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Fusion of Chinese and Western Wisdom---Synthesis of Chinese and Western philosop

Fusion of Chinese and Western Wisdom

—- Synthesis of Chinese and Western Philosophy

Preface

Due to the reason of different geographies,histories,nations,religions etc ,there are many civilizations in the world .

According to the statement of famous American scholar , Samual Huntington , the world civilization includes 8 main types : Hindu civilization.Islamic civilization.Japenese civilization,Orthodox civilization,Chinese (Confucian )civilization, Western civilization,Africa civilization and Latin American civilization.

Philosophy is at the highest level of human civilization. Buddhist philosophy and Islamic philosophy are closely related with religions.In the whole world , Western philosophy and Chinese philosophy are the only two independent philosophy systems which are built on human reason .Both of them have their systematicness ,.completeness and worldwide influence.

Chinese Philosophy is a philosophy system which not only belongs to China. It has a wide influence in many countries in Asia and also in people originated from China but now living in different countries in the world..

Western philosophy has its influence not only in Europe and North America, but also in many countries in all continents of the world

There have been already some researches on the comparison between Western philosophy and Chinese philosophy(see the related Chapters and References in this book ). A problem is : are there some commonalities between these two philosophy systems? Is there the possibility to synthesize these two philosophy systems? This is the issue which will be discussed in this book. In this book ,the purpose of comparison of these two philosophy systems is to discuss the problem of synthesis of them . This is the reason that the title of this book is :Synthesis of Chinese and Western Philosophy

The author has read more than 300 books (mostly original).of Western and Chinese philosophy.My idea is that even though there are apparent differences between Chinese and Western philosophy, they still have some commonalities. The reasons of these commonalities are :

#
p<>{color:#333;}. Both of them face to the great nature and the same world

⑵Both of them face to the common human nature

⑶Both of them face to the common need for a reasonable human society.

⑷Both of them come from the same human reason.

Due to the above commonalities ,there exists the possibility to synthesize Chinese and Western Philosophy .

The author used the word “Synthesis” ,other than the word

“Integration” or “Unification” . My idea is that there is no necessity and also no possibility to completely integrate or unite Chinese and Western philosophy together to become a world philosophy. Even in far future ,different countries or nations will remain they own cultural characteristics. The saying of Confucius is reasonable:

Harmony but not sameness”.

As to some important problems ,the thinking in different philosophy systems may be integrated ,but they will still remain their own characteristics in a long time continuously.

The meaning of “Synthesis” is same as the saying of Confucius: “Harmony but not sameness”.

In the author’s opinion, the synthesis of Chinese and Western philosophy will be an important direction of human’s future civilization which will push forward the progress in many aspects of human civilization

As a Chinese scholar. The author is concerning the influence of China on the world. In 2010 ,China’s GDP exceeded Japan becoming the second largest economy entity in the world.This is the accomplishment of China’s reform and opening up policy.

But , the soft power of China is far behind comparing with its hard power . Only depending on the Confucius Academies located in many countries in the world ,it is difficult to raise the soft power of China .

There exists a problem: in more than 2000 years of China’s history, are there some world level cultural resources?

The author ‘s opinion is that in many aspects ,Chinese Philosophy(not only theory of Confucianism ) reached the world level . It reached the highest level in the world in some aspects (as Cosmogony ,Ontology ,Moral philosophy ,etc ) .

Of course,in some aspects ( as Epistemology and Political philosophy),Western philosophy is certainly superior than Chinese philosophy ,which China need to study seriously .

That is why that the Synthesis Study of Chinese and Western philosophies has its important meanings ,not only for the progress of China ,but also for the whole world . Many essences in Chinese philosophy are not familiar to academic circle and people in other countries in the world. It’s necessary to introduce them .

The author is not a specialized philosopher .but an agricultural scientist . I have been made contributions to Agricultural Meteorology in China and also to establishment of Agricultural Modeling Science in China.

Owing to the interest in philosophy in my youth period ,after my retirement in 1999,, I have been reading a large amount books in philosophy ,both Chinese and Western. Based on wide reading and my own independent thinking , I have written 7 books on philosophy . They are:①Synthetic Philosophy,②Strolling in Western Philosophy, ③Brief Introduction to Chinese Philosophy,④Love Philosophy,⑤Philosophy of Good and Common Value,⑥Beauty Philosophy and ⑦Soul Philosophy. This book probably is my last book on philosophy.

Because I am not a specialized philosopher , there is more freedom for me to have some independent thinking in the academic circumstance of China.

And also ,because I am a scientist ,I may use more scientific knowledge in my books.

All readers of this book are acknowledged sincerely by me.

My email address is : [email protected]

I welcome your comments on this book and like to have communication with you through email . If you have any questions on Chinese philosophy , I like to help within the extent of my ability.

2015-4-10,Nanjing, China

Contents

Preface

Chapter 1 Two Worldwide Philosophy Systems and Their

Main Differences

Chapter 2 The Forming Background of Chinese Philosophy

Chapter 3 The Forming Background of Western Philosophy

Chapter 4 Communication between Chinese and Western Philosophy

Chapter 5 Comparison and Synthesis of Cosmogony and Ontology in Chinese and Western Philosophy

Chapter 6 Comparison and Synthesis of Epistemology in Chinese and Western Philosophy

Chapter 7 Comparison and Synthesis of Moral Philosophy in Chinese and Western Philosophy

Chapter 8 Comparison and Synthesis of Political Philosophy in Chinese and Western Philosophy

Chapter 9 Comparison and Synthesis of Beauty Philosophy in Chinese and Western Philosophy

Chapter 10 Comparison and Synthesis of Love Philosophy in Chinese and Western Philosophy

Chapter 11 Comparison and Synthesis of Life and Death Philosophy in Chinese and Western Philosophy

Chapter 12 The Meanings of Synthesis of Chinese and Western Philosophy— Helping Progress of the World and China

References

Brief introduction of Prof. Gao Liangzhi

Gao Liangzhi (1929.5.20—):( Gao is his family name)

He was born in Shanghai and graduated from the Affiliated High School of Shanghai University in 1946 . In 1950 ,he graduated from College of Agricultural Sciences of Zhejiang University .

