenScreen project was reinstated under a new guise just like the hydra growing a new head. This occurred when the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services announced it was awarding $99 million in new grants to school districts, “to train new mental health providers, help teachers and others recognize mental health issues in youth and connect them to help, and increase access to mental health services for young people.”21 The next day, the U.S. Department of Education also announced the awarding of $70 million in “School Climate Transformation” grants, stating on its website that about half of this funding would be used to achieve goals including “increase[ing] awareness of and the ability to respond to mental-health issues among school-aged youths.”22 This website lists the numerous states and schools that received these grants and currently utilize them.

According to critics, such policies have turned the public-school system into thousands of profitable referral centers for big psycho-pharma. In a report released in May 2015, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention states that “ADHD was the most prevalent current diagnosis [of mental disorders] among children aged 3–17 years” between 2005 and 2011.23 This period coincides with the time period TeenScreen was active.

As the ADHD drug sales kept rising and the drug makers started wondering when the U.S. market would get saturated, they increased their lobbying efforts overseas, according to a Huffington Post article published in December 2014.24 The ADHD drug makers’ efforts overseas proved even more effective than in the United States, reports the Wall Street Journal in a 2014 article titled “How Attention Deficit Disorder Went Global.” This article states that “global sales outside the U.S. are rising at least twice as fast as in the U.S.”25 Foreign government leaders or leader candidates seem to be even hungrier than the American politicians for drug company dollars.

Misrepresenting the Abuse Potential, Cardiovascular Problems and Sudden Death Risk

Drug industry front groups and bought-off psychiatrists have seeded the Internet and popular media outlets with blatant lies about the safety of ADHD medications. The following discussion investigates the most severe dangers of these drugs and how the drug makers cause people to overlook the facts.

Euphoria causing stimulants may make fussy children temporarily happy and contended-seeming as well as alert and focused the way adults want, but is such “help” really God sent? In the case of amphetamines (Adderall or Vyvansse or Dexedrine), an article titled “The Neuropharmacology of Drugs of Abuse” on the website of Princeton University explains that “amphetamine users describe the euphoric effects of the drug in terms indistinguishable from those used by cocaine users and in the laboratory, subjects cannot distinguish between the subjective effects of cocaine and amphetamine.”26 This article then mentions some of the differences between cocaine and amphetamine including the duration of euphoric effects. For the case of methylphenidate (Ritalin or Concerta), the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB), which controls the implementation of the United Nations drug conventions, reports that “methylphenidate, due to its high abuse potential, was one of the first substances to be placed under international control in Schedule II of the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances.”27

But despite how the DEA and INCB state their observations, Google features hundreds of websites teeming with favorable sales pitches coming from the mouths of supposedly credible MD’s. In trying to learn the dangers of methylphenidate or amphetamine, when people search for “ADHD meds for kids,” the topmost featured search result (shown below, as of June 14, 2016) leads to the website of Additude, which is one of the world’s largest networks promoting stimulant sales. This website gets monthly 800,000 unique visitors28 and Additude’s magazine gets distributed to about 5,500 schools/special educators and to about an equal number of physicians’ offices, as well as to industry conferences.28 The scientific advisory board of Additude is comprised of many influential MDs who grossly mislead the world.29 Most parents never question the following statements made by Additude which Google features as if facts:

Clicking on the featured picture of the happy and loving looking mother and daughter leads to Additude’s FAQ page, which states that “the stimulants commonly prescribed for ADHD are considered among the safest of all psychiatric medications.”30 Few people who read such words realize they are lies, when the truth is that in addition to the warnings of the DEA and INCB, the FDA mandates a black box warning on all amphetamine-based stimulants (Vyvanse, Adderall or Dexedrine). This black box warning spells out the high abuse potential of these drugs as well as their cardiovascular risks which include sudden death.31 If you’d Google “what is a black box warning”, you’d see the following words featured on top of the search results (as of 6/25/2016):32

A black box warning is the strictest warning put in the labeling of prescription drugs or drug products by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) when there is reasonable evidence of an association of a serious hazard with the drug.

In the FDA’s publication titled “A Guide to Drug Safety Terms at FDA,” the agency confirms that based on a review process evaluating actual clinical evidence, a black box warnings is issued for a drug which “is designed to call attention to serious or life-threatening risks.”33 The current black box warning for all amphetamine based ADHD drugs states:31

:

As the FDA, the DEA, and the INCB all agree, there is no controversy about the way amphetamines have a high potential to be misused. And since there is a high probability that people on amphetamines will abuse their medications, this means that there is a high probability that people on amphetamines can experience “sudden death and serious cardiovascular adverse events” as also stated in the black box warning for these drugs. This brings to mind a more accurate image of a mother wrapping her arms around her daughter as she hands her amphetamines, saying “darling, you are likely to develop an increasing dependency to this substance and an increasing desire to abuse it. This may make you suddenly die, but we should never mind.”

Outside of the U.S., due to international reports of sudden death in patients taking either Adderall or Adderall XR, Canada suspended the market authorization of Adderall in February 2005.34 [35] But Adderall’s manufacturer Shire refused to voluntarily comply with Health Canada’s decision, which automatically triggered an appeal process.36 Six months later Health Canada was persuaded to put Adderall back on the market.35

In the United States, the FDA’s black box warning on amphetamines states misuse as the cause of sudden death from these drugs. But misuse was not the cause of any of the deaths that had been reported to Health Canada who recalled Adderall. “The deaths were not associated with overdose, misuse or abuse,” states a 2005 paper titled “Commentary: Concerns With the Suspension of Adderall XR,” published in the Canadian Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Review.36 This seems to indicate that the FDA has sugar-coated its warning. The upcoming chapters elaborate on the entanglement of the FDA too with the drug industry.

Regarding the warnings on all stimulants including those containing methylphenidate, in 2006, the FDA decided to strengthen the sections on cardiovascular risks. The sections of the warnings on psychiatric adverse effects were also strengthened, emphasizing the extent that stimulants can cause mental disorders including mania and psychosis.37 The current version of these stronger warnings can be viewed on the referenced webpage of the FDA.38 On this webpage, you can click on ‘label’ next to each medication brand and then go to the section called “Warnings”. In addition to the way ADHD drugs can trigger new psychotic or manic symptoms, the strengthened psychiatric warnings that come up for all stimulants include the emergence of bipolar illness, aggression, and tics. The warnings explain that these psychiatric adverse effects do not only occur in people who overdose or in people with a history of mental illness. For all ADHD drugs including Ritalin and Adderall, the FDA’s warnings state that “hallucinations, delusional thinking, or mania in children and adolescents without a prior history of psychotic illness can be caused by stimulants at usual doses.”39

For the case of the physical adverse effects from stimulants, FDA’s strengthened warnings include long-term suppression of growth, seizures or visual disturbance in addition to cardiovascular problems.

But parents should still never mind any of this, according to MDs like Dr. William W. Dodson, who scares parents about not medicating children. Dr. Dodson lies on the FAQ page of Additude that “the risks of using these medications are very low… The risks involved in not treating ADHD are very high. These include academic failure, social problems, car accidents, and drug addiction.”30 Millions of parents who read this don’t realize they are being defrauded, when Adderall’s manufacturer Shire was fined $56.5 million in 2014 by the U.S. Department of Justice for promoting “unsupported claims that Adderall XR would prevent poor academic performance, loss of employment, criminal behavior, traffic accidents and sexually transmitted disease.”40 This was announced on the website of the U.S. Department of Justice which states that this fine was paid for Shire’s false claims made between 2004 and 2010 about the safety and efficacy of Adderall.

The website of Additude also has an article posted by psychiatrist Dr. Edward Hallowell, who serves on the advisory board of Additude. Hollowell, who has been on the Harvard Medical School faculty for 20 years, states that “used properly, Ritalin is safe, safer than aspirin.”41 Hollowell lies to the public when Ritalin’s label includes the warning stating that “sudden death, stroke, and myocardial infarction have been reported in adults taking stimulant drugs at usual doses for ADHD.”39 In his article, Hollowell continues to mislead people by telling that “80 percent of individuals with ADHD who try medication benefit.” This only refers to the apparently “great” immediate effects of these euphoria causing addictive stimulants. Hollewell does not mention the abuse potential of these addictive drugs nor how hard it is to quit them, how terrible their long-term side effects are and how damaged people end up even after one year on them, which this book will shortly elaborate. Google unfortunately features not just this but hundreds of similar articles and webpages where countless MDs promote ADHD drugs similarly. Exactly why such MDs promote drugs this way will be elaborated in the section “The Paid-off Key Opinion Leaders of the Drug Industry.”

Time magazine has published a popular article titled “Growing Up With ADHD”, which also contains false information. This article mentions that the FDA has issued a black box warning on amphetamines, followed by stating that “another FDA panel withdrew the black box warning within a month.”42 This is a lie. It has never occurred, as can be seen on FDA’s website listing the current warnings on Adderall38 (the warnings show up after clicking on the link titled ‘label’ next to Adderall). My local pharmacy printed out the most current black box warning on Adderall for me, which was identical to the black box warning that the FDA posts as current. You can request your pharmacy to do the same for you, and then go back to the misleading Time magazine article42 and note that the MDs who were interviewed for this article include Dr. Hallowell, Dr. Russel Barkley and Dr. Harold Koplewicz who are all members of the advisory board of Additude.29

This example demonstrates the need to be leery of trusting popular online or print sources corrupted by the lies of drug selling physicians and the reporters who parrot them without checking their facts.

It is difficult for the actual side effects of drugs to reach the public, when the wealthy drug manufacturers almost always settle with the plaintiffs to avoid bad publicity. This is pointed out by award winning freelance writer Caroline Beaton in her Huffington Post article.43 Such cases almost never settle without buying the plaintiff’s silence through non-disclosure agreements. But this is only one of the ways the drug companies hide the actual adverse effects or deaths caused by medications. The upcoming chapters will discuss the industry’s numerous other successful cover-up tactics and what unbiased research results have shown.

Defrauding People and Treating Fines as the “Cost of Doing Business”

There seems to be no end to the fraudulent marketing techniques that the ADHD drug makers have deployed to sell their products, and the laws have still not been tightened to stop it.

While direct consumer ads told parents that stimulants make children well behaved academic achievers,44 [45] [46] the ADHD drug company sales departments also aggressively kept working on the educators. Millions of teachers were made to believed that ADHD medications can make their challenging jobs easier. Schoolteachers allowed themselves to become a huge vested interest group promoting ADHD medications to parents,47 [48] working together with other vested-interest groups like the paid-off psychiatric experts and politicians to create the ADHD drug prescription epidemic.

A 2006 article titled “Medicine Goes to School: Teachers as Sickness Brokers for ADHD” published in PLoS Medicine reports that teachers “often agree to administer psychostimulant medication during the school day.”47 This article states:

Pharmaceutical companies have been able to exploit the Internet to access teachers and to influence their brokerage role. The approach to teachers tends to mirror strategies used to familiarize doctors with pharmaceuticals…

Both Shire (manufacturer of Adderell) and Novartis (manufacturer of Ritalin) have established educational websites separate from their own industry sites, each of which contains specific resources for teachers. On a page entitled “If parents ask…,” Novartis suggests responses teachers might make to concerned parents:

“Make it clear to them that it is important for them—and their child—to understand and follow the doctor’s medical advice about medication and other therapies for ADHD.”

The New York Times describes an example case involving a mother who was given a pamphlet about ADHD medications, which drug company sales reps had left at school to be handed out to parents.48 This pamphlet contained false statements such as “parents should be aware that these medicines do not ‘drug’ or ‘alter’ the brain of the child. They make the child ‘normal.’” This mother and her husband did put their child on Ritalin, but had to take him off it after 3 years “because of sleep problems and heart palpitations.”48 This family was defrauded to overlook the fact that one of the most serious side effect of stimulants is cardiovascular problems.38

The false claim that the drug Adderall "would 'normalize' its recipients" was among the reasons why Shire was fined $56.5 million in 2014 by the United States Department of Justice.[40] But Shire easily paid this $56.5 million which represented less than 1% of its total revenue of $6 billion for 2014.[49] Fraud certainly paid more than the cost of penalties, as Shire's annual report for 2014 states that "Shire delivered record levels of sales and profitability in 2014 and is well positioned for continued growth and success."[49] The company's strong growth was featured in the Wall Street Journal in their article titled "Shire Raises Earnings Guidance After Record Sales Growth-Expected Earnings Growth in the High 30% Range."[50]

According to the New York Times, “the Food and Drug Administration has cited every major A.D.H.D. drug — stimulants like Adderall, Concerta, Focalin and Vyvanse, and nonstimulants like Intuniv and Strattera — for false and misleading advertising since 2000, some multiple times.”48 As reported by DrugWatch.com, “bending health care laws has become so commonplace that drug manufacturers… consider any punishment to be the cost of doing business. To them, it seems the increased profits outweigh the risk of getting caught or any damage they inflict on unsuspecting patients.”51

Business-ethics.com lists which drug companies have paid how much in settlements between 2006 and 2015. Their article states:52

Big Pharma has written more than $30 billion in checks in the last 10 years to resolve the government allegations, according to statistics compiled by the consumer watchdog group Public Citizen… Yet those sums, Public Citizen says, are essentially petty cash for the drug giants. The advocacy group, which seeks stiffer sanctions against violators, says the settlements amount to less than 5 percent of the net profits raked in by the 11 largest global pharmaceuticals firms over a similar period.

The same article in Business-ethics.com quotes Harvard Medical School professor Eric G. Campbell who researches doctors’ conflicts of interest. Campbell states that “treating fines as a cost of doing business, truly appears to be the business model in marketing drugs.”

Not satisfied with the millions of schoolchildren on ADHD drugs, the drug companies then began to promote stimulants to adults too with the promise of improving a set of brain operations that they called “executive functioning skills.” According to the Attention Deficit Disorder Association (ADDA),53 executive functioning skills include attention, concentration, memory, motivation, effort, learning from mistakes, impulsivity, hyperactivity, organization, and social skills – all of which constitute almost every skill everyone needs to excel at almost every undertaking in life. ADDA’s webpage (referenced) also fraudulently states that “medication is often used to help normalize brain activity.”53 [40]

Certainly, all of us want to succeed in life and no parent wants to see their child fall behind or get in trouble in school. No one wants to deal with children who refuse to do their homework or play quietly, instead seeming to jump off the walls with what appears to adults as excess energy. But stimulants are not the “safe and effective” helpers the drug companies have marketed them to be. The following chapters will keep demonstrating why this is so and exactly how real science has shown that these drugs cause severe long-term damages.

A Diagnostic Process Guided by Vested Interest

When the drug companies wished to market Schedule II drugs as a solution to child rearing problems, they needed to justify this under the cloak of science. This was accomplished by persuading the American Psychiatric Association (APA) to invent a new disease. We will shortly show that ADHD was voted into existence by the mere consensus of drug-company-affiliated APA members rather than objective scientific methods. But before demonstrating this, let us first see the official diagnostic criteria for ADHD, which lists nothing but the most common childhood behaviors teachers and parents don’t like. Glancing at this criteria is the best indicator of the way ADHD seems to have been fabricated to sell addictive drugs to schoolchildren.

The simplified current version of the official diagnostic criteria of ADHD can be viewed online in the website of the U.S. Government’s Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).54 On this website, CDC first states that in determining if a child has ADHD, “the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that healthcare professionals ask parents, teachers, and other adults who care for the child about the child’s behavior in different settings, like at home, school, or with peers.” This tells the doctors to make the teachers and caregivers their major source of information in diagnosing ADHD, causing the diagnostic process to be guided by a group who has a vested interest in having children sit still and pay attention to them as previously discussed.

After telling psychiatrists who to consult in diagnosing ADHD, CDC’s website lists the diagnostic criteria for ADHD which is divided into two categories called ‘Inattention’ and ‘Hyperactivity-Impulsivity’. To be diagnosed, a child must exhibit 6 of the 9 symptoms in each category for at least 6 months (an adult must exhibit only 5 symptoms in each category). Of these two categories of symptoms, the ‘Inattention’ category includes the following 6 behaviors exhibited by almost all young schoolchildren, which can enable any child to get diagnosed with the help of any teacher. A child is diagnosed “ill” if she or he

● “Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, at work, or with other activities.”

● “Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly.”

● “Often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace (e.g., loses focus, sidetracked).”

● “Often avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to do tasks that require mental effort over a long period of time (such as schoolwork or homework).”

● “Often loses things necessary for tasks and activities (e.g. school materials, pencils, books, tools, wallets, keys, paperwork, eyeglasses, mobile telephones).”

● “Is often forgetful in daily activities.”

To be labeled “mentally ill” and forced to live drug dependent lives, every child who does not do his homework or loses pencils at school must also exhibit 6 out of the 9 “symptoms” from the Hyperactivity-Impulsivity diagnostic category (and every adult only 5 of these criteria). This category includes the following 6 behaviors which again represent the most common childhood behaviors that annoy every teacher:

● “Often leaves seat in situations when remaining seated is expected.”

● “Often runs about or climbs in situations where it is not appropriate (adolescents or adults may be limited to feeling restless).”

● “Often unable to play or take part in leisure activities quietly”.

● “Often blurts out an answer before a question has been completed.”

● “Often has trouble waiting his/her turn.”

● “Often interrupts or intrudes on others (e.g., butts into conversations or games).”

The Centers For Disease Control and Prevention reports in their latest 2011 statistics that “the average age of ADHD diagnosis was 7 years of age.”4 Concerning these behaviors exhibited by almost all 7-year-olds, it becomes easy for any child to be diagnosed especially with the help of an additional diagnostic requirement not listed above, which states that there must also exist “clear evidence” these behaviors interfere with or reduce the quality of social, school, or work functioning. This requirement used to not just say “clear evidence” in a totally subjective manner in the previous versions of the criteria, but used to say “clear evidence of clinically significant impairment.”55. We will shortly elaborate on the way the American Psychiatric Association (APA) has gradually kept loosening the original diagnostic criteria of ADHD over the years, to allow the diagnosis of more and more people.

When modern medicine has been persuaded to call childhood a disease “treatable” by addictive Schedule II substances, each passing day pushes more children into drug dependency, which may make them provide lifelong business to those profiting from them.

But not enough children have been labeled “mentally ill” and medicated, according to people like Russell Barkley, PhD. Barkley is an award-winning clinical professor of psychiatry and pediatrics at the Medical University of South Carolina. After having been one of the most influential proponents of ADHD for 30 years, Barkley has recently produced several research papers and lectures helping create yet one more “mental illness.”56 This new disease called ‘sluggish cognitive tempo’ targets children and adults who are daydreamy, spacey, and lethargic. As reported in April 2014 by the New York Times,56 the Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology devoted 136 pages of its January 2014 issue to describing this brand new “disease”. The New York Times reports that Barkley claims sluggish cognitive tempo “has become the new attention disorder.” It is estimated to be present in about 2 million children “who are not hyperactive, merely inattentive”.56 The same New York Times article also states that “experts pushing for more research into sluggish cognitive tempo say it is gaining momentum toward recognition as a legitimate disorder — and, as such, a candidate for pharmacological treatment. Some of the condition’s researchers have helped Eli Lilly investigate how its flagship A.D.H.D. drug might treat it.”

In the section titled “The Case Against All Psychiatric Drugs and Drug-prescribing Psychiatry,” it is further demonstrated that ADHD has never been legitimately shown to have any physical biomarkers. It is not a “brain disease” but a just cluster of undesirable traits or behaviors.

After drugging kids with addictive substances was legitimized as a treatment, there have even been occasions when schools have called child protective services on parents who tried to take their children off ADHD medications. In May 2000, Times Union of Albany, NY, published the story of the Carrolls who were put on a statewide list of alleged child abusers for insisting on taking their 7-year-old son off Ritalin.57 At the time the article was published, their son was still taking Ritalin because the child protective services had not allowed him to get off it. The Carrolls were also still battling in court to clear their name and ensure their son would not be removed from their home. The article quotes the New York City lawyer David Lansner, who has seen cases similar to the Carrolls. Lansner states that “the schools are now using child protective services to enforce their own desires and their own policies.” This same article also mentions Patricia Weathers who had the police and child protective services called on her for taking her child off a drug cocktail of antidepressants and Ritalin which caused her son to hallucinate. Such reports caused Minnesota to pass a law in 2001 to prohibit school personnel and child protection agencies from telling parents to give ADHD drugs to kids.58 [59] Arizona, New Jersey, New York, Utah and Wisconsin have also passed similar laws,58 but there are still many states that have not taken precautions.

If, after all of this, anyone still believes stimulants may make their children or themselves “smarter” or help accomplish short-term goals, the following chapters demonstrate how long it actually takes stimulant users to stop “thriving” and what follows next.

Selling Addictive Drugs Without Determining Long-Term Safety

When people go online to find out the long-term safety of stimulants, few ever discover that these drugs can’t be called safe especially because their long-term effects have not been well studied. The research literature contained almost no long-term study results about stimulants before 2005, but by 2004, the market for ADHD drugs had nevertheless grown to over $3 billion annually in the United States.60 This rise in selling stimulants to especially children confirms the truth of the words of Haislip of the DEA who called the prescription of these drugs “a ‘quick-fix’ bogus medical practice which is nevertheless producing large profits.”8

How badly people have been mislead for decades becomes apparent from research papers like the one titled “Long-Term Use of Stimulants in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder,” published in 2003 in the journal Pediatric Drugs. This paper states the following about the studies on ADHD medications up until 200361:

Very few studies have been conducted that have examined the effects of long-term use of stimulants (e.g. methylphenidate) on outcome in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). … This absence of studies of long-term stimulant treatment in children with ADHD is particularly surprising, given the fact that stimulants have been used to treat these children since the 1960s. The National Institute of Mental Health consensus conference on ADHD in 1998 clearly emphasized the need for long-term studies of stimulant treatment of children with ADHD, citing concerns that little is known about the long-term effects of psychostimulants on the developing brain, cardiovascular functioning, and eventual growth.

About the amphetamine mix branded as the medication Adderall, the FDA states on its website in a report revised in March 2007 that “the effectiveness of Adderall® for long-term use has not been systematically evaluated in controlled trials.”31

This shows the fact that psychiatrists have for decades been encouraging lifelong treatments with highly addictive drugs whose long-term consequences were not known to science, but which, as we have seen, were well known to the DEA and INCB. Mislead into believing that such drugs are safe, and not told that doctors don’t know what happens to people who stay on ADHD medications, millions seem to have been deprived of their right to informed consent when allowing their children or themselves to be prescribed stimulants.

No matter the severity of anyone’s ADHD symptoms, the use of stimulants may not be justified if they fail to work after a few years, possibly leaving an addict overdosing to try to keep up the initial ‘high’ or bring back the initial “benefits” at the cost of worsening detrimental effects. When science has not verified that this does not occur, the promotion tactics of the drug companies have amazingly prevented even this most crucial point from receiving due attention.

In the hypothetical case of a child given cigarettes or alcohol every day, any side effects such as emphysema or liver damage might most likely not be noticed for years, when such problems usually begin as people approach middle age. Some can recall the sixties or seventies, when even doctors smoked due to lack of information about the long-term detrimental effects of tobacco use. Some advanced alcoholics or drug addicts can remain functional for a long time,62 when not even their family members realize how much they depend on the substance(s) they abuse. Year after year, everything may appear just fine to colleagues or acquaintances. This appearance may be sustained for as long as the addict keeps consuming increasing amounts of alcohol or drugs to suppress his withdrawal symptoms and dependence worsening with time. All addictive, highly abusable substances initially suppress certain undesired feelings or appear to “normalize” some deficiency or make one feel “great” for a short time, but can have disastrous long-term consequences.63 Knowing this, how could the physicians not have given first priority to determining the long-term effects of ADHD drugs before they began prescribing them to millions of schoolchildren?

Amphetamines are more harmful and addictive than tobacco, cannabis or LSD, and methylphenidate is more harmful than anabolic steroids or ecstasy, which has been determined in a study titled “Development of a Rational Scale to Assess the Harm of Drugs of Potential Misuse”, published in The Lancet in March 2007.64 [65] But such studies are not promoted by the vested interest groups profiting from drug sales. The public’s right to informed consent keeps getting violated by the MDs who either receive payments from the drug industry or who don’t bother to check their own facts.

The research literature on ADHD medications contains papers which seem to have been published to not only mislead, but to obfuscate the facts by trying to create confusion about them or to prevent the facts from being taken seriously. As an example, you can Google the peer-reviewed research paper titled “Limited Data Suggest that the Long-term Use of Stimulants in Children with Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is Effective and Safe,” published in the journal Drugs & Therapy Perspectives in November 2004.66 After reading this paper’s title calling ADHD drugs “effective and safe” based on “limited data”, exactly how limited this data happens to be is revealed only to those who pay for the entire article. The very few people who’d read the body of the paper can see the following disturbing reality:

Since few studies have investigated long-term use of stimulants in patients with ADHD, little is known about the maintenance of short-term efficacy over longer treatment periods or the benefits of continuing treatment in adolescence and beyond. Data available from the longest controlled studies indicate that stimulants are effective in improving ADHD symptoms for up to 2 years.

This statement reporting that stimulants work for only two years will shortly be further discussed. For now, you may note that this paper hides something as crucial as this under the misleading subtitle “Long-term Treatment is Effective.”66 This paper which was one of the few discussing the long-term effects of stimulants in 2004 seems full of contradictions, when its next section is titled “Few Benefits Carry Over to Later Life.” This section states that according to the existing data, “stimulant treatment in childhood does not generally help patients with ADHD to function better in adolescence and adulthood,” followed by stating that “the initial benefits of medication do not appear to carry over to positive long-term outcomes.” But in spite of the facts, the researchers continue to try to mislead or confuse people by also stating at the beginning of the paper that “the available data suggest that long-term stimulants are effective in improving some ADHD symptoms … and academic and social functioning.” Such a paper as this appears on the website of the well-respected Springer Publications. Not surprisingly, ADIS Data Information which co-published this paper states on their website that they are a “leading global provider of drug information.”67

Why would researchers publish such papers, and why would their colleagues allow them to pass their peer-review process? For the answer, let us now see exactly what influences such researchers.

The Paid-Off ‘Key Opinion Leaders’ of the Drug Industry

The corrupt system that created the ADHD drug use epidemic permits scientists or organizations to accept not only research funding but also personal payments from the drug makers. These personal payments often take the form of speaking fees, consulting fees or honoraria, which is paid to influential experts to help disseminate the biased results of studies conducted with drug industry funds. This is elaborated in an article titled “Key Opinion Leaders: Where They Come from and How That Affects the Drugs You Prescribe”, published in June 2009 in Dermatologic Therapy (you can scroll down and click on ‘Preview Article’).68 This article summarizes the situation as follows:

Key opinion leaders (KOLs), also known as thought leaders, are the experts in their field upon whom we depend for original research leading to disease understanding and new therapies. We rely on them to write the articles, author the textbooks, and give the presentations that we absorb. … KOLs have become intimately entwined with the marketing of pharma-ceuticals and medical devices, used not only to lend credibility to claims of efficacy and safety but also to promote anecdotal and off-label use of these medications to increase industry profits. Identification and marketing of the KOLs themselves is being done more and more often by KOL management companies who are hired by industry to turn those involved in medical education and research into efficient and productive members of the sales force. … Effective KOLs are now one of the primary marketing tools of the pharmaceutical and medical device industry.

In the above quote, the off-label use of medications refers to the prescription of drugs for uses not approved by the FDA, which physicians are legally permitted to do at their discretion.

The truth about the key opinion leaders of the medical world is further described in an article called “Key Opinion Leaders: Independent Experts or Drug Representatives in Disguise?” published in 2008 in the British Medical Journal (BMJ).69 This article quotes Kimberly Elliott who was a drug company sales representative for about 20 years. Elliott worked for several global pharmaceutical companies including Westwood Squibb, SmithKline Beecham, and Novartis. She states that “key opinion leaders were salespeople for us, and we would routinely measure the return on our investment, by tracking prescriptions before and after their presentations. If that speaker didn’t make the impact the company was looking for, then you wouldn’t invite them back.” This British Medical Journal article further states:

Ms Elliott says she would pay these respected doctors $2500 (£1280; €1610) for a single lecture, which was largely based on slides supplied by the company.

The article adds that “drug company marketing staff are urged to work routinely with key opinion leaders and try to make them into ‘product champions’”. The article also states:

The first steps in recruiting and developing a set of opinion leaders are to “evaluate their views and influence potential;” build relationships with them; and then provide the doctors with “appropriate communications platforms” so they can “communicate on your behalf” with other doctors and the wider public…

The former sales representative Ms Elliott says drug companies desperately need key opinion leaders. “There are a lot of physicians who don’t believe what we as drug representatives say. If we have a KOL [key opinion leader] stand in front of them and say the same thing, they believe it.” In January last year, after a car crash, and a worker’s compensation claim, Elliott was fired from the company she was then working for. Disillusioned with what she saw as the industry’s increasingly aggressive marketing strategies, she decided to leave the industry for good. Today she urges doctors who attend key opinion leader presentations to “take them with a grain of salt and go back and do your own research.”

As the 2008 article in BMJ explains, marketing drugs through hired experts is common to the extent that countless firms have developed software-based solutions to help manage the drug industry’s key opinion leaders. One such company is called Veeva and another is KOL, Llc. The websites of such key opinion leader management companies are filled with hilarious sounding phrases. Referring to their software called Veeva KOL Data, Veeva states on its website that it allows “improving key opinion leader engagement as healthcare evolves.”70 For KOL, Llc., what their software does includes “influence mapping” and to “identify rising stars.”71 Internet searches bring up numerous other companies also offering key opinion leader management or advocacy development programs. These include OpenQ, CRMSolutions, Cravel Group, MedThinkConnect, SteepRock, Reltio and Genpact, and the list goes on to indicate the widespread popularity of using industry-paid key opinion leaders. How to best engage and monitor “the right set of influencers for measurable business impact,” as Genpact puts it, is further described in their fascinating article called “Key Opinion Leader Management.”72

This shows how the world is influenced by a huge network of software-managed business intermediaries masquerading as doctors. Software based key opinion leader management strategies may keep evolving with the advance of technology, as long as the compromised laws allow such practices and permit the defrauding of millions who trust the “experts.”

The Pulitzer Prize-winning investigative newsroom ProPublica has determined that in 2012, about 10% of researchers simultaneously accepted both research funding and personal payments for promotional speaking or consulting from the same drug maker.[73] Such practices fueled with irresistible amounts of dollars and coupled with the direct marketing of drugs to physicians and consumers has successfully diverted attention from the lack of science behind the safety of medications like ADHD drugs.

Long-term Studies on ADHD Drugs Before 2010

It was only after 2010 that several unbiased and well-designed long-term studies emerged to demonstrate the damage caused by ADHD medications. The findings of these studies will be discussed in the next section. Before 2010, the drug industry paid researchers repeatedly caused confusion in both the public and other MD’s by producing biased long-term studies whose findings conflicted with the findings of unbiased studies by other researchers. This enabled the drug makers to keep claiming that the long-term dangers of ADHD drugs were unknown, while parents were scared into using such drugs nevertheless because of the supposedly “known” risks of leaving ADHD untreated. The following discussion gives an example of how this was done to increase drug sales. This will be followed by demonstrating the overall poor quality and fatal flaws of the majority of the long-term studies on ADHD drugs before 2010.

In trying to learn about the “science” supporting the long-term safety of ADHD medications, people who Google search phrases like “long term research on stimulants” see the website of a group called Child Mind Institute at the top of the search results (followed by the previously discussed website of Additude, as of 6/15/2016). Child Mind Institute also misleads parents by disseminating promotional lies, stating that “stimulant medications have been prescribed for ADHD for more than 40 years, so there is a lot of research showing that they are safe and effective for reducing the symptoms of ADHD.”74 But this statement contradicts what Child Mind Institute next says on the same webpage, when parents are told that “there are a number of studies that follow children with ADHD for longer periods, even into adulthood, but the kids in these studies are not being treated in a systematic, scientifically controlled way, so the results are not conclusive.”74 When this indicates that the long term safety of ADHD drugs is not known, parents are expected to be OK with their child being “safe” for only a short time on Schedule II substances.

On the same webpage of Child Mind Institute on the long-term effects of stimulants,74 a doctor advises parents to “weigh the unknowns of long-term [medication] use against the known risks of not treating ADHD in children: a higher rate of school failure, conflict with parents and authorities, and dangerous behaviors.”74 But we have in this book seen that Adderall’s manufacturer Shire was fined $56.5 million for promoting these unsupported claims in 2014 by the U.S. Department of Justice. Shire was fined for promoting that “Adderall XR would prevent poor academic performance, loss of employment, criminal behavior, traffic accidents and sexually transmitted disease.”40 Nevertheless, these fraudulent claims which have been embraced by the drug promoting paid-off physicians are still being used and featured, continuing to fool countless parents and others into causing their children or themselves to be harmed.

The fatal flaws of the long-term studies on ADHD drugs before 2010 has been demonstrated repeatedly by the Drug Effectiveness Review Project of Oregon State University. This project was formed in 2003 by the Medicaid agencies of 15 states and other organizations,75 to help these agencies make “evidence-based decisions about drugs that would be available to Medicaid recipients.”76 About the long-term safety of ADHD drugs for children aged 6-12, the 2005 report of this project states that “the overall body of evidence is poor quality due to a variety of flaws in design and analysis.”77 At the beginning of this report, poor quality studies are defined as “trials that had a fatal flaw in one or more categories.” For the case of adolescents, the review states that there was “no evidence on long-term safety of drugs used to treat ADHD in adolescents.” The 2011 report of the Drug Effectiveness Review Project repeats that the studies about the long-term safety of stimulants were still poor quality with fatal flaws.78 This statement covers everyone and not only children aged 6-12 in the 2011 review. The 2011 report contains the additional statement that “longer-term studies indicated that although the evidence is somewhat mixed, efficacy benefits seen with immediate-release methylphenidate can be maintained over periods of up to 24 months, but that deterioration in benefit is seen with longer follow-up.”

After 2011, when solid evidence finally emerged showing the long-term detrimental effects of ADHD medications, the reports of the Drug Effectiveness Review Project have mysteriously stopped commenting on these drugs’ safety. Could this be just a coincidence or due to the influence of the drug industry?

Long-Term Studies After 2010 Show Damage to People

After decades when the “safety” of ADHD medications were promoted without any legitimate evidence backing it up, several major unbiased long-term studies finally did get publicized, demonstrating that stimulants cause much harm and do not normalize people with ADHD. These studies helped Shire to get fined in 2014 for its false claims previously mentioned.40

In 2013, more parents and others realized the extent that they’d been defrauded, when Canadian researchers completed the largest and most significant study ever done on the long-term effects of stimulant use in children. While other long-term studies had small sample sizes, this study tracked 15,871 ADHD children for up to 14 years. Again unlike most of the other studies, this study (often called the Quebec Study) was not funded by any drug companies and its researchers did not have drug company affiliations. The study’s results were published by the Canadian National Bureau of Economic Research in a paper titled “Do Stimulant Medications Improve Educational and Behavioral Outcomes for Children with ADHD?”79 This 14 year-long study examined the effects of the sharp increase in the use of Ritalin after a policy change in Quebec that expanded the insurance coverage of this drug. The researchers state: “the overall argument is that if an expansion in drug use is beneficial, then we should see an improvement in the performance of children with ADHD in Quebec.” But the study found:

In the full sample, the increase in medication use is associated with increases in unhappiness and a deterioration in relationships with parents. These emotional and social effects are concentrated among girls, who also experience increases in anxiety and depression. We also see some evidence of deterioration in contemporaneous educational outcomes including grade repetition and mathematics scores…

Overall, we find considerable evidence of a decline in both behavioral and educational outcomes following the increase in prescription drug coverage and the corresponding increase in Ritalin use. The effects are, in a number of cases, both statistically significant and large.

The Canadian researchers especially underline the quite large increase in unhappiness, which rose 24% after the policy change. Children's relationships with their parents declined 87% off the baseline. The researchers add that "some of these negative effects are consistent with known possible side effects of stimulant medication, especially depression and anxiety." The researchers further state that "increases in medication use are associated with increases in the probability that boys dropped out of school."[79]

Laymen who look at the 2013 paper of the Quebec Study79 sometimes get confused due to the way the researchers call most results “short term”. But the paper explains that “short-term outcomes are repeat observations over time for the same child, and capture behavior and outcomes since the previous interview.” These repeat observations for each child were conducted biannually over the 14-year period of the study. Thus the phrase “short term” does not refer to results obtained only from the first few months or years of this study.

It’s interesting to note the way the researchers of the Quebec Study also emphasize that “in view of the importance of ADHD and the fact that stimulant medications have been used for many years, it is perhaps surprising that virtually all of the evidence regarding their efficacy relates to short time horizons.” It’s sad that this most important point still does not seem to bother the millions of stimulant prescribing psychiatrists who get their information form either the drug company sales reps or the drug company paid influential experts in their field.

Outside of the U.S., there was another 14-year-long study on stimulants which was sponsored solely by the Government of Western Australia Department of Health, without the involvement of the drug manufacturers. The Australian researchers followed up with 131 ADHD children and published their findings in a paper titled “Raine ADHD Study: Long-term Outcomes Associated with Stimulant Medication in the Treatment of ADHD in Children.”80 The study determined that “in children with ADHD, ever receiving stimulant medication was found to increase the odds of being identified as performing below age-level by a classroom teacher by a factor of 10.5 times (compared to never receiving stimulant medication).”

This demonstrates the way the immediate beneficial effects of stimulants do not carry over to long-term periods, causing children to experience highly exacerbated academic and behavioral problems.

In addition to showing the way stimulants in the long run yield decreased teacher satisfaction, the Raine ADHD Study also verified that these drugs can cause permanent damage to children’s cardiovascular function. The study reports:

Children who had consistently received stimulant medication … had a significantly greater diastolic blood pressure than children who were currently receiving medication but had not in the past (7.05 mmHg higher). These findings suggest that an elevation in diastolic blood pressure may not be due solely to the immediate short-term effects of stimulant medication on cardiovascular function.

This explains the reports of cardiovascular damage that can lead to sudden death, which caused Canada to recall Adderall in February 2005,34 [35] and which caused the FDA to place a black box warning on the labels of amphetamines.31

The Australian Raine ADHD Study is sometimes criticized for its relatively small sample size of 131 children and the possibility that the children who initially had worse ADHD symptoms had been more likely to go on medication and stay medicated. But the Canadian Quebec Study avoided both of these limitations by using a huge sample size of 15,871 children, as well as assessing the severity of the ADHD symptoms for each child in a way that allowed the results to be adjusted for this.79 This yielded grimmer results than those of the Raine study.

