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Introduction to Open Source Software

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION TO OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

For My Computer Sc. Students

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

By Durgesh

INTRODUCTION

 

This book deals with the basic introduction of computers. It details about the types of computer software available today. It mainly covers the aspect of Open Source Software. It explains how, why and when open source software came into existence. Different types of open source software are explained covering its features, policies along with its advantages and disadvantages. It also gives an outline of Office suite which has multiple applications.

 

Being Computer Science students, you all are well aware that digital computers have two major components – hardware and software.

 

Hardware

 

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p<>{color:#000;}. Hardware is the physical component.

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p<>{color:#000;}. All the computer peripherals are referred to as Hardware.

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p<>{color:#000;}. All the parts that you see and touch are called hardware.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The keyboard, monitor, CPU, mouse, printer and even the electronic circuits and the microprocessor are examples of hardware

 

Software

 

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p<>{color:#000;}. Software is mandatory while using a computer but is not visible.

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p<>{color:#000;}. All the computer programs are referred to as Software.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The instruction needed by a computer to do all the work is called software.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Software is a set of instructions or commands for the computer to do a particular task.

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p<>{color:#000;}. It cannot be touched.

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p<>{color:#000;}. LOGO, PAINT, NOTEPAD, WINDOWS, MS OFFICE are examples of different types of software.

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p<>{color:#000;}. There are two kinds of software available – System and Application software.

 

System Software

 

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p<>{color:#000;}. It is used to control all the operations of the computer.

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p<>{color:#000;}. It helps the computer to run.

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p<>{color:#000;}. It organizes and controls the computer.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Operating Systems, Compilers, Interpreters are examples of System Software.

 

Application Software

 

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p<>{color:#000;}. It is a computer program which helps us to perform a particular type of work.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Application software uses the computer hardware through the operating system.

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p<>{color:#000;}. For example Paint software can be used for drawing pictures, Notepad is used to create some letters and notes.

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p<>{color:#000;}. PAINT, NOTEPAD, LOGO, SOLITAIRE are examples of Application Software.

 

Further Classification

 

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p<>{color:#000;}. Software can be additionally be classified based on its handling and usage.

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p<>{color:#000;}. In the modern world, there are two main types of software:

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p<>{color:#000;}. Proprietary Software

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p<>{color:#000;}. Open Source Software

 

Proprietary software

 

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p<>{color:#000;}. It is defined by having an owner.

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p<>{color:#000;}. It can only be used by those who pay a price to the owner for the right to use it.

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p<>{color:#000;}. It can only be distributed by the owner and most importantly, it can only be modified by the owner.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Proprietary software is computer software on which the producer has set restrictions on use, private modification, copying, or republishing.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Similar terms include “closed-source software” and “non-free software”.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Proprietors may enforce restrictions by technical means, such as by restricting source code access, or by legal means, such as through copyright and patents.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Well known examples of proprietary software include Microsoft Windows, RealPlayer, Adobe Photoshop, Mac OS X, and WinZip.

 

Open Source Software

 

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p<>{color:#000;}. Open Source Software is defined by any “owner” of the software giving up their rights to control use, distribution and modification.

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p<>{color:#000;}. So anyone can use it, anyone can distribute it, and anyone can modify it.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Open source is a development method for software that harnesses the power of distributed peer review and transparency of process.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The promise of open source is better quality, higher reliability, more flexibility, lower cost, and an end to predatory vendor lock-in.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The popularity of Open Source Software is increasing because of its easy availability.

 

Beginnings

 

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p<>{color:#000;}. In the 1970’s Richard Stallman, an American Software developer believed that users are individually free and looked at how the software was being used in the society of that period

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p<>{color:#000;}. He felt that it was crucial to have the source code and it was important to be free to make an improved version and above all crucial to be free to redistribute that to somebody else.

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p<>{color:#000;}. With these thoughts he came up with a widely and popularly used Unix Operating System.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The result was GNU program.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The name “GNU” is a recursive acronym for “GNU’s Not Unix”; it is pronounced g-noo, as one syllable with no vowel sound between the g and the n.

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p<>{color:#000;}. It was created under the GNU General Public License (GNU GPL).

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p<>{color:#000;}. That is, having been granted the right to use modify and redistribute the software under the GPL, the GPL requires you to extend those same privileges under the same terms to others who receive the software from you.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The GPL provides certain rights to anyone receiving a license to software governed by the GPL. Developers that use the GNU GPL protect your rights with two steps:

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p<>{color:#000;}. Assert copyright on the software, and

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p<>{color:#000;}. Offer you this License giving you legal permission to copy, distribute and/or modify it.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Thus the term “Free Software” came into existence.

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p<>{color:#000;}. “Free software” is a matter of liberty, not price.

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p<>{color:#000;}. To understand the concept, you should think of “free” as in “free speech”, not as in “free cold drink”.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Free software is a matter of the users’ freedom to run, copy, distribute, study, change and improve the software.

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p<>{color:#000;}. More precisely, it refers to four kinds of freedom, for the users of the software –

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p<>{color:#000;}. The freedom to run the program, for any purpose.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The freedom to study how the program works, and adapt it to your needs.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your neighbor.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The freedom to improve the program, and release your improvements to the public, so that the whole community benefits.

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p<>{color:#000;}. To cover all the aspects of Free Software a new terminology was created “Open Source Software”

 

What is Open Source?

 

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p<>{color:#000;}. Open source usually refers to software that is released with source code under a license that ensures that derivative works will also be available as source code, protects certain rights of the original authors, and prohibits restrictions on how the software can be used or who can use it.

