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GMAT® Official Guide Supplement - Sentence Correction Basics

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SENTENCE CORRECTION
BASICS

Taking you step by step towards mastering the GMAT SC

 

Written for examPAL by Jack Oren Jackman.

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Copyright 2017 examPAL.com

 

Shakespir Edition License Notes

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Table of Contents

Subjects and Verbs in General

Subject and verb must match in number

Nouns and pronouns must also match in number

Choosing the correct form of the verb

Modifiers

Introduction to Sentence Correction

The Basics

More than anything else, sentence correction questions require knowing how the different parts of a given sentence should relate to one another, or, in one word: grammar. Of course, it is helpful to know the exact meaning of the words in the sentence (for which we have the Vocabulary section of this course), but sentence correction questions are all about combining words into proper sentences.

This introduction includes the rules that we must apply. The best way to master these rules is to read a lot (books, articles, well-written websites, etc.), and take a second look at sentences whenever we identify a unique grammatical rule in them. It’s not about memorizing rules; it’s about being aware of them while developing a good sense of what is correct and what is not. Don’t forget that there will always be some exceptions that we might miss. That’s OK, as long as we keep learning from our mistakes.

 

Subjects and Verbs in General

 

  • A verb is the action that happens in the sentence, such as sit, smile, or was known. A subject is the person or thing that is doing or receiving the action, such as boys, she, the box, or Hollywood.
  • A sentence must have both a subject and a verb: The boys go to school; a woman smiled at me; or Hollywood is known as the birthplace of the movie industry. A sentence without a verb or without a subject is not a complete sentence.

For example:

After walking all day, thought that swimming in cold water would be a great idea.

That’s wrong: who was walking? Who thought? This sentence has no subject.

Correct: After walking all day, I thought that swimming in cold water would be a great idea.

We can now realize that it was I _]who was walking, and it was [+I+]_] who thought.

 

Another example:

Nice people good businessmen.[_ _]

Wrong! Good is not a verb. The missing verb is are (a form of to be):

Nice people are good businessmen.

 

Subject and verb must match in number

 

This means that if the subject is singular (one), then the verb must be in the singular form as well, such as: Jack _][+drinks+] milk every day_]. If the subject is plural (more than one), then we have to use the plural verb form: Jack and Jill _][+drink+] milk every day_] (without the s at the end of the verb).

 

  • And[* and other additive phrases*]

When we added Jill to Jack by using and, we turned the subject from singular into plural. [The word *]and[ is the only way of adding that turns a singular subject into plural*]. When we use other ways of combining subjects, such as together with or in addition to, the subject is whatever comes before the phrase between commas or is otherwise outside of that phrase:[_ _]

Milk, together with sugar, is the basis for every good ice cream. In addition to sugar, milk is the basis for every good ice cream.

More examples for additive phrases are: [also, along with, as well as, accompanied by, including, _]and[ besides_].

 

  • [*Or; either… or…; neither… nor… *]

These phrases[* *]may use either a singular or a plural verb form, depending on which noun is closest to the verb:

Jenny or her neighbors usually take the dog out.

Neither Sharon nor her birds are singing.

Since the neighbors and the birds are plural, the form of the verbs [take _]and[ be_] should also be in the plural.

but

Her neighbors or Jenny +]usually [+takes the dog out.

Neither the birds nor Sharon is singing.

Since Jenny is singular and so is Sharon, so is the form of the verb: [takes _]and[ is_].

 

  • Words that only sound plural

In some cases, certain words that look plural are actually singular, and words that look as if they are singular are actually plural:

[Media, data, phenomena, _]and[ criteria_] are all plural, although they are most often not used correctly. Their singular forms are [medium, datum, phenomenon, _]and _criterion.

[Series, species, _]and[ means_] all sound and look plural, but they can be either singular or plural, depending on the quantifier.

Many species of birds have *lost their habitats because of deforestation. *One species in particular is going to become extinct if measure are not taken to protect its habitat.

 

  • Nouns that refer to a group of people or a group of objects are singular. Groups of people are nouns, such as: government, crowd, team, audience, group, band, class, committee, choir, class, business. Groups of objects are nouns, such as: equipment, fruit, baggage, fleet, furniture.

The government _][+is+] taking serious steps to put an end to this crisis_].

 

  • [Nouns that cannot be counted *](by using a specific measurement, such as kilogram or liter)[ are singular*]. Such nouns are usually liquids, such as water or liquid; powders, such as sand or sugar; and materials, such as metal or wood. We use much, (a) little and an amount of to describe these uncountable nouns (How much water should you drink every day? She used very little gold for this ring), whereas with the countable nouns of group objects or people, we use many, a few and a number of (How many people watched the show? Only a few).

Some phrases, like a lot of, all, none or some, can be used for both singular and plural.

Let’s take a look at these non-countable nouns to get a better idea:

table(. |^.
p=. Category |^.
p=. Examples | |^.
p. Groups of items |^.
p<>. faculty, equipment, garbage, traffic, mail, food, fruit, jewelry, machinery, furniture, traffic, money, clothing | |^.
p. Fluids/liquids |^.
p<>. water, coffee, milk, gasoline,

soda, soup, oil, blood | |^.
p. Solids |^.
p<>. ice, bread, butter, paper, meat, glass, iron, gold, wood, soap, coal | |^.
p. Gases |^.
p<>. air, steam, oxygen, smoke, ozone | |^.
p. Particles |^.
p<>. salt, sand, sugar, rice, corn, dirt,

dust, flour, hair, grass, wheat | |^.
p. Abstract terms |^.
p<>. energy, vocabulary, work, truth, time, grammar, advice, help, space, information, health, honesty, news, evidence, peace, progress, proof, confidence, violence, wealth, strength, courage, beauty | |^.
p. Natural phenomena |^.
p<>. weather, heat, fog, fire, gravity, rain, humidity | |^.
p. Professional fields |^.
p<>. nursing, psychology, physics, music,

economics, geology, history, education | |^.
p. Languages |^.
p<>. English, Spanish, Chinese, Swedish | |^.
p. Hobbies and activities |^.
p<>. soccer, tennis, chess, jogging

studying, writing, reading, running


^.
p<>. amnesia, AIDS, flu, nausea

 

  • When nouns are replaced by general words that do not refer to a specific thing, such as the words all, some, or none, we should determine which of the three groups below they belong to:

- MAMAS[+: +]More, Any, Most, All, Some* (can easily be memorized: “More than any other, most of all, some _][_*MAMAS are the best!” These words are the exceptions: They can be either singular or plural, depending on the noun object:

Singular: Any tie fits this shirt. (Use fits because a tie is singular.)

Plural: [_Do you have any plans for the future? _](plans is the plural form)

- [*None *]is another exception. It can take either singular or plural form:

None of the ties _][+fit+] this shirt_]. (Ties is plural, so the verb is plural.) But when none refers to a singular, uncountable noun, the verb is singular: None of the pizza has been eaten.

- [*All the other options *]are singular:

[+Ending with +]-one: anyone, no one, someone, everyone

[+Ending with +]-thing: anything, nothing, something, everything

[+Ending with +]-body: anybody, nobody, somebody, everybody

[+The +]eithers: either, neither (without or. As mentioned above, with or/nor, the verb depends on the noun closest to the verb).

The +]ever[+s: whatever, whoever, every, each (as long as each is the subject. If the subject is not each but rather a plural subject, then we will use a plural verb: The sisters Lucy and Linda each have a cat.)

 

  • Numbers and quantities may also be singular or plural:

- Always singular: The number of…, units of measurement (such as: 10 meters, 3 gallons)

The number of new websites is increasing every year.

