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Grammar Launch Intermediate 1: Completely master 15 English grammar structures u

p={color:#000;}.

Anthony Kelleher

BA TESOL & Linguistics

GRAMMAR LAUNCH

Intermediate 1

www.SirEnglish.com

Text copyright © 2016 Anthony Kelleher

All Rights Reserved

About the author

Anthony Kelleher is an English teacher from London, England. He regularly publishes books in the ESL and English Language fields. He is the author of Launch Your English and, most recently, Perfect Your Punctuation. He currently lives in Seoul, South Korea.

Contents

Introduction

  • The steps to launch your English to the next level*

[* Had better (you had better do, she had better do etc.)*]

Enough and too (hot enough, too hot)

[* So and such (so nice, such a nice person)*]

[* Used to (I used to go, he used to see etc.)*]

[* Present continuous (I am doing, he is doing etc.)*]

Present simple (I do, she does etc.)

Past simple (I did, they went etc.)

[* Present perfect (I have done, she has done etc.)*]

[* Going to (I’m going to do, she’s going to do etc.)*]

Will (I will do, she will do etc.)

Relative clauses (who and that)

[* Verb + -ing (enjoy playing, hates reading etc.) *]

Both, neither and either

Even

[* Phrasal verbs using ‘in’ and ‘out’ (put out, join in…)*]

What next?

Launch your English to the next level. Grab the Grammar Launch MP3 Pack at:

www.SirEnglish.com/GrammarLaunch

Introduction

First of all, congratulations on wanting to improve your English! You are on the way to becoming more fluent with the use of Grammar Launch Intermediate 1 and the Grammar Launch MP3s.

This book is written to be as concise as possible so that learning is made easier. Grammar is briefly explained, then there are lots of examples in use, so that you can learn through real, natural English. The point of the grammar explanation is to get a basic understanding of each structure. The main learning takes place with the example sentences and the Grammar Launch MP3s.

All the examples in this book are natural ways of using each grammar structure. You won’t find ridiculous examples like you see in some textbooks such as “look at that monkey dancing” or “please hold this gun while I bend down to tie my shoelace.”

There are more than 450 natural, native-like example sentences to read and listen to. The reason for so many examples is because each time you see or hear the grammar in a new way, your brain understands even more deeply, and so the new language will easily stick.

All the forms that are studied are in bold so that it is easier to notice what you are learning in each unit.

All the Grammar Launch MP3s are available on the download page: www.SirEnglish.com/GrammarLaunch

Let’s get started with launching your grammar and your English to the next level!

The steps to launch your English to the next level

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p<>{color:#000;}. Read the explanation so you understand the main meaning and use of the grammar structure.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Read the example sentences a few times so that you understand each grammar structure more deeply. Learning with these short, focused examples is an excellent way to train your brain and ingrain the new grammar.

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p<>{color:#000;}. After you have read the sentences, download the Grammar Launch MP3 files.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Listen to the MP3 for the grammar structure you learned. The audio will allow you to absorb the new English quickly and easily.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Listen many, many times so that the English sticks in your brain. You can put the MP3s onto your smartphone and listen anywhere you go: on the bus, on the train, while walking, while in the gym etc. Get into the habit of listening to each MP3 many times and you will see huge, rapid improvements in your English.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Practice speaking aloud by listening to each sentence and then pausing the audio as you repeat after me. This will further ingrain the new grammar into your mind.

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p<>{color:#000;}. When you have completed one unit, move onto the next grammar structure in this book, download the MP3 and follow the steps above again.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Keep listening and reading all the grammar structures once you have finished the book. Keep refreshing them until you become natural and fluent in each area.

Had better (you had better do, she had better do etc.)

Meaning

Look at this example:

Your sickness is getting worse. We had better go to the doctor today.

The words in bold indicate that we should strongly do something. Had better means that you should do something. If you don’t do this thing, there will be a problem or danger in the future.

Structure

The structure for had better is:

Had better + basic verb (walk, see, visit, go etc.)

For example:

We had better leave now, otherwise we will be late.

The negative structure is:

Had better + not + basic verb

For example:

You had better not be late for work. There is an important meeting today.

The question structure is:

Hadn’t + I/he/she/it/we/you/they + better + basic verb

For example:

Hadn’t we better drive? It’s quite far to walk.

Things to note

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p<>{color:#000;}. Had better is usually contracted in spoken English to I’d better, you’d better, she’d better etc.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Had better is similar to should, but not exactly the same. Use had better for saying “this is a good thing to do now” and use should to say “this is a good thing to do in general”:

It’s going to rain soon. We had better take an umbrella. (A good thing to do now)

When it rains, you should always take an umbrella. (A good thing to do in general)

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p<>{color:#000;}. Had better is always used to talk about the present or the future:

Come on, we’d better go now or else we’ll be late. (Present)

We haven’t seen my parents for months. We’d better visit them tomorrow. (Future)

#
p<>{color:#000;}. We often use or, or else, or otherwise to say what will happen if we don’t follow the advice:

You had better stop eating junk food every day, or/or else/otherwise you will get fat.

Detailed examples in use

I have an important meeting in 20 minutes. I’d better hurry, otherwise I’ll be in trouble with the boss. = I should be quick and get to the meeting on time. If I don’t there could be a problem or danger: perhaps the boss will become angry.

You look terribly ill. You’d better not go to school today. = You should not go to school today because you look very ill. If you go to school, there could be a problem or danger: you might get more ill and you won’t work very well.

Hadn’t we better take the train instead of the car? There will be lots of traffic. = Shouldn’t we take the train and not the car? If we take the car, there could be a problem or danger: we might get stuck in lots of traffic.

Mixed examples

Here are mixed examples for had better. Study them, listen to the MP3s and train your brain to master had better.

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p<>{color:#000;}. It’s going to be very hot and sunny later. We’d better bring some sun cream and our sun hats.

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p<>{color:#000;}. You’d better set two alarms, otherwise you won’t wake up early tomorrow.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Graham: “Who else shall we invite to the wedding?”

Marie: “We’d better invite Aunt Joan, otherwise she will be really upset.”

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p<>{color:#000;}. The new Marvel movie is released tomorrow. I’d better book the tickets now, otherwise we won’t get a seat at the cinema.

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p<>{color:#000;}. My toothache is getting worse and worse every day. I’d better book a dentist appointment as soon as possible.

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p<>{color:#000;}. You’d better eat a large breakfast. You need lots of energy for your performance today.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Hadn’t you better call your mother? You promised you would call her today.

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p<>{color:#000;}. You’d better close the windows and lock the door when you leave the house.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Everyone is tired after the long journey. We’d better stay in today and relax.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Sam had better not borrow my car without asking again. Otherwise I’ll be really angry.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Ken is extremely busy in there. You’d better not disturb him for a while.

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p<>{color:#000;}. You haven’t paid the house rent for last month. You had better pay soon, otherwise the landlord will be annoyed.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The new Turkish restaurant is so popular. We’d better book a table early.

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p<>{color:#000;}. George, your classwork and homework are not good enough. You’d better try harder, otherwise you won’t get into university.

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p<>{color:#000;}. This meat looks bad. We’d better not eat it.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Your car is absolutely filthy. You’d better clean it before you pick up Uncle Lee.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The computer keeps crashing and deleting all my work. We’d better get it fixed.

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p<>{color:#000;}. We haven’t seen your parents for a few months. We’d better visit them soon.

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p<>{color:#000;}. My eyesight is getting worse and worse. I’d better get my eyes checked and buy some new glasses.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Lila is really angry with you. You’d better hide!

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p<>{color:#000;}. Hadn’t we better put a bigger lock on this door? I’m worried about thieves in the area.

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p<>{color:#000;}. This President has promised so much for the people of the country. He’d better not break his promises, or else there will be huge public anger.

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p<>{color:#000;}. This movie is so boring. It had better finish soon, otherwise I’ll just walk out before the end.

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p<>{color:#000;}. I’d better throw this broken ladder away, otherwise someone will get hurt.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Mike had better pick up that broken glass. It’s dangerous with these kids running around.

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p<>{color:#000;}. I’d better start cooking now. The guests will arrive in two hours.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Michael, you are rushing your classwork. You’d better slow down, otherwise you’ll make lots of mistakes.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Sorry Paul, but we’d better not buy the new car you want. It’s too expensive for us now.

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p<>{color:#000;}. You’d better not sit too close to me. I have a cold and I don’t want you to catch it.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Your novel is fantastic, but you’d better rewrite this chapter because it’s not exciting enough.

Now grab the Grammar Launch MP3 Pack for had better at www.SirEnglish.com/GrammarLaunch

Enough and too (hot enough, too hot)

Meaning

Look at these examples:

I’m 18 years old now. I am old enough to drive.

The words in bold indicate that the person is the necessary age to drive. It means the person is the age needed to drive.

John, you need to slow down. You are driving too fast.

The words in bold indicate that John is driving faster than is needed or necessary. He needs to slow down.

Structure

The structure for enough is:

Adjective/adverb + enough

For example:

I think I am strong enough to lift this on my own.

The zebra ran quickly enough to escape from the lion.

And

Enough + noun

For example:

I have enough money to buy the car I like.

The structure for too is:

Too + adjective

For example:

This car is too old. Let’s buy another one.

Things to note

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p<>{color:#000;}. Compare enough and too:

This bed is big *enough*. = It is a good size for me.

This bed is not big *enough*. = It needs to be bigger.

This bed is too *big*. = It needs to be smaller.

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p<>{color:#000;}. We can use enough without a noun if we mention the noun before or if we know what the person is talking about:

Jane: “I’m going to buy some more wine for the guests.”

Paul: “No, we have enough.” (= we have enough wine).

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p<>{color:#000;}. We can use much and many with too. Much is for uncountable nouns, many is for countable nouns:

I ate too much ice cream today. I feel really sick now.

There were too many people at the beach today. We couldn’t sit down anywhere.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Very often, we use for somebody/something (noun) with enough and too:

Our school doesn’t have enough space for the *children*.