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p<>{color:#000;}. In general, open source refers to any program whose source code is made available for use or modification as users or other developers see fit.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Open Source is a certification mark owned by the Open Source Initiative (OSI).

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p<>{color:#000;}. Developers of software that is intended to be freely shared and possibly improved and redistributed by others can use the Open Source trademark if their distribution terms conform to the OSI’s Open Source.

 

To summarize, the Definition model of distribution terms require that:

 

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p<>{color:#000;}. The software being distributed must be redistributed to anyone else without any restriction.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The source code must be made available (so that the receiving party will be able to improve or modify it).

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p<>{color:#000;}. The license can require improved versions of the software to carry a different name or version from the original software.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Open source software is usually developed as a public collaboration and made freely available.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Most software that you buy or download only comes in the compiled ready-to-run version. Compiled means that the actual program code that the developer created, known as the source code, has run through a special program called a compiler that translates the source code into a form that the computer can understand.

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p<>{color:#000;}. It is extremely difficult to modify the compiled version of most applications and nearly impossible to see exactly how the developer created different parts of the program. Most commercial software manufacturers see this as an advantage that keeps other companies from copying their code and using it in a competing product. It also gives them control over the quality and features found in a particular product.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Open source software is at the opposite end of the spectrum. The source code is included with the compiled version and modification or customization is actually encouraged. The software developers who support the open source concept believe that by allowing anyone who’s interested to modify the source code, the application will be more useful and error-free over the long term.

 

Distribution Rules for Open Source Software

 

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p<>{color:#000;}. Open source is a development method for software that harnesses the power of circulated peer review and transparency of process.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The promise of open source is better quality, higher reliability, more flexibility, lower cost, and an end to predatory vendor lock-in.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The Open Source Initiative (OSI) is a non-profit corporation formed to educate about and advocate for the benefits of open source and to build bridges among different constituencies in the open-source community.

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p<>{color:#000;}. One of the most important activities is as a standards body, maintaining the Open Source Definition for the good of the community.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The Open Source Initiative Approved License trademark and program creates a nexus of trust around which developers, users, corporations and governments can organize open-source cooperation

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p<>{color:#000;}. Open source doesn’t just mean access to the source code. The distribution terms of open-source software must comply with the following criteria:

 

Free Redistribution

 

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p<>{color:#000;}. One of the rules for Open Source Software is that its license does not restrict any party or person from selling or giving away the software as a component of an aggregate software distribution containing programs from several different sources.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Its license does not require a royalty or other fee with a sale.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Availability of Source Code

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p<>{color:#000;}. Another distribution rule of Open Source Software is that there is availability of the source code.

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p<>{color:#000;}. All the programs include source code, and distribution in source code as well as compiled form. In some instances where some form of a product is not distributed with source code, there would be a well-publicized means of obtaining the source code for no more than a reasonable reproduction cost preferably, downloading via the Internet without any extra charge.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The source code must be the preferred form in which a programmer would modify the program.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Allowing others to modify

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p<>{color:#000;}. The license allows all kinds of changes and amendment on the existing and present work.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The rule is that it must allow distributing the new software to be built under the same terms as the license of the original software.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Work that is based on one or more preexisting works constitutes a derivative work to the extent that the new material added constitutes an original work of authorship.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Such new material may include editorial revisions, annotations, elaborations or other modifications.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Thus making sure that the work or software created and derived after modifying is easier to understand and user friendly.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Users must be allowed to edit the source code to either improve the software or create a derived work, and should be permitted to distribute the result of their work.

 

Integrity

 

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p<>{color:#000;}. The distribution of modified source code must be allowed along with restrictions to ensure the possibilities to differentiate the original source code from the derived works.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Changes to source code must be clearly distinguished from the work of the original author.

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p<>{color:#000;}. This provision protects the authors from gaining a negative reputation from the problems of changes that others have made to their work.

 

No Discrimination

 

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p<>{color:#000;}. The rights attached to the program must apply to all to whom the program is redistributed without the need for execution of an additional license by those parties. The license must not discriminate against any person or group of persons. The author of an open source application may not stop any particular person or group from using their software.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The license must not restrict anyone from making use of the program in a specific field of endeavor.

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p<>{color:#000;}. For example, it may not restrict the program from being used in a business, or from being used for genetic research. The software must allow use in both a business and a school.

 

 

 

Licensing Policy:

 

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p<>{color:#000;}. The rights attached to any program or software must apply to all to whom the program is redistributed without the need for execution of an additional license by those parties.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The rights attached to the program must not depend on the program’s being part of a particular software distribution. If the program is extracted from that distribution and used or distributed within the terms of the program’s license, all parties to whom the program is redistributed should have the same rights as those that are granted in conjunction with the original software distribution.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The license must not place restrictions on other software that is distributed along with the licensed software. For example, the license must not insist that all other programs distributed on the same medium must be open-source software. No provision of the license may be predicated on any individual technology or style of interface.

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p<>{color:#000;}. License Must Not Contaminate Other Software. The license must not place restrictions on other software that is distributed along with the licensed software. For example, the license must not insist that all other programs distributed on the same medium must be open-source software.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The license must be able to be legally distributed along with the software itself. For example, the Linux kernel is published under the GNU General Public License (GPL), which is the most popular. If an end-user changes the source code of the Linux kernel, he should be, and is, permitted to use the same license for his derived work.