In the section of this book called “The Largest American Study – The American Psychiatric Association Hides Long-Term Results from Parents and Lies About Drug Safety,” we will also discuss the results of another significant study called the MTA Study. This 2011 study represents the largest study done in the U.S. on the long-term effects of stimulants. This study is also significant because it has again confirmed that the benefits from stimulants don’t last longer than two years. But nevertheless, the results of this study were more favorable than the findings of the long-term studies conducted abroad such as the Quebec Study and Raine Study. The reason for this, as we will see, again seems to be traceable to the heavy influence and sponsorship of the drug industry.

Dopamine Deficiency and Inability to Experience Pleasure and Motivation in Long-term Stimulant Users

The long-term use of stimulants causes the brain to lose its ability to retain an important neurotransmitter called dopamine, which is believed to enable us to feel pleasure and motivation. This explains what might have caused the deterioration of the happiness and academic performance of the Canadian and Australian children, explaining why some of these children dropped out of school in the long-term after using stimulants.

What actually happens to the brains of long-term stimulant users was finally publicized in 2012 in the American Journal of Psychiatry in a paper titled “Striatal Dopamine Transporter Alteration in ADHD: Pathology of Adaptation to Psychostimulants? A Meta-analysis.”81 This paper states that psychostimulant medication exposure diminishes the ability of the striatum portion of the brain to retain higher levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine. The neurotransmitter dopamine is responsible for coordinating different activities in different parts of the brain, and its role in the striatum is to enable the experience of desire, pleasure and reward.82 [83] It is believed that dopamine causes us to want to repeat or re-experience pleasurable stimuli or activities including the pleasure resulting from drugs of abuse.84 [85] Recent research indicates that the neurotransmitter dopamine may actually get involved before we experience pleasure and reward, motivating and initiating us to act and persevere to accomplish something good or to avoid something bad.86 “For many years, researchers have known that dopamine is important for arousal, movement, mood and executing activities with haste and vigor,” states a 2015 paper published in NeuroScienceNews.com.87

Stimulant use in children is desired by educators because the immediate effect of the drugs is to elevate the striatal dopamine concentrations right after drug intake. This motivates children or adults to begin or persevere with activities previously perceived as unenjoyable, not rewarding or boring.87 [88] [89] In addition to creating feelings of euphoria and motivation, higher striatal dopamine levels can also improve skill learning which involves the way repetitive tasks become automatic.90 But the 2012 study published in the American Journal of Psychiatry tells us that such positive short-term effects come at the cost of causing the brains of drug users to gradually lose their ability to maintain adequate dopamine concentrations.

Before the 2012 study announced that the long-term use of ADHD drugs diminishes the brain’s ability to retain dopamine, many earlier studies had also detected lower than normal dopamine levels in the brains of drug treated ADHD subjects. But instead of attributing low dopamine levels to stimulants, this was promoted as being a biomarker of ADHD itself for which stimulants were claimed to be the panacea rather than the cause.91

Shortly after consuming Schedule II stimulants such as cocaine, amphetamine or methylphenidate, the brain gets flooded with dopamine due to the way these drugs alter the action of certain proteins called dopamine transporters (abbreviated DAT) [92] An increase in the numbers (or levels) of dopamine transporters is not desirable as they serve to remove dopamine from our synapses.93 This being so, exactly why the brains of long-term stimulant users gradually lose their ability to retain dopamine is explained as follows by the researchers of the 2012 study published in the American Journal of Psychiatry:81

Striatal dopamine transporter levels in ADHD depend on chronic psychostimulant treatment, so that medication-naive patients have low striatal dopamine transporter levels, whereas patients receiving long-term medication have high levels. Consequently, the previously reported high dopamine transporter density in ADHD patients may potentially represent up-regulation secondary to chronic administration of psychostimulants, rather than primary pathophysiology of ADHD.

The researchers point out the significance of this 2012 study by stating that it is the first comprehensive meta-analysis addressing striatal dopamine transporter density in ADHD while controlling for medication effects81 (a meta-analysis is a study that systematically combines data from previous studies to develop a conclusion with greater statistical power94). The researchers mention that previous study results seemed conflicting,95 but accounting for how long subjects used stimulants resolved these conflicts to show that the level of dopamine transporters in ADHD patients was “strongly linked to whether patients had received long-term medication or not.”95 The study’s leading author Professor Katya Rubia further states about their finding:95

There is currently no evidence for the long-term effectiveness of stimulant medication. In fact, there is evidence that the effect of medication diminishes over time and we know from clinicians that medication doses often need to be increased over time to be as effective as they were initially. Our findings could help explain why stimulants work very well in the short term but not so well long-term.

Other studies have also linked increased dopamine transporter levels and the inability of the brain to retain dopamine to stimulant exposure. Healthline News covers such a study published in 2013 in the journal PloS One .[96] In this study titled "Long-Term Stimulant Treatment Affects Brain Dopamine Transporter Level in Patients with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder,"[97] the researchers measured the dopamine transporter levels of subjects without ADHD and subjects with ADHD who never used medication. Then they put the ADHD group on stimulant treatment for one year and again compared the dopamine transporter levels of the two groups. Although the ADHD subjects and controls showed no difference in dopamine transporter levels before the study, after stimulant exposure for only one year, the dopamine transporter levels "in the ventral striatum in the ADHD participants was on average 24% higher than that at the baseline." [97] The researchers concluded that "upregulation of dopamine transporter availability during long-term treatment with methylphenidate may decrease treatment efficacy and exacerbate symptoms while not under the effects of the medication." This suggests a point in time when a stimulant user's drug dose may reach the maximum allowed by law, after which it leaves that person without benefits but only exacerbated ADHD symptoms at the maximum allowed medication dose. It might not take long for this to happen, when only one year of methylphenidate treatment causes a 24% increase in the dopamine transporter levels in the ventral striatum. All these findings seem to further explain the unhappiness, demotivation, worsened academic performance and exacerbated behavioral problems of the children in the Quebec and Raine studies.

Independent studies have demonstrated that major depressive disorder can be brought on by increases in striatal dopamine transporter levels and the resulting increases in unhappiness.98 [99]

What’s the point of any achievement if it comes at the cost of losing the ability to enjoy life? What joy would even becoming a millionaire bring to someone who can no longer feel pleasure from anything? Lasting success and productivity can’t be expected from someone who keeps feeling more depressed and less motivated unless he keeps upping the dosage of his addictive stimulants damaging them further and further.

Millions of college students unfortunately still believe that stimulants can help them become more productive and successful adults. The alarming popularity of the use of ADHD drugs in especially college campuses was reported by CNN in an article titled “Just Say Yes? The Rise of ‘Study Drugs’ in College,” updated in April 2014.100 Similar findings were reported in 2014 in a panel discussion at New York University, which announced the results of a large survey of 1,621 young adults. This survey’s results were published in an article titled “Under Pressure: College Students and the Abuse of Rx Stimulants.”101 These results state that 1 in 5 college students anonymously reported having misused prescription stimulants at least once in their lives. The survey also reports that the students who abuse stimulants overall believe that doing so is less risky than smoking, binge drinking or abusing painkillers. This is not surprising, when the key opinion leaders of the drug industry have corrupted the information sources available to these young people.

The Addiction/Abuse Vicious Cycle

The key role of dopamine in causing addiction to stimulants was well known for decades and confirmed by many studies. The results of these studies were analyzed in systematic reviews such as the June 2012 review published in Psychiatric Clinics of North America.102 This review concludes that “predominantly reduced striatal dopamine transmission appears to play an important role in psychostimulant, alcohol and heroin addiction.” A more recent paper titled “The Dopamine Theory of Addiction: 40 Years of Highs and Lows” published in April 2015 in Nature Reviews Neuroscience,103 study authors analyzed the existing research literature on the subject and again confirmed that “dopamine has a central role in addiction to stimulant drugs.”

The website of the U.S. Government’s National Institute of Drug Abuse contains simplified summaries of the mechanism of dopamine down-regulation in causing addiction.104 One of the articles explaining this is titled “Drugs, Brains, and Behavior: The Science of Addiction.” This article first describes the way dopamine levels become reduced in the brains of drug users. The article then states:105

Now, the person needs to keep taking drugs again and again just to try and bring his or her dopamine function back up to normal — which only makes the problem worse, like a vicious cycle. Also, the person will often need to take larger amounts of the drug to produce the familiar dopamine high — an effect known as tolerance.

When the dopamine theory of addiction has been around for more than 40 years to support the observations of the DEA and INCB,103 the ADHD drug makers could ironically nevertheless market stimulants as beneficial “chemical balancers” necessary for increasing the dopamine deficiency of ADHD sufferers. The junk science that they used to twist the facts inside out, as previously mentioned, claimed dopamine deficiency to be a biomarker of ADHD itself. Healthline reports that “one of the most widely cited studies on the subject was published in The Lancet in 1999.”96 This well-promoted study concluded that “patients with ADHD showed a 70 percent increase in dopamine transporter density, suggesting that it could be used as a way to screen for ADHD.” Healthline then reports that this conclusion was challenged at that time by pediatric neurologist Dr. Fred Baughman, who is a long-standing fellow of the American Academy of Neurology. Dr. Baughman insisted that the elevated levels of dopamine transporters in the subjects were caused by medication usage and not ADHD. His arguments were dismissed for years until finally confirmed recently.

Since the long-term adverse effects of stimulants have become known, some psychiatrists still recommend using stimulants only for the short term, then stopping giving the ADHD child or adult his drugs when benefits begin to subside. These psychiatrists introduce people to life-ruining substances which, as we have seen, can take only a year to increase dopamine transporter levels in the brain by 24%. The studies discussed show the fact that using stimulants for any duration incurs some damage, leaving people with some degree of worsened ADHD symptoms, execrated unhappiness and inability to feel motivation after stopping medication.81 [96] [97] [98] [99] This can leave people craving for more stimulants at all costs, triggering the addiction/abuse vicious cycle. Such people may obtain more drugs from new doctors by lying to them or they may buy stimulants illegally. Drug and alcohol counselors of the American Addiction Centers warn that “it’s far easier to avoid drugs or alcohol in the first place than to treat drug abuse after the fact.”106 But the drug industry’s paid “experts” have for so long been drowning out the voices of the unbiased experts.

To sum up, when the dangers of not “treating” people diagnosed with ADHD have been faked,40 and the long-term dangers of ADHD drugs are by now well known,79 [80] [81] [97] [98] [99] [102] [103] the use of ADHD drugs as a treatment can’t be justified. The actual science-based evidence requires banning the prescription of ADHD medications. The next chapter presents more evidence backing up this conclusion.

Psychosis Which May Be Permanent, Parkinson’s Disease, Bipolar Disorder, Tics and Aggressive Behavior

This discussion summarizes the way stimulants cause numerous additional pathological brain changes which can be disabling.

The research literature shows that striatal dopamine deficiency is involved in Parkinson’s disease, and stimulants increase the risk for developing this disorder.107 [108] In a study published in January 2015 in Drug and Alcohol Dependence, the researchers observed “a near 3-fold increased risk of PD[Parkinson’s Disease] in METH/AMPH users vs. controls which confirms prior observations and supports that PD risk in users may be higher than previous estimates.”109

Studies have also linked abnormal striatal dopamine transporter levels to bipolar disorder,110 [111] which explains why the FDA states on the medication guides of all stimulants that “new or worse bipolar illness” has been reported with the use of ADHD drugs.38

We had previously seen that in FDA's strengthened warnings for all stimulants including methylphenidate (Ritalin) and amphetamines, it says that "hallucinations, delusional thinking, or mania in children and adolescents without a prior history of psychotic illness can be caused by stimulants at usual doses." [38] Studies have shown the way such hallucinations and delusional thinking is hard to distinguish from schizophrenic psychosis.[112] [113] This state may not go away, when "about 5-15% of the users who develop an amphetamine psychosis fail to recover completely (Hofmann 1983)," cites a 2009 review titled "Treatment for Amphetamine Psychosis" published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.”114 Another study was conducted on chronic users of methamphetamine which works similar to amphetamine, which was branded as ‘Desoxyn’ and is also prescribed for some ADHD cases. This study found that out of the three types of psychosis that can emerge from methamphetamine use, prolonged type and persistent type psychosis “indicates a lasting change in the brain that produces and maintains a schizophrenia-like paranoid psychotic state without MAP [methamphetamine]… Such lasting vulnerability of the brain to schizophrenia-like psychotic symptoms may be caused by a lasting sensitization of the brain to the psychotogenic action of MAP resulting from its chronic abuse.”115

In the strengthened psychiatric adverse effect warnings on stimulant labels, it is interesting to note how the FDA seems to keep sugar-coating the truth. For the people who experienced schizophrenia symptoms from stimulants, the FDA's warnings only report the short-term study results which don't look so alarming, when legitimate long-term study results do exist and report much scarier findings. The FDA states on its warnings that "in a pooled analysis of multiple short-term, placebo-controlled studies, such [psychosis] symptoms occurred in about 0.1% (4 patients with events out of 3482 exposed to methylphenidate or amphetamine for several weeks at usual doses) of stimulant-treated patients."[31] But stimulant psychosis is in fact much more common than this, which been demonstrated by studies lasting longer than the several-weeks-long study the FDA mentions. For example, in the long-term study published in 1999 in the Canadian Journal of Psychiatry titled “Psychotic Side Effects of Psychostimulants: a 5-year Review,”116 the researchers state that “ninety-eight children received treatment at the clinic with stimulants. Six children developed psychotic or mood-congruent psychotic symptoms during treatment” over 5 years.

The chances of developing psychosis increase drastically in stimulant users who spiral down the addiction/abuse vicious cycle, apparently “needing” increasingly higher drug doses. What may happen at high doses has been demonstrated in a long-term study published in 1995 in the Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease.117 In this study, “11 patients … received doses of methylphenidate in excess of 100mg/day for at least the past 5 years.” Out of these 11 subjects, 2 developed acute psychotic symptoms.

Tics can be another especially socially disabling side effect of stimulant exposure. Long-term studies have found that children on stimulants are much more likely to develop tics than the short-term studies seem to indicate. In the paper titled “Emergence of Tics in Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Treated with Stimulant Medications,” published in May 2001 in Comprehensive Psychiatry,118 the researchers state:

A retrospective chart review of the medical records of 555 subjects was performed to examine the emergence of tics in relation to treatment with a stimulant medication, dosage, duration of treatment, and age of subjects. A total of 7.8% of the subjects treated with stimulants developed tics: 8.3% of subjects treated with methylphenidate, 6.3% with dextroamphetamine, and 7.7% with pemoline.

Amphetamine related sexual dsyfunction and amphetamine induced anxiety disorder are also included among the 11 amphetamine induced psychiatric diseases listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) of the American Psychiatric Association.119 All of this demonstrates the extent that ADHD medications cause people’s mental equilibrium to degenerate.

But unfortunately, there is more to the severe damages caused by staying on these drugs.

Amphetamines and the non-stimulant ADHD drug Strattera are among the top ten drugs that increase violent or homicidal behavior. This was announced in a paper titled “Prescription Drugs Associated with Reports of Violence Towards Others,” published in PLoS One in 2010.120 Time magazine which covered this study points out that amphetamines "are 9.6 times more likely to be linked to violence, compared to other drugs," and the non-stimulant drug Strattera used to treat ADHD "is 9 times more likely to be linked with violence compared to the average medication." In the case of methylphenidate (Ritalin), we have seen the way the Quebec Study has found that expanding the insurance coverage of this drug has caused children's relationships with their parents to decline 87% off the baseline.[79] But against all of the actual scientific findings, the ADHD drug makers continue to fraudulently market their medications as capable of suppressing defiance in children or reducing family tensions. Although ADHD medications may suppress emotions for a few hours after drug intake, it is never advertised what actually happens when the medication effects begin to wear off and people start withdrawing or detoxifying.

Despite the reality outlined, the paid-off “experts” of the industry still refer to stimulants as capable of “paradoxically” benefiting individuals with ADHD, while the same drugs would harm normal people without ADHD. This bogus claim has been disproved over and over again with studies that showed the way normal people respond identically to stimulants as people diagnosed with ADHD.121 [122] [123]

Short-term Cognitive Enhancement at the Cost of Long-term Weakening of Cognition

Recent studies have shown that long term stimulant exposure can cause the weakening of cognition, learning ability and memory.

After studies demonstrated that ADHD drugs enhance the ability to focus and learn in normal people too right after drug intake, these drugs also began to be called ‘smart drugs,’ ‘cognitive enhancers,’ or ‘nootropics.’ While stimulants are the most common drugs referred to as cognitive enhancers, this class of drugs also include wakefulness inducing agents like Modafinil or glutamate (an excitatory neurotransmitter) activators like ampakines. Calling stimulants “cognitive enhancers” served to lure countless more parents and other adults into using these drugs. But the long-term use of ADHD drugs does not enhance but impairs cognition due to inducing diminished ‘brain plasticity.’ The meaning of ‘brain plasticity’ (also called synaptic plasticity or neural plasticity) and its role in letting us learn is explained by Dr. Pascale Michelon, PhD:124

For a long time, it was believed that as we aged, the connections in the brain became fixed. Research has shown that in fact the brain never stops changing through learning. Plasticity IS the capacity of the brain to change with learning. Changes associated with learning occur mostly at the level of the connections between neurons. New connections can form and the internal structure of the existing synapses can change.

In a 2014 systematic review published in Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience,125 the researchers conclude that short-term performance enhancement in stimulant users comes “at the potential cost of brain plasticity that is associated with the neural ramifications of nootropic drugs [cognitive enhancers] in the healthy developing brain.” Kimberly Urban, PhD who is the leading researcher of this review told Healthline that “impairments in working memory, multitasking ability, and attentional flexibility” caused by diminished brain plasticity are “skills that become very important in the workforce and managing the many demands and stressors of modern adult life.”126

Not only Healthline but other popular online medical information sources also reported the findings of this 2014 review published in Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience. These sources include LiveScience,127 which announced that “Students Risk Brain Problems from ‘Smart’ Drugs.” Time magazine which covered the same study announced that “Smart drugs used to boost performance in the short term have long term damage for the young brain, a new study says”.128 Bustle.com reported that even though cognitive enhancers temporarily increase the levels of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, “over time, having more of these substances in your brain appears to reduce plasticity and flexibility of functioning — ironically, potentially making you worse at learning and memory tasks than you would have been if you’d never taken the nootropics.”129 ScienceDaily also summarized:130

Trials on rats have shown that young, developing brains are particularly sensitive to methylphenidate: even low dosages early in life can reduce nerve activity, working memory, and the ability to quickly switch between tasks and behaviors. Such mental flexibility is important for complex motoric learning, interpersonal skills, and work performance.

The debilitating effects of the long-term use of stimulants on cognition and learning ability were confirmed by other studies such as the August 2003 paper titled “Amphetamine or Cocaine Limits the Ability of Later Experience to Promote Structural Plasticity in the Neocortex and Nucleus Accumbens”, published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.131

The structures responsible for the brain’s ability to change through learning (i.e.: plasticity) are called dendritic spines.132 “Spine dynamics are cellular phenomena with important implications for cognition and memory,” explains an article published in March 2010 in Trends in Neurosciences.133 The chronic use of stimulants pathologically increase the density of dendritic spines and increase dendrite branching in various brain regions.134 [135] “Repeated treatment with psychostimulant drugs produces changes in brain and behaviour that far outlast their initial neuropharmacological actions,” states the 1999 article published in the European Journal of Neuroscience about dendritic spine pathology.135

In the article in ScienceDaily,130 ampakines are described as “an emerging class of drugs currently studied by the US military with the aim of increasing alertness in soldiers.” ScienceDaily points out that even though these drugs have been promoted as being relatively safer than stimulants, they “over-excite the nervous system, damaging or killing nerve cells.”

To sum up, actual science has shown that short-term cognitive enhancers may more aptly be renamed cognitive weakeners. For about six decades, millions of parents have been fooled into having their children’s mental abilities diminished for life in return for a year or two of better grades.

An article published in May 1999 in the European Journal of Neuroscience also states that in addition to impairing cognitive abilities, “the ability of amphetamine to alter patterns of synaptic connectivity … may contribute to some of the long-term behavioral consequences of repeated amphetamine use, including amphetamine psychosis and addiction.”136 The previously mentioned March 2010 paper published in Trends in Neurosciences133 confirms that “impaired [dendritic] spine dynamics can cause psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders.” This explains the 11 amphetamine induced psychiatric disorders listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) of the American Psychiatric Association,119 demonstrating the way countless once healthy children and adults have been made psychiatrically and neurodevelopmentally ill in many ways by their “treatment.”

Brain Shrinkage Caused by ADHD Medications

In long-term stimulant users, reduced brain ‘plasticity’ that weakens cognitive abilities and several other factors which will be pointed out in the upcoming chapters may cause shrinkage of brain volume or inhibition the brain’s normal growth.

The diminished ability of the brain to retain the neurotransmitter dopamine is not the only problem that has been falsely promoted as being a biomarker of ADHD rather than a drug effect. Many compromised studies have claimed finding smaller gray matter volume or other structural “anomalies” in the brains of ADHD subjects, which were also aggressively promoted as being biomarkers of ADHD instead of being caused by medication. Googling for search terms like “ADHD gray matter volume” pulls up such studies which claim to have proven that ADHD is a legitimate brain disease. The following examines why all such claims are fraudulent.

When reduced brain plasticity hinders the ability of the brain to change with learning in long-term stimulant users, the effect on this on brain size is explained by Dr. Michelon, PhD:124

Did you know that when you become an expert in a specific domain, the areas in your brain that deal with this type of skill will grow?

For instance, London taxi drivers have a larger hippocampus (in the posterior region) than London bus drivers (Maguire, Woollett, & Spiers, 2006). Why is that? It is because this region of the hippocampus is specialized in acquiring and using complex spatial information in order to navigate efficiently. Taxi drivers have to navigate around London whereas bus drivers follow a limited set of routes.

Plasticity can also be observed in the brains of bilinguals (Mechelli et al., 2004). It looks like learning a second language is possible through functional changes in the brain: the left inferior parietal cortex is larger in bilingual brains than in monolingual brains.

Plastic changes also occur in musicians brains compared to non-musicians. Gaser and Schlaug (2003) compared professional musicians (who practice at least 1 hour per day) to amateur musicians and non-musicians. They found that gray matter (cortex) volume was highest in professional musicians, intermediate in amateur musicians, and lowest in non-musicians in several brain areas involved in playing music: motor regions, anterior superior parietal areas and inferior temporal areas.

Finally, Draganski and colleagues (2006) recently showed that extensive learning of abstract information can also trigger some plastic changes in the brain. They imaged the brains of German medical students 3 months before their medical exam and right after the exam and compared them to brains of students who were not studying for exam at this time. Medical students’ brains showed learning-induced changes in regions of the parietal cortex as well as in the posterior hippocampus. These regions of the brains are known to be involved in memory retrieval and learning.

This shows that differences in brain size cannot be attributed to ADHD or any other disorder. Numerous other studies have shown that the volume of gray matter in different brain regions correlates with the amount and complexity of function controlled from those regions based on learned skills.137 [138] Better proficiency at reading or math skills correlate with increased gray matter density in the associated brain areas.139 [140] Even skills acquired from action video game playing cause gray matter volume to increase in the associated parts of the brain.141 Researchers have found that people with high moral reasoning skills show increased gray matter volume in the corresponding brain regions.142 This shows how diminished learning ability due to decreased brain plasticity can cause smaller brains.

In his article titled "ADHD: Total, 100% Fraud," pediatric neurologist Dr. Baughman discusses the bogus studies that attribute gray matter volume differences to ADHD:[143]

From 1986-1998, nine MRI brain scan studies were performed on “treated” groups with ADHD. All showed brain atrophy and all concluded that the brain atrophy was due to ADHD. The possibility that their “treatment” was the cause of the brain atrophy was dismissed. Had psychiatry and the NIMH truly sought to find abnormalities in ADHD they would have scanned untreated individuals. However, in 12 years (1986-1998) of brain scan research, they failed, or refused, to do even one such study. They did, however, persist in their claims that the brain atrophy invariably found, but always in “treated” subjects, was proof that ADHD was a brain disease…

Four additional MRI studies have been published between 1998 and the present — all, you guessed it, utilizing “treated” ADHD subjects.

In all of the compromised studies Dr. Baughman mentions above, the reason for not using unmedicated ADHD subjects seems to be that only medicated subjects yield smaller brains to help the biased researchers claim to have found the biomarkers of ADHD. This seems to confirm that the medications and not ADHD cause smaller brains.

In his article titled "ADHD: Total, 100% Fraud," Dr. Baughman also criticizes the only study ever done on brain size and ADHD which did include unmedicated children. This flawed study published in October 2002 in the Journal of the American Medical Association144 claimed finding the brains of both medicated and unmedicated ADHD children to be 3% smaller than the brains of controls without ADHD, seeming to indicate that ADHD itself causes smaller brains. The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) which sponsored this study promoted its results in a press release titled "Brain Shrinkage in ADHD Not Caused by Medications."[145] BBC News World Edition announced this study's results to millions of people in an article titled "Attention Drugs Do Not Shrink Brain."[146] But the fatal flaws of this study were pointed out by professor David Cohen, PhD, and professor Jonathan Leo, PhD, who criticized the study in a paper published in the Journal of Mind and Behavior in 2003. In their paper titled “Broken Brains or Flawed Studies? A Critical Review of ADHD Neuroimaging Research,”147 professors Cohen and Leo mention several confounding variables in NIMH’s study which seems to have skewed its findings. These include the way the unmedicated group of ADHD subjects were younger than the controls without ADHD, when age is known to affect brain size. Even in the age-matched subset of the two groups, all ADHD subjects were shorter and lighter than the controls at the same age group without ADHD, when weight is again known to affect brain size. Dr. Cohen and Leo state: “it seems odd that, given ten years and the resources of the NIMH, these experienced researchers could not find a more appropriate control group.”147 This seems to indicate that the NIMH has also been compromised by the pharmaceutical industry.

After NIMH’s flawed study came out and popular media outlets started spreading its conclusions, professors Cohen and Leo continued to express their reservations about the methods such results were being disseminated. The professors published another paper in the Journal of Mind and Behavior in 2004,[148] which mentions how psychiatrists trying to earn continuing education credits through Medscape were taught that ADHD children have approximately 3% smaller brain volume. These psychiatrists then had to provide this as an answer to a question in the test they had to pass to earn their continuing education credits. Professors Cohen and Leo express: "it is deeply troubling to us that a professional society can propagate such a statement based on a single study with major limitations." This is an example of the way the drug companies educate psychiatrists through compromised physician information and education resources.

In April 2007, the United States Senate Committee on Finance published the results of their inquiry into drug company grants to fund continuing education for medical providers.149 The committee’s report to its chairman Senator Grassley stated:150

Continuing medical education has developed into a multi-billion dollar a year industry, much of which is funded by pharmaceutical manufacturers. It seems unlikely that this sophisticated industry would spend such large sums on an enterprise but for the expectation that the expenditures will be recouped by increased sales. Press reports and documents exposed in litigation and enforcement actions confirm these suspicions in some instances. There is also evidence from ACCME that some accredited CME providers still allow commercial sponsors to exert improper influence on educational activities that are supposed to be independent from commercial interests.

Returning to the example case of propagating biased ADHD study results, in their 2004 paper,148 Drs Cohen and Leo point out the additional confounding factor of brain plasticity which skews the results of all studies trying to link psychiatric disorders with brain volume or structure differences. In July 2014, Professor David M. Allen from the University of Tennessee Health Science Center also published an article on the website of Psychology Today titled “Scientific Fraud About Brain Scan Findings-Psychiatrists wrongly assume that all brain scan differences are abnormalities.”151 Dr. Allen explains in this article:

The more annoying source of misleading conclusions is that whenever a difference is found between a diagnostic group and controls with no mental disorder, that difference is automatically labeled an abnormality… What makes the use of the term abnormality totally misleading is that the brain, particularly in terms of limbic system structures, is plastic. This means that, in the normal brain, these structures can change in size to reflect activities that become important to a given individual. Such changes can be very quick and substantial.

For example, in the February 2010 issue of the Archives of General Psychiatry (Volume 67 [2] pp. 133-143), Pajonk, Wobrock, Gruber et. al. found that after just three months of a vigorous exercise program, the size of a brain structure called the hippocampus increased an average of 16 percent in “normals!”

In January 2012, the Huffington Post covered a study published in Biological Psychiatry, which found that extreme stress can actually also shrink the brain.152 The Huffington Post reports that “that stressful moments in life — like going through a divorce or being laid off — can actually shrink the brain by reducing gray matter in regions tied to emotion and physiological functions. This is important because these changes in brain gray matter could signal future psychiatric problems, researchers warned.” The next section of this book elaborates on the way stimulant use exposes children and adults to chronic stress due to the way the drugs boost the levels of the stress hormone norepinephrine. No wonder all of these factors have repeatedly been demonstrated to cause smaller brains in stimulant users.

The way the biomarkers of ADHD have actually never been found and that it was never a real disease will be further demonstated in the section “The Case Against All Psychiatric Drugs and Drug-prescribing Psychiatry.”

The Consequences of Chronic Stress Caused by Stimulants: High Blood Pressure, Peripheral Artery Disease, Significantly Reduced Cerebral Blood Circulation and More

Stimulants induce a state of hyper-alertness due to flooding the brain with a stress hormone. This is why these drugs can cause chronic high blood pressure in even children as the Raine Study has shown,80 which can lead to sudden death as the FDA warns about.31 These drugs can also cause numerous other stress-related disorders this discussion elaborates.

In addition to temporarily increasing dopamine concentrations in the brain, stimulant intake temporarily increases the levels of another brain chemical called norepinephrine (also called noradrenaline). Norepinephrine (or noradrenaline) acts as both a stress hormone and a neurotransmitter.153 As a stress hormone, noradrenaline works in a manner similar to adrenaline in causing a reaction called the ‘flight or fight’ syndrome.154 This is a response triggered in emergency situations which seems to have evolved as a life-saving mechanism. Somatic psychotherapist Veronique Mead, M.S. explains the characteristics of the flight and fight responses as “a state of heightened alertness, increased energy with which to meet a potentially difficult situation, and augmented muscle strength (Ganong, 2001).”155 But this emergency reaction does not keep one feeling great forever, as it’s often followed by a ‘crash.’ When the ‘flight or fight’ response is drug induced, it seems that the body must also detoxify in addition to slowing down when it ‘crashes’. Crashing and withdrawing from ADHD drugs is characterized by extreme lethargy and overall fatigue, depression, anxiety, irritability, anger, as well as slow, incoherent or unfocused thinking, or a sense of loneliness described as “almost the exact opposite of feeling ‘high’.”156 [157] Such experiences may make people feel increasingly dependent on their drugs and keep reaching for more pills.

The following analogy may help better explain the effect of stimulants on the physiology. A jockey may give his horse stronger kicks to force it to continue to run faster than normal. It may work in a short race, but obviously not in a long one.

Although the aftermath of ADHD drug highs is never mentioned by the drug selling “doctors,” they are described by countless real people in numerous online forums and discussions. Examples of these experiences include those found on addforum [158] [159] [160] [161] [162] or reddit forums.163 [164] [165] [166] [167] [168] [169] As discussed on these and many similar forums, the crashes don’t only occur in people using illegal stimulants nor in overdosing addicts, but also occur when ADHD drugs are used as prescribed. These discussions further reveal that many stimulant users have felt the need to begin using additional drugs such as antidepressants, anti-anxiety meds, benzodiazepines or various illegal substances in trying to cope with the crashes, withdrawals or side effects from stimulants.170 [171] [159] [161]

The crashes may worsen as tolerance inevitably develops in time and medication doses are increased as the brain keeps losing more of its ability to retain neurotransmitters like dopamine.8196 The crashes can be especially severe and disabling if ADHD drug use leads to addiction, causing people to overdose in an uncontrolled manner. Such crashes are described by professional amphetamine addiction counselors and ex-addicts themselves in the websites of groups like Adderall Addiction Support.172 [173]

All of this explains what created suicide in victims like Richard Fee, whose story was covered by the New York Times in 2013.174 Richard’s family describes how their once healthy son got addicted to Adderall in college and kept overdosing. Richard kept fooling the doctors by lying about how much benefited from his meds, portraying his family as philosophically anti-medication. Richard’s parents eventually found their son dead, hanging from the closet in his bedroom.

The Internet is full of other horror stories including deaths or hallucinations caused by ADHD drugs, posted by prescription stimulant addicts themselves or their families.175 [176] [177] [178] [179] [180]

Having seen how nasty crashing and withdrawing from ADHD drugs can feel, one sees that these drugs don’t create superheroes out of underachieving people like the drug companies advertise. Knowing this, let us now go back to describing the emergency ‘flight or fight’ response triggered by norepinephrine. Normally, nature spares stress hormones to cause hyper-alertness only if absolutely necessary, and the succeeding crashes can let the body repair the wear and tear caused by the stress and having had to function at an accelerated speed. But when stimulants artificially prolong the ‘flight or fight’ response each day, the well-known detrimental effects of chronic stress181 include increased cancer risk and premature aging in even kids in addition to shrinking of the brain182. In the simple Mayo Clinic article titled “Chronic Stress Puts Your Health at Risk,” under the subheading “When the Natural Stress Response Goes Haywire,”183 it says that “the long-term activation of the stress-response system… can disrupt almost all your body’s processes.” This is followed by listing the major detrimental effects of chronic stress, almost all of which are identical to the adverse effects caused by long-term stimulant use laid out in this book.

During the emergency stress response stimulants cause, the drugs raise blood pressure by acting as vasoconstrictors.184 This means that stimulants make the blood vessels constrict and become narrower. During actual threats or dangers, the constriction of the blood vessels reduces acute blood loss and can be life-saving.184 But artificially prolonging this state keeps the blood circulation chronically poor in addition to destroying cardiovascular health. Mayo Clinic defines peripheral artery disease as “a common circulatory problem in which narrowed arteries reduce blood flow to your limbs.”185 The online magazine Vascular Medicine Angiologist.com states:186

Adderall has been implicated in a spectrum of vascular side effects. It is commonly seen in the vascular clinic in patients presenting with cold feet and acrocyanosis [bluish or purple coloring of the hands and feet caused by slow circulation]. However, Adderall is also commonly seen in patients with severe Raynaud’s phenomena [numb and cold body parts in response to cold temperatures or stress], digital ulcerations [breaks in skin caused by lack of blood] and tissue necrosis [death of body tissue]. Continued use of the medication may result in further exacerbation of these vascular phenomena.

As the blood circulates in the body, oxygen and nutrients are carried to our cells and the waste materials are removed. Poor blood circulation deprives every cell of adequate nutrition and oxygen, as well as the adequate removal of wastes.187 Reduced blood circulation from stimulants also causes cerebral blood circulation to become significantly reduced. This has been determined in a 1994 study whose paper is titled “Methylphenidate Decreases Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Normal Human Subjects,” published in Life Sciences .[188] The results of this study are summarized by psychologist Krsytle Cole, who states that "Ritalin decreased the overall flow of blood into the brain. The loss was large: 23-30% in all areas of the brain, including the higher brain centers in the frontal lobes, as well as in the basal ganglia deeper in the brain. The changes were sufficiently dramatic to be grossly apparent in the before and after photos."[189] Cole then cites a 1986 study titled "Cortical Atrophy in Young Adults with a History of Hyperactivity in Childhood" published in Psychiatry Research in 1986. This study concludes that brain atrophy may be caused by long term stimulant use.190 Such brain atrophy may possibly be exacerbated by the way too few nutrients reach the brains of stimulant users.

When the constriction of blood vessels not only deprives the brain but the whole body of nutrients and oxygen, this may also explain the stunted growth observed in some children on stimulants which the FDA warns about on the drugs’ labels (on the referenced webpage of the FDA, you can click on the link titled “Label” next to each stimulant and then search for “LongTerm Suppression of Growth”.)38 The FDA’s warnings also list decreased appetite among the common side effects of all stimulants.38 The research literature does not contain any studies showing what percentage of people on stimulants develop malnutrition, and how much this may retard children’s mental and physical development. The only studies that keep coming up are the short-term ones showing how “great” these addictive substances feel and how “beneficial” they seem, at first.

The Most Fraudulent Business Intermediaries

Among psychiatry’s paid-off key opinion leaders, the members of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) seem to have brought the greatest return on investment to the drug companies.

The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is the world’s largest psychiatric organization with more than 36,000 physician members from the United States and around the world.191 APA publishes a widely used diagnostic reference called the Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM), which “is the handbook used by health care professionals in the United States and much of the world as the authoritative guide to the diagnosis of mental disorders.”192 The DSM has been nicknamed the ‘bible’ of psychiatry.193 But one of the DSM’s biggest critics is psychologist Gary Greenberg, who is the recipient of the Erik Erikson Award for mental health reporting, and is the author of “The Book of Woe – The DSM and the Unmaking of Psychiatry.”

As Greenberg points out, the major flaw of the DSM is that “in place of scientific findings, the DSM uses expert consensus to determine what mental disorders exist and how you can recognize them. Disorders come into the book the same way a law becomes part of the book of statutes. People suggest it, discuss it, and vote on it.”194 This explains how the pharmaceutical industry could create “mental diseases” like ADHD “treatable” with stimulants without needing any real science. The only thing the industry had to do was to influence APA’s ‘expert consensus.’

After ADHD was voted into existence, it has again not been too difficult over the years to keep persuading enough APA members to continue serving the industry. Enough votes kept causing the DSM’s diagnostic criteria for many disorders including ADHD to gradually be expanded. This dramatically increased the sales of many psychotropic drugs including stimulants especially after the DSM-IV came out. Before the DSM-IV, it was mainly elementary school boys who were being labeled hyperactive due to being more energetic than girls by nature. In the DSM-IV, the consensus decided to “fix” the diagnostic criteria for ADHD to allow more girls and more preschool kids to be diagnosed.195

When the current DSM-V was proposed, the suggested changes caused great concern for people like Professor Allen Frances, MD, who was the chair of the previous DSM-IV Task Force. While the DMS-V was still in its draft stage, Professor Frances’s conscience seems to have forced him to submit a much-talked-about article to the Los Angeles Times. In this article titled “It’s Not Too Late to Save ‘Normal’ — Psychiatry’s latest DSM goes too far in creating new mental disorders,” Professor Frances admits:196

Our panel tried hard to be conservative and careful but inadvertently contributed to three false “epidemics” — attention deficit disorder, autism and childhood bipolar disorder. Clearly, our net was cast too wide and captured many “patients” who might have been far better off never entering the mental health system. The first draft of the next edition of the DSM… is filled with suggestions that would multiply our mistakes and extend the reach of psychiatry dramatically deeper into the ever-shrinking domain of the normal. … The pharmaceutical industry would have a field day — despite the lack of solid evidence of any effective treatments for these newly proposed diagnoses.

Dr. Frances also published a book called “Saving Normal: An Insider’s Revolt Against Out-of-Control Psychiatric Diagnosis, DSM-5, Big Pharma, and the Medicalization of Ordinary Life.”