Two kilograms of apples is more than enough for this cake. (two kilograms refers to a specific singular amount)

- Always plural: A number of…

[_A number of newspapers are about to publish this article. _]

- Either a singular or plural form:

Depending on the noun object (like THE MAMAS) – fractions and percentages.

Only half of the kids remember the exact date of their birthday.

but

Sixty percent of the swimming pool is covered with leaves.

Depending on whether we are referring to the different parts or the whole: [minority _](= the smallest part of a group)[, majority ](= more than half the group)[, plurality ](= the largest part of a group, but not more than half)[._]

Referring to the different parts:

Only the minority of the coins in ancient Rome were made of gold.

Referring to the whole:

In democracy, the minority has less political power than does the majority. (Referring to the population)

  • [_*Titles _][*are singular:]

Mathematics is my favorite subject.

Revenge of the Nerds is the funniest movie I’ve ever seen.

 

  • -ing[* action phrases (gerunds) are singular:*]

Dancing folk dances is good for your physical and mental health.

 

  • [A clause *](a part of a complex sentence with a noun and a verb)[ is singular:*]

What I need is a good night’s sleep.

 

Nouns and pronouns must also match in number

 

  • A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun instead of repeating it again in the same sentence.

If you do not intend to use this bottle again, please throw it +][+away.

 

It is the pronoun of the sentence, which takes the place of the word bottle, so that we do not need to use bottle twice: If you do not intend to use this bottle again, please throw the bottle +][+away. Whenever we are not certain whether a pronoun is used correctly, we can always write the noun instead of the pronoun.

There are lots of pronouns in English, but the most confusing ones are usually those that refer to it (such as its, this, or that) or they (such as them, their, these, or those). With these words, we should stop and double check which noun the pronoun replaces.

 

  • The pronoun checklist

 

So when we find a pronoun in a sentence, what should we expect of it?

 

1. A pronoun must refer to an actual noun!

Don’t believe a car salesman when he tells you it is cheap.

 

What does [_it _]refer to? The car? There is no car in that sentence – only car salesman. The car salesman is the noun, but [_it _]refers to an object, not to a person.

The correct sentence would therefore be:

Don’t believe a car salesman when he tells you that a car is cheap.

 

2. A pronoun must refer to one certain/specific noun!

There should not be any doubt about which of the nouns in a sentence the pronoun refers to.

Ted asked Raymond to ask Charles to give him his hat.

 

Whose hat is Ted asking for? To whom should the hat be given?

Correcting this sentence requires eliminating the pronoun altogether:

Ted asked Raymond to ask Charles to give Raymond Ted’s hat.

 

3. The connection between the noun and the pronoun must make sense!

In the century that has passed since the invention of the airplane, it has gone through many changes.

 

What has gone through many changes? In this sentence, it isn’t the aircraft, as we might wrongly assume, but the invention. A correct sentence should look like this:

Since it was invented a century ago, the airplane has gone through many changes.

 

4. The pronoun must match the noun in number!

As with subjects and verbs: singular pairs with singular, and plural pairs with plural. Let’s consider this sentence:

While the development costs of an in-house mobile application may be high, it is less expensive than those of a software company.

 

Since we’re dealing with development costs, the noun is plural, and we should therefore use a plural pronoun:

While the development costs of an in-house mobile application may be high, they are less expensive than those of a software company.

If anyone needs assistance, they should call me at any time.

 

Anyone is always singular, so the correct pronoun would be either he or she:

If anyone needs assistance, she should call me at any time.

 

[5. Subject vs. object: pronouns with verbs – the difference between *]xxx and[ ]I[ and ]xxx and[ *]me

 

This section is very important because it even confuses native speakers.

 

  • [*Subject *](I, you, he, she, it we, they) [*vs. object *](me, you, him, her, it, us, them)

Rule of thumb: the subject pronouns are the subject of the verb, the object pronouns are the object, or after, the verb.

Subject pronoun >>> verb >>> object pronoun

The other tourists and I took many pictures because we wanted to remember our visit.

My father took many pictures of my sister and me when we were young. (Me is the object, or comes after the verb)

 

Exception alert!

The object pronoun is not used ONLY when the verb is [to be *](be, am, is, are)[:*]

It was I who remembered to bring the flowers. (NOT it was me)

After interviewing both Jane and Tim for the new position, the committee decided that the new hire would be she.

 

  • Pronouns and prepositions:

If a pronoun is used after any preposition, it will be an object pronoun:

Keep the secret between you and him.

John came to the gala with my sister and me.

 

Choosing the correct form of the verb

 

Once we’ve checked that both subject and verb appear in the sentence, and the noun and the verb also match in number, it is time to make sure that we are using the correct form of the verb. The correct form is determined according to the time (past, present, or future tense), the intentions of the writer (such as describing knowledge of facts rather than what he supposes and yet may not be true), and the subject’s part in the action – passive or active?

 

  • Choosing the right time

 

The simple tenses

When we want to describe an action that is a routine, a fact, a rule, a habit, or something that is usually true, we use the simple tense:

  • In the present (present simple):       Bart usually eats an egg for breakfast.
  • In the past (past simple):             Last week, Jenny decided to quit smoking.
  • In the future (future simple):       They will meet again next year.

The simple form is the one we usually use.

 

The progressive tenses

These are used to stress the immediacy of a situation. They usually explicitly or implicitly mean while.

[_ To be + verb + -ing form _]

  • In the present (present progressive): Sylvia is waiting in line at the post office.
  • In the past (past progressive): While I was cooking dinner last night the phone rang.
  • In the future (future progressive): We will be traveling in Asia for the next six months.

Note:

- Some verbs refer to a state (thoughts, beliefs, senses) and cannot be used in the progressive form, because the verb refers to an action. For example, we cannot say: “I am believing in God”, but we can say: “I believe in God”. Here are some examples of stative verbs:

|^. p. appear be believe belong consist |^. p. contain

cost
doubt
exist
hate |^.
p. hear

have
know
like
love
p. |^.
p. mean

need
owe
own
prefer
p.


Of course, we have to make sure that the verb is used for describing a state, such as: She looks great!, and not for an action, such as: He was looking for his dog.

- The present progressive can be used to describe actions in the future, such as:

[_I’m seeing the doctor next month/ I’m going to be ready in half an hour/ I’m taking the GMAT in the spring. _]

- Generally, we keep the same tense when there are a number of actions, such as:

Frank brushes his teeth every night before he goes to bed.

My mother was reading a book while my father was exercising.

Mixing more than one tense form in the same sentence is used when we want to emphasize a difference between the actions, such as:

Clarice was combing her hair when, all of the sudden, the window broke.

In this example, the ongoing brushing action was interrupted by the short breaking action.

The perfect tenses

The three perfect tenses refer to an action that is already completed but refers to an undefined time within a span time. All these forms use the past participle, which is a verb with an -ed ending (unless it is in the list of irregular verbs below).

[_ Have/has + past participle (has ]for [_he, she, it)]

  • In the present (present perfect):       I have lived in this city *for four years. *

This sentence means that four years ago I started to live here, and I still do. If the sentence said I lived in this city for four years, it would mean that I no longer live here.

Note:

- Present perfect refers to actions that have started in the past, but are relevant in the present.

These bottles have been in the cellar since 1867.

If we had used in 1867 instead of since 1867, it would have meant that 1867 was the only year in which the bottles were in the cellar, and that year ended, therefore the action also ended: These bottles were in the cellar in 1867. Similar expressions that mean up to now include: since, for XXXX amount of time, during the past year, within the last hour, so far, to date, yet, recently, and already.

- In some cases, the action has already ended but at an undetermined time, and it has an effect that is still relevant:

She has lost all her money (meaning she still has no money now).

My feelings have been hurt (so I’m still angry at you).

[_              Had + past participle_]

  • In the past (past perfect):        By the time I arrived, you had already left.