He was working in East China College of Agriculture Sciences for four years . After then , he was working in East China Institute of Agricultural Sciences ,which turned to be Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences(JAAS) in 1978. From 1983-1990 ,he was assigned as the President of JAAS and also a senior researcher there.

At the same period ,he was a professor of Nanjing Agricultural University , China Agricultural University and Nanjing College of Meteorology . He was a Trustee of CIMMYT

He was one of the founders of Agricultural Meteorology and the main founder of Agricultural Modeling Science in China.

He has been accomplished 88 research papers and many books on Agricultural Sciences, as Climatic Ecology of Rice ,Foundation of Agricultural System Science , Foundation of Agricultural Modeling Science,etc.

He was interested in philosophy in his young age . After he retired in 1999, up to now ,he has read more than 300 books on philosophy,mostly original works of famous Chinese and Western philosophers. He wrote 8 books on philosophy:

1) Essay on Synthesis Philosophy , Gao Liangzhi,China Culture Press,2007 (in Chinese)

2)Strolling on Western Philosophy , Gao Liangzhi,Wuhan University Press,2014(in Chinese)

3)A Brief Discussion on Chinese Philosophy,, Gao Liangzhi,Wuhan University Press,2014(in Chinese)

4)Love Philosophy, Gao Liangzhi,Zhejiang University Press,2011

5)Good Philosophy and Common Values, Gao Liangzhi,China Culture Press,2014(in Chinese)

6)Beauty Philosophy, Gao Liangzhi,Wuhan University Press,2014

7)Does Man have Soul? —Soul Philosophy and Scientific Rational Belief, Gao Liangzhi, Zhejiang University Press,2015(in Chinese)

8)Synthesis of Chinese and Western Philosophy,Gao Liangzhi , Zhejiang University Press,2015(in Chinese)

His books on philosophy obtain high evaluation in the academic circle and by the readers in China .

Chapter 1

Two Worldwide Philosophy Systems and their Main Differences

Many countries in the world have their own philosophers and philosophical thinking ,but there are few worldwide philosophy systems. So called worldwide philosophy systems are those philosophy thinking received by the people not only in one country ,but also in many countries in the world.

Up to now, mainly four philosophy systems have their worldwide influences in the world : 1,Buddhist philosophy; 2,Islam philosophy;3,Western philosophy;4,Chinese philosophy (mainly Confucianism).

1, About Religious Philosophy Systems

Both Buddhist philosophy and Islam philosophy are religious philosophy systems. The main difference between religion and philosophy are that religion depends on human’s belief ,but philosophy depends on human ‘s reason .

Doctrines in different religions came from religious classics, such as the Bible ,the Koran ,many Buddhist Scriptures,etc .Believers believe those doctrines by their belief ,but not by their reason .Christian philosopher Augustinus said :”Get your understanding by belief”. It means that the basic method for believers to have various knowledge are only belief ,not others .

Why there are religious philosophies? There are mainly two reasons :

1, Owing to the fact that reason is the human nature.for the purpose to have more people believing certain religion ,the doctrines of religion need to have rational certification or the help from the theories of some famous philosophers . For example, Aurelius Augustinus (340-430 AD ) took the philosophy thinking of Plato to explain the doctrines of Christianity .Thomas Aquinas (1224-1274 AD ) took the philosophy thinking of Aristotle to certify the doctrines of Christianity They were the two most famous Christian philosophers .

2, Some religions themselves have certain philosophy thinking in their doctrines .

In various religions , Buddhism has stronger philosophical character .

In Buddhism, there is no Savior .Bodhisattva is not the God ,but a man who has the highest consciousness.

Buddhism has a high level of Epistemology ,Cittamatra is the Buddhism theory of understanding, which was established by Asanga and Vasabandhu in 3-4 century. In China’s Tang dynasty , what Xuan Zang (玄奘,602-664) preached was mostly Cittamatra. Cittamatra said that man has 8 kinds of perceptions that are :eye,ear,nose,tongue,body ,idea,Manas and Alaya. The first five perceptions are feelings of man. The six one is the human’s rational thinking. Manas is also called “Self Perception” which means that man thinks of his past and future . .Alaya ,which is also called “Storage Perception”, means the accumulated ability of man’s total knowledge . You may see that the content of Buddhism Epistemology is plentiful and rather complete .

Islam Philosophy is closely related with Arabian philosophy which has been created by Arabian nation .The main contents in Islam philosophy are explanation of the Koran .But in Islam philosophy or Arabian philosophy, there are many contents of natural philosophy which achieves a high level .

It should be mentioned that ,in the Middle Ages, the Arabian people have played important role in conservation and translation of philosophy books of ancient Greece, which provided the condition of Europe’s Renaissance in 15-16 centuries

Based on discussion of the Islam doctrines, Islam philosophy extracted philosophic thinking of ancient Greece. With the help of rational analysis and logical certification, it combined knowledge and belief together.

The famous philosopher Ibn Rushed (1126-1198) presented the theory of “Double Truth”, which considered that both philosophy knowledge and religious knowledge are Truth. He put philosophy knowledge at the first .

In summary, Christian philosophy, Buddhist philosophy and Islam philosophy are all religious philosophies. Although they have certain valuable and rational contents ,their basic task is to serve for certifying the doctrines of their own religions. This is why they couldn’t be said as independent and rational philosophy systems .

2, Two Worldwide Philosophy Systems independent of Religion

In the world ,there are only two worldwide philosophy systems which are complete ,systematic and independent of religion.

Their completeness are found in that both of them contain ontology ,epistemology ,moral philosophy ,political philosophy ,beauty philosophy, emotion philosophy etc .

Their Systematicness are found in the following facts:

Chinese philosophy began in Yi Jing(the Book of Change)in Zhou dynasty, about 1000 years before Christ. In the Spring and Autumn Period and Warring States Period ,there appeared many famous philosophers ,as Lao Zi(老子),Confucius(孔子) ,Mo Zi(墨子) ,Zhuang Zi(庄子) ,Mencius(孟子)、Xun Zi (荀子) etc .There were the Study of Confucian Classics in Han dynasty, Study of Metaphysics in Wei and Jin dynasties,Neo-Confucianism in Song dynasty ,Mind theory in Ming dynasty and Modern Chinese philosophy represented by Xiong Shili (熊十力)、Feng Youlan(冯友兰), etc. Chinese philosophy has been inherited and developed systematically .