That t-shirt is too big for *you*.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Very often, we use to do (verb) something with enough and too:

The weather isn’t warm enough to have a picnic today.

She is too young to drink alcohol.

Detailed examples in use

I want to play in the school football team, but I’m not good enough = I’m not as good as is necessary to join the team. I need to be better in order to play in the team.

The thief moved quietly enough to avoid being heard by anyone. = The thief was so quiet that no one heard him.

Do we have enough food for the party tonight? = Do we have the necessary amount of food for the party? Is it sufficient or do we need more?

This question is too difficult for me. Can you help? = The question is more difficult than I can handle. Please help me.

Mixed examples

Here are mixed examples for enough and too. Study them, listen to the MP3s and train your brain to master enough and too.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Teacher: “Come on Robert. You’re not working quickly enough.”

Robert: “But these questions are too difficult for me.”

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p<>{color:#000;}. Company CEO: “What do you think of the interviewee?”

Assistant: “I don’t think he has enough experience for the job. He is too young.”

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p<>{color:#000;}. The cake I baked isn’t sweet enough. It needs more sugar.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The famous author C.S. Lewis famously said, “You are never too old to set another goal or to dream a new dream.”

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p<>{color:#000;}. Sorry, there aren’t enough chairs for everyone to sit down.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Sorry, I’m too busy to talk now. Can you call me back later?

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p<>{color:#000;}. The piano was too heavy to move, so we called a company to help us.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Daniel: “Do we have enough time to visit my parents on the way home?”

Samantha: “No, it’s too late. Let’s visit them tomorrow.”

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p<>{color:#000;}. I need to buy a new suitcase. This one isn’t big enough for all my stuff.

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p<>{color:#000;}. I’m going to buy some things from the shop. Shall I buy some milk or do we have enough?

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p<>{color:#000;}. Man: “This road is too dangerous to play on. Go to the park.”

Children: “But the park is too far away.”

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p<>{color:#000;}. Harry: “Do you ever want to run your own business?”

Natalie: “Definitely not. I’m not patient or determined enough to run a business.”

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p<>{color:#000;}. James is an excellent student, but his work is too messy. Sometimes it’s not clear enough.

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p<>{color:#000;}. This curry is too spicy for me to eat. My mouth is on fire!

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p<>{color:#000;}. Jane and Emma saw Johnny Depp at the movie premiere, but they couldn’t get close enough to take a picture with him.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Michael speaks some Spanish, but not enough to have a conversation.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Carl: “How is the food?”

Brian: “The pizza is too salty for me.”

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p<>{color:#000;}. Brazil beat Mexico 4-0. The Brazilian team was too strong for the Mexicans.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Rita: “How was your trip to Canada? Did you enjoy it?”

Toby: “It was amazing. There are so many beautiful places to see. We didn’t have enough time to see everything we wanted.”

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p<>{color:#000;}. This file is too large to put onto my USB drive. I’ll have to find another way.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Gary: “What do you think of my painting?”

Art teacher: “It’s very good, but it could be better. There’s not enough colour over here, and this part is too white.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Wow, this house is perfect. There is a pool, a large driveway, and enough space for the kids to run around.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Waiter: “Do you have enough wine or would you like some more?”

Customer: “No thanks, we have enough.”

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p<>{color:#000;}. Peter: “Let’s go to the beach this weekend.”

Emma: “It’s not warm enough to go to the beach. Let’s wait until the weather gets warmer.”

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p<>{color:#000;}. If you’re determined enough, you can do anything in life. With enough dedication anything is possible.

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p<>{color:#000;}. There are too many cars and too much pollution in this city. I’m thinking about moving to another place.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Muhammad Ali once said, “He who is not courageous enough to take risks will accomplish nothing in life.”

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p<>{color:#000;}. Clara: “I’m really sorry, but I’m too sick to go to work today.”

Boss: “No problem. Make sure you get enough rest.”

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p<>{color:#000;}. Edward: “I’m going to paint the bedroom today. Is this colour bright enough?”

Gina: “Oh no, that colour is too strong. Let’s choose a softer colour.”

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p<>{color:#000;}. Nowadays, phones are small enough to carry around with us, but they weren’t always so small. In the 1980s, they were too big to carry easily.

Now grab the Grammar Launch MP3 Pack for enough and too at www.SirEnglish.com/GrammarLaunch

So and such (so nice, such a nice person)

Meaning

Look at these examples:

The restaurant was great. The food was so delicious.

The restaurant was great. They served such delicious food.

The words in bold make the meaning stronger. The food wasn’t just delicious. Is was very delicious.

Structure

The structure for so is:

So + adjective/adverb

For example:

John is so slow at driving.

John drives so *slowly*.

The structure for such is:

Such + adjective + noun

For example:

John is such a slow *driver*.

Things to note

We often use so and such with that to express how we feel or what we are going to do. For example:

The weather is so beautiful that I’m going to have a picnic.

It’s such a rainy day that I’m going to stay inside.

You can also leave out that:

The weather is so beautiful I’m going to have a picnic.

It’s such a rainy day I’m going to stay inside.

Detailed examples in use

James is so kind. He helped me move all my furniture to my new house. = James is very kind.

The cars raced past so quickly that I couldn’t even see them. = The cars moved so fast. I couldn’t even see them because they were so fast.

Look at the Taj Mahal. It’s such a beautiful building I can’t stop staring at it. = The Taj Mahal is very beautiful. I can’t stop looking at it because of its beauty.

Mixed examples

Here are mixed examples for so and such. Study them, listen to the MP3s and train your brain to master so and such.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The iPhone was such an amazing invention. It really changed the world.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The food was so bad that we complained to the manager of the restaurant.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Nina and I had such a wonderful time in Vietnam we didn’t want to come home.

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p<>{color:#000;}. It only took us ten minutes to get to your house. I didn’t realize you lived so close to us.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The 9/11 terrorist attacks in New York were such a shock that most people remember exactly what they were doing at the time.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Gina, you’re such a sweet little girl!

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p<>{color:#000;}. Paul is so strong that he can lift me above his head! He’s got such big muscles.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Oh my god, it’s so late. Let’s go home now.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Mahatma Gandhi was such an inspirational man that he peacefully led his country to independence.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Tim just got back from Las Vegas. He lost so much money on gambling that he is worried about telling his wife.

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p<>{color:#000;}. London is a great city to live in, but it’s so expensive.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Usain Bolt sprints so quickly that the other athletes have almost zero chance to win.

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p<>{color:#000;}. As a doctor you can earn so much money, but it’s such a stressful job.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Our dog died last week. Phillip is so sad that he can’t stop crying.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The neighbours are driving me crazy! Their music is so loud the walls are starting to shake.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Your English is so fluent now. How did you improve so rapidly?

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p<>{color:#000;}. Hi Mike, I’m so sorry, but I’m going to be late. There is such a lot of traffic on the roads today.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Roy: “Kevin, it’s so nice to see you again!”

Kevin: “Hi Roy. I haven’t seen you for such a long time.”

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p<>{color:#000;}. Shakespeare was such a masterful writer that his work is still studied and celebrated today.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The movie was so boring I fell asleep halfway through.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Russia is such a vast country that it takes days to cross it by car.

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p<>{color:#000;}. We went to a Rolling Stones concert last night. They were so energetic and impressive.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The roads were so icy and so dangerous that the government issued a warning.

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p<>{color:#000;}. I haven’t eaten since breakfast. I’m so hungry I could eat a horse.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The new Spiderman movie is incredible. It’s so good that I went to see it twice.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Leonardo da Vinci was such a genius that some experts believe his IQ to be one of the highest ever.

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p<>{color:#000;}. What have you got in this bag? It’s so heavy I can’t lift it!

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p<>{color:#000;}. The ballet dancer moved so beautifully that the audience were silent in amazement.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Some parts of the world’s oceans are so deep that we don’t even know what’s down there.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Some fans were so excited to see Brad Pitt that they fainted.

Now grab the Grammar Launch MP3 Pack for so and such at www.SirEnglish.com/GrammarLaunch

Used to (I used to go, he used to see etc.)

Meaning one

Look at this example:

Nowadays, I don’t play sports. But I used to play sports every day. I used to play football, tennis, rugby and badminton.

The words in bold indicate that something happened often in the past (an action), but doesn’t happen now. This meaning shows that I played lots of sports before, but now I have changed. Now I don’t play lots of sports.

Meaning two

Look at this example:

Hong Kong used to be a British colony, but it was handed back to China in 1997.

The words in bold indicate that something was true in the past, but isn’t true now. This meaning shows that Hong Kong belonged to Britain before, but now it has changed. Now it isn’t true, because it belongs to China.

Structure

The structure for used to is:

I/we/you/they/he/she/it + used to + basic verb (be, go, play, visit etc.)

For example:

She used to love chocolate, but now she doesn’t eat it.

The negative structures are:

I/we/you/they/he/she/it + didn’t + use to + basic verb

For example:

We didn’t use to enjoy baseball, but now we love it.

and

I/we/you/they/he/she/it + never + use to + basic verb

For example:

I never used to eat spicy food, but now I really enjoy it.

The question structure is:

Did + I/we/you/they/he/she/it + use to + basic verb

For example:

Did you use to live in New York?

Things to note

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p<>{color:#000;}. Used to is always to talk about the past. There is no present tense or future form of this structure. If you want to talk about the present, use the present simple.

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p<>{color:#000;}. When using the negative didn’t use to or the question did you use to, notice that there is no ‘d’ at the end of used to. This is because the past tense is marked with didn’t and did, so there is no need for the ‘d’ in this case.

Detailed examples in use

Meaning one examples:

I used to visit my best friend every week, but he moved recently. = Before, I visited my friend weekly, but now I don’t. This action has changed from the past.

Peter didn’t use to work very hard, but now he is very diligent. = Before, Peter wasn’t a hard worker, but now he is. This action has changed from the past.

I never used to talk to Rob, but now we get along very well. = Before, I didn’t talk to Rob, but now I do. This action has changed from the past.

Did you use to eat lots of chocolate as a child? = Before (when you were a child), did you eat lots of chocolate? Was this action true in the past? Or was this untrue?