But the efforts of physicians like Dr. Frances were ignored and the consensus chose to remain deaf to all protests. When DSM-V was published, for ADHD, the expansion of the criteria this time mainly targeted diagnosing more adults.197 This was achieved by lowering the number of criteria needed to diagnose people older than 17, as well as providing examples for each criteria that illustrate how the behaviors may be exhibited by adults too and not only by children.198 These modifications coincide with the aggressive efforts of the drug companies to educate the world about adult ADHD, encouraging everyone to self-diagnose with online quizzes or booklets.

For health-care professionals and others who’d be interested, the next paragraphs spell out exactly how far the ADHD diagnostic criteria has been expanded in the latest DSM-V. Most fascinating is how APA has even created a new catch-all category called ‘Unspecified ADHD’ which allows the diagnosis of individuals not meeting the full criteria, letting clinicians make a diagnosis without requiring them to specify any reason.199

In the old DSM-IV, a child could not be diagnosed unless several ADHD symptoms had developed prior to age 7, but DSM-V increased this age to 12 which allows more children to fit the criteria.198 The DSM-V also took out the requirement that some symptoms of ADHD must cause impairment to make diagnosis possible. This now enables anyone the criteria describes to be diagnosed even if their symptoms are not impairing.200 [201] The removal of the impairment requirement worries people like David Rabiner, Ph.D., who is a research professor at Duke University. Professor Rabiner states that “there are many who believe that ADHD is simply a medical term inappropriately attached to children who show largely ‘typical’ behavior. With DSM-IV, one could argue against this by noting that the diagnosis was not made unless symptoms significantly impaired the child’s functioning in important domains. … Now, however, that is not really the case.”200 Rabiner adds that this change “can make it easier to meet full diagnostic criteria for ADHD and thus increase the percentage of the population who qualify for the diagnosis.” Other researchers agree, stating that “focusing on symptoms without impairments may increase the number of children who meet both age of onset and pervasiveness criteria.”201

In the previous DSM-IV, the diagnosis of ADHD was not allowed in the presence of certain other disorders such as autism spectrum disorder, but now DSM-V does allow ADHD to be diagnosed in the presence of autism.[200] This is attributed to recent studies which claimed that up to 50% of the kids with autism also have ADHD.[202] [203] DSM-V now permits stimulants to be added to the drug cocktails of autistic children, increasing the market for these medications.

In the previous DSM-IV, a catch-all category had been created and was called ADHD Not Otherwise Specified (NOS). This category was used to diagnose individuals who displayed prominent ADHD symptoms without meeting all of the diagnostic criteria. In the DSM-V, the NOS category was expanded by splitting it into two categories called Other Specified ADHD and Unspecified ADHD.199 In the Other Specified ADHD category, the clinician must specify the reason why he makes a diagnosis despite the full criteria not being met, but in the Unspecified ADHD category, the clinician does not have to specify any reason. This bothers practitioners like pediatric psychologist Jim Schroeder, PhD, who states that the old NOS category never mentioned whether or not to specify the reason for its use, and that he cannot think of why he would ever choose not to specify the reason for his diagnosis. Dr. Schroeder states that “as a clinician, I also worry that this approach further mystifies what we do in regards to evaluating children and families as if there were a reason we needed to withhold justification behind our diagnostic impressions.”199

All of this shows the way APA, who defines mental illness diagnostic criteria, has clearly degenerated into a front group for the drug manufacturers.

In 2006, a paper published in Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics confirmed that more than half of APA’s members are drug-company-affiliated key opinion leaders. This paper titled “Financial Ties Between DSM-IV Panel Members and The Pharmaceutical Industry” states:204

Of the 170 DSM panel members 95 (56%) had one or more financial associations with companies in the pharmaceutical industry. One hundred percent of the members of the panels on ‘Mood Disorders’ and ‘Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders’ had financial ties to drug companies. The leading categories of financial interest held by panel members were research funding (42%), consultancies (22%) and speakers bureau (16%). … Our inquiry into the relationships between DSM panel members and the pharmaceutical industry demonstrates that there are strong financial ties between the industry and those who are responsible for developing and modifying the diagnostic criteria for mental illness.

The corruption of more than half of APA’s DSM panel members explains why this committee’s votes result in drug prescription epidemics.

The Largest American ADHD Study – The American Psychiatric Association Hides Long-Term Results from Parents and Lies About Drug Safety

In the example that follows, the compromised American Psychiatric Association (APA) and the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) inform parents of only the short-term results of a major study, deliberately misleading parents into believing that ADHD drugs beneficial and safe. APA and AACAP withhold from parents the fact that the long-term results of this study have not found stimulants beneficial.

APA and AACAP have partnered to publish the “ADHD Parents Medication Guide”205 which is available online. In this medication guide, APA and AACAP misrepresent the study called the “Multimodal Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder,” usually abbreviated as the MTA Study.206 This study represents the largest and most significant U.S. study on the long-term effects of stimulants.

The 8-year-long results of the MTA Study were published in 2011 in the Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry in a paper titled "The MTA at 8 Years: Prospective Follow-Up of Children Treated for Combined Type ADHD in a Multisite Study."[206] The researchers describe tracking 485 children for up to 8 years and testing them for ADHD symptoms, aggression and delinquency, reading and math achievement, academic performance, grade point average (GPA), social skills and more. The paper reports that "with one exception (math achievement), children still taking medication by 6 and 8 years fared no better than their non-medicated counterparts despite a 41% increase in the average total daily dose, failing to support continued medication treatment as salutary."[206] The MTA study also found that "although the MTA data provided strong support for the acute reduction of symptoms with intensive medication management, these long-term follow-up data fail to provide support for long-term advantage of medication treatment beyond two years for the majority of children."[206]

In the “ADHD Parents Medication Guide” of APA and AACAP, when the guide states it was revised in 2013, the revisions should have mentioned the long-term (8 year) findings of the MTA study published in 2011. But the guide conveniently only lets parents know the short-term (14 month) results of the MTA Study, drawing false conclusions from this about the benefits and safety of stimulants. APA and AACAP tell parents:205

To help families make important decisions about treatment, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) began a large treatment study in 1992 called the Multi-modal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (or the MTA study). Data from this 14-month study showed that stimulant medication is most effective in treating the symptoms of ADHD, as long as it is administered in doses adjusted for each child to give the best response…

The MTA study, along with many other large-scale treatment studies that have assessed the safety and effectiveness of ADHD medications, provides evidence that stimulant medication reduces hyperactivity and impulsivity, improves attention, and increases the ability to get along with others. For this reason, stimulant medications remain the medications of first choice for treating individuals with ADHD.

APA and AACAP never mention the way the MTA Study actually went on for 8 years, finding that the "long-term follow-up data fail to provide support for long-term advantage of medication treatment beyond two years." APA makes it clear how much they'd like stimulant medications to "remain the medications of first choice for treating individuals with ADHD," in spite of what actual science has shown. APA grossly deprives parents of their right to informed consent about the way children no longer benefit from ADHD drugs after 2 years "despite a 41% increase in the average total daily dose" of medication.[206] This book has already demonstrated the terrible adverse reactions especially such high medication doses can cause which include sudden death. Parents whose children might have suffered any of the damages described in this book due to the violation of their right to informed consent may see the end of this book about seeking compensation from fraudulent parties.

The MTA Study which went on for 8 years assesses only the effectiveness of stimulants and does not asses their safety the way APA and AACAP falsely claim it does when they say that “the MTA study, along with many other large-scale treatment studies that have assessed the safety and effectiveness of ADHD medications, provides evidence…”205 The MTA Study’s first published paper on its 14 month results does report some non-alarming seeming side effects in some children, but the study’s most recently published paper on its 8-year-long results does not mention any side effects at all, conveniently not addressing the most important question of whether or not stimulants are safe for long-term use. Why did the MTA study stop reporting the adverse effects of ADHD medications after 14 months? The answer again unfortunately seems to be the influence of the drug industry. Although comical looking, the disclosures section of the 8-year-long MTA Study is unfortunately not a joke:

This long list exposes the drug company affiliations of 9 out of the MTA study’s 18 researchers.206 In addition to having received funding from multiple drug makers, almost all of the affiliated researchers have also received personal payments such as consulting, advisory or speaker’s fees form the same drug companies.

Although the MTA study did not support the long-term use of ADHD drugs, the study’s long-term findings were still far more optimistic than those of the Quebec Study whose researchers did not have drug company affiliations. The extensive pharmaceutical company influence on the MTA Study may explain discrepancies such as the way the MTA study found “beneficial effect of continued medication treatment on math achievement,” while the Quebec Study found deterioration in long-term math achievement.79

Continuing to describe the degeneration of psychiatry’s leading organizations like APA or AACAP, let us now look at the words of Dr. Loren Mosher (now deceased), who was a member of APA for 35 years. Just like Dr. Frances, Dr. Mosher too could only take so much and was finally revolted. On December 1998, he decided to resign from APA with a letter stating:207

At this point in history, in my view, psychiatry has been almost completely bought out by the drug companies. The APA could not continue without the pharmaceutical company support of meetings, symposia, workshops, journal advertising, grand rounds luncheons, unrestricted educational grants etc. etc. Psychiatrists have become the minions of drug company promotions. APA, of course, maintains that its independence and autonomy are not compromised in this enmeshed situation. Anyone with the least bit of common sense attending the annual meeting would observe how the drug company exhibits and “industry sponsored symposia” draw crowds with their various enticements, while the serious scientific sessions are barely attended. Psychiatric training reflects their influence as well: the most important part of a resident’s curriculum is the art and quasi-science of dealing drugs, i.e., prescription writing.

Not only parents, but clinicians too should never trust APA’s guidance, which has been confirmed by a paper titled “Conflicts of Interest and Disclosure in the American Psychiatric Association’s Clinical Practice Guidelines,” published in 2009 in Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics.208 Here, the researchers found that “ninety percent of the authors of 3 major CPG [Clinical Practice Guidelines] in psychiatry had financial ties to companies that manufacture drugs which were explicitly or implicitly identified in the guidelines as recommended therapies for the respective mental illnesses. None of the financial associations of the authors were disclosed in the CPG.”

According to a New York Times article titled “Psychiatric Group Faces Scrutiny Over Drug Industry Ties,” APA’s president (2009–2010) Dr. Alan F. Schatzberg had $4.8 million stock holdings in a drug development company.209 Certainly the smartest thing to do if you run a group like APA, wouldn’t you agree?

The Corrupt Practices of Dr. Joseph Biederman – the Most Influential ADHD Researcher

To further demonstrate how ADHD became “recognized” as a “disease”, this section focuses on the mind-blowing corrupt practices of one of psychiatry’s most influential key opinion leaders. In his self-serving career, Dr. Joseph Biederman not only greatly influenced the consensus to create the ADHD drug prescription epidemic, but also created the antipsychotic drug prescription epidemic for children.

The New York Times article titled “The Selling of Attention Deficit Disorder” is one of the best eye-openers describing how the ADHD drug industry has compromised the medical world.48 Similar reporter and FBI investigations, as well as congressional investigations led by Senator Charles Grassley helped uncover influential psychiatrists who under-reported how much money or kickbacks they accepted from the drug makers. These investigations have been featured by numerous media outlets, listing the names of the many psychiatrists who committed professional misconduct.209 [210] [211] [212] [213] [214] [215] [216] Among these psychiatrists, Dr. Joseph Biederman is “unequivocally the most published psychopharmacology maven for A.D.H.D.,” reports the New York Times.48 The same article states that “findings from Dr. Biederman’s dozens of studies on the disorder and specific brands of stimulants have filled the posters and pamphlets of pharmaceutical companies that financed the work.” This New York Times article also reports that Biederman’s findings about ADHD “typically delivered three messages: The disorder was underdiagnosed; stimulants were effective and safe; and unmedicated A.D.H.D. led to significant risks for academic failure, drug dependence, car accidents and brushes with the law.”

Biederman is an esteemed professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School and the chief of the Clinical and Research Programs in Pediatric Psychopharmacology and Adult ADHD at the Massachusetts General Hospital. For many years, he failed to fully disclose the drug company contributions he received, making them look like they were within the legal limits. But when Senator Grassley’s investigations uncovered the huge sums he actually received, this violated not just federal research rules but also those of Harvard University.213 Unfortunately, this professor is not only the most published ADHD researcher but the most influential. This was identified by Essential Science Indicators in 2005, which reports that for ADHD over the past decade, it was Biederman whose research was most cited.217 In another report by Thomson Reuters titled “The World’s Most Influential Scientific Minds 2015,” Biederman comes fifth from the top among the most influential psychiatrists in the world.218

Biederman’s high influence helped spread “the notion accepted today that ADHD is a treatable, serious brain disorder of genetic etiology.”217 In addition to promoting stimulants to treat this so called “serious brain disorder,” Biederman promoted expanding the use of other medications previously not used for ADHD in trying to increase the market share for these drugs. One such medication was Provigil (generically named modafinil). Upon receiving research funding from the drug’s manufacturer Cephalon, Biederman published an article recommending using modafinil for ADHD.219 But two of his colleagues challenged this article by writing to the editor of the journal which published it. This letter stated that Biederman’s paper “appears to seriously misrepresent modafinil’s neuropharmacologic characteristics, contradicting the science-based evaluation of the data by the U.S. FDA and DEA.” The letter also said that “Dr. Biederman’s misrepresentation of the serious risks posed by this drug, whose target population is children with ADHD, requires reexamination and correction.”220

In addition to using his great influence to popularize ADHD drugs, Biederman is also credited with being mainly responsible for the alarming increase of the diagnosis of bipolar disorder in children.213 [221] Biederman “will go down in history as the inventor of pediatric bipolar disorder,” states Dr. Philip Hickey, PhD.222 Biederman promoted treating the millions of so-called bipolar children with antipsychotic drugs which are known to have the worst side effects among all psychiatric medications. These adverse effects include obesity which can make most people gain hundreds of pounds of excess weight, heart problems, type 2 diabetes, potentially severe and usually irreversible abnormal movements and tics, chronic brain impairment, well documented brain volume loss or the onset of a life-threatening disorder called neuroleptic malignant syndrome.223 [224] [221]

In November 2008, the Philadelphia Inquirer reported that Johnson & Johnson gave hundreds of thousands of dollars to Biederman “to generate data to help expand sales of the company’s antipsychotic drug Risperdal in children, according to court documents.”225 This, as well as other numerous fraudulent practices did eventually get Johnson & Johnson penalized in 2012.226 Time magazine reports that “Johnson and Johnson agreed to pay up to $2.2 billion for illegally promoting a variety of drugs, primarily the atypical antipsychotic Risperdal — and even that giant settlement with the government doesn’t resolve several other state lawsuits against the company, seeking billions more, for related offenses.”226 The same Time article states that “the dramatic rise of antipsychotic prescribing in youth occurred in conjunction with the illegal marketing of the drugs by their makers.”

In 2009, a New York Times reporter could obtain copies of the court documents of Biederman’s interactions with Johnson & Johnson. This revealed that in a slide, Biederman promised Johnson & Johnson in advance, a favorable study which would “extend to adolescents positive findings with Concerta in ADHD NOS [a category of ADHD] in adults.”227 The promised positive findings seemed to come out in 2006.227 The same New York Times article also states that Biederman promised the results of another study before actually conducting it, telling Johnson & Johnson in advance that this study would prove the superiority of their antipsychotic drug Risperdal for bipolar disorder in children. Another article by the same New York Times reporter states that again according to court documents, Biederman persuaded Johnson & Johnson to fund the Johnson & Johnson Center for the study of pediatric psychopathology, and in doing so, stated one of the center’s goals as “to move forward the commercial goals of J&J.”228

Not surprisingly, Biederman is a defender of ‘polipharmacy’, which means the use of multiple drugs to treat disorders. He claims that ADHD is “associated with high levels of psychiatric and cognitive comorbidity [simultaneous presence of more than one disorder].”217 Biederman further claims that “children with BP [bipolar disorder] often also have other disorders and therefore require more than one medication… additional drugs are sometimes needed to treat side effects of another effective but poorly tolerated medication.”229 Biederman writes that “about eighty percent of children with Bipolar illness also have ADHD.”230 The influential Additude magazine promotes Biederman’s claim by toning it down a bit without citing its sources, stating that “about half the children who have BPD may also have ADHD, which means clinicians often have to determine whether both problems exist.”231 Such clinicians influenced by Biederman keep harming countless children, while parents influenced by groups like Additude let this happen.

Biederman’s influence kept spreading as the psychiatric community proved itself to be only too ready to embrace his pseudo-science. This was confirmed by a 2012 study published in JAMA Psychiatry. This study found that between 2005 to 2009, “disruptive behavior disorders were the most common diagnoses in child and adolescent antipsychotic visits.”232 The most common of these disruptive behavior disorders in children prescribed antipsychotic medications were ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder and disruptive behavior disorder not otherwise specified (which is a category that allow the diagnosis of children who don’t fit the full diagnostic criteria), as reported by Scientific American.233 This Scientific American article quotes Dr. David Rubin, co-director of PolicyLab at Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, who states that “what’s really concerning now is that a lot of this prescription is occurring in the face of emerging evidence that there are significant adverse effects that may be worse in youth than in adults.”

Biederman was certainly not the only key opinion leader who created countless children with multiple “mental illnesses,” and not only Johnson & Johnson promoted their products for off-label uses through compromised key opinion leaders. As reported by Time, Eli Lilly, Pfizer, AstraZeneca and Bristol Myers Squibb all paid hundreds of millions of dollars in fines for selling their antipsychotics drugs too for “unapproved use in youth.”226 One of the largest of these fines was paid by Bristol Myers Squibb, which “paid $515 million in 2007 to settle charges that it illegally pushed its antipsychotic Abilify to child psychiatrists.”226 But Squibb seems to have written off this fine too as the cost of doing business, when in 2014, the company’s marketing style succeeded in making its antipsychotic Abilify become the number 1 top selling drug among all drugs in the U.S.234

The names of many other influential key opinion leaders like Biederman are exposed in a report titled “Docs on Pharma Payroll Have Blemished Records, Limited Credentials,” published by the Pulitzer Prize-winning investigative newsroom ProPublica.235

Finally, in 2010, due to the accumulated results of investigations, the Physician Payments Sunshine Act was introduced. This act requires drug and medical product manufacturers to disclose to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) all payments or transfers of value made to physicians or teaching hospitals.236 The CMS also started the Open Payments Program,237 which began publishing all of the disclosed payments online in a publicly searchable database in 2014. Numerous reporters and investigators have since then been analyzing this data, which has revealed that in 2015, health care manufacturing companies have paid doctors and hospitals a total U.S. dollar value of 7.52 billion.238

The investigative newsroom ProPublica has also determined through their own Dollars for Docs database that “some highly sought-after key opinion leaders, as they are known in the industry, work for half a dozen or more companies in a given year.”239

Whistleblower Allen Jones Who Inspired Many Others

This section further exposes the corrupt practices used in marketing psychiatric medications by describing an example investigation.

Not just antipsychotics but antidepressants too are commonly prescribed along with ADHD medications to children and adults. The prescription of these additional medications does not only occur due to the off-label marketing of these drugs, but also occurs due to trying to “treat” the side effects from stimulants such as hallucinations or mania that the FDA warns about,38 or the depression caused by dopamine depletion. But unlike the case of ADHD drugs, the fraudulent tactics used in marketing both antipsychotics and antidepressants have been mostly exposed by numerous whistleblower lawsuits.240 This has cost major drug companies billions of dollars in fraud settlements. The first whistleblower lawsuit in this series and its famous investigator has inspired numerus others following it. Describing this first investigation may help convey the urgent need to conduct similar inspections for the case of ADHD drugs. It may also serve as a guide to succeeding at exposing the corruption and winning in court.

Whistleblower Allen Jones was an investigator in the Pennsylvania Office of Inspector General Bureau of Special Investigations. He was appointed to examine off-the books payments from pharmaceutical companies in Pennsylvania.241 This led him to uncover the nationwide fraud committed through a project called the Texas Medication Algorithm Project (TMAP). Originated in Texas in 1995, this project spread to 17 states that implemented it under different names such as PENNMAP in Pennsylvania where Allen Jones worked.242 [243] TMAP is “the most audacious prescription drug rip-off scam ever devised,” states Vera Hassner Sharav, the founder and president of the Alliance for Human Research Protection (AHRP) which includes Allen Jones in its board of directors.241 Sharav adds that TMAP “shows the extent and insidiousness of the collusion between drug companies, psychiatrists, psycho-pharma front groups and corrupt government officials. Each serves each other’s money pit, generating income for themselves, at terrible risk to patients and costs to taxpayers.”241 Investigator Jones states that “by early 2001, TMAP and TCMAP [a version of TMAP for children] had bankrupted the Texas Medicaid program and the budgets of the state’s mental health and prison systems.”243 TMAP served to convert millions of dollars of taxpayers’ money into drug company profits in all of the states it was implemented.241

TMAP is basically a series of medication “flowcharts” or “decision trees” for treating schizophrenia, major depression and bipolar disorder.244 [242] For any psychiatrist seeking government reimbursement, TMAP spells out which drugs should be prescribed for which symptoms and in which order.242 TMAP requires that doctors first always treat their patients with the newest, least studied and most expensive drugs that bring the largest profits to the pharmaceutical companies which funded TMAP.244 [243] [242] The less expensive, cheaper and better tested older drugs can be prescribed only if the newest drugs fail.

Upon confronting government officials in trying to uncover the truth about TMAP, Jones was told to restrict his investigation and was eventually removed from his assignment and given an insignificant desk job.245 He was told to “quit swimming against the current in the pharmaceutical case,” and that pharmaceutical companies “write checks to both sides of the aisle.”246 But Jones wanted to finish what he had started.

Jones discovered that to implement TMAP, the greatest funds came from the drug company Johnson & Johnson. J&J succeeded at getting TMAP recommend its new antipsychotic Risperdal as a first-line drug. Janssen (a division of Johnson & Johnson), as well as many other drug companies are reported as having paid the Texas Health Department almost $6 million to fund TMAP.247

Concerning the new, expensive drugs favored by TMAP, Johns points out that “money was pushed toward drugs at this time in the absence of any solid science whatsoever proving they were effective or safe.”241 When more conclusive studies later emerged, “most of the new drugs have been found to cause serious, even fatal side-effects, particularly in children,” Johns states.243 Johns adds that “it is a statistical certainty that many lives have been lost and many others irreparably damaged.”243 What Johns points out mostly applies to the new generation antidepressants promoted by TMAP, whose terrible side effects will be summarized in the next section. But the new generation antipsychotics promoted by TMAP are also more harmful than the older kind according to MD’s like Dr. Robert Freedman. Freedman wrote in his September 2005 editorial in the New England Journal of Medicine that “even the most feared side effect of first-generation [antipsychotic] drugs, tardive dyskinesia [involuntary movement disorders], seems less troubling than potentially fatal metabolic problems.”248 Such metabolic problems mainly result from the obesity caused by the newer antipsychotics, bringing up the blood sugar, cholesterol or triglycerides that raise the risk for diabetes, heart disease and stroke.249 But despite not being better than the older drugs,250 [251] [252] [253] the newer antipsychotics cost 10 times as much as the older drugs250 and have gained a 90 percent market share in the United States [254] due to scams like TMAP. “Pennsylvania taxpayers may pay nearly 100 million dollars in the unnecessary purchase of patented medications in 2003 alone,” reports Allen Johns.243

Johns also found out that TMAP seemed to have been created and supported by George W. Bush. Johns reports that “the pharmaceutical industry started lavishing a lot of money on the Texas university system and Texas mental health officials during Bush’s tenure in the 1990s.”241 Johns uncovered that “during Bush’s presidential campaign, he cited his support of TMAP along with his most recent state budget recommendation for an additional 67 million dollars to pay for still more mental health drugs.”243 As reported in a paper published in the British Medical Journal in 2004, “the companies that helped to start up the Texas project have been… big contributors to the election funds of George W Bush,” and “during his 2000 presidential campaign, he boasted of his support for the project.”255

After becoming president, Bush established the New Freedom Commission on Mental Health in 2002, whose job was to provide the government with mental health recommendations. The recommendations this commission came up with included comprehensive mental health screening for people of all ages. In linking the screened public with ‘treatment and support,’ the commission recommended that TMAP be used.255 [256] This commission established by Bush included mental health directors from different states who implemented TMAP in their states as well as aggressively promoting TMAP’s nationwide implementation.243 One of these officials was Michael Hogan, PhD, who was the chairman of Bush’s New Freedom Commission on Mental Health.243 [256] Hogan’s efforts to spread TMAP proved so useful to the drug industry that Eli Lilly gave him first place for his “extraordinary efforts” when distributing its “Lifetime Achievement” awards.257 Lilly states that this award was given because “after serving as the chair of President Bush’s New Freedom Commission on Mental Illness, Dr. Hogan has delivered over 75 presentations urging for the implementation of goals set forth in the Commission’s Report.”258 Hogan was also on an advisory board of the drug company Janssen (a subdivision of Johnson & Johnson).243

Another official who proved himself just as useful the pharmaceutical industry is TMAP’s project-co-director Dr. Steven Shon, who was the medical director of the Texas Department of Mental Health. To develop and promote TMAP, Shon and his team of researchers are reported as having taken more than $2 million dollars from the new antipsychotic drug makers.242 Johns states that “by influencing only fifty key people, the pharmaceutical industry could pave the way for acceptance of TMAP in all fifty of the United States.”243 Johns adds that when the science did not back the industry up, “they paid these experts like Shon and then let their opinions stand in for evidence. What’s amazing is how well it worked.”242

The Alliance for Human Research Protection (AHRP), of which Johns is a member, states that when Johns went public with the results of his investigation, he got fired from his job at the Pennsylvania Office of the Inspector General (OIG) and was told never to appear on OIG property again.241 AHRP reports that “Jones then filed a suit against his supervisors, claiming that OIG’s policy of barring employees from speaking to the press is unconstitutional.”241

In 2006, the Texas Attorney General’s Office joined the lawsuit Johns filed, “accusing Janssen of concealing the risks and exaggerating the benefits of the drug, Risperdal, and of trying to persuade researchers with ‘trips, perks, travel expenses, honoraria and other payments’.”259 The same year, TMAP’s co-director Shon was forced by to resign from the Texas Health Department, after which he moved out of Texas.259 Denying he did anything wrong, Shon told reporter Emily Ramshaw from the Dallas Morning News that the procedures they followed “were all within what has been defined as appropriate in every medical field.”259 In agreement with Shon’s words, the people who promoted the TMAP scam could not be convicted. The only exception to this was one pharmacist who could be charged with bribery because he was a state employee and not a university researcher.242

In 2010, Johnson & Johnson had to pay $158 Million to settle Jones’s suit.246 Jones, who was named the ‘whistle blower of the year’ was awarded about $20 million of this $158 Million settlement.246 The Philedelphia Inquirer reported that Louisiana ($258 million), South Carolina ($327 million), and Arkansas ($1.2 billion) also filed individual state suits against J&J and won.246 In 2012, Texas Attorney General Greg Abbott again charged Johnson & Johnson, Janssen and five other J&J related companies for defrauding Texas about Risperdal, requesting more than 1 billion in settlements.260 But the Philedelphia Inquirer points out that “J&J’s legal bills are offset by revenue. In 2007 alone, J&J had $4.7 billion in revenue from antipsychotic drugs, most of which were versions of Risperdal.”246 The New York Times quotes Professor Dr. Jerome L. Avorn from Harvard University who states that “when you’re selling $1 billion a year or more of a drug, it’s very tempting for a company to just ignore the traffic ticket and keep speeding.”261

The 2010 New York Times article which quotes Dr. Avorn261 also lists some of the major lawsuits filed against the fraudulent marketing of antipsychotics by other drug companies and the hefty fines they’ve paid. The fraudulent research and marketing tactics mentioned that incurred these fines include offering to pay key opinion leaders only if they agreed to use company provided slides. The same New York Times article states that “the industry continues to market antipsychotics aggressively, leading analysts to question how drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration for about 1 percent of the population have become the pharmaceutical industry’s biggest sellers.”

In 2012, Janssen and its parent company Johnson & Johnson paid an additional $181 million in settlements with 36 states and the District of Columbia over the fraudulent marketing of anti-psychotics.262

Continuing investigations lead to Johnson & Johnson having to pay yet an additional $2.2 billion to the U.S. Government in 2013 for promoting “powerful psychiatric medications for uses not approved by the Food and Drug Administration”, and for offering “financial kickbacks for physicians who prescribed those medications frequently.”263 Los Angeles Times reports that this settlement involving the antipsychotic drugs Risperdal and Invega and the heart-failure drug Natrecor represents one of the largest healthcare fraud settlements in U.S. History until that time. This article further states that all of the cases resulting in the final settlement of $2.2 billion "arose out of 'qui tam,' or whistle-blower lawsuits. As a result, a share of the civil settlements... -- roughly $168 million in all -- will go to the whistle-blowers in California, Massachusetts and Pennsylvania who brought evidence of wrongdoing to the federal government's attention."

But unfortunately, no matter how many billions of dollars the drug companies may end up paying as the cost of doing business while turning their drugs into blockbusters, no amount of money can buy back the health of the millions of defrauded people who have suffered damages. For as long as the laws are not strengthened and the researchers can legally be compromised and politicians are allowed to receive campaign contributions, the drug industry will keep taking full advantage of the situation.

Antidepressant Studies – the Industry’s Tactics to Hide the Suicides and Fake Drug Effectiveness

We have previously seen that amphetamine based ADHD drugs have black box warnings on their labels about their risk of inducing sudden death.31 We have in this book also seen that long-term stimulant use brings on gradually worsening inability to experience pleasure from life, which may lead to major depressive disorder.79 [81] [96] [98] [99] How many people might have lost their lives by dying from heart failure or committing suicide from the depression caused by ADHD medications?

Discussion forums are full of children and adults on ADHD drugs who have also been prescribed antidepressants to treat the depression caused by long-term stimulant use. But far from being the solution to the inability to feel pleasure due to dopamine deficiency, antidepressants can worsen depression, increase suicide risks, cause hostility, mania, psychosis, high blood pressure, strokes and other problems, most of which are the same as the side effects of ADHD drugs mentioned in the FDA’s warnings. Antidepressants thus serve to exacerbate some of the worst adverse effects of ADHD medications. The following discussion demonstrates why this is the case, as well as describing how investigations have uncovered that for many decades, the antidepressant companies were using all sorts of fraud to hide the real data showing the deaths and other intolerable adverse effects from their drugs. As the real data surfaced, many realized the fact that the antidepressant manufacturers had made their drugs look safe and beneficial through the numerous faked studies they had sponsored and promoted, just like the ADHD drug makers. Describing these fraudulent cover-up techniques that have come out will demonstrate the urgent need to investigate ADHD medications in the light of the information antidepressant investigations have unearthed. The same tactics used to hide the deaths or side effects from antidepressants may be covering up countless deaths, suicides or accounts of damages caused by ADHD medications.

To see how antidepressants were fraudulently turned into blockbusters in spite of being ineffective and deadly, let us go back to the TMAP scam mandating the prescription of overpriced and harmful psychiatric drugs for Medicaid patients, funneling taxpayers money into the drug companies.243 [242] In the case of depression, TMAP’s drug prescription protocol required the use of the overpriced new generation selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants as a first line drug. The aggressive promotion of this protocol was to help prevent antidepressant profits from going down after studies started announcing that antidepressants increase suicide risks and violence in addition to being ineffective in alleviating depression. But the antidepressant makers did not stop with TMAP in their efforts to prevent their profits from diminishing. In July 2003, President Bush’s New Freedom Commission on Mental Health which recommended TMAP also wrote that “schools are in a key position to identify mental health problems early and to provide a link to appropriate services… almost one-fifth of the population passes through the Nation’s schools on any given weekday” [256] To screen students nationwide and link them with treatment, the same recommendations of the New Freedom Commission which described TMAP also described the previously mentioned TeenScreen project to screen students for mental problems.256 In these recommendations, one of the primary goals of TeenScreen was stated as preventing suicides in students.256 To help students identified as “depressed’ to be treated with the most expensive new generation antidepressants according to TMAP, some of the same corrupt officials who promoted TMAP were appointed to also administer TeenScreen. TeenScreen’s administrators later denied any connection with TMAP, and phrases linking TMAP with TeenScreen were removed from the official websites. But online archives show that TeenScreen’s advisory board included Eli Lilly’s “Lifetime Achievement” award winner257 [258] Michael Hogan.264 As discussed in the previous section, Hogan was the chairman of Bush’s New Freedom Commission on Mental Health who was on an advisory board of the drug company Janssen which funded TMAP.243 [256] We have seen how Hogan implemented TMAP in his state and aggressively promoted it nationwide,243 leading to him being awarded by Eli Lilly for his “extraordinary” efforts. Not just TeenScreen’s advisory board member Hogan, but TeenScreen’s director Laurie Flynn too were listed among the medical experts who helped create TMAP’s fraudulent drug prescription protocols.265 When TeenScreen was finally shut down, its director Flynn also resigned just like Hogan.16

Although one of the primary goals of TeenScreen was to prevent suicides,266 [267] TeenScreen continued to be promoted after the FDA required a black box warning on the labels of all antidepressants stating that these drugs increase suicide risks in children. This black box warning was announced by the FDA in a Public Health Advisory initiating “a multi-pronged strategy to warn the public about the increased risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior (“suicidality”) in children and adolescents being treated with antidepressant medications.”268 The black box warning issued in October 2004 stated the following for all antidepressants (not only for Prozac or only for the new generation antidepressants):

The National Institute of Health reports that this warning was issued “following a thorough and comprehensive review of all the available published and unpublished controlled clinical trials of antidepressants in children and adolescents.”269 One year before in December 2003, the FDA’s British counterpart called the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) had also conducted a similar review of all the published and unpublished antidepressant trial data. After this independent review, MHRA had announced banning the prescription of all but one of the new generation antidepressants for children and adolescents.270 [271] It’s interesting to note that Bush’s New Freedom Commission recommended the nationwide use of TeenScreen and TMAP in the U.S. the same year256 England banned the SSRI antidepressants for children. This caused the harmful SSRI antidepressants that England banned for children to start being prescribed to schoolchildren as the first line of treatment for depression in America.243 [242] As TeenScreen and TMAP were causing the sales of the suicidal new generation antidepressants to soar instead of dropping, the FDA was lobbied and persuaded to delay issuing its black box warning for about a year in spite of knowing the increased suicide risks in children. Finally, congress had to step in and force the FDA to stop this unnecessary delay. But even after the black box warning was issued, the FDA did not ban the use of deadly antidepressants for children, and TeenScreen caused countless more children to be prescribed these drugs until 2012.

After England banned the SSRI antidepressants for children and the FDA issued its black box warning about the increased suicide risks, the U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) nevertheless certified and included TeenScreen in its National Registry of Evidence Based Programs and Practices as one of the 19 programs for reducing suicide.272 [273] This occurred when SAMHSA’s director Charles Currie was yet one more compromised official on Bush’s New Freedom Commission on Mental Health. Allen Johns reports that one of Currie’s prime initiatives was listed as to ‘further the expansion of TMAP.’ [243] Jones reports about this official:243

Currie was appointed by Governor Ridge to a key position within the Pennsylvania Mental Health system even though Currie lacked medical credentials…

Currie approved a slush fund and an off-the books account that formed the basis of the initial OIG [Office of Inspector General] investigation. Currie approved the receipt of pharmaceutical company “educational grants” intended to promote the TMAP agenda.

It was again all sorts of fraud that had for many decades allowed the antidepressant makers to hide the suicide risks and other serious adverse effects caused by their drugs. But people began to wake up in October 2002, when the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) aired an expose about the accumulated patient reports of the unpublicized risks of the antidepressant Paxil (Seroxat in Britain) and its suicidal effects. This expose announced that “Internet chat rooms are packed with complaints from people who claim they are addicted to Seroxat [Paxil].”274 [275] Right after this BBC feature aired, the broadcasters received a record response of 65,000 telephone calls, 124,000 website hits, and 1,374 emails from people on Paxil who experienced adverse reactions similar to the ones the broadcasters had gathered from the Internet. Studies analyzing this database of responses helped raise the awareness of the public and the medical community to this problem.276

One year after BBC’s expose on the antidepressant Paxil, its manufacturer GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) submitted an application in 2003 requesting the approval of Paxil as “safe and effective” for adolescents. In the trial data testing Paxil on children that GSK submitted to the FDA, the FDA’s reviewers “noted a greater number of adverse events coded under the term ‘emotional lability.’”277 The FDA states that “the actual events coded under this term included suicidal thoughts and attempts as well as a wide range of other events.”277 Such misleading coding of especially suicidal events caused the FDA to ask GSK to re-analyze its conclusions and “better characterize the adverse events identified under the term “emotional lability.” Being forced to perform the requested re-analysis, GSK submitted a report showing an increased risk of suicide related events and suicide attempts in the children taking Paxil (Seroxat).277 [278] GSK submitted this report as well as all of its clinical trial database on Paxil to both the FDA and the British regulator MHRA in 2003.277

Analyzing the newly available more complete Paxil trial database, the regulators saw that in addition to the way the adverse events were miscoded, all of the studies failing to demonstrate Paxil’s effectiveness in children had never been published. Of all the studies which had been conducted on under 18s, only one study that appeared to show favorable findings had been published.279 In a damning editorial The Lancet published, the journal criticized this as well as GSK’s other fraudulent practices.280

The other antidepressant makers too sold their drugs by employing the same immoral practices GlaxoSmithKline employed. This was discovered in 2003 when the FDA also “requested data similar to that submitted by GSK from the manufacturers of eight other anti-depressant drugs that were studied in children.”277 More complete clinical trial data on the other antidepressants was again made available to the regulators of different countries. After the British regulator MHRA received this data of all the antidepressant trials conducted on children in the late 1990s, their expert group determined that the effectiveness of SSRI antidepressants in children had not really been demonstrated. This was in addition to confirming that these other antidepressants also increased the risk of suicidal behaviors in children. The report of MHRA’s Committee on Safety of Medicines (CSM) stated that the balance of risks and benefits for depression in under-18s was judged to be unfavorable for all of the new generation antidepressants except fluoxetine (Prozac).281 [282] This report, as well as “intense pressure from patients and campaigners”270 caused MHRA to ban (contraindicate) the prescription of the new generation (SSRI) antidepressants for children in December 2003. It was this newly unearthed trial database on all antidepressants that caused the FDA to one year later issue its black box warning for all antidepressants including the older ones as well as Prozac. We will shortly see that the effectiveness of Prozac in treating depression in children might have also been faked due to missing trial data never submitted to the FDA and other deceptive tactics employed by its manufacturer. We will also see that Prozac is one of the top 10 drugs which has been determined to increase aggression in young people in some cases to the extent of homicidal behavior.