Western philosophy began in Natural Philosophy presented by Tales(624-546 BC ). There were three outstanding Greek philosophers: Socrates ,Plato and Aristotle. There was Christian philosophy in the Middle Ages. After the Enlightenment Movement , there appeared many famous philosophers, as John Locke, George Berkeley , David Hume,Rene Descartes, Immanuel Kant ,Friedrich Hegel ,etc .In modern period ,there appears many philosophical schools ,as Life philosophy,Phenomenology,Existentialism ,Analytic philosophy ,Philosophy of Science ,etc . Western philosophy has been inherited and developed systematically .

These two philosophy systems ,even though they were influenced by religions to a certain extent and extracted some fine ideological elements from religions ,they are independent of religions .They don’t serve for any religion. They have been built on human reason completely .

Both of them have wide influences upon the world . Chinese philosophy are received by both in mainland and in Taiwan of China .It is received by many countries in Asia (Japan ,Korea , Singapore, etc ) and by people originated in China and now living in all countries of the world .

Western Philosophy are received by countries in Europe ,USA ,Canada ,Australia, etc . It is studied and received by people in many Asia countries ,as China ,Japan ,etc .

 

3,Main Differences between Chinese and Western Philosophy

There have been some studies on the comparison between Chinese and Western Philosophy in 20th century. Liang Qichao(梁启超),Hu Shi(胡适),Liang Shuming(梁漱溟), etc are the pioneers of this comparative research.

The task of this Chapter is to show the differences between Chinese and Western Philosophy in the most simple and clear way ,which will help in the discussion of the backgrounds of these two philosophy systems .

The table below is to show the main differences between Chinese and Western Philosophy ,which is made mainly by the points of view of the author myself ,with references to the books written or edited by Xu Xingyan (徐行言) and He yi (贺毅),both named :Comparison between Chinese and Western Culture.

 

table<>. <>. |<>.
table<>. <>. |<>.
p<>{color:#333;}. Contents of Philosophy |<>.
p<>{color:#333;}. Chinese Philosophy |<>.
p<>{color:#333;}. Western Philosophy | <>. |<>.
p<>{color:#333;}. 1,Cosmogony and

Ontology

 

 

 

 

Ontology |<>.
p<>{color:#333;}. Theory of Nature

(Dao’s Theory) |<>.
p<>{color:#333;}. Theory of Creationism | <>. |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}.  

|<>. p<>{color:#333;}. Emphasizing the Wholeness |<>. p<>{color:#333;}. Emphasizing the

Essence | <>. |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}.  

|<>. p<>{color:#333;}. Theory of Humanism |<>. p<>{color:#333;}. Theory of God | <>. |<>. p<>{color:#000;}.   |<>. p<>{color:#333;}. Emphasizing the Relationship between

Heaven and Man |<>.
p<>{color:#333;}. Emphasizing the Relationship between

Mind and Matter

Mind and Matter | <>. |<>.
p<>{color:#333;}. 2,Epistemology |<>.
p<>{color:#333;}. Seeking the way of life,

Being an upright man |<>.
p<>{color:#333;}. Seeking knowledge | <>. |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}.  

|<>. p<>{color:#333;}. Emphasizing Synthesis |<>. p<>{color:#333;}. Emphasizing Analysis | <>. |<>. p<>{color:#000;}.   |<>. p<>{color:#333;}. Emphasizing Experience |<>. p<>{color:#333;}. Emphasizing

Mechanism | <>. |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}.  

|<>. p<>{color:#333;}. Emphasizing Intuition |<>. p<>{color:#333;}. Emphasizing Reason | <>. |<>. p<>{color:#333;}. 3, Moral Philosophy |<>. p<>{color:#333;}. Theory of Virtue |<>. p<>{color:#333;}. Theory of Happiness | <>. |<>. p<>{color:#000;}.   |<>. p<>{color:#333;}. Theory of Good Human Nature |<>. p<>{color:#333;}. Theory of Evil Human Nature | <>. |<>. p<>{color:#000;}.   |<>. p<>{color:#333;}. Emphasizing Kindhearted Love |<>. p<>{color:#333;}. Emphasizing Justice | <>. |<>. p<>{color:#000;}.   |<>. p<>{color:#333;}. Emphasizing Keep

Ritual and emphasizing

Family |<>.
p<>{color:#333;}. Emphasizing Liberty

and emphasizing Individual | <>. |<>.
p<>{color:#333;}. 4,Political Philosophy |<>.
p<>{color:#333;}. Theory of Destiny |<>.
p<>{color:#333;}. Theory of Contract | <>. |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}.  

|<>. p<>{color:#333;}. Theory of People’s Will |<>. p<>{color:#333;}. Theory of Democracy | <>. |<>. p<>{color:#000;}.   |<>. p<>{color:#333;}. Theory of Rule of Virtue |<>. p<>{color:#333;}. Theory of Rule of Law | <>. |<>. p<>{color:#000;}.   |<>. p<>{color:#333;}. Theory of Centralization of Power |<>. p<>{color:#333;}. Theory of Separation

of Power | <>. |<>.
p<>{color:#333;}. 5, Beauty Philosophy |<>.
p<>{color:#333;}. Theory of Imagery |<>.
p<>{color:#333;}. Theory of Perception | <>. |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}.  

|<>. p<>{color:#333;}. Theory of Beauty based on Kindheartedness |<>. p<>{color:#333;}. Theory of Pleasure | <>. |<>. p<>{color:#333;}. 6,Love Philosophy |<>. p<>{color:#333;}. Chinese Theory of

Kindhearted Love |<>.
p<>{color:#333;}. Western Theory of

Kindhearted Love | <>. |<>.
p<>{color:#000;}.  

<>.
p<>{color:#333;}. Theory of Filiality
<>.
p<>{color:#333;}. Theory of Fraternity
<>.

 

What this book concerns is not only the difference between the two philosophy systems ,but mainly their commonality and the possibility of their synthesis.

The differences and commonality of the two philosophy systems will be discussed in the following Chapter(5-11).