Meaning two examples:

I used to have a lovely dog, but it died last year. = I had a dog before, but now I don’t because it died. It was true I had a dog before, but it isn’t true now.

This building didn’t use to be a department store. = This building was something else before, but now it is a department store. It is a department store now, but this wasn’t true before.

Did this used to be a nice neighbourhood? = Was it true before that this was a nice neighbourhood? I don’t think it is nice now, but was it nice before?

Mixed examples

Here are mixed examples for used to. Study them, listen to the MP3s and train your brain to master used to.

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p<>{color:#000;}. People used to believe the earth was flat.

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p<>{color:#000;}. My wife used to spend so much money on shoes. Now she has calmed down.

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p<>{color:#000;}. My son didn’t use to read very much, but now he loves it.

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p<>{color:#000;}. I never used to like coffee, but nowadays I drink two or three cups a day.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Albert used to watch TV a lot. Thankfully, he is watching it less now.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Did you use to work at the supermarket near Vine Street? I think I recognize you.

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p<>{color:#000;}. We used to live in a tiny town, but we moved to a big city a few years ago.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Gary bought a car recently. He used to ride a motorbike, but it was so dangerous.

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p<>{color:#000;}. There used to be so many restaurants on this street. Now there are just clothes shops.

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p<>{color:#000;}. When you lived in Japan, did you use to eat lots of sushi?

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p<>{color:#000;}. My cat doesn’t play much anymore because it’s getting old. It used to be so playful and energetic.

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p<>{color:#000;}. When I was a university student, I used to live with three flatmates. It was so much fun.

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p<>{color:#000;}. You used to be such a kind, generous person. What happened to you?

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p<>{color:#000;}. Neil: “Nice camera. Do you often take photos?”

Andy: “Not anymore, but I used to be a keen photographer.”

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p<>{color:#000;}. I didn’t use to enjoy exercise, but now I am addicted. I run for an hour every morning.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Bob used to wear glasses, but he recently switched to contact lenses. He prefers them.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Lisa used to be a real party animal, but she rarely goes out now.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Tony: “Do you like sport?”

Robert: “Not anymore. I used to love watching and playing sport, but I don’t have time nowadays.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Where is the supermarket that used to be here? Did it move to a new location?

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p<>{color:#000;}. Did you use to visit the beach often when you lived in Hawaii?

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p<>{color:#000;}. Ryan used to have curly hair as a child. He used to look so cute!

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p<>{color:#000;}. Oscar: “Let’s visit Green Park.”

Janet: “No, let’s try a different one. Green Park used to be nice, but now it’s full of litter.”

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p<>{color:#000;}. It used to take me more than an hour to get to work by car because of all the traffic. Now it only takes 30 minutes because I cycle.

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p<>{color:#000;}. I didn’t use to like the countryside and nature, but as I get older I’m appreciating it more and more

#
p<>{color:#000;}. I didn’t use to speak English very well, but after listening to a lot of English content and practising speaking, I am getting much better.

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p<>{color:#000;}. London never used to be famous for food, but now its restaurants are considered some of the world’s best.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Many African countries used to be French colonies, but they are now independent nations.

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p<>{color:#000;}. My two sisters used to argue a lot when they were younger.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Did China use to have a royal family?

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Nokia used to be the number one phone manufacturer in the world. Now it’s declined massively.

Now grab the Grammar Launch MP3 Pack for used to at www.SirEnglish.com/GrammarLaunch

Present continuous (I am doing, he is doing etc.)

Meaning one

Look at this example:

John is on the plane. He is on his way to Hawaii. John is flying to Hawaii.

The words in bold indicate the present continuous. This meaning shows that John is flying right now, at the time of speaking. The action is continuing and isn’t finished.

Meaning two

Look at this example:

Sarah is talking on the phone. She says to her friend, “I’m reading an amazing book at the moment. I highly recommend it.”

The words in bold indicate the present continuous. This meaning shows that Sarah is reading a book nowadays. She has started it, but she hasn’t finished it. She isn’t reading it at the time of speaking.

Meaning three

Look at this example:

Frank is talking to the CEO of the company. He says to the CEO, “The company is growing rapidly this year. We are having an amazing 12 months.”

The words in bold indicate the present continuous. This meaning shows that the company is doing well around this time period (one year). It is changing over this time period.

Structure

The structure for the present continuous is:

Am/is/are + -ing verb

For example:

I am eating dinner.

He is walking to the shop.

They are shouting very loudly.

The negative structure is:

Am/is/are + not + -ing verb

For example:

I am not studying at the moment.

It is not working very well.

They are not watching the football match.

The question structure is:

Am/is/are + subject + -ing verb

For example:

Am I doing it properly?

Is he sleeping yet?

Are you looking in the right place?

Things to note

Note that we often contract the subject and the verb:

I am going = I’m going

He/she/it is going = he’s/she’s/it’s going

We/you/they are going = we’re/you’re/they’re going

I am not doing = I’m not doing

He/she/it is not doing = he’s not or he isn’t/she’s not or she isn’t/it’s not or it isn’t doing

We/you/they are not doing = we’re not or we aren’t/you’re not or you aren’t/they’re not or they aren’t doing

Detailed examples in use

Meaning one examples:

I am working in here. Please be quiet. = I am in the middle of working (right now). I have started working but haven’t finished.

He isn’t working. He’s on a break. = He isn’t working (right now). He often works, but right now he isn’t.

Hi James, I need to talk. Are you driving? = Are you driving right now?

Meaning two examples:

I am learning Spanish. It’s a fascinating language. = I am learning Spanish nowadays (but I am not studying at this moment).

Jane isn’t studying hard nowadays. She’s starting to become lazier. = Jane is not studying very well these days and is getting lazy.

Are you watching any cool dramas? = Are you watching any dramas nowadays? Not right now, but these days.

Meaning three examples:

I’m improving in mathematics this year thanks to Mrs Johnson. She’s a great teacher. = I am improving over this time period (this year).

My investment has made lots of money, but it isn’t doing well this month. = The investment is losing money over this time period (this month).

Is your new book selling well this week? = Is the new book selling many copies over this time period? (This week).

Mixed examples

Here are mixed examples for the present continuous. Study them, listen to the MP3s and train your brain to master the present continuous.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Please turn down that music. I’m working!

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Simon’s friend: “Hello, is Simon there?”

Simon’s mum: “Yes, but he’s taking a shower. I’ll tell him to call you back.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Sarah is having so much fun in Thailand. She’s relaxing on a beautiful beach right now, soaking up the sun.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Your baby is growing up so quickly! Is she doing well at kindergarten?

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Are you watching the new series of Game of Thrones? It’s so exciting!

#
p<>{color:#000;}. What a beautiful day! The weather is getting better and better.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Look at that lion! It’s eating a huge lump of meat.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Come on, it’s getting late. We should go home now.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Come on Paul. We’re going to the bar to watch the football match.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Ouch! Sally, you’re standing on my foot.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The world’s population is increasing, and will probably continue to rise for the next century.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Unfortunately, you can’t see the crocodile today. It’s sleeping and is hidden away from view.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Well done Tommy! You’re working very hard today. Keep up the good work.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Nick was sick all weekend. He isn’t feeling better today so he won’t be able to come to the party.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. I’m not dating Dan anymore. We broke up last month.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. I’m taking a course on childcare. I go to college in the evenings to study.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Mum: “What’s Anthony doing?”

Dad: “He’s watching TV in his bedroom.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Gemma had to go home early. She’s not feeling too good after eating that spicy food.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Come on, let’s go outside! It’s not raining anymore.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. You’re getting more and more fluent in English. Are you studying hard?

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Dan, how are you? How is your new business going?

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Teacher: “Will you children please be quiet?”

Children: “We’re not talking, sir.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. You’re not throwing the ball properly. Watch me.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. This has been a fantastic few years for the company: profits are rising, the company is growing and we are starting to become known internationally.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. These baby hamsters are not much fun. They’re not doing anything!

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Welcome to London! Are you enjoying trip?

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Is that Paul driving a new Ferrari?

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Frank is working extremely hard, but he’s not getting any recognition from the boss.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. They are building a gigantic skyscraper in the middle of the city. Have you seen it?

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Nowadays, the world is changing dramatically: the internet is connecting people, smartphones are changing the way we communicate and cities are offering opportunities like never before.

Now grab the Grammar Launch MP3 Pack for the present continuous at www.SirEnglish.com/GrammarLaunch

Present simple (I do, she does etc.)

Meaning one

Look at this example:

Jane teaches at a private school. She teaches science to secondary school students.

The words in bold indicate the present simple. This meaning shows that Jane teaches (this is her job). It doesn’t mean that she is teaching at this moment. This is something that happens regularly (she teaches regularly). She isn’t teaching right now, but she teaches at a private school.

Meaning two

Look at this example:

The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.

The words in bold indicate the present simple. This meaning shows factual information: the sun rises in the east and sets in the west. This is always true and is factual.

Structure

The structure for the present simple is:

I/we/you/they + basic verb

He/she/it + basic verb + s

For example:

I walk home from work every day.

He walks very quickly.

The negative structure is:

I/we/you/they + don’t + basic verb

He/she/it + doesn’t + basic verb

For example:

They don’t watch television very much.

She doesn’t play outside too often.

The question structure is:

Do + I/we/you/they + basic verb

Does + he/she/it + basic verb

For example:

Do they usually work hard?

Does he often go to the park?

Things to note

For the present simple meaning one (things that happen regularly) we often use words and phrases to say how often we do things. Phrases such as every day, twice a week, once a year, very often etc. For example:

Jane teaches at the school five days a *week*.

I visit my parents once a *month*.

Sam goes to France very often for his job.

Detailed examples in use

Meaning one examples:

In my free time I play computer games, read books and go to the cinema. = I regularly do these things, but I’m not doing them right now.

She doesn’t watch sports, so she won’t enjoy this football match. = She doesn’t regularly watch sports. She might have watched sports before, but she doesn’t regularly do it.

Let’s play a game. Do you play poker? = Do you often play poker? Or are you not a poker player?