 

Examples of Open Source Software

 

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p<>{color:#000;}. Making source code available means anyone with the programming ability can customize the software for their own ends or contribute to the development project directly.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Others can help by reporting bugs and helping with documentation or translation efforts. So this encouragement of interaction between users and developers, and some users becoming developers, creates a positive feedback loop in the software’s evolution. Open source is becoming a very prominent method of software production.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Examples of a few good quality free and open-source software that anyone can download at no cost and use or modify freely are operating system, we server, 3D graphics and animation packages, digital repository, image editor, a suite of compilation tools for various languages like C, C++, java etc, email client, mailing list manager, virtual learning system, web browser, database, office suits that works like MS Office, programming and scripting languages for we development, content management system, file and print server and anything a programmer can think of. Most of these programs are cross-platform, meaning they can be installed on MS Windows, Mac OS X and Linux

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p<>{color:#000;}. Some of the applications like Operating System, Web Browser, Office suits, database software, web server and a programming language have been discussed below:

 

IMPORTANCE OF OPERATING SYSTEM

 

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p<>{color:#000;}. An operating system (commonly abbreviated OS and O/S) is the infrastructure software component of a computer system.

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p<>{color:#000;}. It is responsible for the management and coordination of activities and the sharing of the limited resources of the computer.

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p<>{color:#000;}. An Operating System takes care for all input and output in a computer system.

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p<>{color:#000;}. It manages users, processes, memory management, printing, telecommunication, networking etc.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The operating system acts as an interface between an application and the hardware.

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p<>{color:#000;}. It sends data to a disk, the printer, the screen and other peripherals connected to the computer.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Without an operating system the computer is of no use.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Open Source community has contributed to creation of free operating systems.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Operating systems like Linux, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, FreeDOS, Minix, Iferno, FreeRTOS. OpenSolaris etc are free to use.

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p<>{color:#000;}. They can be downloaded using Internet and worked with.

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p<>{color:#000;}. A programmer can also upgrade these Operating Systems and upload them back into the community.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Out of the above mentioned Operating systems, Linux has become the most used and popular amongst open source competitors.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Linux is a popular free UNIX version. In the server area it has become one of the most popular operating systems. Support for desktop systems is increasing and it has now become a viable Windows alternative.

WEB BROWSER

 

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p<>{color:#000;}. A web browser is defined as a computer program used for accessing websites or information on a network (as the World Wide Web). This is a simple, yet accurate description.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Web browsers come in many different styles, each with their own special features. However, the main reason a person utilizes a web browser is to view web pages on the Internet, similar to the way you are viewing this article right now.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Surfing the web is made possible by Web browsers.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Browsers are basically software programs that allow you to search for and view various kinds of information on the Web, such as web sites, video, audio, etc.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The browser application retrieves or fetches code, usually written in HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) and/or another language, from a web server, interprets this code, and renders (displays) it as a web page for you to view.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The user is needed to tell the browser what web site or specific web page he or she would like to view.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Few examples of Open Source web browsers are Amaya, Camino, Chrome, Elink, Flock, Konqueror, Lynx, SeaMonkey and Mozilla Firefox.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The Mozilla’s Firefox browser was created in 1998.

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p<>{color:#000;}. It is rapidly gaining ground right behind Internet Explorer because of its tabbed browsing, superior security features, and fast load.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Mozilla’s Firefox continues to gain momentum in the web browser wars, steadily eating away at Internet Explorer’s market share.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The browser, which has gathered high praise from both users and developers.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Mozilla’s Firefox web browser has become very popular due to its ease of use, speed, and add-ons.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The Firefox 3 was released in July 2008.

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p<>{color:#000;}. It works on all platforms like Windows, Mac OS and Linux.

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p<>{color:#000;}. It is available in around 45 languages including Gujarati.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The browser can be downloaded free from hhtp://www.mozilla.com/en-Us/firefox.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The new look of the Mozilla Firefox browser is as shown in some of the images below:

 

 

Mozilla Firefox Browser

 

 

Mozilla Firefox Browser

 

 

 

 

OFFICE SUITE

 

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p<>{color:#000;}. Office Suite is a collection of multiple programs that allows us to do operations like creating and editing documents using word processing, spreadsheets, presentations, graphics, databases and more.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Different open source office suites are also available namely OpenOffice.org, Koffice, GNOME office, Lotus Symphony, SoftMaker Office 2006, NeoOffice etc. Lotus Symphony, SoftMaker Office 2006 works only on Windows Operating System, NeoOffice works on Mac Operating System while rest of them are multi OS supported.

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p<>{color:#000;}. OpenOffice 2.x is the leading open-source office software suite and is available in many languages and works on all common computers.

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p<>{color:#000;}. It stores all your data in an international open standard format and can also read and write files from other common office software packages like MS Office.

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p<>{color:#000;}. It can be downloaded and used completely free of charge for any purpose.

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p<>{color:#000;}. It includes all the desktop applications like word processor, spreadsheet, presentation, graphics, databases and more.

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p<>{color:#000;}. It is the result of over twenty years’ software engineering. Designed from the start as a single piece of software, it has a consistency other products cannot match.

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p<>{color:#000;}. A completely open development process means that anyone can report bugs, request new features, or enhance the software.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The result: does everything you want your office software to do, the way you want it to.

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p<>{color:#000;}. It is easy to learn, and if you’re already using another office software package.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Using Open Office 2.x is extremely easy. OpenOffice.org 2 can be downloaded and used entirely free of any license fees.

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p<>{color:#000;}. OpenOffice.org 2 is released under the LGPL license. This means you may use it for any purpose – domestic, commercial, educational, public administration. You may install it on as many computers as you like. You may make copies and give them away to family, friends, students, and employees – anyone you like.

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p<>{color:#000;}. OpenOffice.org 2 contains all the office software you need, in one single package. You don’t have to worry which version to install: one installation program provides everything. OpenOffice.org releases release software several times a year so you can take advantage of new features as quickly as possible.