Before discussing the contents of the two philosophy systems, it’s necessary to analysis the backgrounds of their formation in geographic economic ,social ,political and historical aspects. Only understanding the forming backgrounds of different philosophy systems, the basic ideas involved in them may be comprehended.

Chapter 2

The Forming Background of Chinese Philosophy

In Chinese academic circle, there have been discussions on the forming background of Chinese and Western culture. Philosophy is at the highest level of human culture. Of course the forming background of it is related with that of culture. But they are not the same completely. The forming background of philosophy is more complicated compared with that of culture.

In the author’s opinion,the forming background of Chinese and Western Philosophy should include the following parts: 1) Geographic condition ;2) Economic base;3)Social structure;4)Political system;5) Academic environment;6)Identity of scholars .

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Geographic Background of Chinese Philosophy

In Western academic circle, the influence of geography on philosophy and political thinking were discussed in early times. Charles Louis Montesquieu (1689-1755) wrote a special Chapter in his book The Spirit of Law discussing the influence of climatic conditions on cultures and laws in different countries. Hegel (1770-1831)in his book History Philosophy presented his view that there are three geography types that influenced the formation of cultures : 1)Dried high land and grassland;2)Plains of big rivers;3)Regions of seashore.

Chinese culture originated in the Yellow River Basin . The earliest philosophy book in China is Yi Jing(Book of Change). In the book Shi Ji (Historical Records,史记)_],Shi Maguang (司马迁) said:”King Wen of Zhou wrote [_Yi Jing“ King Wen(周文王) was the first king of Zhou dynasty . This means Yi Jing was created in the early period of Zhou dynasty. Zhou began in Bin (豳) (Xunyi (旬邑)in Shanxi province now)and moved to Qi (岐)(Qishan (岐山)in Shanxi province now). Shanxi is located in the upper valley of Yellow River Basin . The ancient philosopher of China , Lao Zi (老子)was living in Ku County of Chu (楚国苦县)( Luyi, 鹿邑. in Henan province now). Confucius(孔子) was living in Zouyi of Lu (鲁国陬邑)( Qufu,曲阜,in Shandong province now ). Both of the two most important ancient philosophers of China were living in the Yellow River Basin .

Yellow River Basin has a large area of plain,mainly North China Plain. Its total area is about 300 thousands km2 . Its  topography is flat with many rivers and lakes . The climate of Yellow River Basin belongs to the South Temperate Climate with Monson . Its total degree days(TDD) above zero is 3000-3500℃. Its annual rainfall is 450-500 mm. In the ancient ages, it was very suitable for growing annual dry land crops(mainly millet). It may be said that the Yellow River Basin was the largest region suitable for human being to develop agriculture in the ancient time of the world.

Some readers might wonder: why Chinese Culture or Philosophy did not originate in the Yangzi River Basin ? Yes ,the Yangzi River Basin is a region very suitable for developing agriculture. But ,the Yangtze River Basin has its annual rainfall 800-1600 mm,much higher than that in the Yellow River Basin. The rainfall there is concentrated in the period from spring to autumn. It is too much for annual dry land crops and it causes serious water lodging of crops. The suitable crop in this region is rice . But rice needs a much higher cropping technology( field-making ,irrigation ,seedling raising and transplanting etc). In China’s history , large area rice production began in Song dynasty(960—1279 AD). This is the reason that Chinese Culture and Philosophy only can originate in the Yellow River Basin ,instead of the Yangtze River Basin .

In conclusion ,the great plain of the Yellow River Basin which located in east Asia was the only original region of Chinese culture and philosophy.

This is the starting point of the difference between Chinese and Western philosophy


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Economic Basis Background of Chinese Philosophy

The Chinese Nation,mainly the Han Nationality, originated in the Yellow River Basin. Their main production mode and economic basis was agriculture. The Western culture and philosophy originated in the region of seashore and islands of ancient Greece . People living there did not depend on agriculture .but on handicraft industry ,commerce and seafaring industry. The difference of economic basis are the basic reason of the difference between Chinese and Western philosophy.

Many characteristics of Chinese philosophy are closely related with its economic basis—agriculture .

Why the Ontology in Chinese philosophy emphasizes Wholeness ?Why Chinese Epistemology emphasizes Synthesis ?( those problems will be discussed in Chapter 5,6) . It is owing to the fact that agriculture has the apparent character of wholeness and integrity compared with other industries . In the book Foundation of Agricultural System Science written by the author , the Systematicness and wholeness of agriculture are discussed in detail.

The wholeness of agriculture reflected in that the whole structure of agriculture are composed of 4 factors : agricultural biology,agricultural environment, agricultural technology and agricultural economy. Even in the ancient times ,the farmers in china understood that agriculture had three main factors which were Heaven (climate ,weather,season, etc),Earth (land ,soil, etc ) and Man . So .agriculture is an integrate industry composed of Heaven ,Earth and Man . This is different from handicraft industry and commerce apparently .

And also ,why Chinese Love philosophy emphasizes Filiality and Love in family . It is owing to the fact that agriculture depends on the land and land is closely related to the family. Land is inherited generation by generation of a family . Agricultural production requires the close and emotional relation between family members :husband and wife ,parents and children . Almost all the characteristics of Chinese philosophy are related with its economic basis— Agriculture .


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Social Structure Background of Chinese Philosophy

In ancient China,the society was built on family. Clan was the expansion of family. The expansion of clan was the Patriarchal Society .

In the book Liji (Book of Rites,礼记[_)_],the following paragraph might help us understand the Patriarchal Society in China.

The way of human is to cherish affection for their parents, and in so doing they at the same time Revere their ancestors, and being Reverent to the ancestors they also adore their lineal heads, and being adoring to the lineal heads they also keep together their kinsmen. Since they would keep together the kinsmen, they are serious in the service at the ancestral temple, and then they respect their fatherland, and then they love their people. When the people are loved by them, the juridical punishments will be just, and then the commoners will feel themselves secure, and then the resources for expenditure will be sufficient, and then beneficial formalities and customs will be shaped, and then everybody will be rejoiced.