Meaning two examples:

The earth orbits the sun. = It is a fact that the earth goes round the sun.

The earth isn’t flat. = It is a fact that the earth isn’t flat. (am, is and are can be present simple forms too).

Do mammals lay eggs? = Is it a fact that mammals lay eggs or not?

Mixed examples

Here are mixed examples for the present simple. Study them, listen to the MP3s and train your brain to master the present simple.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Do you drink beer or wine?

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Michael speaks four languages. He speaks English, Russian, Japanese and German. I only speak one!

#
p<>{color:#000;}. This library opens at 7am and closes at 6pm.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Wild animals cause many car accidents. Drivers accidentally hit the animals or panic when they see the animals.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. A lexicographer is someone who writes dictionary entries.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Harry doesn’t go to university. He works as an online language tutor.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. How often do you take your dog to the park?

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Marco: “Where does Jisung come from?”

Paulo: “He is from South Korea.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. These kittens are so tiny and cute! They are staring at me with their lovely little eyes.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Cows produce milk. We use the milk to produce cheese, butter, yoghurt and other things.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. What time does this bank shut?

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The World Cup takes place every four years. The Olympics are the same.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Nature is incredible. I always watch nature documentaries to learn more about wildlife.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Hillary: “Where do you work?”

Janet: “I work for a large law firm in London. The firm specializes in labour law.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Simon, you don’t go outside enough. I suggest you go out and get some fresh air.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Interviewer: “What do you do well that makes you a good fit for this company?”

Interviewee: “I always put in 100% effort and I promise to do the same if you give me the job.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. People in England drink a lot of tea. They usually drink their tea with milk.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Vegetarians don’t eat any meat or fish. Vegans are the same, but also don’t consume any dairy products.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Robert: “What kind of movies do you like?”

Sally: “I love action and horror moves. But I hate romance movies.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Linda: “Does your husband know Paul?”

Rachael: “Yes, they met before. He knows Paul through a mutual friend.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Student: “Teacher. What does ‘inquisitive’ mean?”

Teacher: “Good question. ‘Inquisitive’ means ‘curious’ or ‘interested in learning things’. You are an inquisitive boy!”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. How many times a day does the bus go on the tour?

#
p<>{color:#000;}. There are three flights to New York daily. The first leaves at 9am, the second leaves at 3pm and the final one leaves at 9pm.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. I am selling my car. I bought it last year, but I don’t drive it very much. Do you want to buy it?

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Jill: “What do you do?”

Mike: “I’m a novelist. I write short novels and publish them through my own small publishing company.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Student: “How does a penguin protect its egg from freezing?”

Teacher: “It protects the egg under a flap, which keeps it warm.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Katie said that the new restaurant is wonderful. She recommends that we go and try it.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Ian travels so much. He goes away five or six times every year. I really envy him!

#
p<>{color:#000;}. My mum is a fantastic cook. She cooks Italian, French and Japanese cuisine very well.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. It takes around six hours to get from London to New York by plane.

Now grab the Grammar Launch MP3 Pack for the present simple at www.SirEnglish.com/GrammarLaunch

Past simple (I did, they went etc.)

Meaning

Look at this example:

Shakespeare was a famous playwright, poet and actor. He was born in Stratford, England in 1564. He wrote world-famous plays such as Romeo and Juliet. He got married at the age of 18, and later moved to London where he began a successful career. He retired in his home town and died in 1616.

The words in bold indicate the past simple. This meaning shows that the action is finished and complete. It is in the past.

Note that many past simple verbs end in -ed (stopped, jumped, visited etc.) These are regular verbs.

Other verbs are irregular, and their past tense form is different (drove, went, heard etc.)

Structure

The structure for the past simple is:

I/he/she/it/we/you/they + past tense verb

For example:

I visited the zoo yesterday.

He ran really quickly.

They bought a new car.

The negative structure is:

I/he/she/it/we/you/they + didn’t + basic verb

For example:

I didn’t visit Paul yesterday because he was sick.

She didn’t go to school.

We didn’t enjoy the movie.

The question structure is:

Did + I/he/she/it/we/you/they + basic verb

For example:

Did I perform well on stage?

Did Paul find his keys?

Did your family have a good time in France?

For the verb be (am/is/are) the past simple tense is formed with was/were:

I was born in 1985.

Lee and Fiona were at the party last night.

Was Sam upset when you saw her?

Were you naughty when you were a child?

Detailed examples in use

I went to the theme park last week. = The action is finished. I went there in the past.

Michael didn’t like the meal today. = Michael thought the meal was bad. (Today can mean in the past or the future depending on the tense. In this case, it’s in the past.)

Did Lisa buy the new dress? = Did Lisa complete the action of buying the dress? Even if she now has the dress, the action of buying is in the past.

Mixed examples

Here are mixed examples for the past simple. Study them, listen to the MP3s and train your brain to master the past simple.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Fiona: “Where did you go during the summer holidays?”

Andrea: “We went to Greece. It was fabulous!”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. It was roasting so I took off my coat.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The party lasted 10 hours. We got home at around 3am and slept straight away.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Jason: “Where did you learn how to play the guitar?”

Arron: “My older brother gave me lessons last year, then I found a private tutor.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Ryan: “Did you visit the Statue of Liberty in New York?”

Patrick: “Of course we did! It was incredible.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Steve Jobs created Apple in 1976. He started the company in his garage.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Daniel is extremely busy, so I didn’t disturb him.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. When you were at school, were you a good student?

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Laura spent so much money last weekend. She bought a really expensive dress and new shoes.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The lady fell over and broke her arm. She went to the hospital in an ambulance.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. As we relaxed on the grass, the birds flew above us in the clear blue sky. It was so peaceful.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Did you see Tony today? He borrowed one of my books but didn’t return it to me.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. In many people’s eyes, Muhammed Ali was the greatest boxer ever.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. How was the weather in Barcelona? Did you see any of Gaudi’s gorgeous architecture?

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The meal we had at the new Italian restaurant was delicious, and it didn’t cost much.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The roads were so icy this morning, so I didn’t drive to work. I walked instead.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Eric: “What did you do at the weekend?”

Justine: “Jack and I took a short trip to Cornwall. We stayed there for one night and then came back the next day.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Man first landed on the moon in 1969. It was an amazing feat of human ingenuity.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Ronaldo shot from outside the penalty box and scored an incredible goal which won the match.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. I wonder, was Shakespeare a good English student at school?

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Brad: “Did you remember to give the camera back to Mark?”

Norma: “Oh no! I forgot. I’ll drive to his place and give it to him now.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. I just remembered! Gary told me that he can’t come today because he has a doctor appointment.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The Mona Lisa was an impressive painting to see, but I imagined it to be much bigger.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Bill Gates set up his foundation in 2000, which donates huge sums of money to the poor and needy.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Bella ate a huge breakfast this morning. She didn’t eat lunch or dinner because she was so full.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. We are so sorry we didn’t have time to visit you. We were extremely busy.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. People say that Christopher Columbus ‘discovered’ America. In reality, he was simply the first European to visit.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The show we went to last night was quite dull. The singers didn’t sing very well, and the dancers weren’t very impressive.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. I once skied down a very difficult slope, and I fell and broke my leg. I didn’t go skiing for a long time after that.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Ryan and Chris climbed a mountain yesterday. They were exhausted this morning so they didn’t want to come.

Now grab the Grammar Launch MP3 Pack for the past simple at www.SirEnglish.com/GrammarLaunch

Present perfect (I have done, she has done etc.)

Meaning one

Look at this example:

William: “Have you travelled much Tina?”

Tina: “Yes, I’ve visited over 10 countries in Europe. But I haven’t visited the USA yet. That is next on my list.

The words in bold indicate the present perfect. This meaning shows that Tina has visited all these countries in her life up to now (the present day). She will visit more countries in the future, but up to today, she has visited over 10 in Europe.

Think of this meaning as in my life up to now.

Been to = visited. Been is the past participle of go in this example.

Meaning two

Look at this example:

Robert has eaten so much food today. He has had two burgers, half a pizza and a huge slice of cake.

The words in bold indicate the present perfect. This meaning shows that you have done something over a period of time (today) up until now. Robert has eaten all this food so far today. He will eat more, but so far he has eaten this much.

We can use many time words with the present perfect: today, this week, this year, this morning etc. When we use them, we always mean that the time period is continuing now and will continue in the future. You can think of it like the phrase so far or up to now.

Meaning three

Look at this example:

This is really scary. I’ve never driven before. This is the first time I’ve ever driven a car!

The words in bold indicate the present perfect. This meaning shows that it’s the first time you have done something in your life. This person is driving a car for the first time ever.

We can also use the second time, third time etc. to say it’s the second time it’s happened in my life.

We can also use different time words like today, this week etc. to say it’s the third time it’s happened this week.

Never = not in my life.

Ever = in my life.

Structure

The structure for the present perfect is:

I/we/you/they + have + past participle verb (eaten, gone, driven, lost etc.)

He/she/it + has + past participle verb

For example:

I have eaten many kinds of food.

She has won lots of awards.

The two negative structures are:

I/we/you/they + haven’t + past participle verb

He/she/it + hasn’t + past participle verb

and

I/we/you/they + have + never + past participle verb

He/she/it + has + never + past participle verb

For example:

I haven’t been to a football match this year.

He hasn’t eaten any food today.

You have never been to a football match.

He has never eaten meat.

The question structure is:

Have + I/we/you/they + past participle verb

Has + he/she/it + past participle verb

For example:

Have they spoken to John?

Has she broken a bone?

Things to note

#
p<>{color:#000;}. In the present perfect, we contract has and have with the subject. For example he’s (he has), she’s (she has), I’ve (I have), you’ve (you have) etc.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. We use ever to mean in your life. For example:

Have you ever met a famous person? = In your life, have you ever met a famous person?

#
p<>{color:#000;}. We use never to mean not in your life. For example:

I have never seen the movie Titanic. = In my life, I have never see Titanic.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. We use been to mean visited or went in the present perfect. For example:

I have been to Mexico three times.

We’ve been to three weddings this week.