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p<>{color:#000;}. OpenOffice consists of applications like Writer, Calc, Impress, Base, Draw etc. Below given is an explanation of these applications.

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p<>{color:#000;}. OpenOffice.org 2.x can be downloaded from http://openoffice.org.

WRITER

 

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p<>{color:#000;}. WRITER has everything you would expect from a modern, fully equipped word processor or desktop publisher.

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p<>{color:#000;}. It’s simple enough for a quick memo, powerful enough to create complete books with contents, diagrams, indexes, etc.

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p<>{color:#000;}. It has powerful features like Styles and Formatting, AutoCorrect, AutoComplete, Text Fames and linking.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Writer increases the usefulness of your long, complex documents by generating a table of contents or indexing terms, bibliographical references, illustrations, tables, and other objects.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Writer can read all your old Microsoft Word documents, or save your work in Microsoft Word format too.

 

 

 

OpenOffice Writer Screen

 

 

CALC

 

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p<>{color:#000;}. Calc is the all-purpose spreadsheet application which is similar to MS Excel. Newcomers find it intuitive and easy to learn;

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p<>{color:#000;}. Professional data miners and number crunchers will appreciate the comprehensive range of advanced functions.

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p<>{color:#000;}. It supports a range of powerful features like Natural language formulas which let you create formulas using words (e.g. “sales – costs”) The Intelligent Sum Button inserts a sum function or a subtotal automatically, depending on context.

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p<>{color:#000;}. A wizard guides you through choosing and using a comprehensive range of advanced spreadsheet functions.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Styles and Formatting makes it easy to apply flexible cell formatting options, including freely rotating contents, templates, backgrounds, borders, and many more. You can be your own spreadsheet expert thanks to templates with built-in functions, allowing you to concentrate on your real work.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Scenario Manager allows “what if …” analysis at the touch of a button – e.g. compare profitability for high / medium / low sales forecasts.

 

 

 

 

 

OpenOffice Calc Screen

 

IMPRESS

 

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p<>{color:#000;}. IMPRESS is a truly outstanding tool for creating effective multimedia presentations. Your presentations will stand out with 2D and 3D clip art, special effects, animation, and high-impact drawing tools.

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p<>{color:#000;}. A complete range of Views are supported: Drawing / Outline / Slides / Notes / Handouts to meet all the needs of presenters and audiences, plus an optional multi-pane view to put all the tools at your fingertips.

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p<>{color:#000;}. IMPRESS supports multiple monitors, so that presenters can look at something else while presenting their slides on a projector.

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p<>{color:#000;}. IMPRESS has a complete range of easy-to-use drawing and diagramming tools to spice up your presentation.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Slide show Animation and Effects bring your presentation to life.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Fontworks provides stunning 2D and 3D images from text. Create lifelike 3D images with astounding speed and response.

 

 

 

 

OpenOffice Impress Screen

 

 

 

BASE

 

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p<>{color:#000;}. BASE is a fully featured desktop database management system, designed to meet the needs of a broad array of users, from just tracking your personal CD collection, to producing a corporate monthly departmental sales report.

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p<>{color:#000;}. BASE offers wizards to help users new to database design (or just new to BASE) to create Tables, Queries, Forms and Reports, along with a set of predefined table definitions for tracking Assets, Customers, Sales Orders, Invoices and much more.

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p<>{color:#000;}. When a personal use database is all you need, BASE offers the full HSQL relational database engine, configured for single user, with the data stored right in the BASE file.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Base offers a choice of using Wizards, Design Views or SQL Views for beginners, intermediate and advanced users.

 

 

OpenOffice Base Screen

 

 

DRAW

 

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p<>{color:#000;}. Draw is a powerful graphics package.

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p<>{color:#000;}. DRAW gives the tools to communicate with graphics and diagrams. It is powerful tool for technical or general posters, etc.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Use Styles and Formatting to use all graphics styles.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Manipulate objects, rotate in two or three dimensions; the 3D controller puts spheres, rings, cubes, etc. at your disposal.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Arrange objects: group, ungroup, regroup, and edit objects while grouped. Sophisticated rendering let you create photorealistic images with your own texture, lighting effects, transparency, perspective, and so on.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Smart connectors make short work of flowcharts, organisation charts, network diagrams, etc.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Dimension lines automatically calculate and display linear dimensions as you draw.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Use the picture Gallery for clipart; create your own art and add it to the Gallery.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Import graphics from all common formats (including BMP, GIF, JPEG, PNG, TIFF, and WMF).

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p<>{color:#000;}. Use DRAW’s free ability to create Flash (.swf) versions of your work.

 

 

OpenOffice Draw Screen

 

 

MATH

 

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p<>{color:#000;}. MATH is OpenOffice.org’s component for mathematical equations. It is most commonly used as an equation editor for text documents, but it can also be used with other types of documents or stand-alone.

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p<>{color:#000;}. It is an application to create, edit and save a mathematical equation.

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p<>{color:#000;}. When used inside WRITER, the equation is treated as an object inside the text document. Similarly, one can also insert these into other OpenOffice.org programs like CALC and IMPRESS.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Creates equations and formulae for your documents.

 

 

 

 

 

 

OpenOffice Math Screen

 

 

WEB SERVER

 

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p<>{color:#000;}. A Web Server is software used to host web sites which are used on the Internet, Intranet and Extranet.

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p<>{color:#000;}. It helps in sending web pages and other documents to browsers that request these resources using the HTTP protocol.