Past perfect is “the past of the past”. This tense is used to indicate an action that happened in the past before a second action. In the example above, you had already left happened before I arrived. The later event doesn’t have to be an action. It can be a date:

Thirty guests had stayed in the new hotel [*by *]January 2013, before the renovations began.

Note: We do not have to use past perfect when it is obvious which of the events came before the other, such as:

Georgia called Lawrence soon after he went home.

I opened the gate and let the dogs out.

[_                                Will have + past participle_]

  • In the future (future perfect):       He will have finished cleaning the house by the time you arrive.

Future perfect is used to describe an event that is expected to happen after a certain event in the future. In the example above, will have finished cleaning the house is expected to happen after you arrive. (When words like after, before, when, once, as soon as, until, unless refer to the future, the future cannot be used. They are used in the present simple.) Here, too, the other event does not have to be an action. It can be a date:

Two million visitors will have visited this site by the end of the decade.

 

 

 

Note:

- Perfect tenses should only be used where there is a need to make it clear, or emphasize, which of the events happened before the other:

[_Present perfect – _]when an event happened in the past and there is an action (or an effect) that is still relevant in the present.

Continuous action / effect

Now

 

 

[_Past perfect – _]when an event happened in the past before another event in the past.

Earlier event in the past

Now

Later event in the past

 

 

[_Future perfect – _]when an event is expected to happen in the future after another event in the future.

Earlier event in the future

Now

Later event in the future

 

 

When it is obvious which event came first, we do not use past perfect or future perfect tenses.

- As mentioned above, past participle is usually [_ verb + -ed ending ], much like simple past is usually [ verb + -ed ending ]. Here are the exceptions ([_memorize the ones you’re not familiar with]):

|^. p=. Simple Present |^. p=. Simple Past |^. p=. Past Participle | |^. p=. arise

awake

be (am, is, are)

bear

beat

become

begin

bend

bet

bite

bleed

blow

break

bring

build

burn

burst

buy

catch

choose

cling

come

cost

creep

cut

deal

dig

dive

do

draw

dream

drink

drive

eat

fall

feed

feel

fight

find

fit

flee

fling

fly

forbid

forget

forgive

forgo

freeze

get

give

go

grind

grow

hang

have

hear

hide

hit

hold

hurt

keep

kneel

knit

know

lay

lead

leap

leave

lend

let

lie (down)

light

lose

make

mean

meet

pay

prove

put

quit

read

ride

ring

rise

run

saw

say

see

seek

sell

send

set

sew

shake

shave

shear

shine

shoot

show

shrink

shut

sing

sink

sit

slay

sleep

slide

sneak

speak

speed

spend

spill

spin

spit

split

spread

spring

stand

steal

stick

sting

stink

strew

strike

strive

swear

sweep

swim

swing

take

teach

tear

tell

think

thrive

throw

undergo

understand

upset

wake

wear

weave

weep

win

wind

withdraw

wring

write |^.
p=. arose

awoke

was, were

bore

beat

became

began

bent

bet

bit

bled

blew

broke

brought

built

burned / burnt

burst

bought

caught

chose

clung

came

cost

crept

cut

dealt

dug

dived / dove

did

drew

dreamed / dreamt

drank

drove

ate

fell

fed

felt

fought

found

fit, fitted

fled

flung

flew

forbade

forgot

forgave

forwent

froze

got

gave

went

ground

grew

hung / hanged

had

heard

hid

hit

held

hurt

kept

knelt / kneeled

knit / knitted

knew

laid

led

leapt / leaped

left

lent

let

lay

lit / lighted

lost

made

meant

met

paid

proved

put

quit

read

rode

rang

rose

ran

sawed

said

saw

sought

sold

sent

set

sewed

shook

shaved

sheared

shone / shined

shot

showed

shrank / shrunk

shut

sang

sank

sat

slew

slept

slid

sneaked / snuck

spoke

sped

spent

spilled / spilt

spun

spat / spit

split

spread

sprang

stood

stole

stuck

stung

stank / stunk

strewed

struck

strove / strived

swore

swept

swam

swung

took

taught

tore

told

thought

thrived / throve

threw

underwent

understood

upset

woke / waked

wore

wove

wept

won

wound

withdrew

wrung

wrote |^.
p=. arisen

awoken

been

borne

beaten

become

begun

bent

bet

bitten

bled

blown

broken

brought

built

burned / burnt

burst

bought

caught

chosen

clung

come

cost

crept

cut

dealt

dug

dived

done

drawn

dreamed / dreamt

drunk

driven

eaten

fallen

fed

felt

fought

found

fit, fitted

fled

flung

flown

forbidden

forgotten

forgiven

forgone

frozen

gotten

given

gone

ground

grown

hung / hanged

had

heard

hidden

hit

held

hurt

kept

knelt / kneeled

knit / knitted

known

laid

led

leapt / leaped

left

lent

let

lain

lit / lighted

lost

made

meant

met

paid

proved / proven

put

quit

read

ridden

rung

risen

run

sawed / sawn

said

seen

sought

sold

sent

set

sewn / sewed

shaken

shaved / shaven

shorn

shone / shined

shot

shown / showed

shrunk / shrunken

shut

sung

sunk

sat

slain

slept

slid

sneaked / snuck

spoken

sped

spent

spilled / spilt

spun

spat / spit

split

spread

sprung

stood

stolen

stuck

stung

stunk

strewn

struck / stricken

striven / strived

sworn

swept

swum

swung

taken

taught

torn

told

thought

thrived

thrown

undergone

understood

upset

woken

worn

woven

wept

won

wound

withdrawn

wrung

written |

 

  • Choosing the right mood

 

[Verb mood _]is a verb form which is used to show the writer’s intentions when using the verb. The verb mood can be the “_normal” form, which is used for stating facts; the “commanding” form, which used for giving direct orders; the “hypothetical” form, which is used for things that are not facts but are probable, desired, hoped for, feared, or unlikely to happen. _ _

 

The commanding form (subjunctive)

This form is used when ordering or proposing things. The structure of commanding sentences usually requires the base form of a verb – that is the basic form, such as to go, but without the to (the form we would use to command: “Go, Edmond!”):

      Commanding verb + that + subject + base form (without to)

Lillian demands that he leave.

But why do we mention above “usually requires the base form of a verb”? Because some verbs actually require the basic form with to, but without that, as in:

      Commanding verb + subject + basic form (with to)

We advise you to learn these verbs by heart.

 

Here are some examples:

 

Note:

- Another form that can be used either way is it is… followed by any of the following words (presented here in order of “strength”):

^.
p=. fitting
^.
p=. preferable
^.
p=. sufficient
^.
p=. expedient
^.
p=. crucial
^.
p=. appropriate
^.
p=. better
^.
p=. important
^.
p=. essential
^.
p=. mandatory
^.
p=. right
^.
p=. desirable
^.
p=. advisable
^.
p=. urgent
^.
p=. imperative
^.
p=. advisable
^.
p=. satisfactory
^.
p=. necessary
^.
p=. vital
^.
p=. adamant

 

For example:

It is important that he come today. / It is important for him to come today.

 

- Nouns that derive from commanding verbs can be used just the same:

The proposal (from the commanding verb propose) that farm animals be kept in cages is not acceptable.

 

Additional examples of such nouns are: _advice, command, demand, desire, expectation, hope, instruction, mandate, order, permission, preference, recommendation, request, requirement, stipulation, suggestion, wish. _

 

 

The hypothetical form

There are two kinds of hypothetical structures: One deals with things wished, feared, or suggested – but which haven’t happened or unlikely to happen at the moment; while the other deals with cause-and-effect statements (conditionals): if… then…

  • Not Real

When a sentence uses such words as[_ I wish, as if ]or _as though, it refers to things that did not happen yet, may probably not happen, or are maybe even unlikely to happen at all. The verb form that is used in these cases is the same as the past simple form:

They looked at her as if she were crazy (but she wasn’t).