The meaning of this paragraph is that If you love your parents ,you must respect your ancestors. Then ,you must keep serious in the service at the ancestral temple. You must unite the people in the same Clan of you . You must love your fatherland and the people. The society must have its formalities and customs .Finally the economics will be developed and people will have their happiness.

This paragraph shows that Chinese Patriarchal Society was built on the respect to parents and ancestors in the family . It also shows that a good society needs the Kindhearted Love for people and the beneficial formalities and customs. The final goal is the happiness of people .

Many ideas in Chinese philosophy are closely related with the Pariarchal Society,such as kindhearted love,filiality,rite keeping ,rule of virtue etc .

The kindhearted love is the most important idea in Chinese Moral and Emotion Philosophy. Why?

The best explanation is : Chinese philosophy was built on its economic basis—agriculture and on family and clan as its basic social structure. The consolidation of the inner relationship in family depends not on laws ,but on emotional linkage and mutual love of the family members

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Political System Background of Chinese Philosophy

The social basis of ancient China was family. The enlargement of family was clan. The enlargement of clan was country. So ,country was the biggest family.

The ideas that the Chinese traditional Political philosophy emphasized were : ⑴ Theory of People’s Will; ⑵The Policy of Kindheartedness;⑶ Rule of Rite ;⑷Rule of Virtue.

The Legalists of ancient China did emphasize Rule of Law. But the meaning of it was different from the modern theory of Rule of Law. Rule of Law presented by the Legalists of ancient China was that people’s behaviors must be controlled rigorously by the Laws. The Rule of Law in modern society means that all the legal rights of people are safeguard  by the Laws.

Since the King (or Emperor) was the father of the country, according to the idea of Patriarchal Society. all people should obey the will of him . This was the reason that the Autocratic System was the longstanding political system in more than 2000 years of ancient China.

Chinese Political philosophy also emphasized Centralization of Power. In China’s history , there has been many processes of political reformation . The main reformation processes were:

A. The system of enfeoffment was Implemented in Zhou dynasty. The Kings used the system of enfeoffment for maintaining the unification of the country But the result was that there were Five Hegemonies and Seven Powers appeared in the Periods of Spring Autumn and Warring States, which was a period of strife and instability

. B. The First Emperor of Qin (259-210 B.C.) Implemented  the System of Prefectures and Counties. All the country was controlled by the Emperor.

C. In the early period of Han dynasty ,the Emperors Implemented enfeoffment partly(for those relatives of Emperor’s family). It resulted in rebellion of the princes.

D. in Tang and Song dynasties, the prime minister had more power for administrative management . They help the Emperors to govern the country..

E. In Ming and Qing dynasties ,the Emperors exempted the power of prime ministers and centralized the power at their own hand..

All these political reform pointed to the goal of centralization of Power

For the purpose of consolidating the Emperor’s governance ,Chinese ancient philosophers emphasized the theory of People’s Will which was the key idea in Chinese Political philosophy. Based on the idea of the theory of People’s Will, there were other ideas ,as Rule of Virtue, the Policy of Kindheartedness,etc .

In the view of the author, it is not suitable to use the word “Autocracy” to summarize all characteristics of the ancient Chinese Political System , As to Chinese Political philosophy, the basic ideas were the theory of People’s Will and the theory of Centralization of power. The combination of these two ideas contained certain element of rationality. Otherwise ,it is difficult to explain that China had been maintaining its culture and unification for more than 2000 years . This is one and only case in the world history .


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p<>{color:#000;}. Academic Circumstance Background of Chinese Philosophy

There were apparent difference between the development of Chinese and Western philosophy.

In the history of Chinese philosophy, there had been some important periods which had the different academic circumstances

A .Spring-Autumn and Warring States Period

Due to the decline of Zhou dynasty , there was no authoritative power in the whole country . The competition of Five Hegemonies and Seven Powers appeared. At the same time ,it was a tolerant period of academic circumstance named “The Contention of a Hundred Schools of Thought”. Many outstanding philosophers appeared in this period, as Lao Zi(老子) ,Confucius(孔子) ,Mo Zi(墨子), Zhuang Zi(庄子) , Mencius(孟子), Xun Zi(荀子) ,Huishi(惠施) ,Gongsun Long(公孙龙). Han Fei(韩非), etc .

B. Qing-Han Dynasty

The first Emperor of Qing Implemented the policy of burning books and burring Confucian scholars .Except the books of medicine , fortune-telling and tree growth, all the books were burned .More than 400 Confucian scholars were buried . This was the first serious attack on academy and thinking in ancient China.

Coming to Han dynasty, the Emperors in the early age(Hui,Wen,Jing,Wu) recovered the study of Confucian classics. . Afterwards, Emperor Wu of Han(汉武帝) accepted the suggestion of Dong Zhongshu (董仲舒),banning all other schools of philosophy and worshipping Confucianism only . This was the second serious attack on academy and thinking in ancient China.

The second attack had a more profound influence compared with the first .The author ‘s view is that even today its influence has not been eliminated completely . Those high level thinking in the schools of Lao Zi ,Mo Zi , Names , Legalist have not been paid enough attention in China’s academic circle even today.

C. In East Han dynasty,Buddhism was introduced to China. In Sui and Tang dynasties, the Taoism had a great development. The Confucianism ,combined with Buddhism and Taoism ,produced the Neo- Confucianism in Song dynasty and Mind Theory in Ming dynasty. Chinese philosophy came to its second peak after the Spring-Autumn and Warring States Periods.

D. In late Ming dynasty, Western philosophy began to be introduced to China. But Academic Control was still rigorously controlled . In the imperial examination, the philosophy of Zhu Xi (朱熹)was the only legitimate one . There were much Literary Punishments in Qing dynasty.

E. In the early period of Republic of China,during the May 4th Movement,there appeared an active academic period by introducing Western philosophy .After 1927 , the Kuomintang (KMT) governed China and also after 1949 ,the new government was established , the academic control was still rigorous . During the Cultural Revolution(1966-1976),all traditional and Western philosophies were denied . In fact ,it was a big backward of China’s culture and philosophy. After 1979, the situation got much improved. Since the 18 National Congress of the CPC , the leaders presented that China should pay attention to Chinese traditional culture and learn all beneficial knowledge and thinking from other countries in the world . The author wishes that China’s culture and philosophy will have a vigorous development in the future.

