LIGHT CAPACITOR: AN ESSAY
Edward E. Rochon
Edward E. Rochon on Shakespir
Light Capacitor: An Essay
Copyright © 2016 by Edward E. Rochon
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Some Other Works by the Author
[City of Light: An Essay
Cloaking: An Essay
Dirigiplane: An Essay
EMF Banding Model
Flesh Radio: An Essay
God & Square Roots
Gold Standard: An Essay
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Hardwired Drunk: An Essay
Holographic TV: An Essay
Inexpensive Subs: An Essay
Kite Plane: An Essay
Plan RD: An Essay
[Space Plane: An Essay
The New Vauban: An Essay
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Table of Contents
How to store sunlight when evening comes, the clouds and rain come, this the dark cloud in solar energy production. You have flywheels, pumping water uphill, storage batteries, hot water. These all have limitations with respect to location, situation, cost and impact. Additionally, they are all indirect ways to store the energy of light.
A capacitor is an electrical device that stores a charge. They are bell jars for dynamic current (as opposed to static charges.) A light capacitor would store energy as light. The matter of the essay deals with possible ways and means to do this that are not especially exotic, but may require new ways of precisely making metals and/or other reflective material.
Chapter 1: Basic Requirements
: Light must remain in motion to be light and have energy. We cannot have a mass of photons stored between some imagined photo dielectric. It is essentially monopole along with gravity, as opposed to dipolar energy sources such as magnetism and electricity. Why call it monopole? The assumption is that it carries electric and magnetic fields with it, whether as pure waves through a medium or as particles with electromagnetic fields. Michael Faraday detected some deflection of light when passing through a magnetic field. This led to Maxwell’s equations for electromagnetism. Be that as it may, these deflections are insignificant compared to electrons and positive ions. As with matter in general, all forces are canceled out. One might suppose that very strong magnetic fields might contain light in a flow stream, but the energy input would make the effort pointless. We want to store energy, not use up energy in storing it. It is also possible the deflection of light is the result of chemical like attributes of photons, photons in the sense that Isaac Newton described his corpuscles of light. Such nonsense that photons have zero mass at rest (nothing, non-existent) and that motion magically gives nothingness a quantitative mass cannot be logically tolerated. It does not conform to the logical requirements of mass in discrete quantities, is not supported by the evidence of what we can see in nature. The formulations used by these notions are merely algorithms that happen to work within parameters for the tasks employed. There is no need to suppose the nonsense behind these notions as true. The French mathematician, Henri Poincaré devised wave particle and relativity formulations prior to Einstein with the understanding that they were merely formulations to describe discrepancies in light theory current at the time. He supposed waves behaved like particles, while the current evidence indicated waves passed through a medium, while the Michelson-Morley experiment and behavior of black bodies emitting radiation was seemingly inconsistent with this and with the physics of that time. Well, why not just accept Newton’s corpuscles and assume they give off waves or display properties that appear to be waves? No, but we must have a ludicrous wave-particle. We can accept crossing two related fruits to produce a new fruit, but waves are relationships between particles, not particles. Fruits are things in themselves, while a particle is a thing and waves are merely relationships between things. The Theory of Relativity is demonstrably false. There is no evidence to support what is demonstrably false, only misinterpretation of evidence. Quantum Mechanics is a pile of ludicrous improbabilities and impossibilities, inconsistent within its own parameters.
Whether wave or particles, light must keep moving. Beams generally pass through each other without much attenuation with certain exceptions due to interference and reinforcement. To store light, any attenuation must be eliminated. We must also prevent absorption and transformation into infrared (heat), molecular movement, and the attendant distortion of the container that would result from the attempt to store light. Light travels very fast. To save it we must loop it around and around in a toroid or polygonal enclosure of some sort. Preventing absorption requires three things: highly reflective surfaces (mirrors), absence of any gases that might absorb light, and a low angle of incidence of reflection.
: We must keep the reflection of the looping light as far from the perpendicular (the normal) as possible. If light were looping in a loop of small diameter, the angles of incidence against a mirrored surface would be high. The more reflections per unit of length traveled offers more opportunities for energy to be dissipated. If we had a loop the size that CERN has for its particle accelerator, the angles of incidence would be much closer to zero and 180° when reflecting off the surface. Coupled with the fewer reflections per revolution in the loop, the less energy likely to be lost. Big is better but more expensive and inconvenient.
: It would be best if the light passed through a vacuum rather than through optical fibers or gases. Light travels very far through outer space. Space is cold and little of this energy is absorbed by any supposed ether that might be out there, or at any rate, little is absorbed by gases and dust that are known to exist in space due to the extreme rarefaction of these substances compared to the great volume of outer space. So creating high vacuum and vacuum integrity is important.