I wish I had more time for myself (but I don’t).

He acted as though nothing were wrong (but something was wrong).

The one exception to using the same verb form as past simple is to be. Simple past uses was for [he, she, _]and _it, but for hypothetical conditions we always use were:

She ignored the event as if it were just a bad dream.

  • IF… THEN

The [_if… then… _]structure refers to the possibility that things would happen with different degrees of certainty.

|^. p=. Degree of certainty |^. p=. Time of effect |^. p=. Structure |^. p=. Example

(note that then is sometimes dropped) | |^.
p=. Certainly |^.
p=. Always |^.
p=. If [present _]then _present.

If something happens, the result always happens |^.
p=. If you heat ice, it melts.

| |^. p=. Certainly |^. p=. Future |^. p=. If [present _]then _future.

If something happens, the result will happen |^.
p=. If you exercise, you will feel better.

| |^. p=. Certainly |^. p=. Future |^. p=. If [present perfect _]then _future.

If something has already happened, the result will happen |^.
p=. If he has [already] eaten, he will not come to lunch.

| |^. p=. Possibly |^. p=. Always |^. p=. If present _]then [_can/may present.

If something happens, it is possible that the result will happen |^.
p=. If I stay in the sun, my skin may become red.

| |^. p=. Unlikely |^. p=. Always |^. p=. If hypothetical form _]then [_would + present.

If something [_unlikely _]happens, then the [_unlikely _]result would happen |^.
p=. If she spoke Russian, we could talk to her.

| |^. p=. Never happened |^. p=. Past |^. p=. If past perfect _]then [_would have + past.

If something [that never happened _]had happened, then the result [_that never happened _]would[ ]have[ _]happened |^.
p=. If I had noticed the wet floor, I would not have slipped.

|

 

Note:

Sometimes in hypothetical statements we can drop the word if:

[*- *]Instead of If there were not an economic crisis, I would be a millionaire today, we can say:

Were there not an economic crisis, I would be a millionaire today.

 

[*- *]Instead of If you wanted to succeed, you would have to change all your habits, we can say:

To succeed, you would have to change all your habits.

 

[*- *]Instead of If I had known that they don’t have cameras, I would never have entered the studio, we can say:

Had I known that they don’t have cameras, I would never have entered the studio.

[* *]

  • Choosing active / passive

The active form is used when the subject performs the action (a man takes the dog for a walk), while the passive form is used when the action is performed on the subject by someone else (the dog was taken out for a walk).

 

The passive form:       A form of TO BE + past participle

            The glass was broken by the cat.

In this example we used “[_BY _]the cat” because it was the cat that broke the glass. If some sort of an instrument or some other means was involved, we would write:

            The glass was broken with a stick.

            The glass was broken because of the wind.

            The glass was broken through the use of a laser beam.

            The glass was broken using two fingers.

 

Note: The passive form can only be used with verbs that have an object to receive that action, such as kick, throw, paint, change, eat, clean, etc. The form is [verb] the [item] (as in: kick the box, throw the garbage, etc.).

There is no passive form for verbs such as arrive, go, lie, sneeze, sit, die, etc. ([_He went to his home _] [_The home was gone to?! _]Well, no).

 

Modifiers

A modifier is a word or a group of words that describes or limits a particular word in a sentence.

 

Dan has a red hat.

 

The word red gives a detail that specifies the hat, it is not just any hat, but a red hat.

 

Modifiers can modify nouns and verbs

 

[_The small brown dog ran quickly to the shore. _]

 

Here, small and brown are both adjectives that describe the dog (a noun); however, the word quickly describes the action of running.

 

Modifiers can also be complex phrases

 

Modifiers do not have to be just one word, but a number of words.

 

[_Tired of listening to his parents argue, Jake went upstairs. _]

 

The phrase tired of listening to his parents argue is a modifying phrase since it describes Jake.

 

 

 

 

Noun modifiers

 

1. A noun and its modifier should TOUCH each other.

 

The green frog jumped into the air.

 

The modifying phrase or word needs to be next to the noun it modifies, otherwise there is a misplaced modifier.

For example:

As a skin doctor, random people approach me to check their moles.

 

This is incorrect because as a skin doctor refers to the person being approached and not the random people.

Correct:

As a skin doctor, I am approached by random people who want me to check their moles.

 

Another incorrect example:

On her birthday, the neighbor’s dog bit Betty.

 

This is incorrect because On her birthday describes when something happened to Betty, not the dog.

Correct:

On her birthday, Betty was bitten by the neighbor’s dog.

 

2. Exception to the touch rule

A modifier can still correctly modify a word even if does not touch it, but only in the following cases:

 

  • If all of the words that come between are also modifiers.

For example: The graceful ballet dancer walked to the barre. Both graceful and ballet modify the word [dancer, _]even though the word _graceful doesn’t touch the modified subject.

 

  • The word and can also appear before the last modifier, for example:

 

The snake, long and dark, crawled out of the grass.

 

  • When using linking verbs to modify a noun, the linking verb does not have to appear right before or after the modified noun. Linking verbs tell us what the subject is or in what condition it is (and not what the subject does, such as jumped or bought). When we use a linking verb, we must use a modifier that describes the noun, but not the verb, as in:

 

  • Be:            Jenny is happy. (not happily).
  • Become:      This cake becomes better when it sits. (The cake is described as becoming better, not the verb become.)[_ _]
  • [_Get:      _]The situation has gotten worse since he lost his wife.
  • [_Grow:      _]The kids have grown taller in the past year.

 

 

The same is true for other linking verbs, such as [keep, remain, seem, sound, stay, _]and _turn – they are always followed by a word that describes the noun. In some other cases, it depends on what we are trying to describe – the noun or the verb:

 

^.
p=. Describing a noun
^.
p=. Describing a verb
^.
p=. Look good (= appearance)
^.
p=. Look well (= the way one uses his eyes)
^.
p=. Feel good (= state of health/mind)
^.
p=. Feel well (= have a good sense of touch)
^.
p=. Smell good (= odor)
^.
p=. Smell well (= have a good sense of smell)
^.
p=. Taste good (= preference)
^.
p=. Taste well (= have a good sense of taste)

 

3. Make sure a noun is actually described in the sentence:

 

[_Wrong: _]After hearing all the complaints, something had to be done.

 

Who is the one who heard all the complaints? _ _

 

[_Correct: _]After hearing all the complaints, I thought that something had to be done.

 

 

4. A relative pronoun.

 

Which, that, who, whose, whom, where, and when, can signify the beginning of a modifying phrase. Therefore, when you see one of these words in a sentence, read that phrase closely to understand what it is meant to modify, then check whether the phrase is located right after the subject. If the phrase is located somewhere else, then the sentence is grammatically incorrect.

 

Incorrect: Dan was sitting on the swing in his backyard, which has been broken for months.

 

This is incorrect because, while it is clear that the swing is the object that is broken, by putting which before backyard it sounds like the backyard is broken.                                

Correct: Dan was in the backyard, sitting on the swing, which has been broken for months.       

Incorrect: Linda was standing on the chair in order to reach the cookie jar, which was quite wobbly.

 

A jar cannot be wobbly but a chair can be, therefore we know we are dealing with a misplaced modifier.

      

Correct: Linda was standing on the chair, which was quite wobbly, in order to reach the cookie jar.

Correct: Linda was standing on the chair in order to reach the cookie jar, which was located on the top shelf.

 

This sentence is also fine because the modifying phrase refers to the jar and comes right after the word jar.