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Identity and Spirit of Scholars Background of Chinese Philosophy

To understand Chinese philosophy, it’s necessary to know the identity and spirit of the philosophers in ancient China.

The most philosophers in Western countries from the time of ancient Greece were “Liberal Scholars”.They had no close relation to the government. But Chinese philosophers, except a few , were not the case .They may be called “Advisor Scholars”. Most of them were officers. Lao Zi was an officer serving for managing the storage books . Confucius was the mayor of the middle city in Country Lu(鲁国). Later ,he was promoted as the officer managing engineering and public security. Mencius and Xun Zi were famous scholars working in the official institution of Country Qi (齐国) . Most ancient philosophers took the task of presenting suggestions and efforts helping the governors. They had a spirit of loyalty to their governor and love for their people.

In the book of The Great Learning(大学[_)_], it is said:

Investigate things, obtain knowledge,be sincere in heart, cultivate yourself , put family in order; rule the country and pacify the world.”

This was the traditional spirit of Chinese scholars.

The identity and spirit of scholars caused that ancient Chinese philosophers paid much attention to the Moral and Political philosophy

All these factors of geography, economics ,society ,politics ,identity and spirit of scholars combining together formed the characters of Chinese philosophy. It’s difficult to say which one is the most important.

Chapter 3

The Forming Background of Western Philosophy

Looking into the history of the Western philosophy, we can find that it has two main sources:one is ancient Greece , the other is the rise of capitalism in west Europe (from the Renaissance in 15-16 century to Enlightenment Movement in 17-18 century ).

There was about 1000 years interval between these two historical periods.But they had close relations, the later inherited many important ideas of philosophy from the former. For example ,the Rational and Humanitarian Spirit of ancient Greece was the source of the modern Western philosophy .

But ,there are many important differences of the ideas between ancient Greece and modern Western philosophy. For example , Democracy is an important idea in modern Western philosophy ,but Plato opposed Democracy . Aristotle did not regard Democracy as the best political system.

Owing to the above reason , the following analysis will consider the influences of both the philosophy of ancient Greece and that of the rise of capitalism .

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p<>{color:#000;}. Geographic Background of Western Philosophy

While the geographic background of Chinese philosophy is the great plain of the Yellow River Basin in Asia Continent , the geographic background of Western philosophy is the regions of inlands and seashores.

The philosophy of ancient Greece originated in two sides of Aegean Sea(between Greek Peninsula and Turkey). The earliest philosophers of ancient Greece,Tales.Anaksimenes, etc were living in Miletus which is located at the west seashore of Turkey today (the Ionian region of ancient Greece).

The important philosopher Heraklitus was from Ephesus. Other important philosopher Pythagoras was from Samos Island nearby Ionian region. Another important philosopher Parmenides was from Elea. The most famous philosophers of ancient Greece—Socrates,Plato and Aristotle were all living in the political centre of Greece— Athens.

The first philosophic thinking was presented by Tales which confirmed that water is the source of all things. Tales was living in Miletus, nearby Aegean Sea. He saw the sea every day . He found that water could become water vapor and water could raise fishes; water could raise grasps and then produce grape wine; water could carry boats,etc.So he got the conclusion that water was the origin of the world . Relatively speaking, it was impossible for Lao Zi and Confucius who lived in the dry plain of the Yellow River Basin to have the same thinking

The geographic condition at the two sides of Aegean Sea formed the economic basis of handcraft production , transportation , seafaring and commerce ;and also its special Slavery system . These geographic and economic conditions had important influences on the formation of ancient Greek philosophy.

Now ,we discuss the situations of the Renaissance ,rise of Capitalism and the Enlightenment Movement.

The Renaissance originated in Italy,which is an important peninsula in the Mediterranean Sea .

In the rise of Capitalism. the most successful country was Great Britain. . Most of the pioneering philosophers came from Great Britain, such as Francis Bacon,Thomas Hobbes,John Locke,George Berkeley,David Hume, etc. Great Britain is a country of islands

The most important country of the Enlightenment Movement was France . All the important philosophers in the Movement were from France ,such as Charles Louis Montesquieu,Voltaire,Jean-Jacques Rousseau. France is a country whose three sides are seas.

So,it can be understood that all the Western philosophy,either that of ancient Greece or that of the recent and modern Western countries after the Renaissance came from the regions of islands , peninsulas or seashores.

This is the basic geographic reason of the differences between Chinese and Western Philosophy .

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p<>{color:#000;}. Economic Basis Background of Western Philosophy

Geography condition was not the direct factor which formed the philosophic thinking ,its influence on philosophy should pass through economic ,political and cultural factors.

In ancient Greece ,due to the limitation of land in the seashore and islands ,the crops grown there were not grains but olive trees and grapes. It was not possible for people to make living only on its agriculture —olive tree and grapes . This was the important difference between ancient Greece and ancient China.

Not all the land were suitable for growing olive trees or grapes.People had to find other ways for making living. So, handcraft productions were prosperous ,mainly textile industry, furniture industry, metallurgical industry, shipbuilding industry, pottery industry, construction industry and mining industry (silver ,gold ,cupper), etc .The bottles painted with red flowers were very famous in near and far regions .

Olive oil and grape wine were required to be sold. Those handcraft and mining product were also required to be sold to other countries . It promoted the development of commerce ,transportation and financing business. Following the expansion of the colonies and oversea trading ,the seafaring developed rapidly.

On the problem how that the economic basis of handcraft production ,mining and commerce effected the philosophy thinking of ancient Greece, there were less discussions in academic circle . In the author’s opinion, compared with the strong character of synthesis of agriculture in ancient China, the character of synthesis was not so apparent in   handcraft production ,mining and commerce. In these productions , people had to pay attention to the properties of certain material, the changes of its physical morphology,the improvement of its technology. For example, in pottery industry,people should pay attention to do researches on the property of pottery clay and the improvement on the technology of making pottery. In commerce ,people usually paid attention to the increment of money . In these circumstances,people must be interested in the essence of the matter . The philosophers in ancient Greece were interested in exploring the essence and quantitative changes (instead of the wholeness )of matter., The philosophic thinking of them ,besides their personal interest , must had some relations with the economic basis of handcraft production ,mining,seafaring and commerce

Pythagoras .the famous philosopher in ancient Greece, proposed a theory that number is the essence of the world. He said that the harp made a sound of different musical scale obeying the relation of number strictly

The length of harp string determines the sound level

The musical interval of 8 degrees has a ratio of their string length of 2:1.