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p<>{color:#000;}. A Web server is a program that, using the client/server model and the World Wide Web’s Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), serves the files that form Web pages to Web users (whose computers contain HTTP clients that forward their requests).

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p<>{color:#000;}. Every computer on the Internet that contains a Web site must have a Web server program. Two leading Web servers are Apache, the most widely-installed Web server, and Microsoft’s Internet Information Server (IIS).

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p<>{color:#000;}. Open Source Community has various web servers namely AOL Server, Apache HTTP Server, Apache Tomcat, Boa, Jetty, lightpd, Zope etc

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p<>{color:#000;}. Web servers often come as part of a larger package of Internet- and intranet-related programs for serving e-mail, downloading requests for File Transfer Protocol (FTP) files, and building and publishing Web pages.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Apache HTTP (Web Server) is the most used Open Source Web Server. The first official public release of the Apache Server was made in April 1995; members of the Apache Group formed the Apache Software Foundation to provide organizational, legal and financial support for the Apache HTTP Server.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The foundation has provided and placed the software on a solid footing for future development and greatly expanded the number of Open Source software projects.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The Apache HTTP Server Project is an effort to develop and maintain an open-source HTTP server for modern operating systems including UNIX and Windows NT.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The goal of this project is to provide a secure, efficient and extensible server that provides HTTP services in sync with the current HTTP standards.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The Apache HTTP Server is a project of the Apache Software Foundation.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The users often contribute back to it by providing feature enhancements, bug fixes and support for others in public lists and newsgroups.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Apache Software is used widely on Internet by large and small companies, research institutions, schools and individuals using their intranet environment. Apache HTTP server can be downloaded from http://httpd.apache.org

 

 

 

DATABASE

 

*
p<>{color:#000;}. A good Database is a base of almost all applications

*
p<>{color:#000;}. The cost of proprietary database software is too high.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Open Source has provided a solution with a very good relational management software called MySQL and is supported by an active Community Edition.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Platform flexibility is a stalwart feature of MySQL with all flavors of Linux, UNIX, Solaris, Mac OS and Windows being supported. And, of course, the open source nature of MySQL allows complete customization for those wanting to add unique requirements to the database server.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. With high-speed load utilities, distinctive memory caches, full text indexes, and other performance-enhancing mechanisms, MySQL offers all the right ammunition for today’s critical business systems.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. It is freely downloadable software and is supported by an active community of open source developers and enthusiasts. It can be downloaded from http://www.mysql.com

 

 

APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT TOOLS

 

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Applications Development is a process used for Software Creation.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Application Development tools enable developers to create a range of applications and services.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Open Source has provided various components for Application Development

*
p<>{color:#000;}. The most commonly used component of Application Development is an Integrated Development Environment commonly known as IDE.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. The NetBeans IDE is open Source and is written with the help of Java programming language.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. NetBeans IDE is a free, open-source Integrated Development Environment for software developers. You get all the tools you need to create professional desktop, enterprise, web, and mobile applications with the Java language, C/C++, and even dynamic languages such as Java, C, C++, PHP, Ajax etc. NetBeans IDE is easy to install and use straight out of the box and runs on many platforms including Windows, Linux, Mac OS X and Solaris.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. NetBeans IDE is much more than a Java IDE: We designed NetBeans IDE as a modular developer tool for a wide range of development tasks. The base IDE includes an advanced multi-language editor, debugger and profiler integration, file versioning control, and unique developer collaboration features.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. It supports the programmers to create desktop applications such as window and menu management, settings and storage.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. NetBeans is the first IDE to support the JDK 6.0 features (Java Standard Edition Development Kit)

*
p<>{color:#000;}. The NetBeans Platform and IDE are free for commercial and noncommercial use. They are supported by Sun Microsystems.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. It also supports drag and drop features that allow automatic code generation which can be changed by the programmer to enhance its functions, according to the requirements.

 

NetBeans IDE

 

Below given table consists list of some other commonly used open source software. The list states their usage and from which website they can be downloaded. These are just a few examples. Many more such software can be searched with the help of Google.

 

<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. Usage
<>.
p<>{color:#000;}. Available at Site
<>.
<>.
<>.
<>.
<>.
<>.
<>.
<>.
<>.
<>.
<>.
<>.
<>.
<>.

 

Linux Operating System is the major open source software.

 

ADVANTAGES OF USING OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE

 

*
p<>{color:#000;}. In the following paragraphs we look at the advantages and benefits of using Open Source software.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. The most important advantage of using open source software is that it is available at no cost at all or at a very low cost. The programmer has no financial burdens while using open source software.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. The availability of the source code and the right to modify enables the unlimited tuning and improvement of a software product. It also makes it possible to port the code to new hardware, to adapt it to changing conditions, and to reach a detailed understanding of how the system works. Source code availability also makes it much easier to isolate bugs, and (for a programmer) to fix them.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. The right to redistribute modifications and improvements to the code, and to reuse other open source code, permits all the advantages due to the modifiability of the software to be shared by large communities.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. The right to use the software in any way. This, combined with redistribution rights, ensures (if the software is useful enough), a large population of users, which helps in turn to build up a market for support and customization of the software, which can only attract more and more developers to work in the project. This in turn helps to improve the quality of the product, and to improve its functionality.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. As the domain of usage increases, we can use it for various activities like building a website, an E-commerce application or a desktop application.