 

Another important thing to know is that the pronouns who and whom must modify people, while[_ which ]and _that are used in the GMAT only to describe things:

Incorrect: The family dog, who ran away last week, was found in a nearby gas station.

 

Animals are not people therefore using who to modify the word dog is incorrect.              

Correct: The family dog, which ran away last week, was found in a nearby gas station.

Incorrect: My high-school teachers, which never remembered my name, are all going to attend my high school reunion.

 

Teachers are people, therefore it should be who not which.

 

Correct: My high-school teachers, who never remembered my name, are all going to attend my high school reunion.

 

Whom vs. who

 

Who is used as the subject of the verb in a relative clause, whereas whom is used as the object of the verb or of a preposition.

 

This officer, whom we’ve just met, is thirty years old.

The girl, who laughed heartily, really enjoyed your performance.

 

Who describes the subject (the girl), while whom describes the relationship between the object and the subject: We are the object, the officer is the subject, but they are connected in a certain relationship.

 

Where

The pronoun where can be used to modify a noun that means an actual place, however, where cannot modify a “metaphorical” place, such as condition, situation, case, circumstances, or arrangement. In these cases, use in which rather than where.

Who is the one who heard all the complaints? _ _

[_Correct: _]After hearing all the complaints, I thought that something had to be done.

Wrong: This is a case where parents have to help their kids.

Correct: This is a case in which parents have to help their kids.

 

Where is used when describing a place:

      The village where I grew up was very small.

 

The pronoun [_when _]can be used to modify a noun event or time, such as period, age, 1987, or decade. In these circumstances, you can also use in which instead of when.

_ _

Whose

Though [_whose _]is the possessive form of who, according to the GMAT, [_whose _]can also be used to modify words that mean things not just people.

For example:

The police caught the thief, whose fingerprints were found at the crime scene.

 

Whose takes the place of his.

 

The university, [+whose +]work study program has cut costs by 20 percent, is making headlines around the world.

 

Whose takes the place of its.

Note:

- [Which _]and _whom are sometimes added after using words used to express relations between words, such as “on”, “above”, “through”, “to”, “in”, etc.:

      The man to whom I was married was my first boyfriend.

      This is the bridge, under which we hid from the rain.

- [Which, that, who, _]and _whom are sometimes dropped when the modified noun is the object of the modifying clause:

      The senator +]whom [+we trusted, proved to be just and fair

  • Describing numbers

We use different words to describe objects we can count and non-countable objects:

|^. p=. countable nouns

[_many _]years

a/ few years

fewer years

fewer than 5 years

fewest years

number of years

numerous years

more numerous years

a (/ an) year

these years

those years

each year

every year

either a month or a year

neither a month nor a year |^.
p=. Non-countable nouns

much work

a/ little work

less work

less than 3 days of work

least work

amount of work

great work

greater work |^.
p=. both

some years / work

any year / work

enough years / work

this year / work

that year / work

more years / work

most of the years / work

all the years / work

|

[* *]

6. Parallelism

 

We need to make sure that the modifier and the modified noun fit. Look at the word the modifier is meant to describe: is it plural or singular? Is it male or female? Is it a person or a thing? The modifying phrase should always match the modified word. For example:

 

Incorrect: The office, delighted by the good news, was filled with gleeful cries.

An office cannot be delighted, therefore the modifying phrase delighted by the good news and the modified word office do not match.

Correct: The office staff, delighted by the good news, filled the air with their gleeful cries.

*** If we notice a long sequences of modifiers that modify the same noun, this should be a warning sign that the original sentence is incorrect. Putting a bunch of long modifiers in a row before or after a noun can lead to awkward or ineffective phrasing.

 

*7. Pay attention to the possessive *

 

The possessive can be tricky, because the possessive can make it look like the modifying phrase is referencing the right subject when it isn’t.

For example:

After winning first prize at the 3rd grade science fair, Jane’s parents looked so proud.

 

This is incorrect because although the modifying phrase refers to Jane, and Jane appears right after the phrase, by adding the possessive, the modifying phrase actually refers to Jane’s parents and not to Jane herself.

 

Correct: Watching their daughter win first prize at the 3rd grade science fair, Jane’s parents looked so proud.

Correct: After winning first prize at the 3rd grade science fair, Jane noticed her parents looked so prou

8. Verb modifiers and other modifiers

 

An adverb modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. This modifier answers questions about the verb, such as: how, when, where, why, etc. When this modifier appears as a phrase it usually begins with words such as: because, although, if, unless, while, so that, etc.

 

There is an important difference between verb modifiers and noun modifiers. Verb modifiers do not have to touch the verb they are modifying.

For example: Amanda ate the soup very slowly. Here slowly describes the verb ate.[* *]

9. When to use the –ly[* ending*]

 

Many adverbs use a -ly ending. For example:

This picture is rarely presented in a public exhibition (and not rare).

Such adverbs are usually formed by adding -ly to the end of an adjective,

Other adverbs, however, such as very, far, fast, and long do not take the -ly form. In addition, some adverbs can take both forms. For example “drive slow”/“drive slowly”. Sometimes the two are interchangeable, but in some cases each form has a different meaning, in which case the two forms are not interchangeable.

 

For example:

You need to work hard to ahead in life.

Using the word hardly would be incorrect here.

Jack ate hardly anything at dinner.

Hard would be incorrect here, since hardly means barely or slightly, while hard means tough or with great effort.

Usually, a word that modifies a noun does not take on the -ly form.

 

 

 

 

For example:

This rare coin has been found.

The correct word is rare and not rarely, because rare describes the noun coin.

James rarely comes to visit.

 

Here, the correct forms is rarely since rarely describes how often James comes.

If you’re unsure about the form of an adverb, check your dictionary.

 

10. Make sure a verb appears in the sentence

 

Once you notice that a segment or clause begins with one of the keywords we mentioned that modify a verb (where, since, while, after, etc.) you need to make sure that there is a verb to modify.

[_Wrong: _]Because of the drop in temperatures, snow in the north.

What does the snow do? _ _

[_Correct: _]Because of the drop in temperatures, snow fell in the north.

We can see that because of the drop in temperatures answers the question why the snow fell?

 

11. The description of a verb doesn’t have to be next to that verb, but we must avoid double meaning

 

Even though a verb modifier does not need to be next to the verb it modifies, it should be clear which verb the modifier refers to, in order to avoid ambiguity. Make sure that the modifying phrase or word cannot refer to more than one thing.

For example:

Those who sleep late often lack energy during the day.

Does this mean who often sleep late or those who sleep late lack energy often. Does often modify lack or sleeping late? Problematic modifiers such as these can cause awkward and unclear sentences and should be avoided.

      

Wrong: Claire said she couldn’t come to the party last week.

What does “last week” describe when Claire said she couldn’t come, or when the party took place?[_ _]

[_Correct: _]Last week, Claire said she couldn’t come to the party.

 

 

12. The description must be logical

 

[_Wrong: _]Gilbert looked at the lion, when it made him nervous.

At first this may sound correct, because there is a connection between looking at the lion and being nervous, but is it time that connects them?

Better: Gilbert looked at the lion nervously.

 

13. Modifiers with an –ing[* ending *]

A word with an -ing ending is a quite common modifier. The advantage of this modifier is that it is very flexible. It can modify nouns, verbs and their subjects, and it can modify an entire clause.

 

For example:

Wearing a brightly colored dress, Jane walked down the aisle.

I love watching the changing seasons.

I walked down the street, humming an upbeat tune.

Since the -ing form can be used in many different ways, it can also lead to ambiguity, therefore you need to make sure there is no double meaning.

  • *

[* *]

Parallelism[* – *]

Connected parts of the sentence with the same function must have the same (= parallel) structure

Let’s examine the following statement:

Dorothy likes to talk for hours and looking at herself in the mirror.