: As mentioned above for the reflection attributes, size matters. Some possible solutions might be making helices that projected into the earth, inverted skyscrapers. A double helix would allow the beam to reflect upward and downward as well as around. This would increase the time and distance in free space for each reflection interval. This would be more preferable in congested areas of human habitation. It might also be preferable in mountainous areas, a double helix slanted to the mountain slopes. The horizontal great loops would be better for terrain that was barren and relatively flat.
The next chapter discusses some possible solutions, advances in technology required to achieve the results of this very easy to understand concept of a light capacitor. I say easy to understand because we are in the area of well known properties of light, using techniques that have been used for millennia. We require no new breakthrough in understanding the nature of electromagnetism that might bend light around in some efficient manner without mirrors, reflection or perhaps even vacuum.
Chapter 2: The Container
The requirements for the container take into account the need for a highly reflective surface, low angle of incidence and vacuum. Any absorption of energy into the container or from absorption of energy from the circulating light energy would impair the integrity of the mirrored surfaces. Vacuum helps keep things at constant temperatures, and a vacuum is required for the container. The two needs work to aid each other. And big containers aid in low angle of incidence but against keeping a good vacuum.
The problems with keeping a good vacuum are creating a vacuum close to that of outer space in the first place. Then there is keeping the vacuum sealed from the outer world. At 15 psi of pressure, this tends to put great pressure on the container, causing distortion, bad for reflectivity and container vacuum seal integrity. We also need to keep temperature gradations from affecting the container, as these would distort the mirrors and compromise the seals. Vacuum helps keep out temperature changes, but thick container shells are needed to deal with the pressure. A potential solution to this is to swap volume thickness for a smaller, thinner shell but thicker , multi-layered overall container wall. This would also help with the vacuum.
We create concentric rings of tubing around the vacuum light path. Let us say we had 15 rings. The inner space would have a wall with a vacuum on one side and 1 psi of atmosphere on the other side of the wall. It would not need to be as strong as a wall that kept 15 psi out. The second ring has a gradient from 1 psi to 2 psi and so on. In order to maintain integrity, all of the rings, excluding the light pathway, have radiating spokes to strengthen and keep the rings in place. These are made of heat insulating material to keep heat from transferring from the outer rings to the inner rings. These spokes would not interfere with the degrees of vacuum in the rings but would help keep the inner pathway mirrored surfaces from distortion due to heat and vibration changes. We know that vacuum itself helps keep heat or cold away from the outside or inside as with a thermos bottle.
Another thing we could do to maintain structural integrity is to break down the light pathway into smaller loops. Light has very small wavelengths. Maintaining large surfaces of mirroring material to exact specifications is demanding. Our space agency and military developed mirroring surfaces that could be minutely fine tuned to keep distortion to a minimum. Spy satellites are designed to be compact. The large reflector and refractive telescopes on earth would not be feasible. So they bent the light path to fit the satellite body. They lightened the heavy lenses by creating honeycomb like backing to highly polished surfaces that could be corrected when needed for focusing and for compensation of environmental factors that can distort a reflecting surface. We do not have that problem for the most part, but do require exacting specifications for the mirrored surface that must not be distorted by heat and pressure or vibrations. Vacuum also attenuates sound and so vibrations. The multi-layered suggestion made here should help with that. But smaller surfaces by their very nature are easier to minimize distortion, The Mt. Palomar Observatory mirror took a lot longer to make and maintain from distortion than the smaller lens in its spotting telescope. The cold and heat by simple geometry distort the smaller lens proportionately less, and the image light source is smaller on the lens as well. So small is better in that respect.
Think of many tubes packed in a large vacuum body. Between them is the four pointed star formation that you see with the US Steel logo. The star formations are vacuum sealed along with the tubes. The structures of the tubes help keep the other mirrored tube walls in place. We run light through many tubes and tap it as needed from one or many tubes at once. A monochrome light source would move through the tubes more efficiently. We might use different mirroring techniques or materials for different frequencies. In nature, some wavelengths are better absorbed and some better reflected from just about everything. That is why things have different colors. The color best reflected is the predominant color striking the eye. We should research this aspect of mirrored surfaces to see if the concept is worth pursuing. A telescope’s reflective mirror must reflect all colors. A compound mirror reflecting different colors into a combined image is something to think about. It should also aid interstellar spectroscopy, or I assume it would, maybe not.