The dishonesty of all of the antidepressant makers was confirmed over and over again by many independent reviews analyzing the new antidepressant trial database including the unpublished study results.283 [284] [285] For example, in an April 2004 review published in The Lancet, the inclusion of the unpublicized antidepressant study results in the analysis verified that “risks could outweigh benefits of these drugs (except fluoxetine) to treat depression in children and young people.”286 In a paper titled “Effectiveness of Antidepressants: an Evidence Myth Constructed from a Thousand Randomized Trials?” published in May 2008 in BioMed Central, the researchers wrote that “over a thousand randomized trials have been conducted with antidepressants. Statistically significant benefits have been repeatedly demonstrated and the medical literature is flooded with several hundreds of “positive” trials (both pre-approval and post-approval). However, two recent meta-analyses question this picture.”287 After their analyses, the study authors conclude that a “seemingly evidence-based myth on antidepressant effectiveness” was “built and nourished” by “the use of many small randomized trials with clinically non-relevant outcomes, improper interpretation of statistical significance, manipulated study design, biased selection of study populations, short follow-up, and selective and distorted reporting of results.”

Of all the several hundred “positive” faked studies mentioned above, the most notorious was GSK’s only published study on under 18’s supposedly demonstrating the effectiveness of Paxil for adolescents. This study called ‘Study 329’ seems to represent the pinnace of the incredible degeneration of modern medical practices. In its conclusion published in 2001, Study 329 stated that Paxil “is generally well tolerated and effective for major depression in adolescents.”288 But after having been asked by the FDA to re-analyze this conclusion, GSK announced their new conclusion in July 2003 in a letter to the physicians of many countries including U.S., England and Canada.289 In this letter, GSK falsely referred to their old unpublicized studies as “new evidence” indicating Paxil’s suicidal risks and failure to show greater efficacy than placebo, admitting that Paxil “should not be used in children and adolescents under 18 years of age.” Before this letter was issued, countless MD’s had for two years seen only the faked conclusion of Study 329 in the highly circulated Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (JAACAP).289 Many years later in September 2015, the British Medical Journal published a re-analysis of the raw data of Study 329, explaining (referenced) the various tactics GSK employed to fake Study 329’s “favorable” results.290 [291]

Before publishing the false conclusion of Study 329, GSK distributed copies of the study to its sales representatives who personally contact physicians to market drugs directly.292 Along with the study, GSK’s sales reps received a cover memo telling them that “Paxil demonstrates REMARKABLE Efficacy and Safety in the treatment of adolescent depression.”292 This cover memo was part of an internal confidential GSK document that the Canadian Medical Association Journal (CMAJ) had been able to obtain. CMAJ summarized what the document contained in a damning synopsis titled “Drug Company Experts Advised Staff to Withhold Data About SSRI Use in Children” in March 2004. This internal GSK document had been written to provide guidance on what to do about the way none of GSK’s studies had in reality been able to demonstrate the effectiveness of Paxil in children.293 [294] The document admitted in writing that the original version of Study 329 “failed to demonstrate a statistically significant difference from placebo on the primary efficacy measures.”294 But the document also stated “it would be commercially unacceptable to include a statement that efficacy had not been demonstrated, as this would undermine the profile of paroxetine [Paxil].” The document then said that “in order to minimize any potential negative commercial impact,” “positive data from Study 329 will be published in abstract form at the [European College of Neuropsychopharmacology] meeting” and “a full manuscript … will be progressed.” This ‘full manuscript’ appeared three years later in 2001 in the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (JAACAP), reporting “positive” results conflicting with the study’s original conclusion communicated confidentially inside GSK.289

The lead researcher of the fraudulent Study 329 was Professor Martin Keller, who at that time held the prestigious title of chair of the Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior at Brown University. It was many years later in 2009 that Keller resigned after an internal inquiry by his university and after being asked by Senator Grassley to disclose all of the consulting payments he received from GSK and Pfizer. The Brown Daily Herald points out that one month before Keller stepped down, another professor from Emory University similarly “stepped down as chair of the school’s psychiatry department following an investigation by Grassley’s committee.”295

Although Study 329’s paper identifies Keller as its lead author, this paper was not actually written by Keller. BBC News broadcasters uncovered and announced this in January 2007.296 The broadcasters had gotten hold of confidential GlaxoSmithKline archives, and seen that in a memo, Dr. Keller thanked a ghostwriter from a public relations company hired by GSK for the preparation of Study 329’s manuscript. Keller told GSK’s public relations company writer: “you did a superb job with this. Thank you very much. It is excellent. Enclosed are some rather minor changes from me.”

GSK was not the only company who used ghostwriters to spin the facts around to create “favorable” research papers. A highly promoted Zoloft study listed Dr. Karen Dineen Wagner from the University of Texas as its leading author.297 But a Zoloft suicide case revealed that this paper was actually written by a Pfizer employee.298 Just like study 329, this favorable Zoloft study also announced that Zoloft is an “effective and well-tolerated” short-term treatment for children and adolescents. Just like what happened with Study 329, many physicians criticized this paper too stating that “the actual data suggested no benefit from Zoloft (or barely more than placebo), and that Pfizer, the drug’s manufacturer, improperly influenced the presentation of the data and the interpretation of the results.”298

Using drug company employees to write research papers is not limited to just a few cases, which was determined in a study published in the Journal of Clinical Epidemiology in October 2015. Scientific American which covered this study reports that out of the 185 meta-analyses on antidepressants that were evaluated, one third were found to be written by pharma industry employees.299 [300]

Returning to the never-ending fraudulent practices of GSK, in June 2004, the evidence accrued allowed the New York State Attorney General to file a lawsuit against the company for actively hiding negative information since 1998.301 [279] The suit settled one month later with GSK not pleading guilty but nevertheless agreeing to settle with the New York State Attorney General by paying $2.5 million to the State of New York.278 But this settlement was not enough to get GSK out of trouble. Continuing investigations and litigation finally forced GSK to plead guilty to the United States Department of Justice in July 2012. GSK paid a $3 billion fine which was the largest health care fraud settlement until that time in U.S. history.302 The company admitted that it “participated in preparing, publishing and distributing a misleading medical journal article,” “unlawfully promoted Paxil for treating depression in patients under age 18,” and “sponsored dinner programs, lunch programs, spa programs and similar activities to promote the use of Paxil in children and adolescents.” This settlement involved 9 other drugs including Avandia and Wellbutrin which were also similarly promoted by GSK.

Unfortunately, none of GSK’s executives were brought up on murder or negligent homicide charges or sentenced to serve prison terms for their crimes.303 The New York Times article reporting this adds that the 3 billion fine was still a small portion of Glaxo’s profits from all of its fraudulently marketed drugs.303 This article states that “Avandia, for example, racked up $10.4 billion in sales, Paxil brought in $11.6 billion, and Wellbutrin sales were $5.9 billion during the years covered by the settlement, according to IMS Health, a data group that consults for drugmakers.” The New York Times quotes Patrick Burns, spokesman for the whistle-blower advocacy group Taxpayers Against Fraud, who points out that even such a large fine could be rationalized as the cost of doing business for GSK. Times magazine further summarized the situation, emphasizing that “even $3 billion is likely not enough to stop another drug scandal from happening again.”

When none of GSK’s executives were sent to prison or the electric chair for destroying millions of lives, GSK’s 2012 settlement only included “an agreement by the company to withdraw bonuses from top executives if they engaged in or supervised illegal behavior.”303 [302] This is not a joke, please see the referenced report which officially announced the terms of GSK’s settlement published by the U.S. Department of Justice.302

Before GSK was fined years later and paid off the cost of having done such immensely profitable business, the Brown Daily Herald reported that “in 2002, the year after the [misleading] study’s publication, 2 million prescriptions for Paxil were given to children and adolescents… the study is likely responsible for the increase in the prescription of antidepressants to adolescents, which occurred during this time period.” [290] This shows how well GSK’s sales reps had done their jobs in promoting the “REMARKABLE Efficacy and Safety” of Paxil for children that they were told to advertise to physicians.292

Not just GSK’s sales reps, but the key opinion leaders hired by GSK had also done their jobs “educating” other doctors and interviewing reporters, as can be seen by the way the media remains littered with articles encouraging antidepressant use for children. For example, an October 2002 article in Newsweek promoted another antidepressant study conducted by NIMH “looking at newer [antidepressant] medications, including Effexor and Paxil,” which may “help make life easier for youngsters,” the article claimed.304 If not treated, depressed adolescents were “at high risk for school failure, social isolation, promiscuity, ‘self-medication’ with drugs or alcohol, and suicide,” stated Dr. David Brent, an esteemed professor of child psychiatry at the University of Pittsburgh. This key opinion leader further scared parents by saying that “the earlier the onset, the more people tend to fall away developmentally from their peers.” After these scare tactics, this Newsweek article stated that “parents and teenagers have to weigh the risk of medication against the very real dangers of ignoring the illness.”

In 2006, the Independent and the Telegraph reported that thousands of children were still being prescribed the banned (contraindicated) antidepressants in England.305 The laws did not mandate the recommendations of the British regulatory agencies to be binding, letting doctors use their own discretion when prescribing any drug to patients.305 In America, when the FDA did not even ban any of the antidepressants proven to be ineffective and deadly for children, more than 2 million children were still prescribed these drugs in 2013, according to the latest statistics published by the IMS Health Vector One National database. These results were retrieved and reported by CCHR International.306

In addition to increasing the suicide risks of depressed children, some other adverse effects from antidepressants listed in the FDA’s warnings for these drugs are high blood pressure, mania, birth defects, strokes, serotonin syndrome or psychosis.307 If you believe that yourself, family members, or anyone else you know has been damaged or pushed into suicide or self-harm by antidepressants, please see the end of this book about how you can participate in legal action to obtain damages or help get these dangerous drugs recalled. To get a better idea if you or anyone you know may qualify to participate in legal action, you may find your antidepressant in the FDA’s Medication Guides webpage (referenced) and read all of its known side effects.308

When the dangers of antidepressants for children are acknowledged, how much risk do these drugs actually pose for adults? Antidepressants likely increase suicides in adults too, according to a large study conducted on the major antidepressants including Prozac published in January 2016 in the British Medical Journal .[309] In addition to verifying the increased risk of suicide and aggression from antidepressants for children, this study further uncovered how much adverse event data was still missing from the trail database which had been submitted to the regulators. The researchers speculated what this may indicate, when the "suicidal attempts were missing in 90% of instances" in the Eli Lilly summary trial reports, and "and information on other outcomes was incomplete."[310] The researchers also found that "some of the most useful information was in individual patient listings buried in the appendices," but the regulators had not been provided with many of these appendices and they had mysteriously never requested them from the drug companies.[311] This was the case with "over half the clinical study reports." The researchers state that this "begs the question of how many more adverse events would have been revealed if [the appendices] were available for all trials, and raises concerns why this information is allowed to be withheld."[310] This review's lead researcher Professor Peter Gotzsche from the Nordic Cochrane Centre told the National Post that “what I get out of this colossal under-reporting of suicides is that [antidepressants] likely increase suicides in all ages.” Professor Gotzsche added: “It is absolutely horrendous that they have such disregard for human lives.” [312]

About this 2016 review lead by Professor Peter Gotzsche, Dr. Joanna Moncrieff from University College London told Scientific American that all of the dangers of antidepressants “are not reported in the published literature, we know that—and it appears that they are not properly reported in clinical study reports that go to the regulators and form the basis of decisions about licensing.”311

Confirming Dr. Moncrieff’s words above, it seems that Paxil was fraudulently licensed for adults. This surfaced in 2005 when the FDA asked all of the antidepressant makers to re-analyze their trial data on adults too and re-calculate their drugs’ risks for the older population.313 When GlaxoSmithKline concluded its re-analysis in 2006, the company submitted a letter to health care providers announcing a six-fold increase in risk of suicidal behavior in adults taking Paxil (paroxetine).314 [315] [316] “This contrasts with the data in the UK Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Authority’s expert working group report on suicide and antidepressants published in December 2004,” points out a July 2006 paper published in the British Medical Journal.314 But even this additional data indicating the six-fold increase in suicide risks for adults was incomplete, and all of the data had still not been submitted to the regulators in 2016 as we have seen, as was uncovered by the 2016 review lead by Professor Gotzsche.309 [311] When the drug companies kept producing more and more adverse event data each time the FDA asked them to do so, the companies could at some point succeed at persuading the FDA to stop investigating, it seems.

The 2006 paper published in the British Medical Journal314 reports that in addition to not submitting all the data, another tactic employed by several antidepressant manufacturers was to falsely attribute some of the suicidal behaviors to the placebo group. This was done when presenting data to both the regulators and journals on the antidepressants paroxetine (Paxil), fluoxetine (Prozac) and sertraline (Zoloft).314 [317] The drug companies did not deny what happened, and the FDA noted it at that time, but “neither criticized these data or the report as inappropriate, nor required additional analyses.”314 This is likely to have contributed to justifying Prozac’s approval for children as effective, as well as possibly contributing to the way antidepressants were declared by the FDA to be safe for adults. The extent of the enmeshment of the FDA with the drug industry will be further elaborated in the section titled ‘Corruption in the FDA.’

Yet another analysis seemed to confirm that GlaxoSmithKline had fraudulently obtained the license for Paxil for adults in 1992, the same way the company later attempted to get Paxil fraudulently approved for children. This analysis was conducted in 2007 by Harvard University psychiatrist Joseph Glenmullen. After reviewing GSK’s internal memos, reports, as well as the medical literature,318 [319] Glenmullen concluded that Paxil significantly increases the risk of suicidality in adults. Glenmullen determined that GSK had trial data since 1989 showing a greater than eight-fold increased risk of suicidal behavior in adults. He pointed out that GSK waited until 2006 to announce this in an underestimated manner as a six-fold increase in the risk of suicidal behavior in the older population. This report also points out the fact that GSK falsely attributed some of the suicides to the placebo group, making Paxil appear to perform better than no treatment. In his report, Dr. Glenmullen compares GSK’s ‘bad numbers’ with the correct data on suicide attempts (referenced), leading to his conclusion of the actual eight-fold increase in suicidal behavior in adults.319

In a debate published in 2015 in the British Medical Journal, Professor Peter C Gøtzsche announced estimating in fact 15 times more suicides among people taking antidepressants than reported by the FDA. The referenced paper explains the additional issues that the regulators have overlooked and points out yet additional fraudulent tactics employed by the industry.320

After having requested the re-analysis of the antidepressant trial database for adults in 2005, the FDA updated its black box warning on all antidepressants in 2007. The new warning states that the increased risk of suicide not only applies to children and adolescents, but also to young adults between 18 to 24.321 But the FDA seems to have been coerced to tone down the rest of its black box warning that year. The missing trial data not reported to them which they have never requested might have been responsible for justifying adding to the warning the sentences “short-term studies did not show an increase in the risk of suicidality with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults beyond age 24; there was a reduction in risk with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults aged 65 and older. Depression and certain other psychiatric disorders are themselves associated with increases in the risk of suicide.”321

After getting the FDA to reassure older adults that antidepressants were found to be safe for them in studies and that depression itself increases their suicide risks, the antidepressant makers kept fueling their lobbying efforts to sell their drugs to adults. These efforts proved most fruitful in January 2016, when the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF), which advises the federal government on health, issued a new recommendation stating that primary care doctors should now screen all adults for depression. The USPSTF published its recommendations in the Journal of the American Medical Association,322 [323] which states that “the USPSTF recommends screening for depression in the general adult population, including pregnant and postpartum women.” It’s still unknown if the government will follow this recommendation and if your primary care doctor will start trying to talk you into seeing a psychiatrist.

In a 2006 interview with the editor of Natural News, pediatric neurologist Dr. Fred Baughman, author of the book “ADHD Fraud” stated: [324]

Right now there is a pharmaceutical company lobbyist for every member of Congress and probably three or four for every senator. Who knows how many for the president? It is really a horror story unfolding. When I started medicine in 1964, I thought we were a wonderful profession. We didn’t have to compromise ourselves by inventing things to do. That has changed 100 percent. The medical profession is a disgrace today.

This explains why drugs as deadly and ineffective as antidepressants can remain on the market and pushed on the unsuspecting public. The following discussion summarizes the additional adverse effects of antidepressants and helps demonstrate why these drugs would have been recalled decades ago in an honest world.

The long-term effects of antidepressants have conveniently not been studied well enough, just like in the case of ADHD medications. Instead of having shown the “safety and effectiveness” of antidepressants, the existing long-term antidepressant studies indicate that these drugs worsen depression in the long-run. In a 2011 article titled “Now Antidepressant-Induced Chronic Depression Has a Name: Tardive Dysphoria,”325 award winning investigative journalist Richard Whitaker lists the scientific evidence showing that long-term antidepressant use exacerbates depression. Another article published in the Huffington Post cites the many studies demonstrating that long-term antidepressant use can worsen depression.326 This Huffington Post article by Dr. Peter Breggin explains that “the brain attempts to compensate for the impact of the SSRIs by reducing the brain’s capacity to respond to serotonin,” making people “feel apathetic or less engaged in their lives.” Dr. Breggin cites a study showing that antidepressants can cause loss of serotonin receptors in the brain that can reach 60%.326

Despite the way antidepressants may worsen depression in the long-term, in 2005, the FDA’s current black box warning was modified to make it prone to being misunderstood to indicate that antidepressants may only be harmful initially. Psychiatry’s compromised organizations APA and AACAP are reported as having helped influence the FDA to make this change.327 The modified version of the black box warning states that antidepressants were found to increase the risk of suicidality in short-term studies.327 The addition of the phrase “in short term studies” may make it seem OK to continue using antidepressants if one has not yet died from them, despite the way tardive dysphoria325 [326] can only increase depressed people’s suicide risks.

Strattera (atomoxetine hydrochloride) is a non-stimulant ADHD medication sold in the U.S., marketed as not having some of the worst side effects of stimulants. But this drug is in fact also deadly, as it shares the same black box warning on antidepressants stating the increased risk of suicidal ideation in children and adolescents. This warning can be seen on FDA’s referenced webpage about ADHD drugs by clicking on the link titled ‘Label’ next to Strattera.38 Also on this webpage, clicking on the link titled ‘Medication Guide’ next to Strattera brings up that in addition to watching for suicidal thoughts in their children on this medication, parents should watch for anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, irritability, hostility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, restlessness, mania and depression. Parents are warned that new psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations may emerge. Common side effects of Strattera in children and teenagers include mood swings, and common side effects in adults include sexual problems.38

Antidepressants are ineffective not only in children but in adults too as many studies have demonstrated.328 [329] [330] It seems that antidepressants should not be prescribed even to the most depressed by any doctor who takes into account the complete picture of the ineffectiveness of these drugs in addition to the fact that these drugs increase suicide risks in the short-term and in the long-run too due to causing worse depression (tardive dysphoria). These bogus medications continue to make everyone feel worse and only benefit their manufacturers.

Another reason to recall antidepressants is that these drugs don’t only increase people’s chances of killing themselves but also killing or harming others. In a June 2004 warning issued by Health Canada (Canadian equivalent of the FDA), the Canadians have been informed that people of all ages using the seven common antidepressants may “experience behavioural and/or emotional changes that may put them at increased risk of self-harm or harm to others.”271 This was confirmed in studies such as the one titled “Prescription Drugs Associated with Reports of Violence Towards Others,” published in PLoS One in 2010. This study found that popular antidepressants are among the top ten drugs that increase violent or homicidal behavior.331 [120] The study’s list of top ten violence inducing drugs also includes amphetamines and the non-stimulant ADHD drug Strattera. The Time article that covered this study points out that antidepressants such as Paxil and Prozac were found more than 10 times likelier to be linked with violence in comparison with other medications.120

Psychiatric-drug-induced violence is further elaborated in the website of ANH-USA, which has a good summary of the research showing that antidepressant induced aggression can reach homicidal proportions.332 In the previously discussed 2016 study published in the British Medical Journal which found missing adverse event data for many antidepressant studies,309 the researchers add that “only patient narratives were available for serious events and they included homicidal threat, homicidal ideation, assault, sexual molestation, and a threat to take a gun to school (all five participants receiving sertraline [Zoloft])…” This being so, it’s ironic that in 2014, Obama used the excuse to make schools safer and “reduce gun violence” when he announced giving $99 million in new grants to school districts to improve mental health services available to children.21 Obviously, what persuaded the government to give out these grants was not science.

Despite the piles of irrefutable evidence showing the destructive effects of antidepressants on especially younger minds, key opinion leaders like Dr. Jess Shatkin have no problem with promoting the notion that even babies can be depressed. As reported by ABC News, Dr. Shatkin, who is the director of education and training at New York University’s Child Study Center, claims that 1 in 40 infants may have depression.333 According to the latest statistics of IMS Health reported by CCHR International, in 2013, 1,080,168 babies and toddlers aged 0-5 were prescribed psychiatric medications.334 Even this does not seem to bother the conscience of the lawmakers enough to make them stop the drug companies from legally hiring medical experts to serve their needs.

Staying on antidepressants can also damage learning ability and memory, as was determined by an animal study.[335] This was confirmed by a larger study which tracked 383 elderly women on antidepressants for seven and a half years, determining that antidepressant use was linked to a 70% increased risk of mild cognitive impairment.[336]

The long-term use of antidepressants has also been associated with increased risk of Parkinson’s Disease in numerous studies. One of these studies found that the “initiation of any antidepressant therapy was associated with a higher risk of PD [Parkinson’s Disease] in the two years after initiation of treatment.”337 This has been confirmed by other studies such as the one published in March 2011 in Molecular Psychiatry, which states that “antidepressants have been reported to induce extrapyramidal symptoms, including parkinsonism.”338 A large systematic review published in April 2012 in Frontiers in Psychology explains that “antidepressants generally do more harm than good by disrupting a number of adaptive processes regulated by serotonin.”339

The Child and Adolescent Bipolar Foundation (CABF) has urged the FDA to alert clinicians and parents in its black box warning to the possibility that antidepressants can also trigger or worsen mania or rapid cycling bipolar disorder.340 But the FDA has refused to follow this advice.

Despite the huge amount of scientific evidence which has accumulated, it has amazingly made such a negligible impact on the public, when deception has succeeded at causing antidepressants to be consumed by more than 1 in 10 misinformed Americans over age 12, and in about 1 in 4 of women between ages 40-59 in the U.S. between 2005 and 2008, according to the latest statistics of the Centers for Disease Control.341 These horrifying figures might increase if the government decides to start screening all adults for depression as it has recently been recommended to do so by the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF).322 [323]

In April 2015, Medical Daily published an article titled “Antidepressants Aren’t Taken by The Depressed; Majority of Users Have No Disorder.”342 This article covers a new study published in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, which found that “some 69 percent of people taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), the primary type of antidepressants, have never suffered from major depressive disorder (MDD).” This seems to indicate that when science did not back them up, antidepressant manufacturers have funneled much of their misleading marketing efforts directly to consumers, making people believe that their drugs can induce “happiness.”

For people who find this kind of world depressing, the drug-company-paid "experts" may never stop encouraging lying in bed popping pills. But for anyone ready to quit their bogus and poisonous drugs and face life, Dr. Peter Breggin's advices may be able to help. Dr. Breggin is a Harvard-trained psychiatrist and former full-time consultant at the National Institutes of Mental Health. He explains that "patients commonly discontinue their medications abruptly. By explaining the importance of careful withdrawals, I could save lives and a great deal of suffering."[343] He explains his '10% taper method' in Chapter 8 of his book "Your Drug May Be Your Problem: How and Why To Stop Taking Psychiatric Medications." Dr. Breggin's 10% taper method' is also explained in survivingantidepressants.org (referenced).[344] Dr. Breggin tells here that "gradual discontinuation tends to shorten the course of any withdrawal syndrome." To further help anyone who wants to quit their medications the right way, Dr. Breggin has published another book called "Psychiatric Drug Withdrawal: A Guide for Prescribers, Therapists, Patients and Families."

Thus the preceding clearly demonstrates that antidepressants can’t “treat” the inability to feel pleasure and motivation caused by the long-term use of ADHD medications.79 [81] [96] [98] [99] The additional damages to one’s mental equilibrium caused by the increased use of psychiatric drugs may cause the prescription of yet more harmful medications whose long-term detrimental effects can’t justify their initial apparent benefits. This may create a vicious cycle causing people to spiral into increasingly worsening psychiatric drug induced mental and physical illness as psychiatrists keep increasing their medication dosages and adding different drugs. To see the science-based evidence backing this up, please see the section “The Case Against All Psychiatric Drugs and Drug-prescribing Psychiatry.”

For the less investigated case of ADHD drugs, the selective publishing of studies has also been used to conceal the drugs’ risks just like in the case of antidepressants. This has been confirmed by studies like the 2001 meta-analysis published in the Canadian Medical Association Journal.345 This meta-analysis determined that for methylphenidate (Ritalin), the “apparent beneficial effects are tempered by a strong indication of publication bias and the lack of robustness of the findings, especially those involving core ADD features… The indication of publication bias suggests that studies showing no effect, or involving children on methylphenidate who fared less well than those receiving placebo, may not have been published.”

The drug makers have distorted the scientific knowledge available to physicians and the public on all sorts of drugs including ADHD medications, which was announced in an April 2010 review published in BioMed Central.346 [347] LiveScience covered this review in their article titled "Dark Side of Medical Research: Widespread Bias and Omissions."[346] This article summarized that "German researchers looked beyond just antidepressants and found reporting bias in 40 instances involving about 50 different pharmaceutical drugs, surgical procedures, diagnostic tools and preventive interventions." This constitutes 80% of the drugs and medical procedures this review's authors checked out. The list of drugs for which reporting bias was found included ADHD medications.[346] [347]The researchers of this study state:[347]

Many cases involved the withholding of study data by manufacturers and regulatory agencies or the active attempt by manufacturers to suppress publication. The ascertained effects of reporting bias included the overestimation of efficacy and the underestimation of safety risks of interventions.

The LiveScience article covering this 2010 study quotes Beate Wieseler, deputy head of the Drug Assessment Department of the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care in Germany. Regarding tactics such as withholding of study data not publishing negative studies, Wieseler emphasizes that “you can’t say this is an isolated problem.”346

The fact that the unfavorable studies on ADHD drugs were never published for decades can be seen by going back to the 2004 paper in Drugs & Therapy Perspectives titled “Limited Data Suggest that the Long-term Use of Stimulants in Children with Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is Effective and Safe.”66 This paper’s authors were previously quoted as pointing out that up until that time, “data available from the longest controlled studies indicate that stimulants are effective in improving ADHD symptoms for up to 2 years.”66 This means that until 2004, the published research literature on ADHD drugs did not contain any published controlled studies lasting longer than 2 years, when in 2011, the MTA study announced that their findings fail to provide support “for long-term advantage of [ADHD] medication treatment beyond two years for the majority of children.” [206] This demonstrates that for decades, the ADHD drug companies only published their favorable studies lasting shorter than 2 years, not publishing any longer-term study showing unfavorable findings.

All of this clearly indicates that the case of ADHD drugs must be investigated more thoroughly without delay, to uncover how many millions of unknown children and adults might have gotten killed or damaged by these medications. If you, your family or friends have suffered damages from any psychiatric drug including ADHD drugs or antidepressants, please check out the end of this book about how you may seek compensation and help stop psychiatric drug poisoning.

Not Enforcing the Law Mandating the Disclosure of Unfavorable Research Findings

Exactly how many millions of people are harmed or killed by fraudulently promoted drugs including ADHD medications? To give readers an even better idea, this discussion investigates the way the law requiring the disclosure of unfavorable research findings is not being enforced by compromised regulatory agencies.

Due to the accumulated evidence showing how common it is to bury the unfavorable research findings and side effects of treatments, in 2007, a law was passed called the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 (FDAAA). Section 801 of this law mandates researchers to register for public disclosure both the published and unpublished human studies of drugs, biologics and medical devices.348 All of the results are added to the publicly searchable clinicaltrials.gov database of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), to make them available to all.348 This legislation initially caused many physicians to believe that the publication bias and adverse effect reporting problem was resolved.

But unfortunately, several studies demonstrated that all of the research results were not being reported according to the new legal requirements, and that the requirements were not enforced. One of the studies demonstrating this was published in December 2011 in Health Affairs. The researchers found that “although the mandate briefly increased trial registrations, 39 percent of trials were still registered late after the mandate’s deadline, and only 12 percent of completed studies reported results within a year, as required by the mandate.”349 Not reporting research results on time seems to buy the drug makers time to keep profiting from ineffective or harmful medications.

Another study published in the British Medical Journal confirmed the failure to comply with the result reporting rules,[350] [351] and in yet another study, the researchers found that even after four years of completion, about 30% of studies failed to publicly disclose their results.[352] Such resistance to publicize the unfavorable research findings makes one wonder how much sales the drug makers would lose or which harmful medications would have to be recalled if these results were known.

Why would the NIH and the FDA responsible for enforcing the 2007 mandate not do so? Wondering about the answer, several congress representatives sent letters to the FDA in 2012, expressing their discontent with their failure to enforce the results registration law.351 But the regulatory agencies persisted at not doing anything even after they were warned. This was determined by the investigative reporters of STAT (a publication of Boston Globe Media). STAT's reporters uncovered that still in 2015, "neither the FDA nor NIH, the biggest single source of medical research funds in the United States, has ever penalized an institution or researcher for failing to post data."[353] In their December 2015 article titled "Law Ignored, Patients At Risk," STAT's reporters state that their investigation "is the first detailed review of how well individual research institutions have complied with the law."[353] Concerning the research results that should have been submitted for inclusion in the ClinicalTrials.gov database between 2008 and 2015, out of the 98 universities, nonprofits and corporations the reporters examined, all of them routinely broke the law and "disclosed research results late or not at all at least 95% of the time". In the case of the studies funded by the National Institute of Health (NIH) responsible for overseeing the reporting system, the agency's own staff scientists violated the law three-quarters of the time.

How much money have the drug companies paid to corrupt key officials in the NIH and the FDA who should regulate the system? How far up does the corruption reach, to let the regulatory agencies get away with doing nothing for so long?

But even if the regulatory agencies could prevent the unfavorable trial data from being obfuscated, it might not make much difference, according to Arthur Levin, executive director of the Center for Medical Consumers. “Will physicians behave any differently?”, asks Levin, when “these drugs will still be promoted to physicians and the public directly?”278

Many real-life examples of the terrible consequences of misleading doctors and patients are included in the book “Bad Pharma: How Drug Companies Mislead Doctors and Harm Patients” by Ben Goldacre, M.D.

In a system corrupted all the way through, the next section deals with how far the FDA has been compromised to cause it to keep looking the other way instead of monitoring the system.

Corruption in the FDA

How is it that so much drug related fraud can continue, when the FDA is supposed to regulate the drug industry’s practices?

It was previously discussed that on the black box warning for amphetamines, the FDA seems to avoid directly stating the fact that these drugs have a high potential to cause serious cardiovascular events including sudden death.31 It was also discussed that sudden death from amphetamines can occur at prescribed doses and not only when amphetamines are misused or abused like FDA says in its black box warning.36 Is the FDA downplaying drug risks in favor of the industry?

In February 2007, a congressional hearing was held questioning the adequacy of the FDA to assure the safety of the nation’s drug supply.354 In his testimony at this congressional hearing, Senator Grassley reported a number of problems with the FDA, which he later summarized as follows:355

I’ve identified problems at the FDA that consistently fit into a few themes.

First, scientific dissent is discouraged, quashed, and sometimes muzzled inside the Food and Drug Administration. Second, the FDA’s relationship with drug makers is too cozy. The FDA worries about smoothing things over with industry much more than it should with its regulatory responsibilities. Third, inside the FDA there’s widespread fear of retaliation for speaking up about problems. And fourth, the public safety would be better served if the agency was more transparent and forthcoming about drug safety and drug risks.

The transcript of this 2007 congressional hearing summarizes the numerous instances of the FDA’s gross regulatory failure. Representative Bart Stupak has pointed out the FDA’s misconduct concerning the pain relievers Vioxx and Bextra:354

These pain relievers [Vioxx and Bextra] were supposed to be easier on the stomach and not cause ulcers for the chronic users. Post-marketing surveillance revealed serious cardiac side effects. Instead of focusing on these serious side effects, the FDA became entwined in a 14-month battle on how the cardiovascular risks should be labeled. FDA officials sided with the drug manufacturer and down played the warnings and the serious side effects of Vioxx. As a result, the FDA may have allowed thousands of patients to die prematurely because of its failure to believe its own scientist and his post-market surveillance findings.

This seems to summarize the FDA’s mode of operation when faced with having to recall harmful blockbuster medications, as the next example will demonstrate. But before moving on, it may be noted that in November 2011, the drug company Merch was fined $950 Million over illegally marketing Vioxx,356 and Pfizer paid $2.3 Billion in fines after pleading guilty to misbranding several drugs including Bextra “with the intent to defraud or mislead.”357 Both Vioxx and Bextra have been recalled. In the 2007 congressional hearing, Dr. David Graham, associate director for science and medicine in the FDA’s Office of Drug Safety, stated that “I would argue that the FDA, as currently configured, is incapable of protecting America against another Vioxx. We are virtually defenseless.”358

Dr. Graham’s point has been confirmed by other investigations which revealed the FDA’s unwillingness to stop the sales of harmful medications. SSRI antidepressants is another class of drugs that the FDA has failed to regulate in a manner almost identical to the case of Vioxx and Bextra.

Dr. Andrew Mosholder was the FDA’s medical official appointed to conducting the first review of the raw study data the regulatory agencies requested from all antidepressant manufacturers in 2003. After his review, Dr. Mosholder concluded that all antidepressants increase suicide risks in children, reaching this conclusion eight months before the FDA finally issued its black box warning announcing this risk for all antidepressants in October 2004.359 When Dr. Mosholder announced his conclusion to his supervisors, he got scheduled to present his findings at an FDA advisory committee meeting which was to take place open to the public. But before this public advisory committee meeting occurred, Dr. Mosholder’s supervisors told him that they disagreed with him. Mosholder stated that “alternative conclusions were offered to me which I declined to incorporate into my written document.” [359] His higher-ups then barred his presentation from being given to their advisory committee.

“The first question that this raises is quite simple: Why?”, asked Representative Joe Barton at a congressional hearing that took place in February 2004.359 Barton was the chairman of the Committee on Energy and Commerce whose subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations accused the FDA of inadequacy. “Isn’t an Advisory Committee a panel of experts? Aren’t those people capable of hearing different points of view and making decisions? What was the harm in allowing Dr. Mosholder an opportunity to present his data, his analysis, and his opinion to a group of experts?” Barton questioned.

Three months after Mosholder was prevented from making his findings known, the British equivalent of the FDA (MHRA) announced banning all of the new generation antidepressants except Prozac for children after their review of the same data submitted to them that Mosholder reviewed.270 [281] [282] But even after the British experts confirmed Mosholder’s conclusions, the FDA unnecessarily delayed issuing strong enough warnings while the previously discussed TMAP scam and TeenScreen project was causing antidepressant sales to soar for especially children. The FDA required Mosholder’s conclusions to be re-analyzed, wasting many months caught up in just better trying to label the misclassified suicidal events in the trial data retrieved from the antidepressant makers. [359] [360] This was almost identical to the way the FDA wasted more than a year re-labeling the cardiovascular adverse events caused by Vioxx and Bextra, while patients continued to die or suffer damages.354 The FDA’s redundant re-labeling and re-analysis process finally produced the same conclusions Dr. Mosholder had tried to publicize eight months ago.359

“There is something terribly rotten at the FDA” exclaimed representative Greg Walden at the September 2004 congressional hearing. “I am appalled but, frankly, not surprised by the systematic efforts of the FDA to suppress information that could have prevented the senseless deaths of too many children,” stated Representative Bart Stupak, chairman of the Committee of Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations.359

In the 2004 congressional hearing, the representatives also asked the FDA why it had not promptly required the antidepressant labels to reflect the fact that clinical trials could not demonstrate efficacy in children. Representative Greg Walden commented:

Why wouldn’t you put that on the label? Why shouldn’t the label reflect that information? I note that the Advisory Committee just recommended that this labeling change take place, but the point is that the FDA knew about the lack of efficacy in these trials several years ago, and nothing has been done to change the label to inform doctors, patients and parents of this finding.

“Shockingly, the FDA made a deliberate decision to withhold information on the clinical failures from parents as well as pediatricians and other prescribers,” stated representative Peter Deutsch.359 “Today, SSRI’s remain on the market without a clear medical benefit to the patient,” [359] stated Representative Stupak.

At the time the FDA prevented Dr. Mosholder from sharing his findings, the San Francisco Chronicle found this out and published how the FDA had “squelched its own investigator’s report.”359 [360] The FDA then started an internal criminal investigation to find out who leaked the information to the media. About this internal criminal investigation, Representative Peter Deutsch stated at the 2004 hearing that “it is readily apparent that the probe was not about information but, rather, about intimidation.” Before the congressional hearing took place, the FDA tried to obfuscate the fact that such an internal criminal investigation had taken place. The agency tried to get Dr. Mosholder to submit an altered document at the hearing instead of the original document revealing the occurrence of the investigation.359 But after consulting with his lawyer, Dr. Mosholder resisted signing this altered document presented to him. He explained during the hearing how the FDA attempted to hide the original document.

As was also discovered by Senator Grassley, more than 40 employees of the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research had been warned in an intimidating e-mail to not communicate directly to Finance Committee staff members for “handling the document request on antidepressants.”361 [360]

Just like what the FDA did with Mosholder’s findings in 2003, the agency had years ago also prevented the suicide risks of Zoloft and Paxil to be presented to an advisory committee in 1991, even though they had data demonstrating these suicide risks for two years.314 In 1996, the FDA’s drug reviewer James F. Knudsen had again tried to point out the reports of suicidal ideation and behavior in children and adolescents exposed to Zoloft. But his conclusions got “disputed” by a supervisor and ignored by the FDA just like what the FDA at first did to Mosholder’s conclusions.359 [360]

In 2003, the FDA went so far as to stop Wyeth Pharmaceuticals from warning about the suicidal thoughts or behavior caused by their antidepressant venlafaxine (Effexor).359 Wyeth Pharmaceuticals had, on their own, made a labeling change for Effexor mentioning the reports of suicidal ideation, hostility and self-harm caused by their drug “based on the company’s re-analyses of data from the Effexor pediatric trials.”359 Wyeth had also sent out a warning letter informing health care professionals about this labeling change. But 8 months later, the FDA asked Wyeth to “remove this stronger labeling.”359 The FDA mandated Wyeth and 10 other antidepressant makers to all use the same weaker labeling which just asked health care providers to “carefully monitor patients receiving antidepressants for possible worsening of depression or suicidality.”362 “It is incredible that this agency charged with protecting the public health would stop a company from warning the public about risks associated with the use of its products by children,” commented chairman Joe Barton at the 2004 congressional hearing.359

At the time the FDA was being accused by congress in 2004, it had not yet issued its black box warning, but two advisory panels had recommended that the FDA do so. Would the FDA have followed the advice of these panels if not for the public disapproval caused by the news article announcing that Mosholder’s findings had been squelched, as well as the pressure coming from the congress? In the 2004 congressional hearing, Representative Peter Deutsch warned: “I expect that the FDA will tell us at this hearing that it will adopt the recommendations of its Advisory Committee.” To make sure that the FDA would not ignore or further delay implementing the recommendations of its scientific advisors, Senator Grassley too felt the need to send the FDA a letter immediately following the hearing.363 This letter from Grassley to the FDA states: “I trust that the FDA will very quickly and fully consider the Advisory Committee’s recommendations about the “black box” and “med guides”, before the lives of more children are needlessly lost because parents and others lack adequate, readily understandable information when they most need it.” [363] Thus the FDA was forced to issue the black box warning.