Detailed examples in use

Meaning one examples:

Jane has owned dozens of cars. She likes changing them often. = In her life, Jane has owned many cars. Up to this point, she has owned many. She will continue to own many in the future, too.

I haven’t visited Asia. Where do you recommend I visit? = In my life, I have not been to Asia. I will visit Asia in the future, but so far I haven’t been.

Have you seen Titanic? = In your life, have you ever seen the movie Titanic? Up to this point, have you ever watched it?

Meaning two examples:

I have had so many problems this week. = This week, up to now, I have had many problems. The week will continue. Maybe I will have more problems, maybe I won’t.

We haven’t served a single customer today. It’s so quiet. = Up to this point today, no customers have come in. Maybe they will come later, but so far none have come.

Have you been to the dentist this year? You should go twice a year. = So far this year, have you been to the dentist?

Meaning three examples:

This is the second time this week you’ve arrived late for work. = This week, the person has been late two times so far.

Tim is not answering his phone. That is the third time he hasn’t answered me today. = Today, up to now, Tim hasn’t answered his phone three times.

Mixed examples

Here are mixed examples for the present perfect. Study them, listen to the MP3s and train your brain to master the present perfect.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Have you ever been to Greece? I highly recommend you go.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. I haven’t eaten any fruit today. Experts recommend we eat five pieces a day.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. I’ve never tried caviar, but I really want to.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Where is the most interesting place you have ever been?

#
p<>{color:#000;}. My car is broken down. It’s the third time it has broken down this year.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Has William worked hard this term? Has he done all his homework well?

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Brian is incredibly fit. He has run in 20 marathons, and he plans to do another one next month.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. This is the most peaceful place I have ever visited. It’s like paradise!

#
p<>{color:#000;}. I’ve never seen that woman before. Is she the new employee?

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Paulo: “Is this the first time you’ve visited London?”

Shinjo: “No, I have been here many times before.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Warren Buffet and Bill Gates have donated billions of dollars to charitable causes.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Edward made a New Year’s resolution to read more. He has read 20 novels so far this year.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Who is the most famous person you have ever seen or met?

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Chris: “Is this new Marvel movie good?”

Larry: “I don’t know, I haven’t seen it. Shall we go and watch it?”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Sorry, I am really bad at tennis. This is the first time I have ever played.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Let’s plan something special for Mike’s birthday. Has he ever been to Paris?

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Paula: “Can you play poker?”

Gary: “Yes, but I haven’t played for over a year.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. I have never won any money on the lottery, but I’ve spent so much on it over the years.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Can you believe it? Andrew has never travelled by plane. He is terrified of flying.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. I haven’t eaten any chocolate this year. I’m on a diet.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Recently, I have studied hard for the test. I haven’t slept much.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Pamela has worked so hard this year that I think she deserves a bonus.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Chris has won a writing award for the second time this year.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Wow! This is the first time I’ve eaten Korean food and I am impressed.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Over the last few days, we have been to three parties. We are completely exhausted now!

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Have you heard anything from James recently? I haven’t seen him for a long time.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Student: “Sorry sir, I didn’t do my homework.”

Teacher: “That’s the second time this week you haven’t done it.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. We can go horse riding when we visit Germany. Have you ever ridden a horse?

#
p<>{color:#000;}. I’ve drunk five cups of coffee so far today. I’m trying to stay awake after the late night.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. I cannot believe Natasha missed the flight! That’s the second time she has done that.

Now grab the Grammar Launch MP3 Pack for the present perfect at www.SirEnglish.com/GrammarLaunch

Going to (I’m going to do, she’s going to do etc.)

Meaning one

Look at this example:

We are going to visit New York next month. We’re going to see the Statue of Liberty and the Empire State Building.

The words in bold indicate that something is decided. It means that this person intends to do this in the future and is a plan that the person definitely wants to happen.

Meaning two

Look at this example:

Look at the grey sky. It’s going to rain soon.

The words in bold indicate that something is going to happen in the future. We have some evidence and we believe that something is going to happen in the future.

Structure

The structure for going to is:

I + am + going to + basic verb (walk, see, visit, go etc.)

He/she/it + is + going to + basic verb

We/you/they + are + going to + basic verb

For example:

She is going to study hard to become a doctor.

The negative structure is:

I + am + not + going to + basic verb (walk, see, visit, go etc.)

He/she/it + is + not + going to + basic verb

We/you/they + are + not + going to + basic verb

For example:

We aren’t going to see dad this week because he’s on a business trip.

The question structure is:

Is + he/she/it + going to + basic verb

Are + we/you/they + going to + basic verb

For example:

Are you going to tidy your room soon? I asked you twice already.

Detailed examples in use

Meaning one examples:

I’m going to clean my room now, mum. = I intend to clean my room now (in a few minutes).

I’m not going to read you a book if you keep being naughty. = I don’t intend to read you a book later if you keep being naughty.

Are you going to eat that slice of pizza? = Do you intend to eat that slice of pizza?

Meaning two examples:

The world economy is not good at the moment. There are going to be many problems in the coming years. = Based on the evidence, I believe that there are going to be problems in the future.

This movie is so scary. You’re not going to like it. = Based on the evidence, I believe that you are not going to enjoy this movie we are going to watch.

Is it going to be sunny today? = Based on the evidence, do you believe it is going to be sunny later today?

Mixed examples

Here are mixed examples for going to. Study them, listen to the MP3s and train your brain to master going to.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Hi James. I’m stuck in a huge traffic jam. I’m going to be around 30 minutes late.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Jim: “I won some money in a competition last night!”

Dennis: “Fantastic! What are you going to do with it?”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Some species of animal are down to the last few. They are going to become extinct soon.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Are you going to visit your parents tonight?

#
p<>{color:#000;}. This t-shirt is really poor quality. I’m going to return it to the shop I bought it from.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. I think you boys should stop playing football on this dangerous road. You are going to hurt yourselves.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Julie ate some bad food yesterday. She’s going to vomit.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The car engine is making a really strange sound. It isn’t going to survive for much longer.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. I finally reached my savings target. I’m going to buy a nice new car this weekend.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Ken and I are going to play badminton this week. Do you want to join us?

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Unfortunately, the world is going to become more and more polluted in the coming years.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. George: “Jessie found a tiny kitten in the front garden.”

Cathy: “What is she going to do with it?”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. What are you going to wear to the party on Friday?

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The service in this restaurant is really poor. I’m going to complain to the manager.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The company had some trouble last year, but sales are doing well now. Things are going to get better.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Brenda: “Is Oscar going to accept the new job?”

Mandy: “No, he’s going to refuse it because it’s too far to travel.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Wife: “I bought a brand new grand piano.”

Husband: “Are you serious? Where are you going to put it?”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Boss: “Chris, I need that report by 2pm today.”

Chris: “It’s going to be on your desk before midday.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. We should rearrange our trip this weekend. The weatherman said there is going to be heavy rain on Saturday.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Hi Paul, I can’t talk for long because my battery is going to die

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Your presentation is next Friday, right? What are you going to talk about?

#
p<>{color:#000;}. China is getting richer and richer. It’s going to be a huge power in the coming years.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Wife: “I’m going to buy a few things from the shop.”

Husband: “What are you going to buy?”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The kids are going to be so excited when we tell them about our trip to Disneyland.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. I’m so skinny. I’m going to join the gym tomorrow and start building some muscles.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. OK, this is the plan. We are going to set up a new business and you are going to be the managing director.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Pat: “Are you going to see Nina later?”

Raymond: “No, I’m going to meet her tomorrow.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Your kids are going wild! They are going to be worn out later.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Look at that man standing at the top of the ladder. He’s going to hurt himself if he isn’t careful.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Are you ready for the World Cup Final today? It’s going to be such an exciting match.

Now grab the Grammar Launch MP3 Pack for going to at www.SirEnglish.com/GrammarLaunch

Will (I will do, she will do etc.)

Meaning

Look at this example:

Wayne: “I’m going to play football at the park.”

Neil: “That sounds great. I’ll join you.”

The words in bold indicate that Neil just decided in that moment to do something. He didn’t plan it before, he decided in the moment. We use will when we make an instant decision based on new information.

Note the difference between will and going to. Going to is used for something we decided to do before, will is used for something we decided in the moment.

In the example above, Wayne used going to because he had already planned to play football at the park. Neil used will because he just heard about this information, and decided right in that moment to join Wayne.

Structure

The structure for will is:

I/he/she/it/we/you/they + will + basic verb (walk, see, visit, go etc.)

For example:

Your luggage looks very heavy. I’ll help you.

The negative structure is:

I/he/she/it/we/you/they + will + not + basic verb (walk, see, visit, go etc.)

For example:

I told Paul to visit the doctor, but he won’t (will not) listen to me.

The question structure is:

Will + I/he/she/it/we/you/they + basic verb (walk, see, visit, go etc.)

For example:

Will you help me carry this sofa please?

Things to note:

#
p<>{color:#000;}. We usually contract will not to won’t.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. We often use I think I’ll… and I don’t think I’ll… to talk about what we have just decided. For example:

I’m hungry. I think I’ll order a pizza. = I just thought of and decided to order a pizza.

We are feeling a little tired. I don’t think we’ll go to the party tonight. = We just thought about this and decided to not go to the party later.

Detailed examples in use

Thanks for lending me the book. I’ll give it back to you on Friday. = You just gave me the book and I just promised I will give it back to you on Friday (promising to do something is a common use of will).

That poor lady just fell over. I’ll go and help her. = I just saw a lady fall over and decided right then to help her (offering to do something is a common use of will).

Jane won’t do her homework. = Jane is refusing to do her homework. She decided in this moment that she will not do it (refusing to do something is a common use of will).

Will you join me for dinner tonight? = I have just decided to ask you to join me for dinner. This is new information for you (asking someone to do something is a common use of will).

I’ve tried to stop Harry from quitting university, but he won’t listen to me. = I have tried to give Harry advice, but he refuses in that moment (saying somebody refuses to do something is a common use of won’t).

Mixed examples

Here are mixed examples for will. Study them, listen to the MP3s and train your brain to master will.