Laser light is monochrome and travels very well through tight places. But lasers are very inefficient in transforming the source energy into the beam. In my essay on prism lasers, I suggested that breaking down light by chromatic separation of source light into a type of laser tuned to that frequency might be more efficient. But power is wasted. We could consider simply sending monochrome light separated by a prism into the tuned tubes of the capacitor. We should take care that not much energy was wasted going through the prism. But when the sun is shining bright, it is all free energy. We do not have to pay for the source material.
As for the reflecting surfaces, we must push high technology to the limit. The slightest variances in the smoothness of surfaces is counterproductive. We should consider crystallization of surfaces to keep molecules properly aligned with whatever material we use, whether glass, metals or ceramics. We have devices not available to previous ages. This might take much research to develop, but fusion energy has soaked up ungodly amounts of time, effort and money with not a whole lot to show for it. And it would still produce deadly radiation and powerful magnetic fields that some believe are not conducive to human health, though the damage is tenuous and hard to conclusively prove. The magnetic field of the earth is small in comparison and constant. Our machines constantly vary fields and are much stronger. The natural magnetism in minerals are canceled out or constant, perhaps beneficial to health in some instances. It is what our natural environment possesses. We do not and cannot live on the surface of the sun with its immensely strong magnetic fields and variations.
Creating vacuum in the smaller tubes should be easier to achieve and to maintain. The vacuum would exist inside and outside of the tubes, canceling out all pressure variations. The star gaps would also be small and easier to keep in a vacuum state. All the tubes would help to maintain vacuum. This is a thought. If we develop industrial facilities on the moon and in space, we could make tube segments in space, using the vacuum of space to evacuate them. They would be sent down to earth with their ends sealed. Oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and noble gases are rather large molecules that cannot easily penetrate solid surface (or penetrate them at all.) We have very little hydrogen in the atmosphere that is capable of this, nor helium that might in some instances get through. So we create a vacuum chamber to join the segments on earth using a very speedy mass production technique to do so. This should help maintain the vacuum as well. If our space dollars had been spent on useful things for man, instead of looking for space bugs, ET, esoteric black holes, etc, we would have or be much closer to having such industry in space and on the moon. Once infrastructure is in place, they work in synergy to make what is prohibitively expensive today much cheaper in the future. But NASA wants to continue with its Whore Babylon strip tease show in outer space, titillating our curiosity rather than our search for truth and things useful to our lives in the here and now. Curiosity is a low animal function. The pursuit of wisdom is the pursuit of truth, the tree of life to sustain our lives. This is man’s highest calling, not some low animal function. Truth requires an honest mind, moral integrity. These are the benefits of seeking truth in science and in all things. All adds up to wisdom, the great tool for sustaining life and health. By the way, in pursuing the utilization of space for industry and practical things, we would inevitably have to concern ourselves with potential life forms on other worlds and so look for them, and the industrial complex would greatly increase the economic viability of astronomical research in outer space itself, in many ways a superior platform than from the surface of the earth.
Old technology used to buffer oscillators. to get a consistent frequency, from heat and vibrations. We should consider some natural and cheap ways of buffering the loops from seismic and heat activity. We might create a tunnel aqueduct around them, filled with water and the ring supported by tension cables within the water. We should consider using sources of colder and hotter water in a mixer to keep the water in the aqueduct at a constant temperature. We might consider surrounding the aqueduct with anechoic aiding material from nature between the aqueduct and the bedrock. Mud might work. Certain types of powdered rock is a possibility. Some sort of manmade composite material made from waste products is possible. Hydrocarbons have properties that make good buffering. Our fat buffers our kidneys and organs. We use packing peanuts, paper and bubble plastic to buffer things.
As for insertion and extraction points for light, the insertion points should be as close to a tangent line intersecting a curved surface as possible. A tangent to a circle intersects the circumference at only one point. This will not be possible for insertion but should be as close to tangent as possible. The nubs for insertion and extraction will interfere with the rotation of the light in the container. The inner side of the nubs should be mirrored as well. Certain designs should be better than others. Mathematical analysis of the container should provide the necessary data for design. An aperture for allowing more or less light through for each nub could work, something like the pupil of the eye. This would allow more precise measuring of extracted light so as to save the stored light to the greatest extent possible. Waste not, want not.