 

DISADVANTAGES OF USING OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE

 

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Open source development is an extremely good concept, but it has some disadvantages too. However, some of them are only disadvantages if we are stick to classical (proprietary) development models, which is of course not the case with open source. Let us review some of them:

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Finding something related to open source is very difficult. It is sometimes difficult to know that a project exist, and its current status.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. There is not much advertising for open source software, especially for those projects not directly backed by a company willing to invest resources in marketing campaigns.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Also there is no guarantee that development will happen. In other words: it is not possible to know if a project will ever reach a usable stage, and even if it reaches it, it may die later if there is not enough interest.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Of course, this is also a problem with proprietary software, but it is more evident in the case of open source.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Especially when a project is started without strong backing from one or more companies, there is a significant initial gap, when the source base is still immature and the development base is still being built. If it is not possible to get funding or enough programmers cooperating at this stage, the project just ``dies’‘, or perhaps slowly fades out.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Some countries are accepting software and algorithm patents. It is very difficult to know if some particular method to solve a software problem is patented, and so the community can be considered guilty of intellectual property infringement.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. The specific problems are that availability of source code simplifies the detection of patent infringements by patent holders, and that the absence of a company that holds all the rights on the software also makes it difficult to use the mechanisms in use by companies to defend from patent litigation, like cross-licensing or payment of royalties.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. The above given disadvantages do exist, but they are not considered significant to stop people from using open source software.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Maximum numbers of people have started using open source technologies. The best example of this is usage of Linux operating system, Apache web server and Mozilla Firefox browser.

 

I. Chose the correct option from the given answers:

 

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Digital computers have two major components known as _____ and ______.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Freeware, Software

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Hardware, Software

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Hardware, Software

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Systemware, Hardware

#
p<>{color:#000;}. ______________ is the physical component of a computer.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Hardware

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Software

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Peripheral

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Both (a) and ©

#
p<>{color:#000;}. There are ______ types of software. The _________ software helps user in using the computer effectively.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. 3, system

#
p<>{color:#000;}. 4, application

#
p<>{color:#000;}. 2, system

#
p<>{color:#000;}. 2, application

#
p<>{color:#000;}. ________software allows user to do a specific job or accomplish a specific task.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Application

#
p<>{color:#000;}. System

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Free

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Shared

#
p<>{color:#000;}. __________ and ________ are examples of software.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Logo and Mouse

#
p<>{color:#000;}. MS Office and table

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Paint and Notepad

#
p<>{color:#000;}. All of these

#
p<>{color:#000;}. ___________ controls, runs, organizes the working of a computer.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. System Software

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Application Software

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Interpreter

#
p<>{color:#000;}. All of these

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Software is further classified into _______________ more categories

#
p<>{color:#000;}. 1

#
p<>{color:#000;}. 2

#
p<>{color:#000;}. 3

#
p<>{color:#000;}. 4

#
p<>{color:#000;}. _________software is developed by a company and is based on some strict rules.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. System

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Open Source

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Proprietary

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Application

#
p<>{color:#000;}. ___________software is developed by a company or a community, which can be edited based on requirement.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. a) System

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Open Source

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Proprietary

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Application

#
p<>{color:#000;}. ________ is an example of proprietary software.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Mac OS

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Linux

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Open Source

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Stallmen

#
p<>{color:#000;}. _________developed a free version of the widely used UNIX operating system.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Paul Stallmen

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Bill Gates

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Richard Stallmen

#
p<>{color:#000;}. None of these

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Unix Operating System’s free version was developed in ______________.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. 1960

#
p<>{color:#000;}. 1970

#
p<>{color:#000;}. 1980

#
p<>{color:#000;}. 1985

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The full form of GPL is ___________.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. General Proprietary License

#
p<>{color:#000;}. General Public License

#
p<>{color:#000;}. General Particular License

#
p<>{color:#000;}. None of these

#
p<>{color:#000;}. A_____________ software can be used and modified by anyone.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Proprietary

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Open Source

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Both (a) and (b)

#
p<>{color:#000;}. None of these

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The GPL was designed to ensure that the ___________ is available to all users.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Application

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Scripts

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Source code

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Programs

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The term “free software” means that anyone could _________ the software.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Learn

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Modify

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Open

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Execute

#
p<>{color:#000;}. __________ Software is a matter of liberty and not price.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. American

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Free

#
p<>{color:#000;}. GPL

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Shareware

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Open Source is a certification mark owned by the ____________.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Open Source Initiative

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Open Source Intelligence

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Open Source Interest

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Open Source Improvement

#
p<>{color:#000;}. In computer terminology, the term source represents the ________ of the program

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Language

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Code

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Script

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Model

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Open source can be defined as “A source code that is open to _________.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Access

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Changes

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Software’s

#
p<>{color:#000;}. None of these

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The term open source gained popularity with the rise of the _______.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Programmers

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Knowledge

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Internet

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Initiative

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The _________provided access to various development models and many opportunities.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Microsoft

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Internet

#
p<>{color:#000;}. World

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Linux

#
p<>{color:#000;}. In the _____________model of development the users of the software product are provided with an executable file.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Open source

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Centralized

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Graphical

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Scripted

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The _______________ model is made available for public collaboration

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Open source

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Centralized

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Graphical

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Scripted

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The open source software distribution rule is ____________

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Free Redistribution

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Availability

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Allow modification

#
p<>{color:#000;}. All of these

#
p<>{color:#000;}. For software to be qualified as open source software certain _______ rules should be followed

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Script

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Modification

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Distribution

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Grouping

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Free ___________ of software means that license will not restrict any party from selling the software.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Redistribution

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Modification

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Distribution

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Grouping

#
p<>{color:#000;}. When the open source software is redistributed, the license does not require a ________.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Law

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Royalty

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Permission

#
p<>{color:#000;}. None of these

#
p<>{color:#000;}. _______of the source code indicates that when the program is given to the user, it must include the source code.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Redistribution