This sentence is wrong. When we connect the two expressions that express what Dorothy likes to do (by using the connector and), they must both have the same form:

Dorothy likes to talk for hours and [to] look at herself in the mirror.

or

Dorothy likes talking for hours and looking at herself in the mirror.

In general, parts of the sentence with similar content and a similar function should be written in the same form. We can tell that a sentence is correct when it can be divided into separate correct sentences with the same structure:

Dorothy likes to talk for hours.

Dorothy likes to listen to music.

 

When the form of the verb is made up of more than one word, as in “to talk”, we can use the same first word for all the different expressions:

Dorothy likes to talk for hours and to listen to music.

 

The same rule applies to forms like “has seen”, “should go”, etc.:

Since she woke up, the girl has already eaten breakfast, drunk coffee and read the newspaper.

You should neither drive nor operate any machinery after taking that medication.

 

We can also drop repeating words when comparing things (using such words such as like, unlike, as, compared to, more / less than, etc.):

He looks much better than he did he looked when he first came to this office.

Unlike the one moon that Earth has, Jupiter has sixty seven moons.

Gale watched more movies than Paul did watched.

 

This is fine, as long as there is no double meaning, such as:

Feeding a dog is cheaper than a horse.

Is it cheaper than feeding a horse or cheaper than the price of buying a horse?

[_Correct: _] Feeding a dog is cheaper than feeding a horse.

 

But when we connect different clauses, they have to start with the same word:

We need not only leaders who lead the right way, but also leaders who listen to what we have to say.

 

  • The connectors

 

There is no point memorizing the ways in which expressions with the same function are connected because the important part is the logic behind the connection: the connected expressions function as the same parts of the sentence. Think of it while you go through the following list of the most common ways to connect such expressions:

 

And      [_             Danny writes short stories, novels, and poems._]

Both… and…             I love both my mother and my father.

As                  [_As their parents did, Bob and Grace studied medicine. _]

As… so…      [_      As a child grows, so does his need to be independent._]

As… as…      Charles is as smart as his older sister.

The same as      [_      The twins look the same as their parents._]

Like      [_Like most kids, Henriette loves the ocean. _]

Not only… but also…      She did not only want to be president, but also made every possible effort to become one.

More/less than      Brushing your teeth before going to bed is more important than after waking up.

From… to…      [_      He moved from growing trees to writing books_].

Between… and…      I can’t decide between staying here and going to the beach.

While                  Victoria was reading a book while listening to the radio.

First… second…      You should first put in the eggs, then add the sugar, and finally mix them together.

[_X _]such as [_Y            Green vegetables, such as green beans, contain vitamin C. _]

Or      [_            We can go to the concert by taxi or bus_].

Either… or:            Samantha must either buy a new coat or repair her old one.

Neither… nor            The kid could play neither football nor basketball.

Whether… or…      Whether at home or at work, she always looks busy.

Rather than            Our main concern is safety rather than cost.

Compared to            Compared to studying for exams at home on your own, sitting in class is easy.

Different from            The way he acts in class is different from the way he acts at home.

In contrast to/with      In contrast to jogging, walking will not damage your knees.

Unlike                   Unlike its smell, the taste of this vegetable is very pleasant.

Prefer/mistake… to…      Lorry preferred not coming at all to being late for class.

Not… but…            Rita did not just win the first prize once, but twice.

 

Note:

- Like should only be used before of a noun or a pronoun, such as:

Like most fruit, apples contain sugar.

Like us, our neighbors moved here because of the view.

[_       _]Like talking, eating is not allowed in the library. (Talking and eating are used here as nouns.)

Like cannot be used for anything but a noun or a pronoun; not even before a clause (a part of a sentence that contains a noun and a verb):

Wrong: Like her mother did before her, Angela married young.

We can correct this clause by using as instead of like (as can [always _]be used; _like is limited to nouns and pronouns):

Correct: As her mother did before her, Angela married young.

 

- When comparing two things, we usually use a comparative form that ends with -er, such as in:

Kelly is taller than I (am).

When comparing more than two things, we usually use the form that ends with -est, as in:

Kelly is the tallest girl in the neighborhood.

[* We use ][*-er][* and ][*-est]:

  • When the word has only one syllable (one vowel sound, such as tall, thin, clean): clean – cleaner – cleanest; late – later – latest. But in some cases we use an irregular form:

 

  • When the word has two syllables and ends with -er (clever),[_ -y ] (easy), [_-le] (simple), -ow (narrow): easy – easier – easiest; clever – cleverer – cleverer; simple – simpler – simplest; narrow – narrower – narrowest.

[* We use ]more[ and ]most in most other cases (interesting – more interesting – most interesting), [*but]:

  • in some cases both forms (-er/-est, more/most) are possible:

 

  • When describing verbs, words that end with ly (easily) should not be changed to -er ending ([-easier]). Instead, we should add “more”:

Wrong: You can draw easier by using a computer than a pencil.

Correct: You can draw more easily by using a computer than by using a pencil.

  • Linking verbs – another kind of connector

As already mentioned, linking verbs are verbs that do not describe what the subject does, such as run or drink, but what the subject is or in what condition it is. So the structure of a sentence with a linking verb is made of two parts with a similar function:

1^{color:#525252;}st^ part        linking verb            2^{color:#525252;}nd^ part      

A building is a man-made structure.

 

A building and a structure have the same form of noun. It would be incorrect if we replaced one of them with a verb, for example:

(incorrect:) A building is a man-made arranging elements.

We should consider a linking verb as equal parts:

A building = a man-made structure

 

The linking verbs may be of one of the following categories:

[+Forms of +]to be: am, is, are, being, was, were, been, be.

A state of being: seem, appear, remain, stay, represent, resemble.

A change of form: become, grow, turn.

The five senses: look, smell, taste, sound, feel.

And let’s not forget: what they all have in common is that they do not represent an action but how things are. We can replace them with = .[_ _][+ +]

 

It is not only the function but also the meaning that should be similar. What is wrong with the following sentence?

The main consideration when buying a new book seems to be its cover.

 

In short: consideration ≠ its cover. What we might consider is how attractive the cover’s design is.

The main consideration when buying a new book seems to be the attractiveness of its cover.

 

  • Connecting words

 

A complete sentence has to be able to stand on its own: have a subject and a verb. Also, if a sentence starts with words such as if, because, although, until, etc., there must be a second part to the sentence.

If we want to connect at least two sentences, we have to use connecting words. These words belong to either one of two groups:

 

[+Words connecting sentences that can stand alone: +]

for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so (can be memorized as FANBOYS).[_ _]

We use these words sometimes after a comma ( , ):

Nobody saw her coming, yet everybody assumed she was at work.

And sometimes without the comma:

He was hungry but he decided to eat after his workout.

 

[Words that are used to connect a clause that +]cannot[ stand alone: +]

|^. p. [*Comparison * **]as as if

as much as

as though
just as

 

|^.
p. Contradiction

although

despite

in spite of

even though

nevertheless

though

whereas

while

  |^.
p. [Condition
**]even if
if
in case
provided that
unless

 

  |^.
p. [Cause
**]as
because
in order that
since
so that
p. |^.
p. [Time
**]after
as soon as
as long as
before
now that

once
since

still
till
until
when
whenever
while |^.
p. [Place
**]where
wherever 

  |

 

With these connecting words there are four different ways of possible punctuation:

Comma            Colon            Semicolon            Dash
,                   :             ;                   –[
* *]

No GMAT question relies only on your correct punctuation, so there’s no need to make a big issue out of this, but noticing the punctuation can help us trace errors in the sentence.

Comma ( , )

- Used for separating complete from incomplete clauses:

As soon as the train stopped, the passengers hurried to get off.