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p<>{color:#000;}. It’s getting hot. I think I’ll turn on the air conditioner to cool the place down.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Boss: “Did you remember to send that email to Simon?”

Employee: “Oh, I forgot. I’ll do it right now.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Wife: “Are you coming into the shop?”

Husband: “No, I’ll wait out here for you.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. I need to go to the shop but it’s dark outside. Will you come with me?

#
p<>{color:#000;}. That was a fantastic meal, Ricky. I promise I’ll cook next time.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Thanks for lending us the money. We’ll pay you back next month.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Mother: “Have a wonderful time in India.”

Daughter: “Thanks! I’ll send you an email as soon as I arrive.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Wife: “Oh no, I left the baby’s toy at home.”

Husband: “It’s ok, you keep walking. I’ll go back and get it.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Hillary: “Did you hear the good news? Laura is pregnant!”

Catherine: “That’s amazing! She’ll make a fantastic mother.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. James is feeling really sick. I don’t think he’ll be better for the performance tomorrow.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Jacob: “Are you still coming out for a drink later?”

Matthew: “I don’t think I’ll go out tonight. I have so much work to finish.”

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p<>{color:#000;}. Ronald: “It’s freezing in here!”

Luke: “I’ll turn on the heating.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Lisa, will you please swap places with Gary?

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Will you promise not to tell anyone about this secret?

#
p<>{color:#000;}. I’ve asked Anthony to clean his room ten times, but he won’t listen to me.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Will you kids please be quiet? I’m trying to concentrate here.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Daniel and I have got next week off work. I think we’ll go somewhere nice for a short break.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Waiter: “What would you like, sir?”

Customer: “I’ll have the steak and potatoes. Oh, and I’ll also have a glass of red wine.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. It’s too late to walk home now. We’ll take a taxi.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Michelle’s friend: “Andy, can you give Michelle this purse?”

Andy: “Certainly. I’ll give it to her tomorrow when I see her.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Party host: “Welcome to the party, Tom. Will you have beer or wine?”

Tom: “I’ll have beer please.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. I’m feeling really sleepy now. I think I’ll have a coffee to wake myself up.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Wife: “The baby’s crying again. I’ll go and give her a bottle.”

Husband: “No, you did it last time. I’ll feed her.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Delivery company: “Hello Miss Smith. We are very sorry to inform you that your delivery won’t arrive before 2pm today.”

Miss Smith: “OK, thank you for letting me know. When will it arrive?”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Boss: “Will you be attending the Christmas party next week?”

Employee: “Yes, I’ll definitely be there.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Boss: “Please tell Chris about the meeting tomorrow. It’s very important that he comes.”

Employee: “OK, I’ll send him a message right now.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Billy has tried to teach that dog so many tricks, but it won’t learn anything.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Hi Neil, I’m running late. I’ll meet you at the office at 10 o’clock instead of 9.30.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Sarah says that she has a big surprise for my birthday. She won’t tell me anything.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. I think I’ll skip the gym today. I’m feeling a bit tired from yesterday.

Now grab the Grammar Launch MP3 Pack for will at www.SirEnglish.com/GrammarLaunch

Relative clauses (who and that)

Look at these examples:

The boy who broke his arm went to the hospital.

The jacket that we found belongs to John.

The words in bold are relative clauses. They give information about the person or thing.

We use who for people and that for things.

Structure

The structures for relative clauses are:

Person + who relative clause

For example:

The woman who we saw today looked very strange.

Thing + that relative clause

For example:

The red Ferrari that we saw today was beautiful.

Things to note:

#
p<>{color:#000;}. There are other types of relative clauses. However, for this unit we will focus on just one type so that you can get a deeper understanding of how to use it.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Notice that it is possible to leave out the relative clause and still have a complete sentence:

The woman who we saw today looked very strange.

The woman looked very strange.

The red Ferrari that was speeding down the road today was beautiful.

The red Ferrari was beautiful.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. This type of relative clause is needed to define things. Look at this example:

The man was so funny.

A relative clause could be used here to say more about the man (to define him):

The man who was at the party last night was so funny.

The same is for things:

The wine was really flavoursome.

What wine are you talking about?

The wine that we drank at the wedding was really flavoursome.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. You can also use that for people and which for things:

The man that was at the party last night was so funny.

The wine which we drank at the wedding was really flavoursome.

However, the example sentences you will see later focus on who for people and that for things so you can fully understand the meaning.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Sometimes who and that can be omitted from relative clauses. However, for the example sentences, who and that will be included so you can get a deeper understanding of this grammar.

Detailed examples in use

The lady who was sitting next to me on the bus was talking to herself. = The lady was talking to herself. Which lady? The lady who was sitting next to me on the bus. The information in bold tells us which lady.

Where is the ice cream that I bought yesterday? = Where is the ice cream? What ice cream? The ice cream that I bought yesterday. The information in bold tells us which ice cream.

Mixed examples

Here are mixed examples for this type of relative clause. Study them, listen to the MP3s and train your brain to master relative clauses with who and that.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The lady who helped us today was so kind.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. An architect is a person who designs buildings and bridges.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Cristiano: “I’m looking for someone who I can practice English with.”

Anthony: “I know someone who can help you. My friend John is an English teacher.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. I hate watching movies that go on for more than 2 hours.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Tim: “What do you work as?”

Liam: “I run a company that sells sports equipment.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Do you remember the name of the street that we used to live on?

#
p<>{color:#000;}. A shoplifter is someone who steals from a shop.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The man who served us at the bar was really handsome.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Billy: “What’s the name of the man who painted the Mona Lisa?”

Sam: “Leonardo da Vinci. He’s also the man who painted The Last Supper.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. These cakes look delicious, but a few aren’t cooked properly. What should I do with the ones that aren’t cooked?

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The fans who were fighting in the stadium were taken away by police.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. What happened to the art gallery that was on the corner?

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Sir Alexander Fleming was the man who discovered penicillin.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. A thesaurus is a book that gives you similar meanings of words (synonyms).

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Parts of the castle that were damaged in the fire have been restored.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The book that we are reading at school is really interesting. It’s about a man who escapes from prison

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The train that goes to theme park leaves in 30 minutes.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Hello, I would like to complain about the waiter that served me at your restaurant today.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The kitten that Jane found has been adopted by my sister.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Husband: “Have you ever spoken to the woman who lives next door?”

Wife: “Never. I don’t even know her name.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. ‘Obsolete’ is a word that means ‘no longer in use’ or ‘outdated’.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Phillip: “What’s this movie about?”

Henry: “It’s about a boy and girl who fall in love and run away together.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The police found the man who broke into my car.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Do you know where I can find a shop that sells smartphone batteries? I need a new one.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Samurai were Japanese warriors who used a special sword called a ‘samurai sword’.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The man who invented the early internet is called Tim Berners-Lee.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Where are the photographs that we took in South Africa?

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The new giant TV that we bought last week is broken. We’re going to get it fixed today.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. New Orleans is the city that’s known as ‘the home of jazz music’.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The movie that we watched last night was so scary that I had a terrible nightmare.

Now grab the Grammar Launch MP3 Pack for who and that relative clauses at www.SirEnglish.com/GrammarLaunch

Verb + -ing (enjoy playing, hates reading etc.)

h1<>{color:#2e74b5;}.

Meaning

Look at these examples:

Joanna is a book lover. She reads at least one novel per week. She really enjoys reading books.

I love sitting outside in the summer. It feels so nice.

I hate watching horror movies. They make me so scared that I can’t sleep after.

Tom stopped smoking last year. He hasn’t smoked for 10 months.

Try to avoid eating dairy products if your skin is having problems.

Whenever I’m angry, I imagine walking along a beautiful beach. My anger quickly disappears.

Have you ever considered moving to the countryside?

Mary spends lots of time helping poor people. (Spend time doing something is the phrase)

If you want to become a guitarist, you need to practise playing every day.

Have you finished cleaning your room yet, Mark?

The words in bold are verbs which use an -ing verb form after them.

Structure

The structure for [* verb + -ing *] is:

I/he/she/it/we/you/they + verb + -ing verb form (walking, watching, visiting, travelling etc.)

For example:

My daughter used to hate studying, but now she loves going to school.

The negative structure is:

I/he/she/it/we/you/they + verb + not + -ing

For example:

The summer holidays are here! I enjoy not waking up early every day.

The question structure is:

Question word + I/he/she/it/we/you/they + verb + -ing

For example:

Do you enjoy eating out?

Can we practise playing here?

Why did you stop taking ballet lessons?

Things to note

#
p<>{color:#000;}. There are other verbs which are used in the same way. However, focussing on these ones first will give you an excellent idea of fully understanding the structure and use.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. You can still follow these verbs with a noun, it doesn’t have to be an -ing form. For example:

I enjoy watching romance movies and action movies.

I enjoy romance movies and action movies.

The meaning of these two sentences is very similar, but the first is emphasizing that you enjoy watching these movies.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The tense of the verbs can change, but the -ing form must still be used. For example:

I loved eating chocolate when I was a child.

I love eating new cuisine from around the world.

She loves eating at expensive restaurants.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The verb + -ing structure is different to the present continuous (be + -ing):

[* Verb + -ing: *] I enjoy travelling around France (generally, I like travelling around France).

Present continuous: I am travelling around France (I am travelling around France now).

Mixed examples

Here are mixed examples for the verb + -ing structure. Study them, listen to the MP3s and train your brain to master the verb + -ing structure.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Tony and I enjoy hiking together. We love experiencing nature while exercising.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. My dog loves racing around the park. He’s so energetic that he can run for hours.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Many people hate flying, but I’m a bit strange because I actually enjoy flying.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Will you kids stop shouting so loudly? You’re giving me a headache!

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Please avoid walking on the grass.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Imagine living on a paradise island, without any stress or worries. That would be heaven!

#
p<>{color:#000;}. My friend Barry is considering moving to Australia. He has always wanted to live there.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Artists need to spend lots of time thinking so that they can come up with creative ideas for their work.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Student: “Do we have any homework, Miss Ashley?”