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Modification

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Distribution

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Availability

#
p<>{color:#000;}. __________of the open source software makes it possible to derive new software from existing one.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Redistribution

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Modification

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Distribution

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Grouping

#
p<>{color:#000;}. ________ of author’s code means that the license requires that derived work should carry a different name or version from the original software.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Integrity

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Honesty

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Dishonesty

#
p<>{color:#000;}. None of these

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The license of the open source software does not _______ against any person or group of persons.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Work

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Discriminate

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Classify

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Contribute

#
p<>{color:#000;}. ________policy is a major issue when distributing open source software.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Legal rights

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Legalization

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Licensing

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Execution

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The ___________ of the open source must be technology neutral

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Rights

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Formats

#
p<>{color:#000;}. License

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Presentation

#
p<>{color:#000;}. A _________ of open source works like MS Office.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Office suite

#
p<>{color:#000;}. 3D graphics

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Office

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Word

#
p<>{color:#000;}. ________applications can be created using open source methodology.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Operating system

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Web server

#
p<>{color:#000;}. 3D graphics

#
p<>{color:#000;}. All of these

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Without an _____________ the computer is of no use.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Printer

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Operating system

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Blue Tooth

#
p<>{color:#000;}. All of these

#
p<>{color:#000;}. ___________community has contributed a lot to creation of free operating systems.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Resources

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Browsers

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Software

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Open Source

#
p<>{color:#000;}. ____________ are free Operating Systems.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Linux

#
p<>{color:#000;}. FreeBSD

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Minix

#
p<>{color:#000;}. All of these

#
p<>{color:#000;}. ___________ is not a free operating system

#
p<>{color:#000;}. OpenBSD

#
p<>{color:#000;}. FreeDos

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Inferno

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Microsoft

#
p<>{color:#000;}. ____________ can be done with the free Operating System.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Downloading

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Experimenting

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Upgrading

#
p<>{color:#000;}. All of these

#
p<>{color:#000;}. __________ is the Operating System is the most used amongst its open source competitors.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Unix

#
p<>{color:#000;}. FreeBSD

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Solaris

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Linux

#
p<>{color:#000;}. _________ is one of the most common software on Internet.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Games

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Yahoo

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Web Browser

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Both (a) and (b)

#
p<>{color:#000;}. __________ is an Open Source Web Browser.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Amaya

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Mozillafox

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Internet Explorer

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Both (a) and (b)

#
p<>{color:#000;}. __________web browser began its journey in 1998.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Internet Explorer

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Mozilla Firefox

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Unix

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Linux

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Firefox 3 was released in ___________.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. July 2007

#
p<>{color:#000;}. June 2008

#
p<>{color:#000;}. July 2008

#
p<>{color:#000;}. June 2007

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Firefox is available in around _________ languages.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. 45

#
p<>{color:#000;}. 50

#
p<>{color:#000;}. 55

#
p<>{color:#000;}. 40

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Firefox can also run on _____________ platform.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Mac OS

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Windows OS

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Linux OS

#
p<>{color:#000;}. All of these

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Firefox can be downloaded from ___________

#
p<>{color:#000;}. http://www.mozilla.com/en-UK/firefox

#
p<>{color:#000;}. http://www.mozilla.com/en-US/firefox

#
p<>{color:#000;}. http://www.mozillafirefox.com/en-US

#
p<>{color:#000;}. All of these

#
p<>{color:#000;}. ____________ is a collection of multiple programs.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Mozilla Firefox

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Operating System

#
p<>{color:#000;}. c) Web Browser

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Office suite

#
p<>{color:#000;}. ______________ office is an open office suite.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. MSOffice

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Mozilla Firefox

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Windows

#
p<>{color:#000;}. GNOME Office

#
p<>{color:#000;}. ___________includes all the desktop applications like word processor, spreadsheet etc and more.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. OpenOffice.org

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Linux.com

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Desktop

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Windows

#
p<>{color:#000;}. OpenOffice stores data in an _________open standard format.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Indian

#
p<>{color:#000;}. International

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Chinese

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Canadian

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The docs created in _______ can be easily opened and edited in OpenOffice 2.x and vice versa.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. MSOffice

#
p<>{color:#000;}. DOffice

#
p<>{color:#000;}. KOffice

#
p<>{color:#000;}. None of these

#
p<>{color:#000;}. All types of files can easily be opened in OpenOffice provided they are saved in ______ format.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Understandable

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Compatible

#
p<>{color:#000;}. General

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Document

#
p<>{color:#000;}. OpenOffice is released under the _________license.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. LGP

#
p<>{color:#000;}. LGT

#
p<>{color:#000;}. LLP

#
p<>{color:#000;}. GLP

#
p<>{color:#000;}. __________ is an application for Word Processing which is similar to MS Word.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Lotus

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Writer

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Notebook

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Textbook

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Writer has powerful features like ______________.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Autocorrect

#
p<>{color:#000;}. AutoFormat

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Linking

#
p<>{color:#000;}. All of these

#
p<>{color:#000;}. ________ is a spreadsheet application similar to MS Excel.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Notepad

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Writer

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Calc

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Impress

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Calc has a range of powerful features like _______ button, which helps in adding up values.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Minus

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Add

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Sum

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Max

#
p<>{color:#000;}. __________is a tool for creating effective multimedia presentations similar to MS PowerPoint.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Notepad

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Writer

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Calc

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Impress

#
p<>{color:#000;}. All the presentations of Impress can be converted into a _____, html, or a flash file.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. word