It’s interesting to note how far up the corruption seems to reach, when the FDA prevented the dangers of antidepressants from being known the same year President Bush’s New Freedom Committee recommended the TMAP scam and TeenScreen in 2003, to increase antidepressant and antipsychotic sales as previously discussed.256 The root source of all evil seems to come down to the way politicians can receive campaign contributions from the industry.

How many more drugs are out there whose warnings are not adequate, or are misleading or missing? How many medicines or medical devices should have been recalled but remain in the market due to the FDA’s ‘too cozy’ ties to the industry?

The Internet reports numerous other cases of the FDA’s misconduct. In 2008, nine senior FDA scientists informed the government of the institutional corruption in a series of letters to congress and to President Obama. The scientists presented their evidence, asking the government to restructure the FDA.365 The scientists told that “managers have ordered, intimidated and coerced scientists to manipulate data in violation of the law,” reported the Wall Street Journal.364 But the politicians failed to fix things and the situation was still not improved in 2015. This was uncovered by recent investigations conducted by experienced journalist Charles Seife.

Charles Seife, M.S. is a versatile professor, author, journalist, and mathematician all in one, holding an M.S. in journalism from Columbia University and an M.S. in mathematics from Yale. He currently teaches journalism at New York University.366 In April 2015, Seife published a paper in JAMA Internal Medicine titled “Research Misconduct Identified by the US Food and Drug Administration – Out of Sight, Out of Mind, Out of the Peer-Reviewed Literature.”367 In this study, Seife tracked 78 publications about studies which were determined to be flawed or fraudulently conducted by the FDA’s inspectors, which had problems with adverse events reporting, inadequate or inaccurate recordkeeping, protocol violations and other significant violations. Of these 78 flawed publications, 75 never mentioned the objectionable conditions or practices the FDA found during its inspections. “No corrections, retractions, expressions of concern, or other comments acknowledging the key issues identified by the inspection were subsequently published,”367 letting physicians and researchers remain oblivious to the tainted nature and false results of these papers. Siefe concludes that “when the FDA finds significant departures from good clinical practice, those findings are seldom reflected in the peer-reviewed literature, even when there is evidence of data fabrication or other forms of research misconduct.” This shows the grim reality of the way the FDA only appears to be doing its job without yielding any actual benefit to physicians and patients.

In February 2015, Seife published another article in the online magazine Slate, which mentions many other cases of the FDA’s misconduct.368 In two of these cases, the FDA’s inspectors discovered research fraud involving the studies done to determine the safety and effectiveness of the anti-blood-clotting agent Rivaroxaban and the antibiotic Ketek. But the FDA’s managers deliberately withheld all evidence of this fraud from their own advisory committee, causing the advisory committee to vote for the approval of these drugs. This resulted in wrongful death lawsuits for Rivaroxaban and reports of liver damage and blurred vision associated with Ketek. When congress stepped in to investigate the FDA’s misconduct about Ketek, “every excuse under the sun has been used to create roadblocks,” stated Senator Grassley, “even in the face of congressional subpoenas requesting information and access to FDA employees.”368

In his same article in Slate, Seife also mentions that a research firm called Cetero was “caught faking data from more than 1,400 drug trials.” This falsified data was used to approve the safety and effectiveness of about 100 generic drugs. But even after Cetero’s malpractice was uncovered, Seife found fake data on the FDA approved drug labels of these generic drugs, misleading people about these drugs’ safety and effectiveness. Additionally, for some of these generic drugs, Cetero’s falsified data required the FDA to downgrade their bioequivalence rating indicating their similarity to their name brands. But the FDA never did this for most of the 100 drugs. Seife then mentions a similar case of fraud committed by a research firm called GVK Biosciences. About 40 drugs were approved and released into the U.S. market because of the misconduct of this firm. But the FDA did not disclose the names of these drugs nor pulled them off the market after GVK’s fraudulence was uncovered.

Seife summarizes the situation:368

Despite being called out numerous times over the years for its bad behavior, including from some very pissed-off members of Congress, the agency is stubbornly resistant to change. It’s a sign that the FDA is deeply captured, drawn firmly into the orbit of the pharmaceutical industry that it’s supposed to regulate. We can no longer hope that the situation will get better without firm action from the legislature.

When the legislature too has for decades resisted taking action and lets the fraud go on, millions of children and adults continue to swallow their harmful medications including Schedule II substances prescribed to schoolkids.

The Mostly Fake Research Literature Nobody Wants to Fix

The chief editors of two of the world’s largest medical journals have recently admitted that most of the research their journals publish is flawed. Even worse, no one feels ready to fix the situation.

Prior APA members Frances and Mosher were not the only people whose conscience forced them to expose the sordid corruption surrounding them. Another such person is Richard Horton, who is the editor in chief of the prestigious UK medical journal The Lancet. The Lancet is the world’s second most influential journal in general & internal medicine, according to the latest Journal Citation Reports of Thomson Reuters.369 In 2015, Horton published a much talked about editorial article which admits how much fake research they publish.370 In this article, Horton states that a recent symposium “touched on one of the most sensitive issues in science today: the idea that something has gone fundamentally wrong with one of our greatest human creations.” Horton explains:

The case against science is straightforward: much of the scientific literature, perhaps half, may simply be untrue. Afflicted by studies with small sample sizes, tiny effects, invalid exploratory analyses, and flagrant conflicts of interest, together with an obsession for pursuing fashionable trends of dubious importance, science has taken a turn towards darkness. As one participant put it, “poor methods get results”. The Academy of Medical Sciences, Medical Research Council, and Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council have now put their reputational weight behind an investigation into these questionable research practices. The apparent endemicity of bad research behaviour is alarming. In their quest for telling a compelling story, scientists too often sculpt data to fit their preferred theory of the world. Or they retrofit hypotheses to fit their data. Journal editors deserve their fair share of criticism too. We aid and abet the worst behaviours. Our acquiescence to the impact factor fuels an unhealthy competition to win a place in a select few journals. Our love of “significance” pollutes the literature with many a statistical fairy-tale.

Such a disturbingly honest confession sounds refreshing.

Horton’s words have been confirmed by Dr. Marcia Angell, who is the former Editor-in-Chief of The New England Journal of Medicine. This journal is the most widely read and influential general medical journal with the highest impact factor in the world.371 In her book called “The Truth About Drug Companies: How They Deceive Us and What To Do About It,” Angell also admits:372

It is simply no longer possible to believe much of the clinical research that is published, or to rely on the judgment of trusted physicians or authoritative medical guidelines. I take no pleasure in this conclusion, which I reached slowly and reluctantly over my two decades as an editor of The New England Journal of Medicine.

Going back to the article of The Lancet’s editor in chief, Horton concluded his 2015 editorial with the words: “the good news is that science is beginning to take some of its worst failings very seriously. The bad news is that nobody is ready to take the first step to clean up the system.”370

When none of the people in key positions feels “ready” to make a change, can the public or consumers help clean up the system?

Simple Internet searches show that the unethical drug marketing scams that we looked at are far from being comprehensive.373 [374] [375] [376] [377] All such scams seem to show that the drug makers have for a long time quit trying to be subtle about their fraudulence, having secured their positions so well and having established enough connections to ensure that nothing can really hurt them.

In addition to having enough money to pay any settlement when sued, we have seen that the drug companies buy the silence of plaintiffs through non-disclosure agreements to prevent side effects from being publicized. But this is only one of the ways that permits the drug makers continue to carry on selling harmful treatments. Between 2011 and 2013, the lobbying efforts of the generic drug makers (which hold more than 88% of the U.S. market[378]) caused the Supreme Court to pass a series of rulings that blocked most personal injury lawsuits against them.[379] [380] It was ruled that for all generic drugs, state lawsuits cannot be filed for damages resulting form design defects.[380] It was additionally ruled that generic drug makers are not required to strengthen the warnings on their labels when alerted to side effects, and they must always use the label of the brand name drug on which they are based.[378] This prevents lawsuits from being filed by injured individuals who feel that they or their doctors were not warned of a drug's new risks.[378] These laws cause the generic drug companies to "have no incentive to engage in robust monitoring of the safety of their products, and there's no accountability if they don't," states Dr. Michael Carome, director of Public Citizen's Health Research Group.[378] The FDA promised to improve this situation in 2015, but recently, as expected, announced its decision to postpone doing so.378

Years ago, studies and lawsuits could stop the direct consumer advertising of addictive tobacco products. But when all psychiatric organizations promote stimulants including the NIMH who promotes the baseless claim that “under medical supervision, stimulant medications are considered safe,”2 this makes it impossible to stop the direct consumer advertising of these Schedule II substances. Feeling completely secure with the whole psychiatric community backing them up as well as the corrupted regulatory agencies, the drug companies have no problem with advertising Schedule II drugs even directly to children through comic books and children’s stories they publish and cartoons they create about ADHD.

While the prisons are filled with the petty drug dealers not successful and rich enough to buy off the authorities, the drug dealers of the medical world and the researchers and officials they have compromised keep thriving off the countless lives they destroy. Even Dr. Biederman has not lost his much-revered position as a full professor at Harvard, when all that he got was “a little slap on the wrist,” as pointed out by Dr. Jerome Kassirer who is a professor at Tufts University School of Medicine.381 As reported by the Boston Globe, Harvard gave only minor penalties to Biederman and his colleagues,381 which included requiring them to refrain from all industry-sponsored activities for only one year, with an additional 2 year monitoring period. Biederman and his colleagues will then be allowed to go back to pulling in the huge amounts of money they used to provide their college.

When big pharma seems to have tainted every medical and political institution and formed the world’s deadliest cartel, this may have left no room for cleaning up the system. The consumer fraud or class action suits I encourage (please see the end of the book) can only help the hurt parties financially, and whistleblower lawsuits may help to some degree to open the public’s eye. But if the situation is really as hopeless as it seems, the only way out may be to keep educating the public as much as possible about the degradation of modern medical practices, encouraging all to try out scientifically verifiable drug free, natural, or preventive alternative approaches.

The Case Against All Psychiatric Drugs and Drug-prescribing Psychiatry

It was not only the biomarkers of ADHD that psychiatry could so far not legitimately identify. For all disorders referred to as psychiatric rather than neurological, modern science could up to this day never detect any structural brain abnormalities or chemical imbalances to justify prescribing “chemical balancers.” The utter failure of modern psychiatry to find the biomarkers of psychiatric conditions has recently been admitted by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) as well as the FDA and the Canadian equivalent of the FDA (Health Canada) too. The following discussion elaborates on this, and the consequences of arbitrarily altering the brain’s elusive chemistry.

Due to the inability of science to find the biomarkers of psychiatric conditions, a growing group of psychiatrists have come to believe that drug-prescribing psychiatry is a fraud, when the DSM’s psychiatric disorders are not organic diseases. This group of psychiatrists has been greatly influenced by journalists like Robert Whitaker, who is the winner of the 2010 Investigative Reporters and Editors Book Award, the George Polk Award for Medical Writing, and the National Association for Science Writers’ Award. [382] Whitaker’s work has even been a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize for Public Service.382 This journalist states that “at times, I think that I must seem like a dog with a bone, and that I just can’t let this one particular subject—the long-term effects of psychiatric drugs—go.”383 Whitaker publishes the webzine MadInAmerica.com, which contains a lot of information about the long-term damages caused by psychiatric drugs. This site includes the latest studies and success stories about treating psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia without medications.

In March 2012, Scientific American staff writer John Hogan wrote a review of Whitaker’s book called “Anatomy of an Epidemic: Magic Bullets, Psychiatric Drugs, and the Astonishing Rise of Mental Illness in America.” In reviewing this book which won Whitaker the 2010 Investigative Reporters and Editors Book Award, Hogan writes that it is “one of the most disturbing, consequential works of investigative journalism I’ve read in a long time. Perhaps ever. Whitaker has persuaded me that American psychiatry, in collusion with the pharmaceutical industry, may be perpetrating the biggest case of iatrogenesis — harmful medical treatment — in history.”384

Among all medical specialists, “psychiatrists earn more money from drug makers than doctors in any other specialty,” reports the New York Times.385 In describing the extent that the American medical profession has sold itself to the drug companies, Dr. Nathaniel Lehrman states that “in no other medical specialty has that prostitution reached the depths it has in my specialty, psychiatry.”265 A frustrated Dr. Baughman expresses himself by saying that “they have sold their souls and they have sold whatever scientific credentials they ever had.”324 This book has attempted to contribute to raising awareness of the huge ‘iatrogenesis’ going on for half a century, whose reality continues to be exposed by many individuals.

As the scientific evidence keeps piling up, more and more psychiatrists feel that all psychiatric drugs are feel-good substances which may only provide short-lasting symptom relief at the cost of incurring severe actual damages. Among the psychiatrists appalled by the long term effects of psychiatric drugs is Professor Dr. David Healy, whose bio states that he is “a former Secretary of the British Association for Psychopharmacology, who has authored more than 150 peer-reviewed articles, 200 other pieces, and 20 books.”386 In his article titled “Psychiatry Gone Astray,” Dr. Healy states:387

I am not against using drugs, provided we know what we are doing and only use them in situations where they do more good than harm. Psychiatric drugs can be useful sometimes for some patients, especially in short-term treatment, in acute situations. But my studies in this area lead me to a very uncomfortable conclusion:

Our citizens would be far better off if we removed all the psychotropic drugs from the market, as doctors are unable to handle them. It is inescapable that their availability creates more harm than good. Psychiatrists should therefore do everything they can to treat as little as possible, in as short time as possible, or not at all, with psychotropic drugs.

One of the most outspoken leaders of the group again psychiatric drugs is Dr. Peter R. Breggin, who was a full-time consultant at the National Institutes of Mental Health. Dr. Breggin has acted as a medical expert in numerous criminal, malpractice and product liability suits, and has been qualified to testify in court as a psychiatric expert numerous times.388 His resume describes 94 cases for which he has given his testimony in court as a psychiatric expert since 1986, but also states that his history of testifying in court actually dates back to the 1960’s.389 Dr. Breggin’s extensive experience and lifelong investigations have caused him to reach the following alarming conclusion he states in his video titled “Psychiatric Drugs Are More Dangerous Than You Ever Imagined.” Breggin states in this video:390

I genuinely believe, that if most people knew how dangerous the psychiatric drugs really were, most people would never start on them. And I also believe that if most prescribers had even the faintest idea how dangerous they were, they’d stop prescribing them. … I know this because I’ve been a medical expert in dozens of lawsuits against drug companies, I’ve looked inside drug companies and seen what they’re really doing, I was appointed by a court in Indiana to be the scientific expert for over 150 lawsuits against Eli Lily – suits alleging that the drug Prozac caused violence, suicide, mayhem, mania and psychosis, so I know what goes inside.

Dr. Breggin points out in this video that not just ADHD drugs, but tranquilizers like Xanax and Valium also cause shrinkage of the brain among their adverse effects. Dr. Breggin has also made a video titled “Simple Truth 8: ADHD Kids—A Lifelong Road to Tragedy.”390 Dr. Breggin explains more in his book “Toxic Psychiatry: Why Therapy, Empathy and Love Must Replace the Drugs, Electroshock, and Biochemical Theories of the ‘New Psychiatry’”.

As reported by psychotherapist Jean Fain, Dr. Breggin has “organized more than 200 professionals and 1,000 members with his Center for the Study of Psychiatry and Psychology [now called the Center for the Study of Empathic Therapy, Education & Living], his web site (www.Breggin.com) and his ‘Ethical Human Sciences and Services’ journal.”343 [391] In her article titled “Psychiatric Drugs: Take ‘em or Leave ‘em?”, psychotherapist Fain expresses that she does not fully approve of the way Dr. Breggin encourages everyone to get off all psychiatric medications. But Fain nevertheless reports: [343]

Breggin believes he’s serving the mentally ill better than most — that he’s one of the few psychiatrists willing to tell clients what they deserve to know…

Despite his denouncement of psychiatric medications, Breggin believes adult clients have the right to take them. Children, on the other hand, have no choice, and should never be given medications.

“Giving these drugs to children should be criminalized,” he says. “It’s too damaging to a child’s growing brain and ethical perspective to use these drugs to control behavior.”

The Frasers of Rockville, Maryland were told the above “when they consulted Breggin a year ago about their son Andrew,” writes psychotherapist Jean Fain in her article.343 She describes the case of the Frasers: ‘After five years of increasing doses of Ritalin for attention deficit disorder, clonidine to counteract the Ritalin, and Prozac for depression, the then 11-year-old’s original psychiatrist was recommending an anti-psychotic medication that can cause permanent neurological damage

“We were at our wits’ end,” says Bruce Fraser. “We kept going up and up on these medications and seeing more of a marginal return.”

With school and parental support, Breggin guided Andrew through the withdrawal process and concomitant adjustments to family and school life. “In retrospect, we realized we’d placed our hopes more on medications, when we really should have focused more on family relationships,” says Bruce Fraser. “I think a lot of parents fall into that trap because they’re desperate. I’m not going to say Andrew’s problem free, or a straight-A student,” Fraser says, “but he’s doing much better.”

Dr. Breggin keeps raising awareness about why the psychiatric drugging of children is child abuse.392 Such child abuse is at its worst for children in state care, as reported by investigative journalists like Evelyn Pringle. Pringle states that in October 2004, the Texas Inspector General for the Health and Human Services Commission’s Office “interviewed staff at three state licensed wilderness camps, which provide care for foster children, and found that the average child who arrives is on four or five psychotropic drugs.”265 Pringle quotes Austin psychologist John Breeding who told that “children are not just placed on one drug. Typically, they’re placed on two or three or we’ve seen literally up to 17 different drugs for the same child in foster care. These drugs are used as a chemical restraint.”393 Pringle adds that “Texas style drugging of kids has spread to other states as well.” She cites the Miami Herald which uncovered that “one in three Florida children in state care were prescribed psychotropic drugs.” A 2015 Huffington Post article reports that in California, “nearly one in four foster care teens is on antipsychotics.”394 The same Huffington Post article adds that “today, an alarming 62 percent of all foster care teens are on psych meds, with nearly two thirds of those medicated youth on antipsychotics.”

The 2015 Huffington Post article mentioned above covered a report published by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Inspector General, which found that “poor and foster care kids covered by Medicaid are being prescribed too many dangerous antipsychotic drugs at young ages for far too long,” and that 92 percent of all kids on Medicaid receiving antipsychotics did so without any medical justification at all.394 This shows the extent that the drug industry has exploited the Medicaid system through previously discussed scams like TMAP which turned the new generation antipsychotic and antidepressant drugs into blockbusters. The Huffington Post article elaborates:

The Inspector General’s report also noted that over half of kids receiving antipsychotics are victimized by “poor monitoring” of the drugs’ risky health side effects — which can include breast growth in boys, cardiac arrest, extreme weight gain and diabetes.

This 2015 Huffington Post article points out that the extent the federal government turns a blind eye to the way state Medicaid programs unnecessarily dispense potentially life-threatening medications to children. [394] The federal Medicaid officials in charge told the Huffington Post reporters that they don’t have the legal authority to refuse to pay for the unnecessary and dangerous off-label drug prescriptions. But the reporters found out this is not true, and what the officials told them contradicts a series of federal court rulings and the outcome of a Justice Department fraud lawsuit against Pfizer which concluded that the federal government was defrauded when asked to pay for drug prescriptions “that were not medically accepted indications and therefore not covered” by government health care programs. The same federal Medicaid officials in charge also claimed that they are not even allowed to suggest to state Medicaid authorities to stop paying for the groundless uses of antipsychotics. But this is “especially absurd” and “totally bogus,” states Toby Edelman, a senior policy attorney with the Center for Medicare Services. Edelman adds that “to say ‘it’s not our responsibility’ while 92 percent of the [pediatric] Medicaid antipsychotic use is inappropriate and killing children, that’s not acceptable.” This Huffington Post article which has the words “Feds Pay for Drug Fraud” in its title further reports:

This lack of rigorous enforcement is especially disturbing in light of the real-world experience of clinicians who are seeking to help kids with emotional problems even as they’ve already been horrifically damaged by overdrugging. “I’ve certainly seen obesity up to a 100-pound weight gain in six months. Boys with gynecomastia [breast growth] have had breast lumps and have been lactating, and some of them have had mastectomies,” says Harrisburg-based psychiatrist Dr. Stefan Kruszewski, who was a successful whistleblower in four separate lawsuits challenging illegal marketing of antipsychotics and dangerous psychiatric care.

Huffington Post also mentions that “just two months ago, a Philadelphia jury found that Janssen hid the breast-growth dangers of the drug Risperdal and owed $2.5 million to a 20-year-old autistic man who developed size 46 DD breasts as a teenager… thousands more lawsuits are lined up in Philadelphia, California, Missouri, and other locations.” [394]

Whistleblower and former investigator Allen Johns has uncovered that the corruption of the foster care system has spread from a program called TCMAP (the version of TMAP for children in Texas), which “began widespread usage of these SSRI’s and other drugs on children within the Texas state Juvenile Justice system and state Foster Care System.”243 After TMAP and TCMAP were established in Texas, Johnson & Johnson, Janssen and other drug companies funded “the implementation of the Texas Implementation of Medication Algorithms Project (TIMAP) for the sole purpose of exporting TMAP and TCMAP to other states.”243 The preceding paragraphs demonstrate how successful TIMAP has been in accomplishing this purpose.

Not only child abuse but elder abuse has also been taking place in nursing homes by especially the misuse of emotion-dulling antipsychotics as chemical restraints.[395] According to a report by the Department of Health and Human Services Office of Inspector General, 83% of Medicare claims for atypical antipsychotics for nursing home residents were associated with off-label conditions for which the use of antipsychotics was not approved by the FDA, just like in the case of the children in foster care. In 88% of the Medicare claims, antipsychotics were prescribed to elderly patients having one or more of the risky conditions specified in the FDA boxed warnings that makes using these drugs especially dangerous.[396]

Going back to the of $2.2 billion fine Johnson & Johnson paid the U.S. Government in 2013, part of this fine was for the way J&J’s subsidiary Janssen did the following with the help of scams including TMAP and TCMAP:263

Janssen promoted the use of [the antipsychotic] Risperdal from 1999 to 2005 for elderly dementia patients and to treat problematic behavior in other patients, including children… Janssen paid millions of dollars in kickbacks to Omnicare Inc., the nation’s largest pharmacy service specializing in dispensing drugs to nursing homes.”263

To help stop the pharmaceutical industry’s predation on especially the most helpless, this iatrogenesis continues to be brought to the public’s awareness by psychiatrists like Dr. Breggin, Dr. Thomas Szasz, Dr. Philip Hickey, Dr. Baughman, Dr. Bruce Levine and many other MDs and journalists. The damning articles and books written by these professionals are against not just the off-label use or overuse of psychiatric drugs, but the whole of drug prescribing psychiatry. These publications elaborate on the bogus nature of the chemical imbalance theory of mental illness that requires “chemical balancers.”397 [398] [399] [400] [401] Dr. Philip Hickey, PhD states that chemical imbalances are not the underlying factor in “human distress; painful memories; loneliness; sadness; despondency; feeling overwhelmed; feeling underappreciated; being a victim of abuse; sense of powerlessness; loss of hope; frustration; anger; etc.”402 He adds that “psychiatrists call all significant problems of thinking, feeling, and/or behaving illnesses, not for want of a better term, but rather to establish their professional turf and to legitimize their role in the distribution of psychoactive drugs.”402 The award winning mental health reporter and psychologist Gary Greenberg agrees, stating in an interview with The Atlantic that “disease is a kind of suffering that’s caused by a bio-chemical pathology. Something that can be discovered and targeted with magic bullets. But in many cases our suffering can’t be diagnosed that way.”403

Is this viewpoint of the group including Hickey and Greenberg correct, or are there chemical or organic causes underlying our emotional or behavioral problems too?

In the previous versions of the DSM before the DSM-IV, mental disorders were divided into two categories called ‘functional disorders’ and ‘organic disorders.’404 ‘Organic disorders’ referred to illnesses like delirium or dementia having identifiable pathological causes such as tumors, cerebrovascular disease or drug intoxication. ‘Functional disorders’ (also called psychiatric disorders) were conditions such as depression having no known organic basis404. But the DSM-IV did away with this distinction between these two categories and started calling all mental disorders diseases. DSM-IV stated in its introduction that “a compelling literature documents that there is much “physical” in “mental” disorders and much “mental” in “physical” disorders.”405 But this is yet one more lie. The following discussion lays out that in reality, the so called “compelling literature” the DSM-IV refers to does not exist.

In his long career, Neurologist Dr. Fred Baughman has “testified widely about the absence of proof that any psychiatric [functional, not organic] disorders have been validated as objective abnormalities/diseases.”401 He points out that a disease is defined as an objectively measurable macroscopic, microscopic, or chemical abnormality,401 while all changes to DSM’s diagnostic criteria “were changes wrought by consensus, in committee” instead of being changes dictated by science.406 Dr. Baughman states that neither the FDA nor Health Canada (the Canadian equivalent of the FDA) can “support in any court of law drug treatment for a disease that does not exist for a child/person that is normal, only made abnormal by the exogenous drug they are given.”407 Dr. Baughman’s evidence backing up this statement includes a response letter he and a colleague received from the Director General of Health Canada. In this letter, Health Canada confirms the fact that organic or chemical abnormalities have never really been found for any psychiatric disorder. Health Canada has written back affirming:408

For mental/psychiatric disorders in general, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia and ADHD, there are no confirmatory gross, microscopic or chemical abnormalities that have been validated for objective physical diagnosis. Rather, diagnosis of possible mental conditions are described strictly in terms of patterns of symptoms that tend to cluster together; the symptoms can be observed by the clinician or reported by the patient or family members.

After receiving this response from Health Canada, Dr. Baughman forwarded it to the FDA. The letter he wrote to the FDA asked them if they agreed with Health Canada, and if not, could they point out any citations from the medical research literature proving psychiatric disorders are diseases? Dr. Baughman wrote to the acting commissioner of the FDA:407

I am asking for nothing but the reference/citation to the initial, one-and-only, scientific report which constitutes proof that (1) ADHD, (2) bipolar disorder, (3) conduct disorder, (4) oppositional-defiant disorder, or (5) schizophrenia, is an actual disease (with objective abnormality = disease, and no abnormality = normal = no disease).

The FDA forwarded Dr. Baughman’s letter to the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. The head of this department replied to Dr. Baughman in March 2009, stating:407

I consulted with the FDA new drug review division responsible for approving psychiatric drug products and they concurred with the response you enclosed from Health Canada. Psychiatric disorders (as Health Canada refers) are diagnosed based on a patient’s presentation of symptoms that the larger psychiatric community has come to accept as real and responsive to treatment. We have nothing more to add to Health Canada’s response.

This demonstrates that there is no scientific justification of the way APA’s compromised consensus has decided to call functional disorders diseases. There seems to exist no scientific literature backing up this lie disseminated beginning with the DSM-IV, when the FDA cannot cite any legitimate study proving APA’s consensus right, but agrees with Health Canada that “diagnosis of possible mental conditions are described strictly in terms of patterns of symptoms that tend to cluster together.” This means that drug prescribing psychiatrists only pair outward symptoms with mood altering substances without having any real knowledge of the underlying causes of psychiatric disorders. This huge deficiency of knowledge may explain why psychiatric drugs seem to only provide short-lived symptomatic relief at the cost of terrible long-term damages.

“Symptoms alone rarely indicate the best choice of treatment,” admits Dr. Thomas Insel, director of the United States Government’s National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH).409 “Patients with mental disorders deserve better,” Dr. Insel adds in his April 2013 article posted on the website of NIMH. But the National Institute of Mental Health cannot improve the situation immediately, its director states, explaining that “we cannot design a system based on biomarkers or cognitive performance because we lack the data.”409 Thus NIMH too publicly agrees with the statements of Health Canada and the FDA.

The Internet list many quotes form renowned scientists who have caught on.410 [411] Professor Allen Frances, chair of the previous DSM-IV Task Force, makes the following compelling point:411

The incredible recent advances in neuroscience, molecular biology, and brain imaging … are still not relevant to the clinical practicalities of everyday psychiatric diagnosis. The clearest evidence supporting this disappointing fact is that not even one biological test is ready for inclusion in the criteria sets for DSM-V.

Professor Ronald W. Pies, MD is the editor in chief emeritus of the influential journal Psychiatric Times.412 In July 2011, Pies published an article stating that “in truth, the ‘chemical imbalance’ notion was always a kind of urban legend – never a theory seriously propounded by well-informed psychiatrists.” [413] Dr. Philip Hickey, Ph.D. comments on this statement saying that “at the present time psychiatry, because of intense pressure from its critics, is retreating somewhat from the chemical imbalance theory. But instead of acknowledging that this notion was flawed, that they knew it was flawed, and that they promoted it for self-gain, they are claiming that they never really said it in the first place.” [402] Dr. Hickey has written other articles criticizing the way Dr. Pies tries to deny or defend the fraudulent practices of the psychiatric community in Psychiatric Times.414

In spite of the reality laid out, Dr. Baughman points out that psychiatric disorders continue to be misrepresented as “diseases” to parents and others. For the case of ADHD, it is still misrepresented as a so called neuro-biological abnormality of the brain by the National Institute of Mental Health, the American Psychiatric Association and the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.415 “Their representation to the entire public and to all the teachers and all mental health professionals,” states Dr. Baughman, “is that, having ticked off six or more of these nine behaviors, one has diagnosed an organic or a physical abnormality of the brain.” Dr. Baughman points out that “CHADD, funded by Ciba-Geigy, manufacturer of Ritalin, has spread this ‘neuro-biological’ lie.”416 Other publications also mention that CHADD started calling mental disorders like ADHD ‘neurobiological disorders’ in 2012, which is “perhaps best understood as the product of ideological, economic, or other non-scientific motives.”411

In the latest DSM-V APA published, the consensus decided to give CHADD’s ‘neuro-biological’ lie even more “credibility.” ADHD was arbitrarily moved from the DSM’s Disruptive Behavior Disorders section to the Neurodevelopmental Disorders section.55 Parents are still told that their child who wants to climb and run instead of sitting at school has a “neurodevelopmental brain disease,”417 scaring them into letting their kids take potentially deadly addictive substances.31

When fraudulent scare tactics have proven to work so well on parents, key opinion leaders like Dr. Hallowel who helps run Additude also tries scaring his own peers by threatening them with ridicule if they oppose the consensus. Hallowell claims that to say ADHD doesn’t exist is “like saying the world is flat.”42 He states that “those days are over. Today we have brain scans, genetic studies, twin studies that show that this is a highly inherited neurobiological disorder, not some made-up condition.” But neither the FDA nor the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) nor Health Canada have been persuaded to take this junk science seriously as we have seen. NIMH’s director Dr. Insel further admits that “despite high expectations, neither genomics nor imaging has yet impacted the diagnosis or treatment of the 45 million Americans with serious or moderate mental illness each year.”418

Dr. Baughman reminds us that back in 2002, the Brain Foundation of the Netherlands had to stop representing ADHD as an inherent brain dysfunction because the Advertisement Code Commission of Holland decided this claim was misleading.419 [401] But unfortunately, the bought off psychiatric organizations and government institutions in America let the fraud go on.

As psychiatry has been trying to bestow more perceived credibility on itself, the key opinion leaders have also been trying to persuade the consensus to have psychiatry merge with neurology.420 [421] This is criticized by Dr. Philip Hickey who explains that neurology deals with objectively verified nervous system illnesses that result in problems of movement, sensation, physical pain, etc., but psychiatry has never produced the proof that problems in disordered thinking, feeling, and behavior result from illnesses of the brain/nervous system.421 Dr. Hickey adds that “neurology is a legitimate and respected medical specialty. Psychiatry is a cult, masquerading as a medical specialty.”

Even after seeing all the evidence verifying that the biomarkers of psychiatric disorders were never found, it took me some time to assimilate this new knowledge. In the case of depression, I was told years ago by a psychiatrist that serotonin deficiency was the reason I’d been feeling ‘down.’ Still trusting medical doctors at that time, I believed that I did have a serotonin deficiency needing to be balanced by medication. I stayed on the antidepressants prescribed to me for 4 months before noticing I was feeling worse than ever without them. This made me throw the drugs away and start researching. Even though I found out the side effects of antidepressants, I still did not question the way I was told that serotonin deficiency causes depression. I had read and heard this again and again too many times. I found an emailed an article to Dr. Baughman which appeared to confirm my belief. This article on Livestrong.com claimed that depression could be detected with a blood test that measures serotonin levels.422 But it turned out this information was completely false. I found out the truth from scientific papers such as the 2008 review titled “Major Depressive Disorder,” published in the New England Journal of Medicine.423 This review states that “numerous studies of norepinephrine and serotonin metabolites in plasma [in the blood], urine, and cerebrospinal fluid, as well as postmortem studies of the brains of patients with depression, have yet to identify the purported [serotonin] deficiency reliably.” In a December 2005 paper titled “Serotonin and Depression: A Disconnect Between the Advertisements and the Scientific Literature” published in PloS Medical, interested readers may find many statements from prestigious scientists about the inability of modern science to measure brain serotonin levels (Table 1).424

Dr. Daniel Carlat, MD, is a psychiatrist who has authored the book “Unhinged: The Trouble with Psychiatry – A Doctor’s Revelations about a Profession in Crisis.” In an interview on NPR’s Fresh Air, [425] Dr. Carlat describes the origin of all of the lies such as serotonin deficiency causing depression (about 14 minutes into the interview):

We don’t know how the medications actually work in the brain. So whereas it’s not uncommon – and I still do this, actually, when patients ask me about these medications, I’ll often say something like “well, the way Zoloft works is it increases the levels of serotonin in your brain, in your synapses, the neurons, and presumably the reason you’re depressed or anxious is that you have some sort of a deficiency. And I say that not because I really believe it, because I know that the evidence isn’t really there for us to understand the mechanism. I think I say that because patients want to know something, and they want to know that we as physicians have some basic understanding of what we’re doing when we’re prescribing medications. And they certainly don’t want to hear that a psychiatrist essentially has no idea how these medications work. … But I think, you know, one thing that has happened is that, because there’s been such a vacuum in our knowledge about mechanism, the drug companies have been happy to sort of fill that vacuum with their own version of knowledge, so that, usually if you see a commercial for Zoloft on TV, you’ll be hearing the line about serotonin deficiencies and chemical imbalances. Even though we don’t really have the data to back it up, it becomes a very useful marketing line for the drug companies, and then it becomes a reasonable thing for us to say to patients to give them more confidence in the treatment that they’re getting from us. But – it may not be true.

In 2003, Ireland prohibited GlaxoSmithKline from claiming that the antidepressant Paxil (paroxetine) “works by bringing serotonin levels back to normal.”426 But countless psychiatrists nevertheless carry on their lucrative business practice like Dr. Carlat does, repeating the drug company slogans that serve their self-interests as they create false confidence in their knowledge and in the drugs they recommend, violating patients’ right to informed consent. Referring to Dr. Carlat’s admissions, Dr. Hickey states: “if he ever gets truly honest, however, he will have to find honest work – and that’s daunting.”18

Even though psychiatry could so far not find the biomarkers of psychiatric conditions, can technology someday advance to the point of accomplishing this? Is it possible for the psychiatric drug industry to become more than a huge, fraudulent cartel? For the answer, let us return to the discussion on brain plasticity. It was previously explained that learning new skills requires the brain to re-organize itself by forming new connections between neurons, allowing the structure and volume of different brain regions to change dynamically. This great flexibility of the brain which allows its structure to change on demand has been demonstrated in stroke victims who can recover lost skills through neuronal re-organization in brain regions away from those affected by the stroke.427 [428] [429] Although stroke-damaged brain tissue can’t seem to grow back (some experts disagree), healthy parts of the brain can ‘learn’ to take over the functions of the dead brain tissues.429 The extent with which the brain can accomplish this has been dramatically observed in the brain of a 44 year old man who can function normally in spite of a huge hole in his brain.430 This hole was caused by a massive cerebrospinal fluid buildup which compressed most of the brain matter against the cranium. What remained of this man’s brain was only “a very thin cortical mantle and a posterior fossa cyst,” which was announced in a paper titled “Brain of a White-collar Worker,” published in July 2007 in The Lancet.430

Dr. Lionel Feuillet who’s the leading author of this 2007 paper in The Lancet told reporters from New Scientist that “the whole brain was reduced – frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes – on both left and right sides. These regions control motion, sensibility, language, vision, audition, and emotional and cognitive functions.”431 But despite such a drastic overall structural distortion of every major part of his brain, this individual was not retarded and his “neurological development and medical history were otherwise normal. He was a married father of two children, and worked as a civil servant,” the paper in The Lancet said.430 This man is not reported as having any of the DSM’s mental disorders such as ADHD or schizophrenia which have been associated with various purported “structural brain anomalies” in the bogus studies. Dr. Feuillet who authored this 2007 paper and pediatric brain defect specialist Dr. Max Muenke attribute the miracle they’ve seen to the brain’s plasticity.431 Dr. Muenke adds that the man’s brain could gradually adapt and re-organize itself to let him function normally, because the compression occurred “very slowly over quite some time.” [431] The way this person with almost no brain can live without having mental illnesses may indicate the futility of looking for the biomarkers of psychiatric disorders. The way Dr. Rubia summarizes that “behavior, experience, and function can alter and determine brain structure”148 seems to support the view that psychiatry should stop trying to modify the brain’s structure or chemistry to affect behavior or function.

The case of the man described in The Lancet is not just a one-time anomaly, as reported in an April 2007 article published in Science.432 This article discusses the work of British neurologist Professor John Lober, who has done more than 600 scans on patients with cerebrospinal fluid buildup in their brains just like the case described in The Lancet. Lober reports a college student who “has an IQ of 126, has gained a first-class honors degree in mathematics, and is socially completely normal.”432 Lober adds that “and yet the boy has virtually no brain.” This article in Science quotes anatomy professor Patrick Wall who states that “scores of similar accounts litter the medical literature, and they go back a long way.” Wall states: “the important thing about Lober is that he’s done a long series of systematic scanning, rather than just dealing with anecdotes. He has gathered a remarkable set of data and he challenges, ‘how do we explain it?’” Among Lober’s subjects are individuals in whom the cerebrospinal fluid buildup fills 95 percent of the cranium. Although many of these most extreme cases have severe disabilities, Lober found that half of them have IQ’s greater than 100. “This group provides some of the most dramatic examples of apparently normal function against all odds,” the article states.