Miss Ashley: “Yes. I want you to practise writing the present perfect. Write 5 sentences using this tense.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Boss: “Hi Ray. Can you help me with this idea that I’m working on?”

Ray: “Yes, just give me one minute to finish doing this.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Wife: “John, have you finished painting the bedroom yet?”

Husband: “Not yet. I’ll be finished doing it in about 30 minutes.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. You should always practise using the English that you learn as much as possible.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Mother: “Simon, you are spending too much time watching TV and surfing the internet. Do something more productive with your life.”

Simon: “But mum, I love watching TV.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Some cultures consider burping and eating aloud as a sign of enjoyment. In some other cultures, these are considered rude.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Now it’s time to relax. I want you to imagine walking in a beautiful green field, feeling the warm sun on your face, listening to the birds, and smelling the flowers.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. When you visit Beijing, avoid taking the subway. It’s always packed full of people.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Neil: “That movie we watched last night was so scary. I loved it!”

Paula: “Can you stop talking about that movie? I had nightmares because of it.”

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p<>{color:#000;}. Steve Jobs was a very passionate man. He hated seeing poor design, and he made sure every product he created was his idea of perfection.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. I’m glad I quit my job and started working from home. I love being able to do what I want, when I want.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Fred: “Do you enjoy being a pilot?”

Carl: “I love being a pilot. Ever since I was a little boy, I wanted to fly planes. Now I do it as a job!”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Car buyer: “Would you consider accepting $8000 for the car?”

Car seller: “Sorry, that’s too low. Why don’t we consider meeting halfway at $9000?”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. People used to spend lots of time reading. Nowadays, people prefer to surf the internet or play computer games.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Today we are going to have football class. We are going to practise passing, shooting and dribbling with the ball.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Dad, I’ve finished doing my homework. Can I go out to play now?

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Liam: “What kinds of music do you enjoy listening to?”

Alan: “I love listening to rock and classical.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. George: “I hate giving presentations. Do you have any advice for me?”

Colin: “Try to avoid talking quickly. When you slow down, you will relax.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Zoe: “Have you stopped dating Ryan?”

Jenny: Yes, we stopped dating last month. He spent too much time working instead of being with me.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Can you imagine travelling to space? It would be wonderful to float around and look at Earth from up there.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Doctor: “You need to relax for a couple of weeks. Avoid doing heavy exercise. You should also avoid drinking alcohol while you take this medication.”

Patient: “OK, thank you.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. If you have finished reading, you can spend the rest of the time completing your story.

Now grab the Grammar Launch MP3 Pack for the [* verb + -ing structure ] *at www.SirEnglish.com/GrammarLaunch

Both, neither and either

Look at these examples:

Both books are really interesting. I highly recommend them.

Neither book is boring.

You can borrow either *book*.

The words in bold are to talk about two things or people, in this case two books.

Both is positive, and means that the two books are really interesting.

Neither is negative, and means that the two books aren’t boring.

Either is a choice of the two, and means that you can borrow this one or this one.

Structure

The structures for both, neither and either are:

Both/neither/either + noun

For example:

Both movies [were so boring that we stopped watching after 20 minutes.
__
__]Neither car [is expensive.
__
John: “Which city shall we visit for our trip? Madrid or Barcelona?”
Fiona: “Either] city is fantastic. I don’t mind.”

Both of/neither of/either of + the/pronoun/possessive (them, these, my, us, you, your, Alan’s, Mary’s etc.)

For example:

Both of these [dogs belong to my uncle.
__
Teacher: “Which one of you two wrote this on the board?”
Students: “Neither*] of [*us. It was another boy.”
__
Are] either of Tina’s sisters tall like her?

Both… + and…

For example:

Both China and India are becoming more and more powerful.

I play both football and rugby.

Neither… + nor…

For example:

Neither Jane nor Sally came to the party last night. I was disappointed.

For me, baseball is neither fun nor exciting.

Either… + or…

[Husband: “What shall we do today?”
Wife: “We can] either visit my parents or [go and watch a movie.”
__
I think] either Germany or Brazil will win the World Cup.

Things to note:

#
p<>{color:#000;}. When you use both of you can also simply use both:

Both of the smartphones are using the latest technology.

Both the smartphones are using the latest technology.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. You can use both, neither and either alone if your intended meaning is clear:

Dad: “Do you want a chocolate bar or an ice cream?”

Child: “Both.” (= I want both of them)

Jill: “Will you have a glass of wine or a beer?”

Henry: “Neither. I’m driving so I’ll just have a glass of juice, thanks.” (= I want neither of them)

Tom: “I’m booking the hotel for our trip. Which one shall we stay at? This one or this one?”

Carol: “Either. I really don’t mind.” (= Either of them is fine)

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Either is positive and neither is negative. We can use a negative word with either to mean neither:

I was invited to two weddings, but I couldn’t go to either of them.

I was invited to two weddings, but I could go to neither of them.

These sentences means the same thing: I couldn’t go to any of the two weddings.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. With neither, you can use a singular verb or a plural verb:

Neither of them speaks German.

Neither of them speak German.

The singular (speaks in the above example) is recommended in formal speech, but in reality, native speakers use both.

Detailed examples in use

Both drivers are to blame for the accident. = The two drivers in the accident are to blame (the two drivers caused the accident). Not just one or the other, but both drivers.

I’m sorry, but neither of your paintings won an award. Try again next time. = Of the two paintings you submitted, none of them (none of the two) won an award.

Either you tidy your bedroom, or we won’t go to your friend’s house. = The child can choose one of the two options: tidy the bedroom or not go to the friend’s house.

Mixed examples

Here are mixed examples for both, neither and either. Study them, listen to the MP3s and train your brain to master both, neither and either.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. I neither watch the news nor read newspapers. There are too many negative stories.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Mother: “When do you leave? Is it Saturday or Sunday?”

Daughter: “Neither. I leave on Monday.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. We can either go swimming or ice skating. Which do you prefer?

#
p<>{color:#000;}. It’s both hot and humid here in France. I am constantly using the air conditioner.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Hi Gary. I tried to visit you twice last week, but both times you were out.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Neither me nor my wife drives. We use the public transport to get around.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The puppy we found was both hungry and cold. We looked after it and now it’s at full strength.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. When I visited Spain, I stayed with a Spanish couple. But neither of them spoke English, so it was very difficult to communicate.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Jack and Tony said they would meet us here, but I can’t see either of them. Perhaps they’re late.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The new boss is fantastic. He’s both kind and hardworking, so he already feels part of the team.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Thankfully, neither of the girls was injured, but both of them were taken to the hospital to be on the safe side.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The strange man we met today really scared me. He neither said anything nor smiled.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Ray: “What’s the name of the new guy at work? I’ve forgotten.”

Bill: “I’ve forgotten too. I think it’s either Michael or Matthew.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Boss: “Hi John. Both Linda and Tina are on holiday this week, so we need to cover their work. Do you prefer doing Linda’s or Tina’s work?”

John: “Either. I don’t mind what I do.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. It’s so hot. Please turn on both fans so we can cool this place down.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Sarah and Paul’s baby twins were born last night. Both of them are very healthy, and neither one has their father’s grey hair!

#
p<>{color:#000;}. I tried on the two wedding dresses, but neither of them fitted. I’ll have to choose another.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. We don’t have much time before the movie starts, so we can either quickly eat a sandwich now, or eat at a restaurant after.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Father: “Mum is really sick today, and I have some work to do. Either you or your brother has to cook dinner.”

Daughter: “Why don’t we both do it? Then it will get done quicker.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Lee looked at both cars but he didn’t like either of them.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Hi Neil. Hi Fiona. Let me get both of you a drink. What will you have?

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Interviewer: “So let’s talk about your skills. Do you speak any other languages?”

Interviewee: “Yes, I speak both French and Arabic fluently, and I also speak a little German.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Husband: “Do you want anything from the shop?”

Wife: “Yes, I want something sweet for dessert. Buy either a chocolate cake or some strawberry ice cream.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. North and South Korea fought a devastating war. Both countries have now stopped fighting, but still remain enemies.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Mike and Tina: “We aren’t going to the party next week.”

Sally and Bob: “Neither are we. We are so busy with work.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. I’m not sure if I will have children in the future. I have neither the patience nor the energy to look after them.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Shop assistant: “I think either the yellow dress or the green dress would be the best choice.”

Customer: “You’re right. Actually, I’ll take both.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Thanks for lending me these books, Carl. I read both of them, but neither one was very good.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Teacher: “Neither of you did your homework again. I’ll have to call both your parents.”

Students: “Please don’t call our parents, sir. Either give us detention or make us do double homework tonight.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. I’m so bored that I really want to go out somewhere. I’m either going to visit my friend Jack or go to the gym.

Now grab the Grammar Launch MP3 Pack for both, neither and either at www.SirEnglish.com/GrammarLaunch

Even

Look at this example:

Amy has travelled a lot. She has even visited the Antarctic and North Korea.

The word in bold is to show surprise, or something unusual or not normal. Someone visiting the Antarctic and North Korea is both surprising and unusual.

Structure

Even should be used before the words that you want to show are surprising. It can be used in a variety of places in the sentence:

For example:

Mary loves singing. She even sings when she’s sleeping!

Patrick works every day. Even on Sundays.

[Michael: “What’s the capital of the USA?”
Paul: “It’s Washington D.C.] Even I know that, and I’m terrible at geography.”

Here are some negative examples. Even is usually placed after the negative word:

Nobody knows who stole our car. We don’t even know if it’s still in this country.

I am the worst cook in the world. I can’t even make toast.

Things to note

We usually say a sentence or statement before using a sentence with even. It would be strange to simply say:

I even visited North Korea.

We need to give some context and information before using even:

I visited some interesting places last year. I even visited North Korea.

Detailed examples in use

Our village is so small. There isn’t even a supermarket here. = This is surprising and unusual, because there isn’t a supermarket in the village. Supermarkets are everywhere nowadays, so a village without one is unusual. This person used even to emphasize surprise.