#
p<>{color:#000;}. pdf

#
p<>{color:#000;}. rtf

#
p<>{color:#000;}. imp

#
p<>{color:#000;}. _________ is an open source database that enables us to manipulate database data.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Dbase

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Access

#
p<>{color:#000;}. c) Base

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Acrobat

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Using Base’s own built in __________ database Engine, tables can be modified.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. SQL

#
p<>{color:#000;}. HSQL

#
p<>{color:#000;}. MySQL

#
p<>{color:#000;}. SQ

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Full form of SQL is ___________.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Structured Query Language

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Special Query Language

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Spectra Quick Language

#
p<>{color:#000;}. None of these

#
p<>{color:#000;}. __________ is an application that can be used to create a quick sketch or a complex plan.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Paint

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Draw

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Drawing

#
p<>{color:#000;}. None of these

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Mathematical equations can be added in a document using _________ application in a document using ________ application.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Math

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Mathematica

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Apply

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Formulas

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Draw allows users to draw photorealistic _________.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Documents

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Spreadsheets

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Images

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Presentations

#
p<>{color:#000;}. OpenOffice.org can be downloaded from __________.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. http://www.openoff.org

#
p<>{color:#000;}. http://www.openoffice.org

#
p<>{color:#000;}. http://www.openoffice.com

#
p<>{color:#000;}. http://www.opoffice.org

#
p<>{color:#000;}. A ______is a software used to host web sites which we use on the internet.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Web Server

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Web Browser

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Web Source

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Web Site

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The Web server’s job is to send the web pages to browsers using _________ protocol.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. HTML

#
p<>{color:#000;}. HTTP

#
p<>{color:#000;}. FTP

#
p<>{color:#000;}. WAIS

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Open Source Community has various web servers namely ________, AOL server, etc.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Apache HTTP Server

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Linux server

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Unix Server

#
p<>{color:#000;}. None of these

#
p<>{color:#000;}. _____________ is the most used open source web server.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. AOL Server

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Apache HTTP Server

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Apache Tomcat

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Boa

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The first official public release of the Apache Server was made in April _____.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. 1992

#
p<>{color:#000;}. 1993

#
p<>{color:#000;}. 1994

#
p<>{color:#000;}. 1995

#
p<>{color:#000;}. In ______, members of the Apache Group formed the Apache Software Foundation.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. 1999

#
p<>{color:#000;}. 1998

#
p<>{color:#000;}. 1996

#
p<>{color:#000;}. 1997

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The __________ server project is a collaborative software development effort aimed at creating a freely available source code.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Apache HTTP

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Linux

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Unix

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Windows

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Apache software is used on Internet not only by large and small companies in their _______environment.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Internet

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Intranet

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Extranet

#
p<>{color:#000;}. None of these

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The Apache HTTP server can be downloaded from ____________.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. http://httpd.apache.org

#
p<>{color:#000;}. http://http.apache.org

#
p<>{color:#000;}. http://http.apache.com

#
p<>{color:#000;}. http://httpd.apache.net

#
p<>{color:#000;}. _________ Community Edition provides a good relational database management system.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. SQL

#
p<>{color:#000;}. MySQL

#
p<>{color:#000;}. HTTP

#
p<>{color:#000;}. HPSQL

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The full form of IDE is _______________.

#
##
p<>{color:#000;}. Integrated Development Environment

##
p<>{color:#000;}. Initiative Developed Environment

##
p<>{color:#000;}. Image Developed Environment

##
p<>{color:#000;}. None of these

___________ IDE is an open source.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. NetBots

#
p<>{color:#000;}. NetBeans

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Netgone

#
p<>{color:#000;}. All of these

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The above IDE is written in the __________ programming language.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. C

#
p<>{color:#000;}. C++

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Java

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Basic

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The above IDE is the first IDE to fully support ___________ features.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. JDK 6.0

#
p<>{color:#000;}. JDK 6.1

#
p<>{color:#000;}. JDK 7.0

#
p<>{color:#000;}. None of these

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The above IDE is supported by _______________.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Sun Microsystems

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Microsoft

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Gnome

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Apache

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The above IDE supports various programming and scripting languages like ______.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Java

#
p<>{color:#000;}. C++

#
p<>{color:#000;}. PHP

#
p<>{color:#000;}. All of these

#
p<>{color:#000;}. ___________ is an Open Source Digital repository software.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Blender

#
p<>{color:#000;}. DSpace

#
p<>{color:#000;}. GNOME

#
p<>{color:#000;}. GIMP

#
p<>{color:#000;}. __________ is an open source Linux desktop environment.

##
p<>{color:#000;}. Blender

##
p<>{color:#000;}. DSpace

##
p<>{color:#000;}. GNOME

##
p<>{color:#000;}. GIMP

#
p<>{color:#000;}. __________ is an open source programming / scripting language.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Moodle

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Thunderbird

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Samba

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Perl

#
p<>{color:#000;}. __________ is an open source Database.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Perl

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Plone

#
p<>{color:#000;}. PostgreSQL

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Python

 

 

 

 

 

 

Special Thanks to Google Search, Wikipedia and all the Websites related to Open source in helping me compile all the above information. @2009

27


Introduction to Open Source Software

This book deals with the basic introduction of computers. It details about the types of computer software available today. It mainly covers the aspect of Open Source Software. It explains how, why and when open source software came into existence. Different types of open source software are explained covering its features, policies along with its advantages and disadvantages. It also gives an outline of Office suite which has multiple applications.

  • ISBN: 9781370851140
  • Author: Durgesh
  • Published: 2017-06-10 05:35:16
  • Words: 7036
Introduction to Open Source Software Introduction to Open Source Software