Are we talking tons of money? If we get mass production in line and economies of scale, we are certainly talking less. If we succeed in storing daylight for nighttime and cloudy weather, clean energy is a great boon and precious asset to clean our environment. Enough energy will destroy all dangerous compounds and reduce mercury, cadmium into purer metals that are easier to control, store, generally less dangerous than their compounds, and useful when properly protected from seepage into where they do not belong, and so turning into dangerous compounds. Energy, clean energy, is good for industry, farming, construction, healthcare, ecology. We need more energy, not less energy to make the world a great place for men to live in. Great energy resources means great wealth to care for biodiversity. We can save the chimpanzees, tigers, botanicals by having the resources coming from great energy wealth to tend to them, fit them into our civilization, the peaceful kingdom that all sane men should desire.
This is just one more of my basic concepts to improve life. If they do not work, the world has wasted nothing in considering them in their leisure. I keep my mind busy. Use it or lose it. If others have already been there, done that, perhaps I have added something useful, a tidbit or two. Looking things up on Google can be daunting with so many hits and trying to isolate what you are looking for. If I have rewritten what has been written, I do not think I am likely to get any royalties from this. If you claim you were there first, it is good publicity for your work. A better world is a better world for all by default. Drunks in a libertarian society are as hurtful to that society as drunks in a welfare state, regardless of what libertarians say. Now whether prohibition is the answer or not to drunkenness is another matter. We tried that and had some bad results. No man is an island entire onto himself, except with respect to his personal integrity. That is what judgment day is about. The atheist idiot, Ayn Rand, who claimed corporate intellect was impossible was a blatant idiot. Two heads are often better than one, let alone millions and billions of heads. Our wealth in society is based on two heads working together. That is why we put up with the corruption within society. Corrupt individuals are corrupt within or without society. Tell that to the corrupt Jean Jacques Rousseau’s of this world. What imbecility!
[Other Works by the Author
Collected Poems I
Collected Poems II
Elements of Physics: Matter
Elements of Physics: Space
Elements of Physics: Time
Unified Field Theory: An Essay
Space as Infinity II
Golden Age Essays
Golden Age Essays II
Golden Age Essays III
Golden Age Essays IV
Golden Age Essays V
My current biography and contact links are posted at . My writings include essays, poetry and dramatic work. Though I write poetry, my main interest is essays about the panoply of human experience and knowledge. This includes philosophy, science and the liberal arts. Comments, reviews and critiques of my work are welcome. Thank you for reading my book.
A preface explains the difficulties of solar power when the sun does not shine, and what a light capacitor is, comparing it to the electrical capacitor. Chapter 1 deals with basic requirements: looping, reflection, vacuum and size. The light must move about a toroid or polygonal container. This requires mirroring of a very high quality to prevent conversion into heat. A vacuum prevents absorption and helps with maintaining a constant temperature and eliminating vibration. A large size makes for fewer reflections per distance traveled, more time in free space, and an angle of incidence closer to the tangent, away from the perpendicular, decreasing absorption and heating of mirrored surfaces that cause distortion. Large rings on flat terrain and double helices for mountainous or urban congested areas proposed that could angle up mountains or go down into the earth, inverted skyscrapers. Some comments on what light is or might be are included. Chapter 2 discusses difficulties and ways and means. The problem of dealing with the vacuum might be remedied by concentric rings of progressively lower psi (pounds per sq. inch) of air pressure. The inner loop is evacuated. The next ring has 1 psi, the next 2 psi, etc., until sea level pressure is reached. Each ring helps eliminate contamination of the loop by heat and vibration. Since light has very small wavelengths, I suggest bundling small vacuum sealed tubes within the larger loop. Each small loop supports the integrity of the other in maintaining vacuum. The four pointed star formations between the tubes would also be in a vacuum. All of this together would allow for thinner tube walls all around. Smaller surfaces are also easier to make perfectly reflective. Laser light would be best to circulate but much power is lost in conversion. Perhaps separation of sunlight by large prisms into monochrome light would be best. Different tubes would store different frequencies that could be mixed as needed upon extraction of light energy from the capacitor. Different mirroring might be suitable for different frequencies, something to look into. Everything should be done to get the highest vacuum and best reflecting surfaces. At some point, space industry could make the small inner tubing in space, sealing the ends for use down on earth. Reflecting surfaces should be as perfect as possible. Crystallization of surfaces could be considered for perfect alignment of molecules. All of this would be pointless if heat and vibrations distorted the mirroring. Besides the vacuum and bundling, placing the ring in a water conduit might buffer the ring when suspended by cables to the wall of the water conduit or aqueduct. Hot and cold water mixing would help keep the conduit water at a constant temperature. We might consider mud or powdered stone outside the water conduit to further buffer the capacitor from environmental pollutants that would distort mirror reflectivity. I make some comments on the philosophy behind current science with particular criticism of NASA, and end with some closing remarks on originality and motivations for such proposals as this.