Despite the fact that it contains mostly water and sugar, watermelon is popular.

 

– As mentioned before, when a description comes after a noun, the use of a comma depends on whether the information is necessary.

Necessary (= no commas):

The guy who is behind the minister is the minister’s bodyguard.

Not necessary (= use commas):

This guy, who was once my sister’s boyfriend, is now the minister’s bodyguard.

 

Colon ( [*:*] )

A colon is used to provide more details. It can only be used after a complete sentence:

[_Wrong: _]She got the present: she wanted a pony.

[_Correct: _]She got the present she wanted: a pony.

 

- Commonly used to introduce a list of items (instead of introducing the list with words such as namelyfor example, or that is):

The Three Countries Bridge connects three countries: France, Germany, and Switzerland.

 

- Also used to expand on the subject or give further explanation (when the second sentence explains or illustrates the first sentence and no connecting word is used to connect the sentences):      

Exposure to sunlight is good for your health: it is essential for the production of vitamin D.

 

Semicolon ( ; )

Connects two complete sentences, both of which can stand alone, but whose true meaning is made from combining them into one longer sentence:

Everybody likes the boss; he is very polite.

In this example, we can see that because the boss is polite, everybody likes him.

 

- Unlike a colon, which connects a sentence or phrase to its explanation, the semicolon connects two related sentences, but the second one does not have to explain the first:

My mother just called and said she was coming over; I think I’m going to have a heart attack.

In this example, the semicolon implies that the heart attack is the result of the emotional stress created by the unexpected visit.

 

- We can also use one of these words to connect the two sentences:

^.
p. hence
however
in addition
indeed
in fact
in particular 
instead
likewise
meanwhile
moreover
^.
p. namely
nevertheless
of course 
otherwise
still
that is
then
therefore
thus

 

Since we refer to sentences that are not really separate but act as two complete parts of one sentence, we use a semicolon before (and a comma after) each of the words mentioned above:

Birds fascinate him; in particular, he loves birds with colorful feathers.

 

- A semicolon can be used to separate lists of items that already use commas:

They played Knock, Knock, Ginger; and Duck, Duck, Goose.

 

Dash ([* – *])

A dash can replace a comma, a colon, or a semicolon. It is used in writing to add some drama (a longer pause before we continue to read), and also to make the meaning of the sentence clearer:

The island was disconnected from the mainland for hundreds of years; in fact, only two years ago was the new bridge built.

 

We could use a colon instead of the first dash and a comma instead of the second, but it is much easier to understand the sentence with the dashes.

The island – which was connected to the mainland by the new bridge just two years ago – had been disconnected from the mainland for hundreds of years.

 

  • Idioms

 

An idiom is a group of words that has a meaning TOGETHER that is different from the actual meaning of each individual word, such as break a leg! (= good luck to you!), on the other hand (= there is another side to the matter) or it’s raining cats and dogs (=a lot of rain is falling). There are hundreds of idioms, but our main concern should be idioms that use prepositions – those short words that show the relations between the words.

Here are the more common idioms and verb forms to be aware of (even if English is your first language, some of these may surprise you):

List of the correct prepositions that go with the following nouns/ verbs/ adjectives

 

|^. p. care  |^. p. about  | |^. p. complain |^. p. about | |^. p. concern (= consider)  |^. p. about  | |^. p. theorize  |^. p. about  | |^. p. worry  |^. p. about  | |^. p. defend  |^. p. against  | |^. p. prejudiced  |^. p. against  | |^. p. protect  |^. p. against  | |^. p. acclaimed  |^. p. as  | |^. p. at least as  |^. p. as  | |^. p. defined  |^. p. as  | |^. p. depict  |^. p. as  | |^. p. perceive  |^. p. as  | |^. p. regard  |^. p. as  | |^. p. view  |^. p. as  | |^. p. aim  |^. p. at  | |^. p. angry  |^. p. at/about  | |^. p. glance |^. p. at | |^. p. rivalry  |^. p. between/among  | |^. p. accompanied  |^. p. by  | |^. p. attended  |^. p. by  | |^. p. built  |^. p. by  | |^. p. delighted  |^. p. by  | |^. p. embarrassed  |^. p. by  | |^. p. encouraged  |^. p. by  | |^. p. fascinated  |^. p. by  | |^. p. hindered  |^. p. by  | |^. p. judged  |^. p. by  | |^. p. prized  |^. p. by  | |^. p. profit  |^. p. by  | |^. p. (get) credit  |^. p. for  | |^. p. account (= explaining something)  |^. p. for  | |^. p. adapt  |^. p. for/by  | |^. p. allow  |^. p. for  | |^. p. blame |^. p. for | |^. p. call  |^. p. for  | |^. p. compensate  |^. p. for  | |^. p. concern (= worry)  |^. p. about/for  | |^. p. craving  |^. p. for  | |^. p. except |^. p. for | |^. p. exchange  |^. p. for  | |^. p. respect |^. p. for | |^. p. give credit  |^. p. for  | |^. p. grateful |^. p. for | |^. p. grounds  |^. p. for  | |^. p. guilty  |^. p. of  | |^. p. mistake  |^. p. for  | |^. p. need  |^. p. for  | |^. p. potential |^. p. for  | |^. p. rates  |^. p. for  | |^. p. requisition  |^. p. for  | |^. p. responsible  |^. p. for  | |^. p. rival  |^. p. for  | |^. p. sorry |^. p. about/for | |^. p. thank (someone) |^. p. for | |^. p. away  |^. p. from  | |^. p. benefit  |^. p. from  | |^. p. date  |^. p. from  | |^. p. descend  |^. p. from  | |^. p. differ  |^. p. from  | |^. p. different  |^. p. from  | |^. p. discourage  |^. p. from  | |^. p. divergent  |^. p. from  | |^. p. dwindle  |^. p. from  | |^. p. emerge  |^. p. from  | |^. p. escape  |^. p. from  | |^. p. flee  |^. p. from  | |^. p. independent |^. p. from  | |^. p. inherit  |^. p. from  | |^. p. isolate  |^. p. from  | |^. p. prevent  |^. p. from  | |^. p. prohibit  |^. p. from  | |^. p. separate  |^. p. from  | |^. p. suffer  |^. p. from  | |^. p. acquiesce  |^. p. to  | |^. p. believe  |^. p. in  | |^. p. boom  |^. p. in  | |^. p. concern (= relevant)  |^. p. in  | |^. p. decline  |^. p. in  | |^. p. fluctuation  |^. p. in  | |^. p. instill  |^. p. in  | |^. p. interested |^. p. in | |^. p. invest  |^. p. in  | |^. p. localized  |^. p. in  | |^. p. originate  |^. p. in  | |^. p. participate  |^. p. in  | |^. p. research  |^. p. into  | |^. p. a native (people)

native (not people)   |^.
p. of

to  | |^.
p. accuse  |^.
p. of  | |^.
p. afraid  |^.
p. of  | |^.
p. approve  |^.
p. of  | |^.
p. ask  |^.
p. of  | |^.
p. aware |^.
p. of  | |^.
p. be oblivious  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. because  |^.
p. of  | |^.
p. capable  |^.
p. of  | |^.
p. chance |^.
p. of  | |^.
p. choice  |^.
p. of  | |^.
p. composed  |^.
p. of  | |^.
p. comprise  |^.
p. of  | |^.
p. consequence  |^.
p. of  | |^.
p. consist  |^.
p. of  | |^.
p>. conscious |^.
p>. of | |^.
p. |^.
p.