The musical interval of 5 degrees has a ratio of their string length of 3:2.

The musical interval of 4 degrees has a ratio of their string length of 4:3.

Pythagoras made a conclusion that the harmony of sound depends on the ratio of the string length.

We can realize that if Pythagoras did not have close contact with the handcraft producers of harps ,it was impossible for him to present the theory of “number is the essence of the world”.

It might be said that the emphasis of Synthesis in Chinese Philosophy was related with its economic basis – agriculture . The emphasis of the Essence and Singleness in Western philosophy was related with its economic basis –handcraft production ,mining and commerce.

In the Middle Ages of the West in 5-15 centuries,both philosophy and science were limited rigorously by the doctrines of Christianity. The historical meaning of the Renaissance in 15-16 century was that the Humanistic and Scientific Spirits of ancient Greece were recovered again . The scientific spirit of ancient Greece was to do exploration of essence of everything rationally and scientifically. Under the guidance of scientific spirit , Nicolaus Copernicus ( 1473-1543) proposed Heliocentric theory . Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) proposed his Mechanics theory. They promoted the revolutionary progress of Astronomy and Physics . The development of the colonial economy of Spain . Portugal, the Netherlands,England, etc promoted the great geographical discovery taken by Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) and Ferdimand Magellan (1480-1521). The market of commodities were expanded rapidly which pushed forward the development of the industry,commerce,seafaring and financing business.The capitalism economics had been rising rapidly

Capitalism economy is an economy of competitiveness. The progress of science and technology is the main factor which determines the success in competition , The reason that modern Western philosophy emphasizes “Essence” in ontology and “ Mechanism “ in epistemology is all related closely to the need of the progress of science .

In Western political philosophy ,those main ideas ,as Liberty ,Equality and Rule of Law ,etc are the main principles in the development of Capitalism . Due to the fact that everyone has the freedom and equal position before the law and various economic disputes can be solved by the law, instead of by the power or position , the Capitalism can be working normally .

Basically to say, many ideas in the Modern Western philosophy are related closely to the Capitalism .

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p<>{color:#000;}. Social Structure Background of Western Philosophy

In ancient Greece, slavery system was an important social structure.

The basic character of slavery was the collective labor of a large number of slaves. Slavery was not suitable for self sufficient agriculture. Even today , in all developed countries, family managed farm is still the main production type in agriculture . In 60-70 age of last century , the failure of the People Commune Movement in China was a negative proof that collective labor was not suitable for agriculture .

In ancient Greece, its agriculture was mainly olive and grape production . Making olive and grape to become commodities, unified quality was required . So it was necessary to have unified processing ,packing and transportation, These processes needed the collective labor of slaves .

As to handcraft production and mining ,collective labor of slaves was even more suitable.

To establish the slavery system ,the source of slaves was required . In the period of ancient Greece ,there was no united country , many city states existed. There were many wars between city states. There were also colonial wars.. The prisoners of war were the main source of slaves.

Both economic and political conditions determined the slavery system of ancient Greece. In Athens, there were 100 thousands slaves among 400 thousands residents.

Slavery system had apparent effects on the philosophy of ancient Greece . For example.even though the ancient Greek philosophers ,as Plato ,Aristotle had many valuable ideas , they all supported slavery system . They did not support those important ideas in modern philosophy,as Democracy, Liberty ,Equality etc. .

In 476 AD , under the resistance and attack of many nations in Europe , the West Rome Empire perished . The slavery system died out at the same time.

In the period of rising of Capitalism (from the Renaissance to the Enlightenment Movement) ,the social structure had been changed greatly. The capitalism society was based on the “Individuals”. Why was it ? There were several reasons :

a)Industry and commerce were the economic basis of capitalist economy . The enterprises of industry and commerce has no direct relation with land .Families was not the managing units of them . The members in a same family might be working in different enterprises. So , family was not the social and economic unit of the society.

b)During the rising period of Capitalism , there were colonial and immigrant movements in large scale .It destroyed the blood relationship in big families.

c) In the periods of ancient Greece and the Roman Empire,up to the Middle Ages of Europe, the noble class had an important position in the society . In 17-18 centuries , their power was attacked seriously .

d)During the rising of Capitalism ,the main motive force was the self struggle of individuals (including the owners of small , middle size and large enterprises ). This problem was discussed clearly in the book of Marx Webb The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism . The Protestantism was established by the French John Calvin1509-1564). Its theory was Predestination which means that everyone’s fate was predetermined by the God . The God made the determination according to the successfulness of him . The first group of the British people who came to the North America were basically the believers of the Protestantism. Following the theory of Protestantism, self struggle became the main motive force of the development of Capitalism.

Due to the fact that individuals became the basic unit of society. emphasizing the right of Individuals was the starting point of many ideas in the Western philosophy,as Liberty, Democracy, Equality ,Rule of Law and Human Rights ,a series of philosophic ideas have close relation to the emphasis of Individual. .

The consciousness of individual is the cornerstone of modern culture.The happiness of individual is the basic requirement of human nature. Emphasizing Individual does not mean selfishness. Happiness of individual must related with happiness of family and harmony of society . Self-love must be connected with Other-love

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p<>{color:#000;}. Political System Background of Western Philosophy

The relation between philosophy and politics is complex . It can’t be said that philosophy was determined by politics .neither the opposite case .

The historical facts were that sometimes the two (philosophy and politics)had the causal relationship. Certain philosophic thinking pushed forward certain political system and certain political system made great influences on philosophy. But sometimes , the two had contradictions or conflicts with each other.

In ancient Greece ,the political system had been changed several times .At the beginning of the City-States system ,the political power was at the hands of Noble Meeting and the Consuls. As the power of slave owners became stronger, the Tyrant Politics appeared.

In the period of Solon(630-559 BC ),Solon implemented the Solon Reform and established the democracy politics of ancient Greece.