Dr. Lober’s efforts confirm the incredible extent of the brain’s plasticity, seeming to confirm the futility of trying to locate the structural or chemical biomarkers of psychiatric so called “diseases.”

When our thoughts, experiences or intentions can alter the physical structure of our brains, could the basis of psychiatric disorders be located at the energetic level rather than the material? A thorough discussion of this subject is unfortunately beyond the scope of this book. I may discuss this in another book, but for now, I would just like to emphasize that whatever is the cause of psychiatric problems, calling them ‘diseases’ might always be misleading, when disease is generally understood as a condition having physical or chemical causes which often requires medication to correct it. Using the word disease biases people “in favor of medical interventions, and against nonmedical interventions (e.g., love, will power, or talk therapy),” Dr. Baughman states it in his July 2006 paper titled “There Is No Such Thing as a Psychiatric Disorder/Disease/Chemical Imbalance,” published in PloS Medicine.401

Professor Christian Fibiger was among the top 100 most cited scientists in neuroscience during his career. He “has received many honors for his research contributions,” including the Clark Institute Prize in Psychiatry, the Gold Medal in Health Sciences from the Science Council of British Columbia and the Tanenbaum Distinguished Scientist Award in Schizophrenia Research.433 He holds a Ph.D. in psychopharmacology from Princeton University and serves on the editorial board of several journals. After also serving as a high level executive in several world leading pharmaceutical corporations,433 this expert has come to the conclusion:434

Psychopharmacology is in crisis. The data are in, and it is clear that a massive experiment has failed: despite decades of research and billions of dollars invested, not a single mechanistically novel drug has reached the psychiatric market in more than 30 years. … Nearly every major pharmaceutical company has either reduced greatly or abandoned research and development of mechanistically novel psychiatric drugs… What the field [of psychiatry] lacks is sufficient basic knowledge about normal brain function and how its disturbance underlies the pathophysiology of psychiatric disease. Because of this, as the record now clearly shows, it remains too early to attempt rational drug design for psychiatric diseases as currently conceived.

When such an expert has decided that it remains too early for psychiatry to attempt rational drug design, psychiatry has nevertheless generated billions of dollars in profits from the drugs it’s designed for more than half a century, at the expanse of the countless lives it damaged. Without the fraud and lies that has made this possible, it seems that drug prescribing psychiatry could not go on, and drug prescribing psychiatrists could not keep their doors open.

Even though new harmful psychiatric drugs are not being designed, the existing meds continue to be aggressively marketed using every fraudulent trick under the sun. Dr. Phil Hickey summarizes the situation:435

If psychiatry were anything other than a branch of medicine (and I realize that’s debatable), it would have been mauled to destruction by the mainstream media long ago. But the media and the general public have a great respect for medicine, and psychiatry has been afforded an undeserved share of this respect. But, as I’ve mentioned in earlier posts, the mainstream media are beginning to see through the façade, and are finally reporting on the “diagnostic” proliferation, the false claims, and the destructive treatments.

All of the efforts to raise awareness about the sham science of psychiatry may hopefully curb the drug industry’s attempts to better mislead people by new tricks like merging psychiatry with neurology.

Another reason that the biomarkers of psychiatric disorders may never be found is the brain’s unfathomable complexity, in addition to the way the brain’s structure never remains fixed. A 2014 article published in the National Georgraphic cites the efforts of neuroscientist Jeff Lichtman who attempted to create an extremely detailed three dimensional image of the brain.436 Lichtman and his colleagues were dumbfounded by the huge effort of trying to reveal everything. The article states that “so far the largest volume of a mouse’s brain that Lichtman and his colleagues have managed to re-create is about the size of a grain of salt. Its data alone total a hundred terabytes, the amount of data in about 25,000 high-definition movies.” The researchers state that “it’s a wake-up call to how much more complicated brains are than the way we think about them.” Interested readers may also Google articles such as “The Human Neocortex is More Complex than a Galaxy-Carl Sagan and Roger Penrose,” published in May 2012 in the Daily Galaxy.437

In his April 2013 article titled “Does Psychiatry Need Science?” published in The New Yorker,438 psychologist Gary Greenberg states that “a detailed understanding of the brain, with its hundred billion neurons and trillions of synapses, remains elusive, leaving psychiatry dependent on outward manifestations for its taxonomy of mental illnesses.”

Despite the brain’s complexity and plasticity which does not let its unfathomable structure to remain fixed, NIMH still seems to refuse to give up on psychiatry’s unproven theories benefiting the industry. In 2013, NIMH announced launching the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project to gather the missing data that may emerge in time to prove their assumption that “mental disorders are biological disorders involving brain circuits that implicate specific domains of cognition, emotion, or behavior.”409 NIMH hopes that this project will “yield new and better targets for treatment.” I hope that this does not encourage apparently “better” junk science and cleverer ways of fooling people about how well things are understood.

Having seen the extent of the brain’s complexity and plasticity, let us go back to what happens when a psychiatrist causes foreign chemicals to enter a structure as intricate as the brain, recommending this based not on real science but the outward observations of short-term symptom improvements. In a video, Dr. Breggin eloquently summarizes that all psychiatric drugs “muck about in the brain-in this marvelous, complex, incredible organ… it’s a toxin in there that’s changing things in ways which we can’t anticipate.”439 At the beginning of the referenced video, Dr. Breggin states that “the only biochemical imbalances in the brains of people who see psychiatrists are the ones put in there by the psychiatrists.”439

This was the story of the vested interest groups who lie and cheat to lure the emotionally suffering into accepting harmful treatments. Those who have had enough might consider opening their minds to very different approaches to feeling better and improving cognition, which the next section describes.

Drug-free Options to Try and the Best-studied Alternative

To avoid the severe long-term damages caused by psychiatric drugs, this discussion investigates what drug-free or alternative treatments might actually help people. Which techniques may require less time and money to yield positive results than classic talk therapy or behavioral therapy?

Neurofeedback (also called EEG biofeedback) uses EEG recording technology to give people real-time feedback about their electrical brain activity. Such feedback helps teach people to voluntarily generate desirable brain wave patterns, helping them control previously automatic responses.440 The website of the International Society for Neurofeedback & Research (ISNR) has an article announcing that the American Academy of Pediatrics lists neurofeedback as ‘Level 1 Research – Best supported Interventions’ for attention disorders.441 For interested readers, this article cites the five major studies which have influenced the decision of the American Academy of Pediatrics to include neurofeedback in its category of best treatments for ADHD.

The Foundation for Neurofeedback and Applied Neuroscience has given its 2015 FNAN award to two studies which has “most significantly advanced the field of neurofeedback” in 2014.442 Both of these studies are about using neurofeedback to treat ADHD in schools, and one of them is a six-month follow-up of the other. The first study has found that “after completing training, children in the neurofeedback group exhibited significant improvement in attention and executive functioning compared both to children in the cognitive training group and to those in the control group.” The six-month follow-up of this study showed that “the children in the neurofeedback group maintained the gains that they had made during the original investigation.” John Fisher from the Foundation for Neurofeedback and Applied Neuroscience explains that “what makes this such a landmark study isn’t just the rigor with which it was conducted and the soundness of the measures used to evaluate its findings; it’s also the fact that it serves as a demonstration that it is possible to achieve these results in a real-world school-based setting using relatively unsophisticated equipment.” This shows the urgent need for researchers and school directors to team up and test the effectiveness of neurofeedback in more schools.

To help with the costs of drug-free alternative therapies such as neurofeedback, an online article in U.S. News & Health Report discusses how to make sure insurance covers these treatments.443 This article states that “Aetna, for example, says it considers alternative interventions medically necessary only ‘if they are supported by adequate evidence of safety and effectiveness in the peer-reviewed published medical literature.’” The International Society for Neurofeedback & Research (ISNR) has downloadable materials which can be sent to insurance providers to encourage coverage or to help get reimbursed for already paid sessions.444

Although treatments like neurofeedback may improve the ability to voluntarily stay focused, they may not help in cases where inability to concentrate is not the main reason why children don’t pay attention to their teachers or parents. Apart from the way teachers may be unable to make classes interesting, many other factors such as not getting enough exercise outdoors, not getting enough sleep, or insufficient discipline may create ADHD-like symptoms. The following discussion explores these possible causes to help eliminate them, before investigating other drug-free techniques for improving ADHD symptoms as well as enhancing intelligence and cognition.

Before paying for any drug-free ADHD therapy, a cost-free alternative to try may be to simply let children take enough time to play, run and climb in a natural environment every day. This is being encouraged by a growing number of researchers.445 [446] [447] The article titled “Natural Children” published in National Trust cites a study whose authors found that “exposure to nature reduced symptoms of ADHD in children threefold compared with staying indoors.”446 Many similar studies are cited in the references section of this article. Additional studies that show the need to let children run and play in nature are cited at the end of the article titled “The Importance of Outdoor Experiences in the Primary Years” found in the website of the University of Nebraska. This article summarizes that “daily experiences in natural environments can have immediate and long-lasting benefits for children. Increased physical activity is associated with decreases in depression and anxiety and increases in levels of concentration.”447

Therapists like Marilyn Wedge, PhD emphasizes the power of providing a better diet, as well as discipline with clearly and consistently enforced limits in reducing ADHD symptoms.448 She explains that drugs can’t replace these practices in her book “A Disease Called Childhood: Why ADHD Became an American Epidemic.” The Internet lists many therapists who offer ‘parent management training’ services to teach parents effective positive reinforcement methods for improving children’s behavioral problems including hostility, hyperactivity or unwillingness to follow direction. This may be worth trying, when the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) also includes ‘parent management training’ (in addition to neurofeedback) in its category of treatments that provide ‘Level 1 – Best Support’ for ADHD.449 A less costly alternative to paying a therapist for parent management training sessions might be to self-educate with the popular books on the market which Google brings up for “parent management training books.”

“Sleep is the most effective cognitive enhancer we have,”450 states Professor Dr. Russel Foster, PhD, who is the director of the Sleep and Circadian Neuroscience Institute in the University of Oxford. A surprisingly large body of research backs up Dr. Foster’s statement and links something as simple as better sleep to better concentration and memory, better learning ability and significantly improved academic performance. Many of these studies are cited and discussed in an extensive article on schoolstarttime.org.450 The papers of these cited studies further cite many more studies which have shown the unexpected dramatic impact of better sleep and regular sleep patterns on improving cognition as well as emotional regulation and overall mental health. As an example of these studies, a December 2014 article published in SleepMedicine found that better sleep efficiency is associated with better “academic performance as measured by report-card grades in typically developing school-aged children.”451 The researchers told Time magazine reporters that “short or poor sleep is a significant risk factor for poor academic performance that is frequently ignored.” The researchers also told that “for math and languages, we need to use the skills that are called ‘executive functions’—things like working memory, planning, not being distracted. The hardware that supports those skills is in the pre-frontal cortex of the brain, which is very sensitive to the effects of poor sleep or insufficient sleep.”452 This is interesting in the light of the fact that one of the common side effects of all stimulants is ‘trouble sleeping’ as the FDA warns about in drug labels.38 When poor sleep prevents children and adults from adequately performing executive functions including planning and staying focused, this may contribute to making people feel increasingly dependent on stimulants. Increased drug doses can further impair the ability to sleep, creating a vicious cycle of worsening ability to adequately perform executive functions without drugs. To prevent all this, parents may consider the advice of the National Sleep Foundation which encourages them to “establish a consistent bedtime routine, emphasize the need for a regular sleep schedule, keep television and computers out of bedrooms and teach children about healthy sleep habits,” reports Time.452

In searching for drug-free solutions to physical and emotional problems including insomnia, restlessness and inability to concentrate and sit still, more than 1/3 of Americans have opened their minds to alternative or non-Western approaches. According to the February 2015 report of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) providing their latest statistics, 34% of adults in the U.S. used some complementary health approach in 2012.[453] These approaches include acupuncture, Ayurveda, chiropractic care, energy healing therapy, hypnosis, naturopathy, diet-based therapies, yoga, tai chi, qi gong, meditation and other relaxation techniques. A similar report which covered children states that 11.6% of children in the United States used nutritional or non-Western alternative healing approaches in 2012.[454]

Are all such alternative techniques new age flim-flam, or are there techniques whose effectiveness has objectively been demonstrated in clinical settings?

Some traditional Eastern healing approaches have gained a surprising degree of acceptance in Western medical circles. One of these is a Japanese energy healing technique called Reiki. As reported by the Washington Post in May 2014, an UCLA study determined that “more than 60 U.S. hospitals have adopted Reiki as part of patient services,” and “Reiki education is offered at 800 hospitals.”455 The website of the Center for Reiki Research lists and describes the Reiki programs currently offered at 76 hospitals, medical clinic and hospices.456 The hospitals that offer Reiki include Johns Hopkins University, UCLA and Harvard, which explain Reiki on their websites.457 [458] [459] Harvard includes ‘improved mental clarity’ and ‘lowering heart rate’ in the list of benefits from Reiki.457

Searching the U.S. Government’s peer-reviewed PubMed.gov research paper database for Reiki brings up more than 40 peer reviewed studies that seem to demonstrate clinically verified benefits. Although not enough studies have been done, the benefits found include significant increases in mental functioning, memory and reduction in behavior problems,460 improved curiosity and a desire to learn more, as well as enhanced sensory and cognitive responses.461 This suggests a promising area for further exploration to help prevent the drugging of children to improve cognition or behavioral issues.

Studies exploring the effects of Reiki have also found reduced stress and stress hormone levels,462 [463] [464] [465] better regulated heart rate, reduced blood pressure465 [466] [467] [468] and improved sleep from Reiki.464 [463] One study concluded that “Reiki may be a useful adjunct for children with increased stress levels and sleep disturbances.” Such findings seem to confirm using Reiki to reverse the effects of ADHD medications, when Reiki has also been found to reduce depression461 [469] as well as anxiety461 [468] [470] that can result from the long-term use of ADHD drugs.79 [81] [96] [98] [99]

In an article on PsychCentral, Deborah Bier, PhD cites additional studies showing the benefits of Reiki.471 This article elaborates on the study that demonstrated the reversal of mild cognitive impairment, showing statistically significant improvements in mental functioning, memory and behavioral problems in patients who received 1 month of Reiki treatments.460 Bier mentions the way the researchers concluded that “caregivers can administer Reiki at little or no cost, resulting in significant societal value by potentially reducing the needs for medication and hospitalization. Reiki has also been demonstrated to eliminate ‘caregiver burnout,’465 which seems to suggest that not only nurses but mothers and educators too may enjoy doing Reiki on both themselves and children. Unlike some other alternative techniques, most people find learning Reiki surprisingly easy. As has been my personal experience, the effortless practice of this technique feels enjoyable and relaxing for both the practitioner and person receiving a treatment.

Additional studies demonstrating the effects of Reiki on reducing caregiver stress are listed and discussed in Dr. Bier’s article,471 all of which seems to confirm the value of popularizing Reiki to help eliminate especially the previously discussed child abuse in foster care and elder abuse going on in nursing homes by the use of psychiatric drugs as behavioral restraints. More than 30, 000 nurses have learned to practice Reiki as reported by Washington Post in 2014,[455] and more than 75% have reported satisfaction, according to study results cited by a paper on the website of UCLA.[472] [473] The successful practice of Reiki at UCLA and the benefits it yields has also been featured on CNN (video referenced).[474] All of this may inspire conscientious teachers and school administrators to try Reiki out and test its effectiveness in students and on themselves to help with their challenging jobs without harming students.

Although many studies have been published on the benefits of Reiki and similar alternative practices, Transcendental Meditation ™ is the self-improvement technique which has been most extensively researched in Western clinical settings. The TM technique’s versatile benefits have been verified by “more than 380 peer-reviewed research studies” that have been “published in over 160 scientific journals.”475 For the case of alleviating hyperactivity and inability to concentrate, neuroscientist Fred Travis, PhD states that “in a sense, the repeated experience of the transcendental meditation technique trains the brain to function in a style opposite to that of ADHD.”476 In 2011, ABC News featured the effectiveness of Transcendental Meditation on improving ADHD symptoms in schools, announcing it as a drug-free treatment approach for children with ADHD.477 In 2013, PBS also produced a panel on the effectiveness of the Transcendental Meditation technique on improving ADHD symptoms.478

Some of the research about TM and ADHD include a 2008 study published in the peer-reviewed online journal Current Issues in Education. This study followed a group of middle school students with ADHD who meditated twice a day at school.479 The researchers determined “statistically significant reductions in stress, anxiety, and improvements in ADHD symptoms and executive function” in students after 3 months of practicing the technique. In this study led by Dr. Travis, published in January 2011 in the journal Mind & Brain – The Journal of Psychiatry, “improved brain functioning, increased brain processing, and improved language-based skills,”476 were observed in the children practicing TM, and “all students significantly improved on five ADHD-symptoms over the six months of the study.” [480] The effectiveness of TM in reducing, eliminating or preventing ADHD symptoms is further discussed in the article titled “Is ADHD a Stress-Related Disorder? Why Meditation Can Help” by Sarina J. Grosswald, EdD481

According to Mayo Clinic, Transcendental Meditation “is a simple, natural technique” which “allows your body to settle into a state of profound rest and relaxation and your mind to achieve a state of inner peace, without needing to use concentration or effort.” [482] The state of mental tranquility the technique induces is referred to as “restful alertness” as opposed to hyperactivity.483 [476] Due to the way practicing TM does not require concentration, researcher Sarina J. Grosswald, EdD states that “this technique may be particularly well-suited for children with ADHD” who “have difficulty with focus and attention.”476

Not just a few but numerous studies have demonstrated the ability of the TM technique in improving cognitive abilities. Among the huge body of published research on the versatile benefits of Transcendental Meditation,484 fourteen peer-reviewed papers demonstrate that the technique has been shown to improve intelligence, creativity and learning ability.484 Four peer-reviewed research papers show that the technique improves academic performance.484 One study has shown that a 26-year-old moderately retarded woman “experienced spontaneous improvements in her verbal and social behavior and physiological functioning over a period of three years while practicing the technique.”485 Twenty two peer-reviewed papers demonstrate that the TM technique effectively develops higher levels of brain functioning.484 Twelve peer-reviewed papers demonstrate the technique’s ability to increase efficiency and productivity.484 Two studies show improved school behavior, and twelve papers show reduced substance abuse.484 All of these findings suggest that TM may be practiced in schools to help accomplish what the educators wished to accomplish with ADHD drugs.

Concerning the research on TM, some experts praise it and others claim that some of these papers also have flaws. The Internet does bring up criticism about TM, most of which seems to come from fundamentalist religious groups or biased individuals ranting in an unprofessional manner. As an interesting area requiring further investigation, I would like to continue to point out the benefits of the TM technique reported as clinically replicable.

Many war veterans are diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and heavily drugged by psychiatrists. But studies have shown that the TM technique can improve PTSD symptoms. In 2011 on Veterans Day, CNN reported a Hollywood campaign aiming to teach veterans to practice TM, promoting a pilot study published in Military Medicine.486 In this study conducted with Iraq veterans, the researchers found that after 3 months, “subjects who practiced TM experienced significant improvement in symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, depression, and insomnia, as well as measures of quality of life, such as employment, family problems, and stress reactivity. In contrast, the group assigned to psychotherapy did not improve significantly across those measures.”487 Although this study’s sample size was quite small, a bigger and better controlled earlier study had also shown similar improvements in Vietnam War Veterans who practiced TM, when the psychotherapy group again “did not improve significantly on any measure”.488 In a recent January 2016 study titled “Impact of Transcendental Meditation on Psychotropic Medication Use Among Active Duty Military Service Members With Anxiety and PTSD” published in Military Medicine, the researchers found:489

At 1 month, 83.7% of the TM group stabilized, decreased, or ceased medications and 10.8% increased medication dosage; compared with 59.4% of controls that showed stabilizations, decreases, or cessations; and 40.5% that increased medications... These findings provide insight into the benefits of TM as a viable treatment modality in military treatment facilities for reducing PTSD and ADNOS psychological symptoms and associated medication use.

The reduction of chronic stress caused by the practice of TM484 has been demonstrated by numerous studies to reduce high blood pressure,484 as opposed to how ADHD drugs increase blood pressure. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has granted “more than $26 million over the past 18 years to study the effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on cardiovascular disease,”490 according to the David Lynch Foundation which the Hollywood movie director has established to raise awareness about TM after personally experiencing its benefits. The foundation’s website (referenced) lists and briefly explains these NIH funded studies on cardiovascular disease whose findings include decreased risk of heart attack, stroke and death.490

One of the NIH-funded studies (Psychosomatic Medicine, 1999) listed on the website of the David Lynch Foundation reports that the TM technique reduces blood pressure by reducing the constriction of blood vessels (vasoconstriction),490 when we have seen that the emergency stress response that stimulants prolong increases vasoconstriction.184 All of these findings seem to confirm that the TM technique might reverse the damage caused by ADHD medications.

The practice of TM in school setting has actually been tested out numerous times. The schools that incorporated TM into the students’ schedules report highly positive academic and behavioral improvements. In November 2015, the Guardian published an article titled “One of San Francisco’s Toughest Schools Transformed by the Power of Meditation.”491 This article states that “a pioneering programme has reduced stress and improved grades at Visitacion Valley middle school – with lessons other schools can learn from.” The transformation of Visitacion Valley Middle School has also been featured on NBC News.492

The Visitacion Valley Middle School, which is located in one of San Francisco's poorest neighborhoods, used to be filled with drugs and gang violence. The school's athletic director interviewed by NBC News states that he first thought having the students meditate twice a day was a joke. "I thought this is hippy stuff that didn't work in the 70s, so how's it gonna work now?" he told the reporters.[492] But since the introduction of the Transcendental Meditation program called Quiet Time in 2007, the practice of TM by the students caused a 45% reduction in the rate of suspensions in the first year[491] and a 79% reduction after 4 years.[492]. By 2009-10, attendance rates were over 98%, which became some of the highest in the city.[491] After three years of the Quiet Time program, teacher turnover dropped to zero, causing the institution to be removed from the district's "Hard to Staff" school list.[493] In 2014, California Healthy Kids Survey from the state's education department found that the students at this middle school were the happiest ones in the city.[491] In 2015, 20% of this school's graduates were admitted to the highly academic Lowell High School, when before, it was rare that Lowell accepted even a single student from Visitacion Valley Middle School.[491]

NBC News reports Burton High School as another school in San Francisco that implemented the Quiet Time Program with results similar to those of Visitacion Valley Middle School.[492] Burton High also reported a 75% drop in suspension rates and calmer, less angry students. The video on NBC New's website (referenced) reports that the improvements in academic performance caused Burton High to move from the bottom of the academic ladder to the upper middle ranks.

A 2015 report on the website of the Center for Wellness and Achievement in Education (CWAE) summarizes the academic and behavioral improvements seen in the 4 schools in the San Francisco Unified School District which implemented the Quiet Time Transcendental Meditation Program.494 Below are some of the graphs summarizing these improvements.

Details about these findings as well as more charts are found on the referenced webpage of Center for Wellness and Achievement in Education (CWAE).495 All these results seem to indicate that what creates better students is not the addictive substances that may let teachers have a year or two of subdued behavior or better grades at the cost of destroying students’ lives. I hope that all school managers can bring themselves to put aside all prejudices or fear of new ideas, to test and see if they too experience the impressive improvements the San Francisco Unified School District experienced.

The New York Times reports that "new research appears to be strengthening the case for teaching transcendental meditation in U.S. schools, showing it to be a means to improve the concentration of students and a way to enhance their physical and mental well-being."[469] In addition to the 4 schools in San Francisco, other schools benefiting from the Quiet Time program include schools in New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, Detroit, Silver Springs, Washington,[496] [497] Hartford, Steamboat Springs[498] and New England.[499] After introducing the Quiet Time program to a small group of students, Rochelle Jones, Ed.D., assistant principal at Weaver High School in Hartford, Connecticut, saw the group's English, Math, and Science scores go up. She then implemented the program school-wide, causing 500 students and teachers to learn TM.[498] A school in Arizona has also tried implementing the Transcendental Meditation Program and reports 50% reduction in violence rates and better grades.[500] In an NBC feature on the improvements seen in Detroit's Nataki Taliba School after introducing the Quiet Time Program,[501] the school's principal explains that the TM technique is not a religion and does not impose on anyone's beliefs or lifestyle.

Outside of the U.S., the TM technique has become popular especially in South American schools due to the way Brazil’s president Dilma Rouseff, and Columbia’s president Juan Manuel Santos has learned the technique, reports Richard Broome PhD.502 The Internet brings up schools which offer TM in other parts of the world, which include Buddhist schools in Asia (although TM is not associated with Buddhism),503 [504] as well as schools in Northern Ireland505 and South Africa.506 [507]

The Daburiya High School in Israel had come to the brink of closing down due to academic and disciplinary problems.508 Its referenced video509 explains that many teachers and students had quit and found other schools, and parents were afraid to come to the school. This failure forced the school’s directors to give TM a try. After TM was integrated into the daily schedule and was practiced by the students as well as by the teachers and the directors too, Daburiya High School rose to achieving 2nd place in the National Education Award in 2008, and 3rd place in the National Education Award in 2009. This was the first time that any school in Israel had received this award consecutively.

TM is also offered to students in colleges such as Loyola University’s Stritch School of Medicine.510 The Chicago Medicine reports that, “responses from students in the first Stritch TM course were tremendously positive. Students found that TM helped them remain grounded, feel more positive, procrastinate less, and feel less stressed by school and relationships.”510 In a study done on 298 students from American University and other surrounding colleges including Georgetown and University of District of Columbia, after only 3 months of TM practice, the students reported significant improvement in psychological distress (total mood disturbance, anxiety, depression, anger/hostility) and coping ability (global constructive thinking).511 The students also reported “decreased BP [blood pressure] in association with decreased psychological distress.” These findings were published in December 2009 in the American Journal of Hypertension,511 stating that TM “may reduce the risk for future development of hypertension in young adults.”

In addition to the president of Brazil and Columbia, other world leaders who have learned TM are Japan’s former prime minister Dr. Yukio Hatoyama,512 as well as Mozambique’s former president Joachim Chissano. After trying it out himself and confirming its positive results, Chissano agreed to introduce TM to Mozambique’s cabinet of ministers, government officers and military in 1994 while he was incumbent.513 The Guardian reports that more than 16,000 soldiers were taught TM as well as an advanced form of the technique, along with 30,000 Mozambicans.513 The Guardian adds that according to Tobias Dai who was the defense minister at that time, “the effect was overwhelming. Crime levels dropped; a drought was averted and economic growth, predicted at 6%, soared to 19%.”513

For more detailed information about the TM technique whose results have impressed so many, interested readers can refer to the book titled “Transcendence: Healing and Transformation Through TM” by Professor Norman Rosenthal, MD. Dr. Rosenthal is a clinical professor of psychiatry at Georgetown University Medical School. He has served for 20 years as a senior researcher at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH).

No matter how unfamiliar alternative techniques like Transcendental Meditation may at first seem to Westerners, we have seen that its scientifically demonstrated findings have been confirmed by many reputable individuals and tested numerous times in real-life settings, yielding results confirming those of the published studies. This being the case, for anyone who wishes to feel better and improve cognitive abilities, I once again encourage trying out such novel drug-free alternative approaches. Who would have anything to lose except the drug manufacturers?

###

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About the Author Asli C. Theobald

I’m a software engineer with an MS in Computer Science who, many times, has been accused of thinking I’m a doctor. Although I’ve never really thought I’m a doctor, I do think I’m an investigator. I’ve always loved digging out the truth while reading about a huge variety of subjects. This has repeatedly taught me that some things are very different than the way most people believe them to be. I hope that my book has demonstrated how deceiving appearances can be, conveying the value of thinking for oneself and doing one’s own fact-checking.

Organizing the information in this book required hard work – perhaps the hardest I have ever done. Completing this project took more time and effort than the most complex software development project I ever completed. I’ve nevertheless put out this e-book for free, in my wish to make a statement about the greed motivating the drug industry. I wish to invite people to think about whether the goal of every undertaking should be profit.

In addition to being a computer scientist and researcher, I’m a nature lover who spends a lot of time hiking. I adore gorgeous landscapes and flowers. I sculpt realistic flowers and paint them, but I don’t plan on relaxing until I complete two more books. One of these will lay out be corruption in the government about issues worse than helping sell harmful medications. My other book will probably turn out very different, and may be a spiritual book about my search for the Ultimate Truth.

REFERENCES

You can also find the clickable e-reference list online at http://adhddrugslongterm.com/bibliography/ .[
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**]https://add.org/adhd-facts/

54. Reference version at the time the book was researched: [+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Symptoms_and_Diagnosis-ADHD-NCBDDD-CDC.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/diagnosis.html

55. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/New_diagnostic_criteria_for_ADHD(2016-11-13_12-09-35PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.helpforadd.com/2013/june.htm

56. Reference version at the time the book was researched: [+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Idea_of_New_Attention_Disorder_Spurs_Research_and_Debate-The_New_York_Times(2016-11-13_12-11-41PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/12/health/idea-of-new-attention-disorder-spurs-research-and-debate.html

57. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Psychiatric_Drug_Facts_with_Dr._Peter_Breggin-School_calls_child_services_on_parents_who_take_child_off_of_Ritalin(2016-11-13_12-23-15PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://breggin.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=81

58. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Adhd_In_Schools-An_Overview_Of_State_Legislation_And_Initiatives-PBS-Medicating_Kids-FRONTLINE.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/medicating/schools/overview.html

59. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/SB_1290_Senate_Bill-Analysis.html+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]ftp://www.leginfo.ca.gov/pub/01-02/bill/sen/sb_1251-1300/sb_1290_cfa_20020423_140123_sencomm.html

60. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Evolution_of_a_Disorder.pdf+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs-wm/49118.pdf

61. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Long-Term_Use_of_Stimulants_in_Children_with_Attention_Deficit_Hyperactivity_Disorder-Springer(2016-11-13_12-44-16PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://link.springer.com/article/10.2165/00148581-200305120-00002?view=classic

62. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Characteristics_of_High-Functioning_Drug_Users-Drug_Addiction_Treatment(2016-11-13_12-48-56PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.drugaddictiontreatment.com/addiction-in-the-news/addiction-news/characteristics-of-high-functioning-drug-users/

63. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Drugs_have_long-term_consequences-National_Institute_on_Drug_Abuse_(NIDA)(2016-11-13_1-53-42PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/teaching-packets/power-science/section-iii/1-drugs-have-long-term-consequences

64. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Drug_Rankings_by_Harm(2016-11-13_2-12-08PM).pdf+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://drugwarfacts.org/cms/files/Drug-Rankings-by-Harm.pdf

65. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Development_of_a_rational_scale_to_assess_the_harm_of_drugs_of_potential_misuse-The_Lancet(2016-11-13_2-13-25PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60464-4

66. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Limited_data_suggest_that_the_long-term_use_of_stimulants_is_effective_and_safe-Springer(2016-11-13).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://link.springer.com/article/10.2165/00042310-200420110-00005?view=classic

67. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Adis(2016-11-13_2-26-20PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.springer.com/gb/adis

68. https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1529-8019.2009.01240.x

69. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Key_opinion_leaders-independent_experts_or_drug_representatives_in_disguise-BMJ.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.39575.675787.651

70. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Improving_Key_Opinion_Leader_Engagement_as_Healthcare_Evolves-Veeva(2016-11-13_3-03-07PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.veeva.com/blog/improving-key-opinion-leader-engagement-as-healthcare-evolves

71. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Opinion_Leader_Management-KOL_LLC(2016-11-13_3-07-19PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://kolonline.com/ol-management-services/

72. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/key-opinion-leader-management(2016-11-13_3-14-56PM).pdf+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.genpact.com/docs/resource-/key-opinion-leader-management

73. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Double_Dip-Doctors_Paid_to_Advise,_Promote_Drug_Companies_That_Fund_Their_Research-ProPublica(2016-11-13_3-57-00PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.propublica.org/article/double-dip-doctors-paid-to-advise-promote-drug-companies-that-fund-research

74. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/The_Long-Term_Effects_of_ADHD_Medications(2016-11-13_4-00-12PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://childmind.org/article/know-long-term-effects-adhd-medications/

75. Reference version at the time the book was researched: [+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Emerging_Lessons_From_The_Drug_Effectiveness_Review_Project(2016-11-13_4-04-15PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://content.healthaffairs.org/content/25/4/W262.full

76. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Methods_for_the_Drug_Effectiveness_Review_Project(2016-11-13_4-02-44PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3532217/

77. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/ADHD_Final_Report_Original_SEP_05(2016-11-13_4-09-18PM).pdf+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.ohsu.edu/xd/research/centers-institutes/evidence-based-practice-center/drug-effectiveness-review-project/upload/ADHD_Final_Report_Original_SEP_05.pdf

78. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Results-Drug_Class_Review-Pharmacologic_Treatments_for_Attention_Deficit_Hyperactivity_Disorder-NCBI_Bookshelf(2016-11-13_4-16-00PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK84423/

79. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
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Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.nber.org/papers/w19105.pdf

80. Reference version at the time the book was researched: [+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Raine_ADHD_Study_report(2016-11-13_4-30-50PM).pdf+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.health.wa.gov.au/publications/documents/MICADHD_Raine_ADHD_Study_report_022010.pdf

81. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
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Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/full/10.1176/appi.ajp.2011.11060940

82. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Dopamine-Psychology_Today(2016-11-14_9-18-34PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.psychologytoday.com/basics/dopamine

83. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Dopamine_Neurotransmitter-Biological_Psychology-Psychologist_World(2016-11-14_9-19-29PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.psychologistworld.com/biological/neurotransmitters/dopamine.php

84. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
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Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugs-brains-behavior-science-addiction/drugs-brain

85. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/The_Reward_Pathway_Reinforces_Behavior-Knowing_Neurons(2016-11-14_9-28-39PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://knowingneurons.com/2012/10/31/the-reward-pathway-reinforces-behavior/

86. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Dopamine_regulates_the_motivation_to_act_study_shows-ScienceDaily(2016-11-14_9-32-55PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/01/130110094415.htm

87. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/The_Role_of_Dopamine_in_Motivation_and_Learning–Neuroscience_News(2016-11-14_10-11-22PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nn.4173

88. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Enhancement_stimulants-perceived_motivational_and_cognitive_advantages(2016-11-14_9-45-36PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://dx.doi.org/10.3389%2Ffnins.2013.00198

89. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Dopamine_Enhances_Expectation_of_Pleasure_in_Humans(2016-11-14_10-12-22PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.cub.2009.10.025

90. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
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Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0896-6273(00)81056-9

91. Reference version at the time the book was researched: [+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/ADHD_cause_unlikely_to_be_dopamine_dysfunction-Medical_News_Today(2016-11-14_10-30-46PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/268016.php

92. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Amphetamine_and_Methamphetamine_Differentially_Affect_Dopamine_Transporters_in_Vitro_and_in_Vivo(2016-11-14_10-36-20PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.jbc.org/content/284/5/2978.full

93. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/The_Dopamine_Transporter-Latest_News-Texas_Advanced_Computing_Center(2016-11-14_10-43-39PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.tacc.utexas.edu/-/the-dopamine-transporter

94. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Study_Design_101-Meta-Analysis(2016-11-14_10-45-57PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):
[+ https://himmelfarb.gwu.edu/tutorials/studydesign101/metaanalyses.html+]

95. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/King’s_College_London-Patients’_brains_may_adapt_to_ADHD_medication(2016-11-14_10-52-01PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):
[+ http://www.kcl.ac.uk/ioppn/news/records/2012/feb/Brains-and-ADHD-medication.aspx+]

96. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Study-Long-term_ADHD_Medications_Decrease_Drug_Efficacy_by_Increasing_Dopamine_Transporters(2016-11-14_10-53-40PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):
[+ http://www.healthline.com/health-news/mental-long-term-adhd-medications-increase-dopamine-transporters-051613+]

97. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/PLOS_ONE-Long-Term_Stimulant_Treatment_Affects_Brain_Dopamine_Transporter_Level_in_Patients_with_Attention_Deficit_Hyperactive_Disorder(2016-11-14_10-55-05PM.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063023

98. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Greater_striatal_dopamine_transporter_density_may_be_associated_with_major_depressive_episode(2016-11-14_10-58-24PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):
https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.jad.2012.03.007

99. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Striatal_dopamine_transporter_density_in_major_depression-PubMed-NCBI.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10435396

100. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/The_rise_of_'study_drugs'_in_college-CNN.com(2016-11-26_ ‏‎10-33-34PM).html +]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.cnn.com/2014/04/17/health/adderall-college-students/

101. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
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Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.drugfree.org/newsroom/adhd-survey-2014

102. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Neurobiology_of_addiction-insight_from_neurochemical_imaging-PubMed-NCBI.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psc.2012.03.011

103. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
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Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://kclpure.kcl.ac.uk/portal/files/44680387/Nutt_and_Stokes_Nature_Reviews_Neuroscience_2015_institutional_repository.pdf

104. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/DrugFacts-Understanding_Drug_Use_and_Addiction-National_Institute_on_Drug_Abuse(NIDA)(2016-11-14_12-17-25PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/understanding-drug-abuse-addiction

105. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Drugs_Brains_and_Behavior-The_Science_of_Addiction(2016-11-14_12-20-24PM).pdf+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.drugabuse.gov/sites/default/files/soa_2014.pdf

106. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/How_to_Avoid_Drugs_and_Alcohol-Overcome_Substance_Abuse_Dependence-Get_Help_for_Drug_and_Alcohol_Addiction(2016-11-14_12-30-32PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.howtohelpadrugaddict.com/05116-how-to-avoid-drugs-and-alcohol/

107. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Using_Amphetamines_May_Increase_Risk_of_Parkinson’s_Disease(2016-11-14_12-37-07PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.aan.com/PressRoom/home/PressRelease/904

108. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Breaking_down_the_Parkinson’s_pathway-MIT_News(2016-11-14_12-39-58PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://news.mit.edu/2013/parkinsons-disease-pathway-0312

109. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Methamphetamine-amphetamine_abuse_and_risk_of_Parkinson’s_disease_in_Utah-a_population-based_assessment(2016-11-14_12-56-52PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4295903/

110. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
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Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20148872

111. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/A_Preliminary_Study_of_Dopamine_Transporter_Binding_in_Bipolar_and_Unipolar_Depressed_Patients_and_Healthy_Controls-Karger_Publishers(2016-11-14_2-05-04PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000106476

112. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Amphetamine-induced_psychosis-a_separate_diagnostic_entity_or_primary_psychosis_triggered_in_the_vulnerable(2016-11-14_2-29-47PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://dx.doi.org/10.1186%2F1471-244×-12-221

113. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Comparison_of_Amphetamine_Psychosis_and_Schizophrenia-The_British_Journal_of_Psychiatry(2016-11-14_2-31-38PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.111.477.701

114. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
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Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://docplayer.net/838504-Treatment-for-amphetamine-psychosis-review.html

115. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
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Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1553491

116. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
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Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10566114

117. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
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Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://journals.lww.com/jonmd/Citation/1995/01000/Psychiatric_Morbidity_in_Narcoleptics_on_Chronic.9.aspx

118. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
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Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://dx.doi.org/10.1053/comp.2001.23145

119. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
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Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/289973-overview

120. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
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Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://healthland.time.com/2011/01/07/top-ten-legal-drugs-linked-to-violence/

121. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Dextroamphetamine_Its_cognitive_and_behavioral_effects_in_normal_and_hyperactive_boys_and_normal_men-PubMed-NCBI.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7406657

122. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Non-specific_effects_of_methylphenidate(Ritalin)_on_cognitive_ability_and_decision-making_of_ADHD_and_healthy_adults-PubMed-NCBI.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-010-1853-4

123. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Methylphenidate_produces_selective_enhancement_of_declarative_memory_consolidation_in_healthy_volunteers(2016-11-14_3-13-42PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://dx.doi.org/10.1007%2Fs00213-011-2605-9

124. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Brain_Plasticity-How_Learning_Changes_Your_Brain-SharpBrains(2016-11-14_3-16-48PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://sharpbrains.com/blog/2008/02/26/brain-plasticity-how-learning-changes-your-brain/

125. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
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Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://dx.doi.org/10.3389%2Ffnsys.2014.00038

126. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
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Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.healthline.com/health-news/study-drugs-have-long-term-consequences-for-young-minds-051414

127. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Students_Risk_Brain_Problems_from_’Smart’_Drugs(2016-11-26_11-07-25PM).html+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.livescience.com/45621-students-risk-brain-problems-from-smart-drugs.html

128. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
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Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://time.com/97448/bad-news-for-ivy-leaguers-adhd-drugs-hurt-your-memory/

129. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
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Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.bustle.com/articles/24754-is-ritalin-ruining-your-brain-new-research-on-smart-drugs-implies-some-dangers

130. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Smart_drugs_pose_special_risks_to_developing_brain_of_young_people-ScienceDaily(2016-11-14_3-39-51PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/05/140513113453.htm

131. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
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Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1834271100

132. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Dentritic_spines-structure,_dynamics_and_regulation-Nature_Reviews_Neuroscience(2016-11-14_3-43-46PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.nature.com/nrn/journal/v2/n12/full/nrn1201-880a.html

133. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Structural_dynamics_of_dendritic_spines_in_memory_and_cognition-Trends_in_Neurosciences(2016-11-14_3-47-58PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tins.2010.01.001

134. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Methylphenidate-induced_dendritic_spine_formation_and_ΔFosB_expression_in_nucleus_accumbens(2016-11-14_3-50-18PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://dx.doi.org/10.1073%2Fpnas.0813179106

135. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Alterations_in_the_morphology_of_dendrites_and_dendritic_spines_in_the_nucleus_accumbens_and_prefrontal_cortex_following_repeated_treatment(2016-11-14_7-55-32PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10215912

136. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Persistent_Structural_Modifications_in_Nucleus_Accumbens_and_Prefrontal_Cortex_Neurons_Produced_by_Previous_Experience_with_Amphetamine(2016-11-14_8-06-38PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.jneurosci.org/content/17/21/8491.long

137. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Gray_matter_volume_is_associated_with_rate_of_subsequent_skill_learning_after_a_long_term_training_intervention(2016-11-15_8-10-36PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.03.056

138. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Brain_Structures_Differ_between_Musicians_and_Non-Musicians-Journal_of_Neuroscience(2016-11-15_8-11-29PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.jneurosci.org/content/23/27/9240.long

139. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Increased_Gray_Matter_Density_in_the_Parietal_Cortex_of_Mathematicians-A_Voxel-Based_Morphometry_Study(2016-11-15_8-15-44PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A0696

140. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Gray_matter_volume_is_associated_with_rate_of_subsequent_skill_learning_after_a_long_term_training_intervention(2016-11-15_8-10-36PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.neuroimage.2010.10.062

141. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Enhanced_functional_connectivity_and_increased_gray_matter_volume_of_insula_related_to_action_video_game_playing-Scientific_Reports(2016-11-15_8-19-19PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://doi.org/10.1038/srep09763

142. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/High_levels_of_moral_reasoning_correspond_with_increased_gray_matter_in_brain-ScienceDaily(2016-11-15_8-20-26PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/06/150603181807.htm

143. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/ADHD_total_100%_fraud(2016-11-15_8-22-21PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://psychrights.org/research/Digest/ADHD/DHD100percentfraud.htm

144. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Developmental_Trajectories_of_Brain_Volume_Abnormalities_in_Children_and_Adolescents_With_ADHD-Adolescent_Medicine-JAMA.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://doi.org/10.1001/jama.288.14.1740

145. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/NIMH»Brain_Shrinkage_in_ADHD_Not_Caused_by_Medications(2016-11-15_8-26-22PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.nimh.nih.gov/news/science-news/2002/brain-shrinkage-in-adhd-not-caused-by-medications.shtml

146. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/BBC_NEWS-Health-Attention_drugs_do_not_shrink_brain(2016-11-15_8-28-03PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/2307187.stm

147. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Broken_Brains_or_Flawed_Studies(2016-11-14_8-29-52PM).pdf+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://psychrights.org/research/Digest/NLPs/criticalreviewofadhd.pdf

148. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/An_Update_on_ADHD_Neuroimaging_Research(2016-11-14_8-47-14PM).pdf+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://psychrights.org/research/digest/nlps/neruoimagingupdate.pdf

149. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Chairman’s_News-Newsroom-The_United_States_Senate_Committee_on_Finance(2016-11-15_8-53-34PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.finance.senate.gov/chairmans-news/new-finance-committee-report-focuses-on-drug-company-grants-for-medical-education

150. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Use_of_Educational_Grants_by_Pharmaceutical_Manufacturers(2016-11-14_8-53-14PM).pdf+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.finance.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/prb042507a.pdf

151. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Scientific_Fraud_About_Brain_Scan_Findings-Psychology_Today(2016-11-15_8-55-39PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/matter-personality/201407/scientific-fraud-about-brain-scan-findings

152. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Extreme_Stress_Could_Shrink_The_Brain-The_Huffington_Post(2016-11-15_2-05-04PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/01/10/extreme-stress-shrinks-brain-gray-matter_n_1197437.html

153. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/norepinephrine(2016-11-15_12-58-28PM).pdf+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.caam.rice.edu/~cox/wrap/norepinephrine.pdf

154. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Adrenaline_Cortisol_Norepinephrine-The_Three_Major_Stress_Hormones_Explained-The_Huffington_Post(2016-11-15_1-02-34PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/04/19/adrenaline-cortisol-stress-hormones_n_3112800.html

155. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/The_Sympathetic_Nervous_System(2016-11-15_1-04-16PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.veroniquemead.com/sns.php

156. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/How_To_Deal_With_An_Adderall_Crash_&_Reduce_The_Negative_Symptoms(2016-11-15_1-05-44PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://mentalhealthdaily.com/2013/03/03/how-to-deal-with-an-adderall-crash-reduce-the-negative-symptoms/

157. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Ritalin(Methylphenidate)_Withdrawal_Symptoms_and_Duration(2016-11-15_1-06-46PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://mentalhealthdaily.com/2014/06/25/ritalin-methylphenidate-withdrawal-symptoms-duration/

158. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Effects_of_anxiety_on_adderall-crash-ADD_Forums(2016-11-15_1-13-48PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.addforums.com/forums/showthread.php?t=81731

159. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Anyone_else_get_a_bad_depressive_crash_with_Adderall-ADD_Forums (2016-11-15).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.addforums.com/forums/showthread.php?t=68430

160. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Effects_of_anxiety_on_adderall-crash-ADD_Forums (2016-11-15_1-13-48PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.addforums.com/forums/showthread.php?t=65836

161. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/How_does_everyone_deal_with_the-crash-effect_from_ADHD_medication-ADD_Forums(2016-11-15_1-14-34PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.addforums.com/forums/showthread.php?t=73335

162. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Ritalin_sort_of_working_but_the_crash_is_awful-ADD_Forums (2016-11-15_1-15-12PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.addforums.com/forums/showthread.php?t=97517

163. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Right_when_I_think_I_am_getting_better…I_crash-the_anxiety_and_depression_that_cockblock_my_improvement(2016-11-15_1-17-43PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.reddit.com/r/ADHD/comments/1f3xhf/right_when_i_think_i_am_getting_better_i_crash/

164. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Just_got_diagnosed_with_ADHD_and_I’m_prescribed_Vyvanse.The_crash_feels_awful_and_I_lack_appetite-What_do_I_do-ADHD.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.reddit.com/r/ADHD/comments/1ci2ze/just_got_diagnosed_with_adhd_and_im_prescribed/

165. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Tips_and_tricks_for_that_stimulant_crash-ADHD.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.reddit.com/r/ADHD/comments/3kqact/tips_and_tricks_for_that_stimulant_crash/

166. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Methylphenidate_Comedown-ADHD.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.reddit.com/r/ADHD/comments/4cus2a/methylphenidate_comedown/

167. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Ritalin-It_kicked_in.._HOLY_BALLS!_I’m_insanely_perfect!_Oops..better_off_just_kill_myself(2016-11-15_1-29-39PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.reddit.com/r/Drugs/comments/3jlzl9/ritalin_it_kicked_in_holy_balls_im_insanely/

168. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Crashing-I’ve_gotten_horrible_headaches_from_Ritalin,_grouchy_from_Vyvanse._switched_to_Adderall-Is_it_causing_my_soul_crushing_depression(2016-11-15_1-30-58).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.reddit.com/r/ADHD/comments/1zjr3g/crashing_ive_gotten_horrible_headaches_from/

169. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Vyvanse_users-how_do_you_cope_with_the_awful_crash-ADHD.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.reddit.com/r/ADHD/comments/2o8f1g/vyvanse_users_how_do_you_cope_with_the_awful_crash/

170. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Is_it_normal_to_crash-ADD_Forums-Attention_Deficit_Hyperactivity_Disorder_Support_and_Information_Resources_Community(2016-11-15_1-33-50PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.addforums.com/forums/showthread.php?t=114902

171. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Favorite_cure_for_adderall_crash-(2016-11-15_1-34-47PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.bluelight.org/vb/threads/540496-Favorite-cure-for-adderall-crash

172. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Adderall_Withdrawal_Symptoms-What_It_REALLY_Feels_Like(2016-11-15_1-40-12PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://adderalladdictionsupport.com/adderall-withdrawal-symptoms/

173. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
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Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://amphetamines.com/amphetamine-abuse/addiction/

174. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Concerns_About_A.D.H.D._Practices_and_Amphetamine_Addiction-The_New_York_Times(2016-11-15_1-45-25PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/03/us/concerns-about-adhd-practices-and-amphetamine-addiction.html?_r=0

175. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/I’m_100%_positive_adderall_ruined_my_life.(2016-11-15_1-46-20PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.drugs.com/forum/need-talk/im-100-positive-adderall-ruined-my-life-49091.html

176. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Ritalin_Addiction-Dancing_with_Death-ADD-ADHD_Message_Board-HealthBoards(2016-11-15_3-31-07PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.healthboards.com/boards/add-adhd/517903-ritalin-addiction-dancing-death.html

177. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Voice_of_the_Victims-A_Ritalin_Abuse_Death(2016-11-15_2-17-39PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://voiceofthevictims.blogspot.com/2006/08/ritalin-abuse-death.html

178. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/17_Years_old_my_life_is_already_over_500mg-Day_Binges-Invision_Power_Board(2016-11-15_2-18-54PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://forum.quittingadderall.com/topic/595-17-years-old-my-life-is-already-over-500mgday-binges/

179. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Vyvanse_abuse-ADD_Forums-Attention_Deficit_Hyperactivity_Disorder_Support_and_Information_Resources_Community(2016-11-15_2-19-46PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.addforums.com/forums/showthread.php?t=94063

180. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Vyvanse_Substance_Abuse_Disorders_Forum-Psych_forums(2016-11-27_9-12-44PM).html+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.psychforums.com/substance-abuse/topic141650.html

181. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Stress_Effects_on_the_Body(2016-11-15_1-48-00PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/stress-body.aspx

182. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Stress_Health_Effects-10_Scary_Things_It’s_Doing_To_Your_Body-The_Huffington_Post(2016-11-15_1-50-01PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/02/04/stress-health-effects-cancer-immune-system_n_2599551.html?slideshow=true#gallery/278283/9

183. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Chronic_stress_puts_your_health_at_risk-Mayo_Clinic(2016-11-15_2-25-15PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/stress-management/in-depth/stress/art-20046037?pg=1

184. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/What_is_a_Vasoconstrictor-(2016-11-15_2-27-13PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.innovateus.net/health/what-vasoconstrictor#What+are+the+medications+that+cause+vasoconstriction%3F

185. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Overview-Peripheral_artery_disease_(PAD)-Mayo_Clinic(2016-11-15_2-29-30PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/peripheral-artery-disease/home/ovc-20167418

186. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Adderall_Induced_Vascular_Disease-Angiologist(2016-11-15_2-45-32PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.angiologist.com/uniquely-vascular-medicine/adderall-induced-vascular-disease/

187. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
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Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.naturalnews.com/028444_circulation_healing.html

188. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
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Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8114609?dopt=Abstract

189. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
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Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.neurosoup.com/pdf/effects_of_longterm_ritalin_use.pdf

190. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
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Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3704030/

191. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
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Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://ncps.org/about/where-we-fit-in

192. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
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Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.dsm5.org/about/pages/faq.aspx

193. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/DSM-5-The_New_Bible_of_Psychiatry-Year_In_Review_2013-Diagnostic_and_Statistical_Manual_of_Mental_Disorders-Britannica.com(2016-11-15_2-59-08PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.britannica.com/topic/DSM-5-The-New-Bible-of-Psychiatry-1943360

194. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/The_Real_Problems_With_Psychiatry-The_Atlantic(2016-11-15_3-05-19PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2013/05/the-real-problems-with-psychiatry/275371/

195. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/DSM-IV_field_trials_for_attention_deficit_hyperactivity_disorder_in_children_and_adolescents-PubMed-NCBI.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://dx.doi.org/10.1176/ajp.151.11.1673

196. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/It’s_not_too_late_to_save_’normal’-latimes(2016-11-15_3-08-06PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://articles.latimes.com/2010/mar/01/opinion/la-oe-frances1-2010mar0

197. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/DSM-IV-diagnosing_adults(2016-11-15_3-11-56PM).pdf+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.dsm5.org/documents/adhd%20fact%20sheet.pdf

198. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/DSM-5_Changes_in_ADHD_Diagnostic_Criteria-Dr._Thomas_E._Brown(2016-11-15_3-12-57PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.drthomasebrown.com/dsm-5-changes-in-adhd-diagnostic-criteria/

199. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Dear_DSM-5-I_Still_Have_Some_Questions-Mad_In_America(2016-11-15_3-14-08PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.madinamerica.com/2014/05/dear-dsm-5-still-questions/

200. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/New_diagnostic_criteria_for_ADHD(2016-11-15_3-16-09PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.helpforadd.com/2013/june.htm

201. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Changes_in_the_Definition_of_ADHD_in_DSM-5-Subtle_but_Important(2016-11-15_3-35-23PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3955126/

202. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/The_Co-Occurrence_of_Autism_and_Attention_Deficit_Hyperactivity_Disorder_in_Children_–_What_Do_We_Know(2016-11-16_7-45-34PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://dx.doi.org/10.3389%2Ffnhum.2014.00268

203. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Treatment_for_Co-Occurring_Attention_Deficit-Hyperactivity_Disorder_and_Autism_Spectrum_Disorder(2016-11-16_7-47-15PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3441928/#MOESM1

204. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Financial_ties_between_DSM-IV_panel_members_and_the_pharmaceutical_industry-PubMed-NCBI.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16636630

205. Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.aacap.org/App_Themes/AACAP/Docs/resource_centers/adhd/adhd_parents_medication_guide_201305.pdf
Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/adhd_parents_medication_guide(2016-11-15_7-52-26PM).pdf+]

206. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/The_MTA_at_8_Years-Prospective_Follow-Up_of_Children_Treated_for_Combined_Type_ADHD_in_a_Multisite_Study(2016-11-16_7-54-02PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3063150/

207. Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.moshersoteria.com/articles/resignation-from-apa/
Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Resignation_from_APA-Soteria(2016-11-16_7-59-13PM).htm+]

208. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Conflicts_of_interest_and_disclosure_in_the_American_Psychiatric_Association’s_Clinical_Practice_Guidelines-PubMed-NCBI.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19401623

209.

Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Psychiatric_Group_Faces_Scrutiny_Over_Drug_Industry_Ties-The_New_York_Times(2016-11-16_8-01-53PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/12/washington/12psych.html

210. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Doctor_given_prison_for_taking_kickbacks_to_prescribe_risky_drug-Chicago_Tribune(2016-11-16_8-03-55PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/local/breaking/ct-medicare-fraud-kickbacks-sentencing-met-20160311-story.html

211. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Pharma_payment_probe_widens_its_net-Nature_News(2016-11-16_8-04-46PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.nature.com/news/2008/081022/full/4551017a.html

212. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Top_Psychiatrist_Didn’t_Report_Drug_Makers’_Pay-The_New_York_Times(2016-11-16_8-06-12PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/04/health/policy/04drug.html

213. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Researchers_Fail_to_Reveal_Full_Drug_Pay-The_New_York_Times(2016-11-16_8-09-16PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.nytimes.com/2008/06/08/us/08conflict.html

214. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Top_psychiatrist_is_guilty_in_fraud-NYTimes.com(2016-11-16_8-10-15PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.nytimes.com/1993/08/08/us/top-psychiatrist-is-guilty-in-fraud.html

215. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Pharm_funded_psychiatrists_and_conflicts_of_interest-CCHR_International(2016-11-16_8-12-17PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.cchrint.org/issues/the-corrupt-alliance-of-the-psychiatric-pharmaceutical-industry/

216. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Special_report-Doctors_report_big_pharma_payouts_for_drug_endorsements(2016-11-16_8-13-49PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.dailynews.com/article/ZZ/20130311/NEWS/130319546

217. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Attention_Deficit_Hyperactivity_Disorder(ADHD-ADD)-Interview_with_Dr._Joseph_Biederman(2016-11-16_8-15-07PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.esi-topics.com/add/interviews/JosephBiederman.html

218. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/The_best_influential_minds_of_our_time(2016-11-15_8-17-32PM).pdf+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://images.info.science.thomsonreuters.biz/Web/ThomsonReutersScience/%7B37a987a9-e378-4888-8baa-d4ba20efdbfd%7D_tr_scientific_minds_online_final.pdf

219. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/New_Developments_in_the_Treatment_of_Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity_Disorder_in_Primary_Care(2016-11-16_8-20-16PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1557471/

220. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/The_Rise_and_Fall_of_Provigil–Part_I-Salient_News(2016-11-16_8-21-50PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.salient-news.com/2010/09/provigil-cephalo/

221. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Transcript-The_Medicated_Child-FRONTLINE-PBS.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/medicatedchild/etc/script.html

222. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Neuroleptics_for_Children-Harvard’s_Shame(2016-11-16_8-26-47PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://behaviorismandmentalhealth.com/2013/12/04/neuroleptics-for-children-harvards-shame/

223. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/The_Most_Dangerous_Psychiatric_Drugs-Highest_Risk_Medications(2016-11-16_8-27-55PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://mentalhealthdaily.com/2015/06/29/the-most-dangerous-psychiatric-drugs-highest-risk-medications/

224. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Psychiatric_Drug_Induced_Chronic_Brain_Impairment(2016-11-15_8-30-48PM).pdf+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.behaviorismandmentalhealth.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/Breggin2011_ChronicBrainImpairment-Ref-for-ECT-post-140.pdf

225. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/J&J_funded_positive_studies_It_paid_a_researcher_to_generate_data_to_boost_Risperdal_sales,_documents_show-philly-archives(2016-11-16_8-39-01PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://web.archive.org/web/20151018044251/http://articles.philly.com/2008-11-25/business/25255353_1_risperdal-antipsychotic-clinical-trials

226. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Antipsychotic_Prescriptions_in_Children_Have_Skyrocketed-Study-TIME.com(2016-11-16_8-40-42PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://healthland.time.com/2012/08/09/antipsychotic-prescriptions-in-children-have-skyrocketed-study/

227. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Drug_Maker_Told_Studies_Would_Aid_It-The_New_York_Times(2016-11-27_9-51-54PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/20/us/20psych.html

228. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Research_Center_Tied_to_Drug_Company-The_New_York_Times(2016-11-28_3-15-28PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/25/health/25psych.html

229. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Controversies_concerning_the_diagnosis_and_treatment_of_bipolar_disorder_in_children(2016-11-16_8-48-04PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2846895/

230. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/ADHD_and_Bipolar_Disorder_in_Children-APSARD.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://apsard.org/distinguishing-bipolar-symptoms-from-adhd-in-children/

231. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/ADHD_or_Bipolar_Disorder_Diagnosing_Children(2016-11-16_8-51-50PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.additudemag.com/adhd/article/2055.html

232. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/National_Trends_in_the_Office-Based_Treatment_of_Children_Adolescents_and_Adults_With_Antipsychotics-JAMA.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1263977#yoa120032t5

233. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Should_Children_Take_Antipsychotic_Drugs-Scientific_American(2016-11-16_8-56-30PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/should-children-take-antipsychotic-drugs/

234. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Abilify_Is_Top-Selling_U.S._Drug-But_New_Reports_Question_Long-Term_Antipsychotic_Use-The_Huffington_Post(2016-11-15_8-58-42PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.huffingtonpost.com/art-levine/abilify-is-top-selling-us_b_6282684.html

235. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Docs_on_Pharma_Payroll_Have_Blemished_Records_Limited_Credentials-ProPublica(2016-11-16_8-59-57PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.propublica.org/article/dollars-to-doctors-physician-disciplinary-records

236. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Physician_Financial_Transparency_Reports-Sunshine_Act-AMA.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/advocacy/topics/sunshine-act-and-physician-financial-transparency-reports/sunshine-act-faqs.page?

237. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Open_Payments-Centers_for_Medicare_&_Medicaid_Services(2016-11-16_9-02-47PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.cms.gov/openpayments/

238. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Open_Payments_Data(2016-11-16_9-04-03PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://openpaymentsdata.cms.gov/summary

239. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/What_We’ve_Learned_From_Four_Years_of_Diving_Into_Dollars_for_Docs-ProPublica(2016-11-16_9-05-04PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.propublica.org/article/what-weve-learned-from-four-years-of-diving-into-dollars-for-docs

240. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Drug_companies_have_used_dangerous_tactics_to_drive_sales_to_treat_kids–The_Mercury_News(2016-11-16_9-06-36PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.mercurynews.com/crime-courts/ci_25563665/drug-companies-have-used-dangerous-tactics-drive-sales

241. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Rutherford_Institute_Interview-Allen_Jones_reveals_TMAP_drug_scam_linked_to_then_Governor_George_W._Bush-AHRP.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://ahrp.org/rutherford-institute-interview-allen-jones-reveals-tmap-drug-scam-linked-to-then-governor-george-w-bush/

242. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Bitter_Pill-How_the_pharmaceutical_industry_turned_a_flawed_and_dangerous_drug_into_a_$16_billion_bonanza(2016-11-16_9-10-00PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.narpa.org/bitter%20pill.htm

243. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Texas_Medication_Algorithm_Project_Allen_Jones(2016-11-15_9-12-08PM).pdf+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.cchr.org/sites/default/files/Texas_Medication_Algorithm_Project_Allen_Jones.pdf

244. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Medicating_Amanda-Mother_Jones(2016-11-16_9-21-01PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2005/05/medicating-amanda

245. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/America’s_Most_Admired_Lawbreaker-Chapter_6-The_Huffington_Post(2016-11-16_9-23-44PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://highline.huffingtonpost.com/miracleindustry/americas-most-admired-lawbreaker/chapter-6.html

246. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Whistle-blower_honored_in_Texas_fired_in_PA-philly-archives(2016-11-16_9-28-48PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://articles.philly.com/2012-09-17/business/33881283_1_drug-companies-pharmaceutical-companies-allen-jones

247. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Janssen_Pharmaceutica_misled_Government_officials-Atypical_Antipsychotics(2016-11-16_9-32-08PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://tmap.wordpress.com/2006/12/29/janssen-pharmaceutica-misled-government-officials/

248. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/CATIE_Phase_I_Helps_Clinicians_Tailor_Schizophrenia_Treatment-Psychiatric_Times(2016-11-16_9-33-19PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/articles/catie-phase-i-helps-clinicians-tailor-schizophrenia-treatment

249. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Metabolic_syndrome-Mayo_Clinic(2016-11-16_9-38-19PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/metabolic-syndrome/home/ovc-20197517

250. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Little_Difference_Found_in_Schizophrenia_Drugs-The_New_York_Times(2016-11-27_10-26-37PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.nytimes.com/2005/09/20/health/psychology/little-difference-found-in-schizophrenia-drugs.html

251. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/NIMH»Questions_and_Answers_About_the_NIMH_Clinical_Antipsychotic_Trials_of_Intervention_Effectiveness_Study_(CATIE)_Phase1_Results(2016-11-16_9-46-07PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.nimh.nih.gov/funding/clinical-research/practical/catie/phase1results.shtml

252. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Generic_Fares_Well_In_Big_Psychiatry_Study-WSJ.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB112714046242444895

253. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Most_Newer_Antipsychotics_No_Better_Than_Older_Ones_Just_Different-US_News(2016-11-16_9-55-38PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://health.usnews.com/health-news/family-health/brain-and-behavior/articles/2008/12/05/most-newer-antipsychotics-no-better-than-older

254. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Effectiveness_of_Antipsychotic_Drugs_in_Patients_with_Chronic_Schizophrenia-NEJM.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa051688#t=article

255. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Bush_plans_to_screen_whole_US_population_for_mental_illness(2016-11-16_10-02-57PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC428510/

256. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
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Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/mentalhealthcommission/reports/FinalReport/downloads/FinalReport.pdf

257. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Lilly_Honors_U.S._Senator_Gordon_Smith_and_Others_Whose_Extraordinary_Efforts_Help_People_with_Mental_Illness(2016-11-15_10-09-12PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://investor.lilly.com/releasedetail2.cfm?releaseid=148659

258. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Eli_Lilly_and_Company_Honors_U.S._Senator_Gordon_Smith_and_Others_Whose_Extraordinary_Efforts_Help(2016-11-16_10-10-25PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/eli-lilly-and-company-honors-us-senator-gordon-smith-and-others-whose-extraordinary-efforts-help-people-with-mental-illness-move-their-lives-forward-75352992.html

259. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Mental_health_project_on_hold-Senator_Eliot_Shapleigh-Texas_Senator_District_29(2016-11-16_10-47-28_AM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://shapleigh.org/news/2128-mental-health-project-on-hold

260. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/State_attorney_general_sues_drug_company_www.statesman.com(2016-11-27_1-56-21PM).html+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.statesman.com/news/news/state-regional/state-attorney-general-sues-drug-company-1/nRjZR/

261. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Antipsychotic_Drugs-Side_Effects_May_Include_Lawsuits-NYTimes.com(2016-11-27_12-11-54PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.nytimes.com/2010/10/03/business/03psych.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0

262. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/NY_AG-Janssen_pays_$181M_over_drug_marketing-The_Seattle_Times(2016-11-16_12-09-41PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/ny-ag-janssen-pays-181m-over-drug-marketing/

263. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Johnson_&_Johnson_in_$2.2_billion_settlement_for_promoting_anti-psychotic_drug_for_elderly_and_children-latimes(2016-11-16_12-12-18PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://articles.latimes.com/2013/nov/04/science/la-sci-drugmaker-settlement-antipsychotic-20131104

264. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Teenscreen-Adolescent_suicide_and_mental_health_screening_programs(2016-11-16_12-22-39PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://web.archive.org/web/20060901231723/http://www.teenscreen.org/cms/content/view/19/47/

265. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/TeenScreen-another_gross_distortion(2016-11-16_12-23-27PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.antidepressnantsfacts.com/teenscreen-pringle-13.htm

266. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Battling_a_National_Killer-TeenScreen_Aims_To_Prevent_Teen_Suicide-Page2_of_2-Psychiatric_Times(2016-11-16_3-43-56PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/articles/battling-national-killer-teenscreen-aims-prevent-teen-suicide/page/0/2

267. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/The_Columbia_University_TeenScreen_Program(2016-11-16_3-46-08PM).pdf+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://behavioral.kaiserpapers.org/pdfs/Comprende.pdf

268. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/FDA_Launches_a_Multi-Pronged_Strategy_to_Strengthen_Safeguards_for_Children_Treated_With_Antidepressant_Medications(2016-11-16_3-53-35PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/2004/ucm108363.htm

269. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/NIMH»Antidepressant_Medications_for_Children_and_Adolescents-Information_for_Parents_and_Caregivers(2016-11-16_3-54-56PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/child-and-adolescent-mental-health/antidepressant-medications-for-children-and-adolescents-information-for-parents-and-caregivers.shtml

270. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Drugs_for_depressed_children_banned-The_Guardian(2016-11-16_3-57-48PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.theguardian.com/science/2003/dec/10/drugs.sciencenews

271. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/UK_bans_Health_Canada_warns_about_antidepressants(2016-11-16_3-56-57PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC437670/

272. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Teen_Screen_lacks_evidence,_yet_is_certified_by_SAMHSA(2016-11-16_4-19-03PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://mentalillnesspolicy.org/samhsa/teenscreenunproven.html

273. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Mental_Health_CheckUps_for_Youth-National_Registry_of_Evidence_based_Programs_and_Practices(2016-11-27_12-06-17PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://web.archive.org/web/20081023023405/http://www.teenscreen.org/national-registry-of-evidence-based-programs-and-practices

274. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/BBC_NEWS-Programmes-Panorama-The_secrets_of_seroxat(2016-11-16_4-20-53PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/panorama/2310197.stm

275. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/The_secrets_of_seroxat-transcript(2016-11-16_4-22-22PM).txt+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/programmes/panorama/transcripts/seroxat.txt

276. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Paroxetine_Panorama_and_user_reporting_ofADRs(2016-11-16_04-24-14PM).pdf+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/programmes/panorama/paroxetine/pdf/paroxetine.pdf

277. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Testimony-Anti-depressant_Drug_Use_in_Pediatric_Populations(2016-11-16_4-25-37PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Testimony/ucm113265.htm

278. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Drug_Trial_Registry_Called_for_in_Wake_of_Antidepressant_Finding(2016-11-16_4-26-57PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/492436

279. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Major_Pharmaceutical_Firm_Concealed_Drug_Information-www.ag.ny.gov(2016-11-16_4-31-23PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.ag.ny.gov/press-release/major-pharmaceutical-firm-concealed-drug-information

280. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Is_GSK_guilty_of_fraud-The_Lancet(2016-11-16_4-36-10PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(04)16435-0/fulltext

281. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/MHRA’s_Committee_on_Safety_of_Medicines_(CSM).pdf+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://web.archive.org/web/20090304211430/http://www.mhra.gov.uk/home/groups/pl-p/documents/drugsafetymessage/con019472.pdf

282. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Antidepressants_Banned_for_UK_Kids-Depression_Center-Information_on_Depressive_Disorders(2016-11-17_10-00-03PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=25670

283. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Selective_Publication_of_Antidepressant_Trials_and_Its_Influence_on_Apparent_Efficacy-NEJM.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMsa065779#t=article

284. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Reporting_Bias_Rife_in_Antidepressant_Studies_for_Anxiety(2016-11-17_10-55-39PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/842753#vp_2

285. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Bias_in_Trials_of_Antidepressants_for_Anxiety-Anxiety_Disorders-JAMA_Psychiatry-The_JAMA_Network(2016-11-17_10-56-26PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=2205839

286. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Selective_serotonin_reuptake_inhibitors_in_childhood_depression-systematic_review_of_published_versus_unpublished_data-The_Lancet(2016-11-17_10-59-45PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(04)16043-1/fulltext

287. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Effectiveness_of_antidepressants-an_evidence_myth_constructed_from_a_thousand_randomized_trials-(2016-11-17_11-01-23PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2412901/

288. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Efficacy_of_paroxetine_in_the_treatment_of_adolescent_major_depression-a_randomized_controlled_trial-PubMed-NCBI.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11437014

289. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Archived-Important_Drug_Warning-Until_further_information_is_available_PAXIL_should_not_be_used_in_children_and_adolescents(2016-11-16_11-05-26PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.healthycanadians.gc.ca/recall-alert-rappel-avis/hc-sc/2003/14226a-eng.php

290. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Reanalysis_of_Paxil_study_sparks_new_round_of_criticism(2016-11-17_11-09-29PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.browndailyherald.com/2015/09/22/reanalysis-of-paxil-study-sparks-new-round-of-criticism/

291. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Restoring_Study_329-efficacy_and_harms_of_paroxetine_and_imipramine_in_treatment_of_major_depression_in_adolescence-The_BMJ(2016-11-17_11-07-54PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.bmj.com/content/351/bmj.h4320

292. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Court_document-GlaxoSmithCline(2016-11-16_11-13-12PM).pdf+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://news.findlaw.com/wsj/docs/glaxo/nyagglaxo60204cmp.pdf

293. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Drug_company_experts_advised_staff_to_withhold_data_about_SSRI_use_in_children(2016-11-17_11-13-47PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.cmaj.ca/content/170/5/783.full

294. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/GlaxoSmithKline_confidential_document(2016-11-16_11-16-42PM).pdf+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://study329.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/CMAt-Study.pdf

295. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/Lilly_Honors_U.S._Senator_Gordon_Smith_and_Others_Whose_Extraordinary_Efforts_Help_People_with_Mental_Illness(2016-11-15_10-09-12PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.browndailyherald.com/2009/04/07/longtime-psychiatry-chair-resigns/

296. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/BBC_NEWS-Programmes-Panorama-Secrets_of_the_drugs_trials-Transcript(2016-11-17_11-18-42PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/panorama/6317137.stm

297. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Efficacy_of_sertraline_in_the_treatment_of_children_and_adolescents_with_major_depressive_disorder-PubMed-NCBI.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12941675

298. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/A_Cure_Worse_than_the_Disease-Antidepressants_and_Suicide(2016-11-17_11-28-02PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.baumhedlundlaw.com/pharmaceutical-articles/cure-worse-disease/

299. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Many_Antidepressant_Studies_Found_Tainted_by_Pharma_Company_Influence-Scientific_American(2016-11-17_11-30-12PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/many-antidepressant-studies-found-tainted-by-pharma-company-influence/

300. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Meta-analyses_with_industry_involvement_are_massively_published_and_report_no_caveats_for_antidepressants(2016-11-16_11-32-34PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.jclinepi.com/article/S0895-4356(15)00429-1/abstract

301. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/N.Y._Sues_Paxil_Maker_Over_Studies_On_Children_(washingtonpost.com)(2016-11-17_11-23-33_AM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A10979-2004Jun2.html

302. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/GlaxoSmithKline_to_Plead_Guilty_and_Pay_$3_Billion-OPA-Department_of_Justice(2016-11-17).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/glaxosmithkline-plead-guilty-and-pay-3-billion-resolve-fraud-allegations-and-failure-report

303. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/GlaxoSmithKline_Agrees_to_Pay_$3_Billion_in_Fraud_Settlement-The_New_York_Times(2016-11-17_11-52-18_AM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/03/business/glaxosmithkline-agrees-to-pay-3-billion-in-fraud-settlement.html

304. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Young_And_Depressed(2016-11-77_12-53-25PM).html+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.newsweek.com/young-and-depressed-146623

305. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Banned_drugs_still_being_prescribed_for_children-The_Independent(2016-11-17_12-16-22PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/health-news/banned-drugs-still-being-prescribed-for-children-6109597.html

306. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Number_of_Children_&_Adolescents_Taking_Psychiatric_Drugs_in_the_U.S-CCHR_International(2016-11-17_12-17-45PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.cchrint.org/psychiatric-drugs/children-on-psychiatric-drugs/

307. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Antidepressant_side_effects_Paxil,_Prozac,_Zoloft,_Celexa,_Luvox,_Wellbutrin,_Cymbalta_Effexor_Elavil_Remeron_Sarafem(2016-11-17_12-19-20PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.cchrint.org/psychiatric-drugs/antidepressantsideeffects/

308. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Drug_Safety_and_Availability-Medication_Guides(2016-11-17_12-19-49PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm085729.htm

309. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Suicidality_and_aggression_during_antidepressant_treatment-based_on_clinical_study_reports-BMJ.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.bmj.com/content/352/bmj.i65

310. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Antidepressants_double_the_risk_of_aggression_and_suicide-BMJ.pdf+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.bmj.com/company/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/antidepressants.pdf

311. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/The_Hidden_Harm_of_Antidepressants-Scientific_American(2016-11-17_12-31-53PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-hidden-harm-of-antidepressants/

312. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Antidepressants_likely_increase_suicides_in_all_ages_and_manufacturers_underreport_side_effects-Study-National_Post(2016-11-17_12-34-06PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://news.nationalpost.com/health/antidepressants-likely-increase-suicides-in-all-ages-and-manufacturers-underreport-side-effects-study?lsa=c723-bc80

313. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Postmarket_Drug_Safety_Information_Public_Health_Advisory-Suicidality_in_Adults_Being_Treated_with_Antidepressant_Medications(2016-11-17_12-38-08PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/PostmarketDrugSafetyInformationforPatientsandProviders/ucm053169.htm

314. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Drug_regulation-Did_regulators_fail_over_selective_serotonin_reuptake_inhibitors-(2016-11-17_12-39-09PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1489234

315. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Antidepressant_linked_to_suicide_risk_in_adults-Society-The_Guardian(2016-11-17_12-40-53PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.theguardian.com/society/2006/may/13/socialcare.medicineandhealth

316. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/GlaxoSmithKline_letter_to_doctors-adult-dear_healthcare_professional(2016-11-17_12-42-56PM).pdf+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://web.archive.org/web/20070203230429/http://www.gsk.com/media/paroxetine/adult_hcp_letter.pdf

317. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/SSRIs_and_deliberate_self-harm-The_British_Journal_of_Psychiatry(2016-11-17_1-52-24PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/180/6/547

318. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Did_GSK_trial_data_mask_Paxil_suicide_risk-New_Scientist(2016-11-17_1-55-25PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg19726424-600-did-gsk-trial-data-mask-paxil-suicide-risk/

319. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Joseph_Glenmullen’s_review(2016-11-17_12-19-20PM).pdf+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.finance.senate.gov/download/glenmullen-report

320. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Does_long_term_use_of_psychiatric_drugs_cause_more_harm_than_good-The_BMJ(2016-11-17_1-59-49PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.bmj.com/content/350/bmj.h2435

321. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Antidepressants_label_change_2007_young_adults(2016-11-17_2-02-02PM).pdf+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/DrugSafety/InformationbyDrugClass/UCM173233.pdf

322. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Screening_for_Depression_in_Adults-Depressive_Disorders-JAMA-The_JAMA_Network(2016-11-17_2-04-22PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=2484345

323. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Task_Force-Doctors_should_screen_all_adults_for_depression(2016-11-17_2-06-15PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/2016/01/26/all-adults-screened-for-depression/79347926/

324. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Live_with_Fred_Baughman(2016-11-17_2-25-26PM).pdf+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.naturalnews.com/SpecialReports/LivewithFredBaughman.pdf

325. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Now_Antidepressant-Induced_Chronic_Depression_Has_a_Name-Tardive_Dysphoria-Psychology_Today(2016-11-17_2-26-19PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/mad-in-america/201106/now-antidepressant-induced-chronic-depression-has-name-tardive-dysphoria

326. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/New_Research-Antidepressants_Can_Cause_Long-Term_Depression-The_Huffington_Post(2016-11-17_2-32-19PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.huffingtonpost.com/dr-peter-breggin/antidepressants-long-term-depression_b_1077185.html

327. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/FDA_Tones_Down_Warning_on_Use_Of_Antidepressants_In_Children-Psychiatric_News(2016-11-17_2-33-33PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://psychnews.psychiatryonline.org/doi/10.1176/pn.40.5.00400001a

328. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Antidepressants_Versus_Placebos-Meaningful_Advantages_Are_Lacking-Psychiatric_Times(2016-11-17_2-38-02PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/articles/antidepressants-versus-placebos-meaningful-advantages-are-lacking

329. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Antidepressant_drugs_don’t_work–_official_study-The_Independent(2016-11-17_2-39-01PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/health-news/antidepressant-drugs-dont-work-ndash-official-study-787264.html

330. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/PLOS_Medicine-Initial_Severity_and_Antidepressant_Benefits-A_Meta-Analysis_of_Data_Submitted_to_the_Food_and_Drug_Administration(2016-11-17_2-39-52PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.0050045

331. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Do_Antidepressants_Increase_Violent_Behavior(2016-11-17_2-59-08PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.livescience.com/32934-do-antidepressants-increase-violent-behavior-111102html

332. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Take_This_Antidepressant_and_You_Too_May_Have_a_Violent_Psychotic_Break(2016-11-17_2-59-08PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.anh-usa.org/take-this-antidepressant-and-you-too-may-have-a-violent-psychotic-break/

333. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/One_in_40_Infants_Experience_Baby_Blues_Doctors_Say-ABC_News(2016-11-17_3-03-05PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://abcnews.go.com/Health/OnCall/story?id=2640591

334. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Number_of_Children_&_Adolescents_Taking_Psychiatric_Drugs_in_the_U.S-CCHR_International(2016-11-17_3-05-54PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.cchrint.org/psychiatric-drugs/children-on-psychiatric-drugs/

335. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Chronic_administration_of_fluoxetine_or_venlafaxine_induces_memory_deterioration(2016-11-17_3-06-52PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ddr.20106/abstract

336. Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/international-psychogeriatrics/article/depressive-symptoms-antidepressant-use-and-future-cognitive-health-in-postmenopausal-women-the-womens-health-initiative-memory-study/A75DE96FC8EA763EAF065B4AA85F1220/core-reader
Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Depressive_symptoms_antidepressant_use_and_future_cognitive_health_in_postmenopausal_women(2016-11-17_3-09-26PM).htm+]

337. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Use_of_antidepressants_and_the_risk_of_Parkinson’s_disease-a_prospective_study(2016-11-17_3-10-40PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2701616/

338. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Extrapyramidal_symptoms_and_antidepressant_drugs-neuropharmacological_aspects_of_a_frequent_interaction_in_the_elderly(2016-11-17_3-11-18PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.nature.com/mp/journal/v6/n2/full/4000801a.html

339. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Primum_Non_Nocere-An_Evolutionary_Analysis_of_Whether_Antidepressants_Do_More_Harm_than_Good(2016-11-17_3-12-45PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3334530/

340. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Committee_Discussion(2016-11-17_3-14-39PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/ac/04/transcripts/4006T1.htm

341. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Products-Data_Briefs-Number_76-October_2011(2016-11-17_3-19-58PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db76.htm

342. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Antidepressants_Aren’t_Taken_By_The_Depressed_Majority_Of_Users_Have_No_Disorder(2016-11-17_3-22-50PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.medicaldaily.com/antidepressants-arent-taken-depressed-majority-users-have-no-disorder-327940

343. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Psychiatric_Drugs-Take_’em_or_Leave_’em-National_Association_of_Social_Workers(2016-11-17_3-25-58PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.naswma.org/?360

344. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Dr._Peter_Breggin’s_10%_taper_method-Tapering-Surviving_Antidepressants(2016-11-17_3-26-55PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://survivingantidepressants.org/index.php?/topic/803-dr-peter-breggins-10-taper-method/

345. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/How_efficacious_and_safe_is_short-acting_methylphenidate_for_the_treatment_of_ADHD_in_children_and_adolescents(2016-11-17_3-29-24PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC81663/

346. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Dark_Side_of_Medical_Research_Widespread_Bias_and_Omissions(2016-11-28_8-30-00PM).html+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.livescience.com/8365-dark-side-medical-research-widespread-bias-omissions.html

347. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Reporting_bias_in_medical_research-a_narrative_review(2016-11-17_3-32-51PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2867979/

348. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Federal_Register-Clinical_Trials_Registration_and_Results_Information_Submission(2016-11-17_3-43-37PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2016/09/21/2016-22129/clinical-trials-registration-and-results-information-submission

349. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Despite_Law_Fewer_Than_One_In_Eight_Completed_Studies_Of_Drugs_And_Biologics_Are_Reported_On_Time_On_ClinicalTrials.gov(2016-11-17_3-44-47PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://content.healthaffairs.org/content/30/12/2338.long#abstract-1

350. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Compliance_with_mandatory_reporting_of_clinical_trial_results_on_ClinicalTrials.gov-The_BMJ(2016-11-17_3-47-49PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.bmj.com/content/344/bmj.d7373

351. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/FDA_Law_Blog-BMJ_Article_on_Clinical_Trial_Reporting-Discontent_on_Capitol_Hill(2016-11-17_3-48-49PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.fdalawblog.net/fda_law_blog_hyman_phelps/2012/02/bmj-article-on-clinical-trial-reporting-foments-discontent-on-capitol-hill-our-1500th-post.html

352. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/PLOS_ONE-How_Frequently_Do_the_Results_from_Completed_US_Clinical_Trials_Enter_the_Public_Domain(2016-11-17_3-54-58PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0101826#pone.0101826-Despite1

353. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Top_institutions_not_reporting_clinical_trial_results_as_required(2016-11-18_8-01-07PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.statnews.com/2015/12/13/clinical-trials-investigation/

354. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/The_adequacy_of_FDA_to_assure_the_safety_of_the_nation’s_drug_supply(2016-11-18_8-07-11PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-110hhrg35502/html/CHRG-110hhrg35502.htm

355. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/senator-grassleys-testimony-to-house-oversight-hearing-on-the-adequacy-of-fda-The_United_States_Senate_Committee_on_Finance(2016-11-18_8-08-49PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.finance.senate.gov/ranking-members-news/-senator-grassleys-testimony-to-house-oversight-hearing-on-the-adequacy-of-fda-efforts-to-assure-the-safety-of-the-drug-supply

356. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Merck_to_pay_$950_million_for_illegal_marketing_of_Vioxx-CNN.com.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.cnn.com/2011/11/22/health/merck-vioxx-fine/

357. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Justice_Department_Announces_Largest_Health_Care_Fraud_Settlement_in_Its_History-OPA-Department_of_Justice(2016-11-18_8-16-32PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/justice-department-announces-largest-health-care-fraud-settlement-its-history

358. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/FDA_and_Vioxx_withdrawal(2016-11-18_8-21-20PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/538021

359. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Examining_FDA’s_review_of_safety_and_efficacy_concerns_in_anti-depressant_use_by_children(2016-11-18_8-22-47PM.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-108hhrg96099/html/CHRG-108hhrg96099.htm

360. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/News_Article-Congress_Investigates_FDA’s_Handling_of_Antidepressant_Safety_Information(2016-11-18_8-35-18PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.ashp.org/menu/News/PharmacyNews/NewsArticle.aspx?id=1699

361. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Grassley-continues-probe-of-fdas-handling-of-information-about-antidepressants-suicide- The_United_States_Senate_Committee_on_Finance(2016-11-18_11-26-13PM).htm +]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.finance.senate.gov/chairmans-news/grassley-continues-probe-of-fdas-handling-of-information-about-antidepressants-suicide

362. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Postmarket_Drug_Safety_Information-Worsening_Depression_and_Suicidality_in_Patients_Being_Treated_With_Antidepressants(2016-11-17_10-36-58PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/PostmarketDrugSafetyInformationforPatientsandProviders/ucm161696.htm

363. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Chairman-grassley-urges-quick-adoption-by-fda-of-new-recommendations-concerning-the-pediatric-use-of-antidepressants(2016-11-18_11-55-02PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.finance.senate.gov/chairmans-news/chairman-grassley-urges-quick-adoption-by-fda-of-new-recommendations-concerning-the-pediatric-use-of-antidepressants

364. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/FDA_Scientists_Ask_Obama_to_Restructure_Drug_Agency-WSJ.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB123142562104564381

365. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/FDA_Medical_Device_Approval_Based_on_Politics,_Not_Science-Union_of_Concerned_Scientists(2016-11-18_11-58-40PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.ucsusa.org/our-work/center-science-and-democracy/promoting-scientific-integrity/fda-medical-device-approval.html#.V_6-gI8rLIU

366. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Charles_Seife-NYU_Journalism(2016-11-18_12-11-45PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://journalism.nyu.edu/about-us/profile/charles-seife/

367. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Research_Misconduct_Identified_by_the_FDA-Medical_Journals_and_Publishing-JAMA_Internal_Medicine-The_JAMA_Network(2016-11-18_2-12-40PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://archinte.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=2109855

368. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/FDA_inspections-Fraud_fabrication_and_scientific_misconduct_are_hidden_from_the_public_and_doctors.(2016-11-18_2-15-25PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/science/2015/02/fda_inspections_fraud_fabrication_and_scientific_misconduct_are_hidden_from.html

369. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/The_Lancet-Journal-Elsevier(2016-11-18_2-33-36PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.journals.elsevier.com/the-lancet

370. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/The_Lancet-a_lot_of_what_is_published_is_incorrect(2016-11-18_2-36-14PM).pdf+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lancet/PIIS0140-6736(15)60696-1.pdf

371. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/NEJM_Media_Center-Fact_Sheet(2016-11-18_2-37-16PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.nejm.org/page/media-center/fact-sheet

372. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Drug_Companies&Doctors-A_Story_of_Corruption-by_Marcia_Angell-The_New_York_Review_of_Books(2016-11-18_2-40-20PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.nybooks.com/articles/2009/01/15/drug-companies-doctorsa-story-of-corruption/

373. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Big_Pharma’s_Big_Fines(2016-11-18_2-42-50PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://projects.propublica.org/graphics/bigpharma

374. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Medical_experts_furious_that_doctors_will_be_paid_to_dole_out_risky_statins-Daily_Express(2016-11-18_2-45-33PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.express.co.uk/life-style/health/555471/Medical-experts-furious-that-doctors-will-be-paid-to-dole-out-risky-statins

375. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Doctor_admits_taking_kickbacks_for_prescribing_risky_drug-Chicago_Tribune(2016-11-18_2-47-14PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/local/breaking/chi-reinstein-kickback-plea-20150213-story.html

376. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Novartis_kickbacks_case_explodes_with_feds’_demand_for_backup_on_80,000_doctor_events(2016-11-18_2-49-09PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.fiercepharma.com/pharma/novartis-kickbacks-case-explodes-feds-demand-for-backup-on-80-000-doctor-events

377. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Companies_Pay_Millions_To_Promote_Some_Of_Their_Most_Unremarkable_Drugs-Business_Insider(2016-11-18_2-55-04PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.businessinsider.com/companies-pay-millions-to-promote-some-of-their-most-unremarkable-drugs-2015-1

378. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/New_warning_rule_for_users_of_generic_drugs_is_left_in_limbo-LA_Times(2016-11-27_2-58-48PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-generic-drug-warnings-20160721-snap-story.html

379. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Holding_Big_Pharma_Accountable-Why_Suing_The_Pharmaceutical_Industry_Isn’t_Working-The_Huffington_Post(2016-11-18_3-05-13PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.huffingtonpost.com/caroline-beaton/holding-big-pharma-accoun_b_8280952.html

380. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/In_Supreme_Court_Ruling_Drugmakers_Win_And_Consumers_Lose(2016-11-18_3-08-36PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.forbes.com/sites/edsilverman/2013/06/24/in-supreme-court-ruling-drugmakers-win-and-consumers-lose/#551e79c33770

381. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Three_Harvard_psychiatrists_are_sanctioned_over_consulting_fees-The_Boston_Globe(2016-11-18_3-47-15PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://archive.boston.com/news/local/massachusetts/articles/2011/07/02/three_harvard_psychiatrists_are_sanctioned_over_consulting_fees/

382. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Robert_Whitaker-Mad_In_America(2016-11-18_4-06-28PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.madinamerica.com/robert-whitaker-new/

383. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/The_Case_Against_Antipsychotics-Review_of_their_Effects(2016-11-18_4-07-36PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.madinamerica.com/2016/07/the-case-against-antipsychotics/

384. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Are_Psychiatric_Medications_Making_Us_Sicker-Scientific_American_Blog_Network(2016-11-18_4-08-35PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/cross-check/are-psychiatric-medications-making-us-sicker/

385. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Psychiatrists_Top_List_in_Drug_Maker_Gifts-The_New_York_Times(2016-11-27_3-04-48PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.nytimes.com/2007/06/27/health/psychology/27doctors.html

386. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Bio-Dr_David_Healy(2016-11-18_4-17-55PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://davidhealy.org/bio/

387. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Myths_about_antidepressants&antipsychotics-Dr._David_Healy(2016-11-18_4-22-58PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://davidhealy.org/psychiatry-gone-astray/

388. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Peter_R._Breggin_M.D.-Psychopharmacology_Expert-Psychiatric_Drug_Facts(2016-11-18_4-26-32PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://breggin.com/brief-bio/

389. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Breggin_resume(2016-11-18_4-28-58PM).pdf+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.breggin.com/resume.pdf

390. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=luKsQaj0hzs+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://breggin.com/video-series/

391. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Peter_Breggin’s_Empathic_Therapy_Center(2016-11-18_4-38-56PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.empathictherapy.org/

392. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Conference_on_Stopping_the_Psychiatric_Abuse_of_Children-Psychiatric_Drug_Facts(2016-11-18_4-58-49PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://breggin.com/conference-on-stopping-the-psychiatric-abuse-of-children/

393. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/E._Pringle-Bush_Texas_2_Step-TeenScreen_&_TAMP-Scoop_News(2016-11-18_5-01-12PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/HL0505/S00277.htm

394. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Feds_Pay_for_Drug_Fraud-The_Huffington_Post(2016-11-18_5-09-48).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.huffingtonpost.com/art-levine/feds-pay-for-drug-fraud-9_b_6966454.html

395. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/CMA-Search_Results(2016-11-18_5-16-16PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.medicareadvocacy.org/?s=antipsychotics&op.x=0&op.y=0

396. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Medicare_claims_for_atypical_antipsychotic_drugs_for_nursing_homes(2016-11-18_5-21-02PM).pdf+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://oig.hhs.gov/oei/reports/oei-07-08-00150.pdf

397. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ARZ2Wv2BoFs

398. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/The_Spurious_Chemical_Imbalance_Theory_is_Still_Alive_and_Well(2016-11-19_8-44-43PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://behaviorismandmentalhealth.com/2015/04/27/the-spurious-chemical-imbalance-theory-is-still-alive-and-well/

399. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Chemical_Imbalance-Does_it_Exist-Encognitive.com(2016-11-19_8-46-38PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.encognitive.com/node/893

400. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Psychiatry’s_Manufacture_of_Consent-The_Chemical_Imbalance_Theory_and_the_Antidepressant_Explosion(2016-11-24_9-19-05PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://brucelevine.net/psychiatry%E2%80%99s-manufacture-of-consent-the-chemical-imbalance-theory-and-the-antidepressant-explosion/

401. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/PLOS_Medicine-There_Is_No_Such_Thing_as_a_Psychiatric_Disorder-Disease-Chemical_Imbalance(2016-11-19_8-48-48PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.0030318

402. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Psychiatry_DID_Promote_the_Chemical_Imbalance_Theory-Mad_In_America(2016-11-19_8-54-25PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.madinamerica.com/2014/06/psychiatry-promote-chemical-imbalance-theory/

403. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/The_Real_Problems_With_Psychiatry-The_Atlantic(2016-11-19_8-59-59PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2013/05/the-real-problems-with-psychiatry/275371/

404. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Kaplan_&_Sadock’s_Concise_Textbook_of_Clinical_Psychiatry-Google_Books(2016-11-19_9-01-57PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://bit.ly/2duzyP8

405. American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 1994, Introduction, p.xxi
[+ http://dsm.psychiatryonline.org/doi/abs/10.1176/appi.books.9780890420249.dsm-iv-tr+]

406. Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://psychrights.org/research/Digest/ADHD/ADHDAsFraud.htm
Reference version at the time the book was researche

d:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Attention-Deficit_Hyperactivity_Disorder_(ADHD)_As_Fraud(2016-11-19_9-13-44PM).htm+]

407. Attachment_to_email_received_from_Dr._Fred_Baughman
Saved: [+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/FDA_Letter_Confirming_Psychiatric_Disorders_Are_Not_Diseases(2016-09-06_5-40-32PM).pdf+]

408. Attachment_to_email_received_from_Dr._Fred_Baughman
Saved:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Health_Canada_Confirming_Psychiatric_Disorders_Are_Not_Diseases-Minister_of_Health(2016-06-13_3-31-22PM).pdf+]

409. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/NIMH»Transforming_Diagnosis(2016-11-19_9-39-27PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.nimh.nih.gov/about/director/2013/transforming-diagnosis.shtml

410. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Real_Disease_vs._Mental_Disorder(2016-11-19_10-24-05PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.cchr.org/quick-facts/real-disease-vs-mental-disorder.html

411. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/The_biomedical_model_of_mental_disorder-A_critical_analysis-2013(2016-11-18_10-15-32PM).pdf+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://jonabram.web.unc.edu/files/2013/09/Deacon_biomedical_model_2013.pdf

412. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Ronald_W._Pies_MD-Physicians_Practice(2016-11-27_8-29-24PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.physicianspractice.com/authors/ronald-w-pies-md

413. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Psychiatry’s_New_Brain-Mind_and_the_Legend_of_the_Chemical_Imbalance-Psychiatric_Times(2016-11-27_8-31-14PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/blogs/couch-crisis/psychiatry-new-brain-mind-and-legend-chemical-imbalance

414. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Dr._Pies_Still_Spinning(2016-11-19_9-51-12PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://behaviorismandmentalhealth.com/2014/09/08/dr-pies-still-spinning/

415. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Does_Adhd_Exist-PBS-Medicating_Kids-FRONTLINE-PBS.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/medicating/experts/exist.html

416. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Testimony_of_Dr._Fred_Baughman(2016-11-19_9-57-15PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.politicalwatchdog.com/psych_fraud/baughman.htm

417. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/DSM-5_and_ADHD–an_interview_with_Eric_Taylor-BMC_Medicine-Full_Text(2016-11-19_10-20-27PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1741-7015-11-204

418. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/The_Art_of_Sharing_DSM-Psychiatric_Times(2016-11-27_8-32-31PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/articles/art-sharing-dsm

419. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/adhdtesting.org(2016-11-19_10-41-25PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.adhdtesting.org/history%20of%20add-adhd.htm

420. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Should_Psychiatry_and_Neurology_Merge_as_a_Single_Discipline-Psychiatric_Times(2016-11-27_8-34-21PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/neuropsychiatry/should-psychiatry-and-neurology-merge-single-discipline

421. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Psychiatry_and_Neurology–A_Merger_in_the_Works-(2016-11-19_10-46-01PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://behaviorismandmentalhealth.com/2013/08/15/psychiatry-and-neurology-a-merger-in-the-works/

422. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/How_to_Check_Your_Serotonin_Level_for_Depression-LIVESTRONG.COM.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.livestrong.com/article/354035-how-to-check-your-serotonin-level-for-depression/

423. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Major_Depressive_Disorder(2016-11-19_1-43-16PM).pdf+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.foodforthebrain.org/media/229784/major.pdf

424. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0020392

425. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/A_Psychiatrist’s_Prescription_For_His_Profession(2016-11-19_1-52-22PM).mp3+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.npr.org/programs/fresh-air/2010/07/13/128486439/

426. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/SSRI_ads_questioned(2016-11-19_1-55-53PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.cmaj.ca/content/174/6/754.2.full

427. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Brain_plasticity_in_stroke_victims(2016-11-19_1-59-14PM).pdf+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jnms/82/1/82_4/_pdf

428. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/The_Role_of_Brain_Plasticity_on_Stroke_Recovery(2016-11-19_2-02-18PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.speech-therapy-on-video.com/brainplasticity.html

429. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/New_Insights_Into_Brain’s_Repair_System_Point_to_Improved_Stroke_Therapies-AAAS-The_World’s_Largest_General_Scientific_Society(2016-11-19_2-03-39PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.aaas.org/news/new-insights-brains-repair-system-point-improved-stroke-therapies

430. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Brain_of_a_white-collar_worker-The_Lancet(2016-11-19_2-06-26PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(07)61127-1/fulltext

431. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Man_with_tiny_brain_shocks_doctors-New_Scientist(2016-11-19_2-08-29PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn12301-man-with-tiny-brain-shocks-doctors/

432. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.7434023

433. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/H._Christian_Fibiger_PhD(2016-11-19_2-51-42PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.michaeljfox.org/foundation/researchers.php?id=1025

434. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Psychiatry,_The_Pharmaceutical_Industry_and_the_Road_to_Better_Therapeutics(2016-11-19_3-13-53PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3406532/

435. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/More_on_the_Chemical_Imbalance_Theory(2016-11-19_3-20-25PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://behaviorismandmentalhealth.com/2015/11/02/more-on-the-chemical-imbalance-theory/

436. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Secrets_of_the_Brain(2016-11-28_9-11-13PM).html+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2014/02/brain/zimmer-text

437. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/The_Neocortex_is_More_Complex_than_a_Galaxy-Carl_Sagan_and_Roger_Penrose-The_Daily_Galaxy(2016-11-19_4-05-48).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.dailygalaxy.com/my_weblog/2013/05/the-human-neocortex-more-complex-than-a-galaxy-carl-sagan-and-roger-penrose-video.html

438. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Does_Psychiatry_Need_Science-The_New_Yorker(2016-11-19_4-07-13PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.newyorker.com/tech/elements/does-psychiatry-need-science

439. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ARZ2Wv2BoFs&spfreload=5

440. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/What_is_Neurofeedback-EEG_Info_Europe(2016-11-19_4-42-11PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.eeginfo-europe.com/neurofeedback/what-is-neurofeedback.html

441. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/American_Academy_of_Pediatrics_lists_Neurofeedback_as_Level_1_Research-Best_supported_Interventions(2016-11-28_9-11-13PM).html+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.isnr.org/catalog-1/if5zb3hx69/American-Academy-of-Pediatrics-lists-Neurofeedback-as-Level-1-Research-Best-supported-Interventions

442. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Annual_Award_for_the_Best_Neurofeedback_Article(2016-11-19_5-16-15PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.neurofeedbackfoundation.org/Annual_Award.html

443. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Does_Your_Health_Insurance_Cover_Alternative_Medicine-Health_Insurance-US_News(2016-11-19_5-23-49PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://health.usnews.com/health-news/health-insurance/articles/2015/03/09/does-your-health-insurance-cover-alternative-medicine

444. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Tool_Kit_for_Neurofeedback_as_an_Evidence_Based_Treatment_for_ADHD(2016-11-28_9-11-13PM).html+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.isnr.org/catalog-1/i6jpuql6209/Tool-Kit-for-Neurofeedback-as-an-Evidence-Based-Treatment-for-ADHD

445. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Why_so_many_kids_can’t_sit_still_in_school_today-The_Washington_Post(2016-11-19_5-29-45PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/answer-sheet/wp/2014/07/08/why-so-many-kids-cant-sit-still-in-school-today/

446. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Natural_children(2016-11-19_5-33-56PM).pdf+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/documents/read-our-natural-childhood-report.pdf

447. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/The_importance_of_outdoor_experiences_in_primary_years(2016-11-19_5-45-16PM).pdf+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://extensionpublications.unl.edu/assets/pdf/g2202.pdf

448. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Why_French_Kids_Don’t_Have_ADHD-Psychology_Today(2016-11-19_5-46-02PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/suffer-the-children/201203/why-french-kids-dont-have-adhd

449. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Best_Psychosocial_Interventions(2016-11-19_5-50-56PM).pdf+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://web.archive.org/web/20160915173043/http://coe.csusb.edu/documents/CRPsychosocialInterventions.pdf

450. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/The_Impact_of_Sleep_on_Adolescent_Health_and_Academic_Performance(2016-11-19_5-55-16PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://schoolstarttime.org/early-school-start-times/academic-performance/

451. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Sleep_efficiency_of_healthy_school-age_children_is_associated_with_grades_in_math_and_languages-Sleep_Medicine(2016-11-20_6-07-10.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.sleep-journal.com/article/S1389-9457(14)00353-0/abstract

452. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Let_Your_Kids_Sleep_More_For_Better_Grades-TIME.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://time.com/3663796/for-better-grades-let-your-kids-sleep-more/

453. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Trends_in_the_Use_of_Complementary_Health_Approaches-Adults(2016-11-20_12-00-06).pdf+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhsr/nhsr079.pdf

454. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Use_of_Complementary_Health_Approaches_Among_Children(2016-11-20_12-07-46).pdf+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhsr/nhsr078.pdf

455. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Reiki_goes_mainstream-Spiritual_touch_practice_now_commonplace_in_hospitals-The_Washington_Post(2016-11-20_12-12-38PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/religion/reiki-goes-mainstream-spiritual-touch-practice-now-commonplace-in-hospitals/2014/05/16/9e92223a-dd37-11e3-a837-8835df6c12c4_story.html

456. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Center_for_Reiki_Research(2016-11-20_2-02-24PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.centerforreikiresearch.org/

457. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/What_is_Reiki(2016-11-20_12-16-24PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/integrative_medicine_digestive_center/services/reiki.html

458. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Hospital_program_takes_patients_into_the_Zen_zone-UCLA.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://newsroom.ucla.edu/stories/urban-zen-at-hospital-230678

459. Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://cw.uhs.harvard.edu/tools/modalities.html#reiki
Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Harvard_University_Center_for_Wellness-Modalities(2016-11-20_12-17-47PM).htm+]

460. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Using_Reiki_to_decrease_memory_and_behavior_problems_in_mild_cognitive_impairment_and_mild_Alzheimer’s_disease-PubMed-NCBI.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17109583

461. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Effects_of_Reiki_on_anxiety_depression_pain_and_physiological_factors_in_community-dwelling_older_adults-PubMed-NCBI.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20635803

462. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/The_effect_of_Reiki_on_work-related_stress_of_the_registered_nurse-PubMed-NCBI.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20699431

463. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/A_randomised_controlled_single-blind_trial_of_the_effects_of_Reiki_and_positive_imagery_on_well-being_and_salivary_cortisol(2016-11-20_12-49-16).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19819311

464. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Reiki_brief_report-using_Reiki_to_reduce_stress_levels_in_a_nine-year-old_child-PubMed-NCBI.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25037669

465. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Immediate_effects_of_reiki_on_heart_rate_variability_cortisol_levels_and_body_temperature_in_health_care_professionals(2016-11-20_1-11-22).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21821642

466. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Autonomic_nervous_system_changes_during_Reiki_treatment-a_preliminary_study-PubMed-NCBI.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15674004

467. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Reiki_improves_heart_rate_homeostasis_in_laboratory_rats-PubMed-NCBI.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18435597

468. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Biological_correlates_of_Reiki_Touch_healing-PubMed-NCBI.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11251731

469. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Long-term_effects_of_energetic_healing_on_symptoms_of_psychological_depression_and_self-perceived_stress-PubMed-NCBI.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15154152

470. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/The_effect_of_Reiki_on_pain_and_anxiety_in_women_with_abdominal_hysterectomies-a_quasi-experimental_pilot_study-PubMed-NCBI.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17099413

471. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Reiki’s_Use_in_Dementia_Patients_and_For_Their_Caregivers-Psych_Central(2016-11-20_1-21-32PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://psychcentral.com/lib/reikis-use-in-dementia-patients-and-for-their-caregivers/

472. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Reconnecting_to_Nursing_Throgh_Reiki(2016-11-20_1-40-06).pdf+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://rehab.ucla.edu/workfiles/Urban%20Zen/Reconnecting_to_Nursing_throgh_Reiki.pdf

473. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Incorporating_Reiki_into_nursing_practice-Scrubbed_In-A_Nurse.com_Blog-Nurse.com_Blog(2016-11-20_2-36-06PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.nurse.com/blog/2012/12/17/healing-touch-incorporating-reiki-into-nursing-practice/

474. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ebfxs1Vod7Q

475. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Research_on_Transcendental_Meditation(2016-11-20_2-43-50PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.tm.org/research-on-meditation

476. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Transcendental_Meditation_Lessens_Kids’_ADHD_Symptoms-Psych_Central_News(2016-11-20_2-47-36PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://psychcentral.com/news/2011/07/27/transcendental-meditation-lessens-kids-adhd-symptoms/28078.html

477. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TcPquoBGvbM

478. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iNH_Y1N8AQ4

479. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Use_of_the_Transcendental_Meditation_Technique_to_Reduce_Symptoms_of_ADHD(2016-11-20_2-54-16).pdf+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://cie.asu.edu/ojs/index.php/cieatasu/article/viewFile/1569/614

480. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/ADHD_Brain_Functioning_and_Transcendental_Meditation_Practice(2016-11-20_2-57-34PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228450921_ADHD_Brain_Functioning_and_Transcendental_Meditation_Practice

481. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Is_ADHD_a_Stress-Related_Disorder-Why_Meditation_Can_Help-InTechOpen(2016-11-20_3-14-51PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.intechopen.com/books/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents/is-adhd-a-stress-related-disorder-why-meditation-can-help

482. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Meditation-Take_a_stress-reduction_break_wherever_you_are-Mayo_Clinic(2016-11-20_3-17-00PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/meditation/in-depth/meditation/art-20045858

483. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Transcendental_Meditation_technique_produces_unique_state_of_restful_alertness(2016-11-20_3-20-14PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.news-medical.net/news/20100305/Transcendental-Meditation-technique-produces-unique-state-of-restful-alertness.aspx

484. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Research_on_TM(2016-11-20_3-26-49PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.tm.org/popups-responsive/research.html

485. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Transcendental_meditation_and_mental_retardation-PubMed-NCBI.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7007358

486. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Alternative_treatment_promoted_for_soldiers_suffering_from_PTSD-CNN.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.cnn.com/2011/US/06/08/ptsd.meditation/

487. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Effects_of_transcendental_meditation_in_veterans_of_Operation_Enduring_Freedom_and_Operation_Iraqi_Freedom_with_PTSD(2016-11-20_3-47-38PM).pdf+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://fla.st/2fv0riq

488. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Transcendental-Meditation-in-the-Treatment-of-Post-Vietnam-Adjustment(2016-11-20_3-54-00).pdf+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.adventuresinpartnering.com/Services/Transcendental-Meditation-in-the-Treatment-of-Post-Vietnam-Adjustment.pdf

489. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Impact_of_Transcendental_Meditation_on_Psychotropic_Medication_Use_Among_Active_Duty_Military_Service_Members_With_Anxiety_and_PTSD-PubMed-NCBI.htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26741477

490. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/David_Lynch_foundation-National_Institutes_of_Health(2016-11-20_4-00-27PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.davidlynchfoundation.org/national-institutes-of-health.html

491. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/One_of_San_Francisco’s_toughest_schools_transformed_by_the_power_of_meditation-Teacher_Network-The_Guardian(2016-11-20_4-06-00PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.theguardian.com/teacher-network/2015/nov/24/san-franciscos-toughest-schools-transformed-meditation

492. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/San_Francisco_Schools_Transformed_by_the_Power_of_Meditation-NBC_News(2016-11-20_4-07-50PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.nbcnews.com/nightly-news/san-francisco-schools-transformed-power-meditation-n276301

493. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Quiet-Time-Brochure(2016-11-20_4-14-58).pdf+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.davidlynchfoundation.org/pdf/Quiet-Time-Brochure.pdf

494. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Improvements_seen_in_the_4_schools_in_the_San_Francisco_Unified_School_District(2016-11-27_10-03-34).pdf+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://docs.google.com/viewerng/viewer?url=http://cwae.org/media/15.05.12+White+Paper+v.57.pdf

495. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Introduction-Center_for_Wellness_and_Achievement_in_Education(2016-11-20_4-24-53PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.cwae.org/research_intro.php

496. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/International_Education_Meditation_helps_students-The_New_York_Times(2016-11-28_10-08-39PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.nytimes.com/2005/02/15/style/international-education-meditation-helps-students.html

497. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/QuietTime_progress_report(2016-11-20_4-33-16).pdf+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.davidlynchfoundation.org/pdf/QuietTime_progress_report.pdf

498. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Educators_Applaud_the_Quiet_Time-Transcendental_Meditation_Program(2016-11-20_4-38-24PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://portals.mum.edu/achievements/2008_10_25.html

499. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yni1REJYK6E

500. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GUZRIX_SlHU

501. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y4UmeA-OPJ0

502. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/TM_in_South_America-Transcendental_Meditation_explodes(2016-11-20_4-50-04PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.tminjoburg.co.za/tm-explodes-in-south-america/

503. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/TM_Becomes_Integral_Part_of_Buddhist_School_in_Thailand-Transcendental_Meditation_Blog(2016-11-20_4-51-14PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.tm.org/blog/students/tm-becomes-integral-part-of-buddhist-school-in-thailand/

504. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Thousands_of_Buddhist_Monks_in_Asia_Learn_Transcendental_Meditation-Transcendental_Meditation_Blog(2016-11-20_4-51-59PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.tm.org/blog/meditation/buddhist-monks/

505. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c5fU8Gp9×4A

506. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wjwt2UMhM98

507. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Zulu_Students_Begin_TM-African_PTSD_Relief(2016-11-20_4-53-44PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.ptsdreliefnow.org/blog/zulu-students-begin-tm

508. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Miraculous_Turnaround_in_a_Stressed_Israeli_Arab_High_School_after_Implementing_the_TM_Program-The_Uncarved_Blog(2016-11-20_4-55-03PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://theuncarvedblog.com/2010/07/19/miraculous-turnaround-in-a-stressed-israeli-arab-high-school-after-implementing-the-tm-program/

509. [+ https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=264&v=bJUTgbiF3a4+]

510. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Chicago_Medicine-TM_Practice_in_Medical_School(2016-11-20_5-03-10PM).pdf+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://hsd.luc.edu/media/stritchschoolofmedicine/pdfs/ChicagoMedicineTMJanuary2016.pdf

511. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/A_Randomized_Controlled_Trial_on_Effects_of_TM_on_Blood_Pressure_Psychological_Distress_and_Coping_in_Young_Adults(2016-11-20_5-03-48PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3128829/

512. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bY0gRUP_wEM

513. Reference version at the time the book was researched:
[+ http://adhddrugslongterm.com/References/Meditation_is_path_to_peace_Mozambique_leader_says-World_news-The_Guardian(2016-11-20_5-09-25PM).htm+]
Current version (may have been altered or removed):[
**]https://www.theguardian.com/world/2001/sep/22/jamesastill


Long Term effects of ADHD Drugs (& Antidepressants)

THIS BOOK CONTAINS INFORMATION FOR PARENTS, PHYSICIANS, AND EVERYONE ELSE WHO NEEDS TO MAKE WELL-INFORMED DECISIONS. The information presented emphasizes the fact that almost all ADHD medications are addictive stimulants classified by the DEA under Schedule II due to their abuse potential. Short-term studies constitute the research falsely promoted as demonstrating the "safety and effectiveness" of these drugs. The long-term studies showing the progressive damages these drugs cause have deliberately not been published for decades, while the drugs' short-term benefits have been aggressively promoted in a misleading manner to increase drug sales. But in more recent years, a number of significant long-term studies have finally found their way into publication. These long-term findings show that the supposed "benefits" from ADHD drugs may be observed for at most two years, after which the accumulated damages can't be ignored. Among these accumulated damages are the very undesired conditions that ADHD medications seem to improve in the short-term. These undesired conditions include weakened cognition and learning ability, aggression, lack of motivation, and diminished ability to feel pleasure from anything including the drugs themselves as tolerance builds up, causing people to tend to overdose. The adverse effects of ADHD medications also include vascular disease, high blood pressure and reduced circulation including 23-30% reduced cerebral blood circulation – all of which are caused by the prolonged emergency stress response the drugs create to induce alertness. Vascular problems caused by ADHD medications can result in sudden death as the FDA warns in boxed warnings on drug labels. This is not a conspiracy theory. Every statement in the book is verifiable by credible electronic references. These references allow instant fact-checking by letting readers see the actual long-term studies, allowing readers to verify the drug industry's fraudulent marketing tactics including aggressively funding junk-science, disseminating false information, burying the unfavorable research findings, hiding the adverse reactions or unethically lobbying government officials. Both the current versions and saved copies of the original versions of the electronic references have been provided, to prevent information loss and to prevent the accused parties from obliterating their efforts to mislead or defraud. SOME OF THE QUESTIONS THIS BOOK ANSWERS ARE: Many doctors say That ADHD drugs are safe and effective. How can it be otherwise? Does an ADHD child need medication for a neuro-developmental brain disease like a diabetic needs insulin? What are the long-term consequence of disrupting the brain's chemical equilibrium with ADHD medications? Are ADHD drugs really safe when used under doctor supervision? How much should one worry about their abuse potential? Should "smart drugs" be used short-term to help accomplish difficult goals? Can antidepressants “treat” the inability to feel pleasure and motivation caused by the long-term use of ADHD medications? Why are the laws not strengthened to stop the fraudulent marketing of medications? Are there any well researched drug-free alternatives to eliminating ADHD symptoms and improving cognition?

  • ISBN: 9781370724222
  • Author: Asli Theobald
  • Published: 2016-12-13 07:05:22
  • Words: 58563
Long Term effects of ADHD Drugs (& Antidepressants) Long Term effects of ADHD Drugs (& Antidepressants)