[Mother: “How was Jane at the museum today? She usually hates going to museums.”
Father: “She was fine. She] even started to enjoy it after a while.” = This is surprising and unusual, because Jane usually hates going to museums. But today she enjoyed it, so the father used even to emphasize surprise.

The new neighbours seem very strange. They didn’t even say hello to me. = This is surprising and unusual, because new neighbours and neighbours in general are usually friendly. But these neighbours didn’t say hello. This person used even to emphasize how unusual and surprising this situation is.

Mixed examples

Here are mixed examples for even. Study them, listen to the MP3s and train your brain to master even.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. After the accident, the man’s memory was erased. He couldn’t even remember his wife.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. I usually hate art, but even I enjoyed the gallery. It was quite interesting.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. We saw so many wonderful animals on our trip to Africa. We even saw a rare rhino that is almost extinct.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Gemma loves pink. She has a pink room, pink clothes and pink shoes. She even has a pink car.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Lisa’s child is so clever. She’s so smart that she could even read when she was two years old.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The man next door always wears a coat. He even wears it during the summer.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The hotel we went to was incredible. We even had a sauna and hot tub in our suite.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. My new smartphone is really advanced. It can even tell me how many calories I have burned today.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The staff at the restaurant were really bad. They didn’t even ask us if we wanted a drink.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. I want to join the gym because I am extremely unfit. I can’t even run for one minute.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The woman disappeared without telling anyone, not even her husband.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Sam has met so many famous people. He has even met Bill Gates.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The dog chewed all the stuff in my room and ruined everything. It even bit my smartphone and broke it!

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Sir Richard Branson is so rich that he even has his own private island.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The guests are arriving soon and you haven’t done anything. You haven’t even prepared the food.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The internet is rapidly changing the way we study and learn. We can even take university courses online.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Five years ago, we had no money. We didn’t even have enough money to buy new clothes.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Jack, these answers are all wrong. Even a baby could answer these questions correctly!

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The view from our new apartment in New York is spectacular. We can even see the Statue of Liberty from our window.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The weather really ruined our trip. We couldn’t even go outside because of the heavy rain and storms.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Tim, you are always eating food. Even when you aren’t hungry.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Anthony has tried so many interesting and unusual foods. He has even eaten insects.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Ron: “You’re very brave and daring doing a skydive. Is there anything you won’t do?”

Ken: “No, I’ll try anything once. I have even swum with sharks before.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The curry you cooked was amazing. Even Daniel liked it, and he usually hates curry.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Neil loses everything. He even lost his wedding ring once.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. My son is so ambitious. He wants to become a scientist, a firefighter and an astronaut. He even wants to become the President of the USA!

#
p<>{color:#000;}. My wife forgets so many things that I sometimes can’t believe it. She even forgot my birthday last week.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Paul’s cooking is so bad that even the dog didn’t want to eat it!

#
p<>{color:#000;}. This room is really strange. Even in the summer, or even with the heating on, it’s cold.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. We had a fantastic meal today at the Chinese restaurant. We even got some free food and drinks because I know one of the staff.

Now grab the Grammar Launch MP3 Pack for even at www.SirEnglish.com/GrammarLaunch

Phrasal verbs using ‘in’ and ‘out’ (put out, join in…)

Meaning

Look at these examples:

Move in = start to live in a new house.

I’ve just bought a new apartment. I’m moving in on Friday.

Drop in = go to see someone or go somewhere for a short time.

Let’s drop in to see Chris on the way home.

Plug in = connect an electrical supply to a machine.

Husband: “The washing machine isn’t working.”

Wife: “Because it isn’t plugged in, silly.”

Join in = start playing in an activity or sport.

Greg: “Hi. Can I join in with your game?”

Wesley: “Of course. You can play on our team.”

Break into = to illegally enter and steal something.

Someone broke into my house while we were on holiday.

Eat out = eat at a restaurant (not at home).

I’m too tired to cook today. Let’s eat *out*.

Drop out = stop going to school or university before you complete your studies.

Steve Jobs and Mark Zuckerberg dropped out of university before becoming hugely successful businessmen.

Fill out = complete a form.

Please fill out this document so that you can open your new bank account.

Cut out = eliminate or stop doing something.

I’m going to cut out chocolate for a few weeks to try and lose weight.

Figure out = find the answer to a problem.

I finally figured out this puzzle! It took me hours.

Structure

The structure for most phrasal verbs is:

Verb + preposition (in, out, on, down, up etc.)

For example:

Everyone stood up and walked out of the room.

Things to note:

#
p<>{color:#000;}. There are thousands of phrasal verbs in English, some more common than others. The ones in this unit are very commonly used. Some phrasal verbs in English are very logical and easy to understand (stand up, sit down) but some are more difficult to understand without knowing the meaning (drop out, figure out).

#
p<>{color:#000;}. A phrasal verb can also be followed by another preposition depending on the following noun (sit down on the chair, run away from the man).

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Phrasal verbs can change tense just like other verbs. You only need to change the first part (the verb) of the phrasal verb. For example pick up, picking up, picked up, have picked up.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Many phrasal verbs have more than one meaning. I am showing you just one meaning of each phrasal verb so that you can understand each meaning and structure deeply.

Mixed examples

Here are mixed examples for the phrasal verbs from above. Study them, listen to the MP3s and train your brain to master the phrasal verbs.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The company is moving in to its new offices next month. It’s going to be a really busy period.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Jack’s friend: “Hi Jack. Can I drop in to talk about something later?”

Jack: “Sure, what time do you want to come?”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Don’t plug in the hair dryer. I think it has a problem so it could be dangerous.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Paul didn’t want to join in with class activities today. Is he feeling OK?

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The professional criminals broke into the bank and stole more than $1 million in cash.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Wife: “What would like for your birthday dinner tonight?”

Husband: “Let’s eat out at the Chinese buffet restaurant.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Studying at university and working at the same time is very tiring, but I’m not going to drop out. I’m determined to finish my studies.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Hello Madam. Please fill out this form and we can open your account today.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. My daughter has a skin allergy, so we decided to cut out dairy products from her diet. It might help.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Sir. I can’t figure out the answer to question four. Could you please help me?

#
p<>{color:#000;}. John and I are having some problems with the business, but we’re figuring out how to solve them.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. I told Jane to cut out Facebook because she’s using it too much.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Sir, would you please fill out this short questionnaire? It will only take one minute to complete.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. I dropped out of school when I was just 13, but I managed to turn my life around and start my own business.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. We need to stop eating out so often. It’s costing too much money.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Oh my god, call the police! Someone is breaking into that car over there.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Hey Matthew, don’t just sit on the side. Come and join in our game.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Can you plug in my phone? The battery is dead.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. We dropped in to the library to return the books.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Michael: “Tina is moving in with me next week.”

Harry: “Wow. Your relationship with her is getting serious.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. I am taking night classes at the local college, but I’m thing about dropping out. It’s not a very useful course for me.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Brenda is being really strange lately, but she won’t tell me why. I just can’t figure out what’s wrong with her.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Look at this funny story. The thieves broke into a bank, but got locked inside! The police came an hour later and arrested them.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. We are going to have a big housewarming party at our new house after we move in. Will you come?

#
p<>{color:#000;}. When I lived in Thailand, I often ate out because it was so cheap compared to London.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Mark’s father: “How was Mark’s first day at school?”

Mark’s mother: “He really loved it. He joined in with all the class activities and made lots of new friends.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Mary: “Would you like a cup of tea or coffee?”

Joanne: “Coffee please, but no sugar. My dentist told me to cut out sugar.”

#
p<>{color:#000;}. I need an adaptor to plug in my laptop. Do you have one?

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Excuse me sir, you filled out this section incorrectly. Please do it again.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Hi Terry. Can you drop in sometime today for a few minutes? I have got a present for you.

Now grab the Grammar Launch MP3 Pack for these phrasal verbs at www.SirEnglish.com/GrammarLaunch

What next?

Now that you have gone through this book and all the example sentences, you will understand each grammar point in detail. But don’t stop now! To fully ingrain the grammar and make it natural and fluent, listen to the Grammar Launch MP3s many, many times.

To improve your speaking, read the sentences in this book aloud. This will further help to ingrain the grammar in your mind. You can also listen to me say the sentences on the MP3 and then pause the audio while you repeat the sentence. This is excellent practice because you can listen to my exact pronunciation and intonation for each sentence.

Practise repeating the structures, but also write down your own ideas. Use the example sentences as a guide and change them to talk about things in your own life. For example, here is an example sentence from the present perfect unit:

Recently, I have studied hard for the test. I haven’t slept much.

Now let me change this sentence:

Recently, I have worked really hard on writing my new e-book, so I haven’t met my friends often.

Can you see how the basic structure of the sentence is the same? But I have changed it to a real-life example for my life. You can do the same for many of the example sentences in this book. This will really help you master the grammar.

Now that you have read this book and the 15 grammar points, you should listen to the Grammar Launch MP3s many, many times to ingrain what you learned. Download your free MP3 pack and listen while you read.

Head over to www.SirEnglish.com/GrammarLaunch for your free Grammar Launch MP3 Pack


Grammar Launch Intermediate 1: Completely master 15 English grammar structures u

Grammar Launch Intermediate 1 will bring you from your current level of English to the next level. Would you like to use English grammar more effectively? Do you want to know exactly how to use structures like had better, the present perfect, used to and the future tenses? This book can help you achieve all these and more. You will learn how to use these selected grammar structures in detail, so that you can fully master each one. This book contains over 450 natural examples of the grammar structures. You also get free access to the MP3 packs which will ingrain the English in your brain. Level up your English today with Grammar Launch Intermediate 1! In this book, you’ll learn: • how to use 15 common grammar structures in English. • detailed examples of each structure. • how we use these structures in natural, native English. • how to access the Grammar Launch MP3s to accelerate your English fluency. Plus much more.

  • Author: Anthony Kelleher
  • Published: 2016-06-21 14:35:27
  • Words: 16080
Grammar Launch Intermediate 1: Completely master 15 English grammar structures u Grammar Launch Intermediate 1: Completely master 15 English grammar structures u