| |^. p. danger  |^. p. of  | |^. p. descendant

descend  |^.
p. of

from  | |^.
p. desirous  |^.
p. of  | |^.
p. disapprove  |^.
p. of  | |^.
p. disdain  |^.
p. for  | |^.
p. dispose  |^.
p. of  | |^.
p. envious  |^.
p. of  | |^.
p. fond |^.
p. of | |^.
p. frequency  |^.
p. of  | |^.
p. full |^.
p. of | |^.
p. incapable |^.
p. of | |^.
p. independent |^.
p. of  | |^.
p. instance  |^.
p. of  | |^.
p. instead  |^.
p. of  | |^.
p. interaction  |^.
p. with /of | |^.
p. jealous  |^.
p. of  | |^.
p. knowledge |^.
p. of | |^.
p. on account  |^.
p. of  | |^.
p. opposite  |^.
p. of  | |^.
p. partake  |^.
p. of  | |^.
p. rate  |^.
p. of  | |^.
p. receptive |^.
p. of  | |^.
p. regardless  |^.
p. of  | |^.
p. repent  |^.
p. for  | |^.
p. rid  |^.
p. of  | |^.
p. sensible  |^.
p. of  | |^.
p. sequence  |^.
p. of  | |^.
p. solicitous  |^.
p. of  | |^.
p. sparing  |^.
p. of  | |^.
p. suspicious  |^.
p. of  | |^.
p. take advantage  |^.
p. of  | |^.
p. take care |^.
p. of | |^.
p. tired |^.
p. of | |^.
p. tolerant  |^.
p. of  | |^.
p. violation  |^.
p. of  | |^.
p. agree |^.
p. on/with  | |^.
p. authority  |^.
p. on  | |^.
p. base  |^.
p. on  | |^.
p.   |^.
p.   | |^.
p. center  |^.
p. on  | |^.
p. comment  |^.
p. on  | |^.
p. concentrate |^.
p. on | |^.
p. congratulate |^.
p. on | |^.
p. decide |^.
p. on (something)  | |^.
p. depend  |^.
p. on (/ on whether) | |^.
p. draw (take out)  |^.
p. on  | |^.
p. focus  |^.
p. on  | |^.
p. frown |^.
p. on | |^.
p. rely |^.
p. on | |^.
p. spend  |^.
p. on  | |^.
p. argue |^.
p. over (a topic)  | |^.
p.   |^.
p.   | |^.
p. better  |^.
p. than  | |^.
p. less  |^.
p. than  | |^.
p. more  |^.
p. than  | |^.
p. rather  |^.
p. than  | |^.
p. sooner  |^.
p. than  | |^.
p. anticipated  |^.
p. that  | |^.
p. assure  |^.
p. that  | |^.
p. aware |^.
p. that  | |^.
p. conclude  |^.
p. that  | |^.
p. contend  |^.
p. that  | |^.
p. demand  |^.
p. that  | |^.
p. demonstrate  |^.
p. that  | |^.
p. doubt  |^.
p. that  | |^.
p. fear  |^.
p. that  | |^.
p. hypothesize  |^.
p. that  | |^.
p. indicate  |^.
p. that  | |^.
p. insist  |^.
p. that  | |^.
p. mandate  |^.
p. that  | |^.
p. glance |^.
p. through/over | |^.
p. (give) credit  |^.
p. to/for  | |^.
p. ability  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. able  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. accede  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. access  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. according  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. account (= take blame or credit)  |^.
p. for  | |^.
p. affect  |^.
p. on  | |^.
p. agree |^.
p. with/on  | |^.
p. allergy  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. allocate  |^.
p. for  | |^.
p. alternative  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. amount  |^.
p. of  | |^.
p. analogous  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. appeal  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. appear  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. apply  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p.   |^.
p.   | |^.
p. attempt  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. attend  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. attention  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. attest  |^.
p. to   | |^.
p. attribute  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. available  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. averse  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. begin  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. bring  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. choose  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. compare |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. conducive  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. conform  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. continue  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. contrary  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. contrast  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. contribute  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. convert  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. correspond |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. credit (= give money)  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. decide |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. difficult  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. disclose  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. drawn  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. due  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. easy  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. effort  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. encourage  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. equal  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. essential  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. expect  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. explain  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. expose  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. extend  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. forbid  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. from  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. grateful |^.
p. to (someone) | |^.
p. identical |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. in contrast  |^.
p. to/with  | |^.
p. in order  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. inclined  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. inferior |^.
p. to | |^.
p. intent  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. introduce  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. lead  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. liken  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. manage  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. native  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. need  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. next |^.
p. to | |^.
p. oblivious  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. opposed  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. order  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. permit  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. persuade  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. potential |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. predisposed  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. prefer  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. preferable  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. pressure  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. prior  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. promise  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. proud |^.
p. to | |^.
p. receptive |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. refer  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. regard |^.
p. to | |^.
p. related  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. resistance  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. respond  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. responsibility  |^.
p. to/for  | |^.
p. send  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. sensitive  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. similar  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. superior  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. threaten  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. train  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. transit  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. transmit  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. try  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. way   |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. assume  |^.
p. to be  | |^.
p. estimate  |^.
p. to be  | |^.
p. indifferent  |^.
p. towards/to  | |^.
p. center  |^.
p. on  | |^.
p. depend |^.
p. on | |^.
p. frown |^.
p. on | |^.
p. rely |^.
p. on | |^.
p. dispute  |^.
p. whether  | |^.
p. question  |^.
p. whether  | |^.
p. acquaint  |^.
p. with  | |^.
p. affinity  |^.
p. for  | |^.
p. afflicted  |^.
p. with/by  | |^.
p. agree |^.
p. with/on  | |^.
p. analogy  |^.
p. to  | |^.
p. argue (someone)  |^.
p. with  | |^.
p. associate  |^.
p. with  | |^.
p. collaborate  |^.
p. with  | |^.
p. collide  |^.
p. with  | |^.
p. compare (differences)  |^.
p. with  | |^.
p. comply  |^.
p. with  | |^.
p. concerned |^.
p. with/about | |^.
p. concur |^.
p. with  | |^.
p. conformity  |^.
p. with  | |^.
p. consistent  |^.
p. with  | |^.
p. contrast  |^.
p. with  | |^.
p. correspond |^.
p. with/to  | |^.
p. credit (not money)  |^.
p. with  | |^.
p. deal  |^.
p. with  | |^.
p. disagree  |^.
p. with  | |^.
p. disgust

to be disgusted   |^.
p. For

with/by  | |^.
p. enamored  |^.
p. by  | |^.
p. entrusted  |^.
p. with  | |^.
p. familiar  |^.
p. with  | |^.
p. identical |^.
p. with/to  | |^.
p. in accordance |^.
p. With | |^.
p. infected  |^.
p. with/by  | |^.
p. meet  |^.
p. with  | |^.
p. preoccupied  |^.
p. with/by  | |^.
p. provide  |^.
p. with  | |^.
p. relations  |^.
p. with  | |^.
p. replace  |^.
p. with  | |^.
p. satisfied |^.
p. with/by | |^.
p. sympathize  |^.
p. with  | |^.
p. tamper  |^.
p. with  | |^.
p. tinker  |^.
p. with  | |^.
p. from now on

from time to time

in conflict

in the habit of

in the near future

(be) of the opinion of/that

on top of

with regard to

 

 


 

 

 


GMAT® Official Guide Supplement - Sentence Correction Basics

This GMAT sentence correction guide was created by examPAL and its team to help non-native English speakers to understand, remember, and strengthen their understanding of the English language. The guide covers topics like Subject-Verb agreement, Nouns, Pronouns, Choosing the correct form of a verb, Modifiers, Parallelism, and Idioms. If you are serious about cracking the GMAT Verbal section, get this guide now.

  • Author: examPAL
  • Published: 2017-02-13 15:20:24
  • Words: 10239
GMAT® Official Guide Supplement - Sentence Correction Basics GMAT® Official Guide Supplement - Sentence Correction Basics