The main contents of Solon Reform were : the citizens were divided into 4 classes .The first and second classes can have the high positions in the government . The third class had the lower positions . The fourth class was not allowed to have any positions . But every citizen had the right to speak at the Citizen Conference . All the officers were selected by the Citizen Conference.

The Solon Reform established the basis of democracy system in ancient Greece . It also had great influence on the recent and modern democracy systems.

But the democracy system then was not perfect . It was the Direct Democracy. The decisions were made by the opinions of the majority. There was no legal guarantee.

Socrates was put to death by the direct democracy of ancient Greece. In the judicial meeting, the death penalty was made by the vote ratio of 281:220 . The charges were his impiety and that he misled the young people. In a perfect society ruled of Law , it was impossible to have the death judgment against him .

Owing to the serious deficit , both Plato and Aristotle ,the two most important philosophers of ancient Greece,didn’t affirm Democracy.What Aristotle recommended was the mixed form of government,taking the middle class as the main body.

The defect of Democracy pointed out by philosophers of ancient Greece had given important inspiration for improving the democratic political system in Western countries later.

In 323-30 BC ,the Prince of Macedonia, Alexander established the strong Persian Empire . Democracy of ancient Greece finished. At the same time, Rome country was rising on the Italy Peninsula. From 509 BC , Rome implemented the Republic form of government and the separation of three powers –the Senate ,the Consul and the Tribal Meeting. As the territory enlarged , the Republic form was not suitable for governing the country .In 30 BC , Octavian established the Rome Empire. In 395 AD , Rome Empire was divided into two parts – West and East . In 476 AD , the Rome Empire perished .

In the above about 1000 years of Rome Republic and Rome Empire , there was no world level philosopher appeared . Cicero(106 -43 BC ) was a famous scholar , but his achievements was mainly on the sciences of politics and law.His achievement in philosophy was not outstanding.

After the end of Rome Empire ,The Europe entered the Middle Ages. From 5 to 15 century ,the Theocracy was the dominant political system .

Thomas Aquinas was the famous philosopher in this period. He used the theory of Aristotle to prove the doctrines of Christianity .

The modern democratic political system had been passing a tortuous history .The main contradictions in the historical process were:a) the contradiction between the powers of Church and of the Kings;b) the contradiction between the powers of the Kings and of the nobles; c) the contradiction between the powers of the Kings and of the people.

The main facts which related philosophy to politics were as follows:

A .The establishment of Anglicanism and Thomas Hobbes

In 1527, Britain cut off the relation with the Rome Church . At that time , Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)wrote his famous book Leviathan.

In the book ,he opposed the Church power and supported the power of Kinds. He ,as the pioneer,presented the important ideas in modern philosophy—Liberty,Equity.etc .

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p<>{color:#000;}. The Glorious Revolution of England and John Locke

In 1688, The Glorious Revolution happened in England. The Whig Party , who represented the Bourgeois class,announced the abdication of King James II and welcomed his daughter Marie and her husband William as the Queen and the King. The congress announced the Bill of Rights ,which limited the power of the King . This was the beginning of Constitutional Monarchy and Democracy politics,

John Locke was the main theorist of the Whig Party. He wrote the famous book Theory of Government , As the pioneer ,he presented a serious of ideas ,as the Natural rights,Rule of Law,Separation of Power,etc , which had great contributions to democracy politics in England and also in the whole world .

C. The French Revolution and Jean Jacques Rousseau

The French Revolution in 1789 was an important historical event in the history of Western democracy politics. The cause of it was the resistance of French people to the autocratic rule in several centuries. Even though there were complicated processes after the Revolution(The Jacobin dictatorship, Napoleon coup and its failure, etc ), The historical meaning of the French Revolution which pushed forward the Western democracy politics could not be denied.

Jean Jacques Rousseau(1712-1778) made the most important contribution to the French Revolution. He was the pioneer presenting the theories of People Sovereignty,” All men are created equal”,etc which became the basic ideas in modern Western Political philosophy. But his theory of “General Will” provided the basis for autocracy in the later periods .

D . After the French Revolution, the democratic politics has been developing rapidly in Western countries , In this circumstance ,Adam Smith, Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill, etc made outstanding contributions to the development and improvement of Western Democratic Politics.

E. During and after the world war II ,as the democratic countries got success in the War, the British philosopher Friedrich August Hayek (1899-1992) made a deep analysis and criticism of Totalitarianism. American philosopher John Rawls( 1921-2002) made excellent discussion about “Justice”. They made important contributions to the progress of democratic politics of the world today and tomorrow .

From the above very brief introduction , it may be explained that the political movements and reformations in Western countries pushed forward the political philosophy, and at the same time , the philosophic thinking made contributions to the improvement of the democratic system continuously They interacted as both cause and effect

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p<>{color:#000;}. Academic Circumstance Background of Western Philosophy

Similar to the fate of Chinese Philosophy ,in the history ,Western philosophy was also controlled strictly by politics. The main facts were:

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p<>{color:#000;}. In the period of ancient Greece ,Socrates was sentenced to death due to that he preached his philosophic thinking to the young people.

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p<>{color:#000;}. In the Middle Ages of Europe , the Italian scientist and philosopher Giordano Bruno(1548-1600) was burned by the Catholic Inquisition , because he supported the Heliocentric theory of Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543).

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p<>{color:#000;}. During the Enlightenment Movement in 18 century,the famous philosopher and writer Voltaire((1694-1778) was put into the Bastille fortress,because he wrote some political poems and articles against the Church . After he got out the fortress, he went to England and lived there for 2.5 years . He wrote the famous book Letters of Philosophy . Then he was wanted by the government and had to leave Paris . He lived in a manor at the border between France and Switzerland for 15 years.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The famous philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau(1712-1778) wrote his book The Theory of Social Contract and an educational novel Emile which caused the dissatisfaction of the governments of France . They prohibited the publication of these two books and ordered to arrest him. He had to escape to the Prussian and hide there in his late life .

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p<>{color:#000;}. In 19 century , the famous German economist and philosopher Karl Max(1818-1883)graduated from Jena University and worked for the Rhine Newspaper as an editor. Because his political and philosophic opinions was not satisfied by the government ,he had to leave Germany and lived in England for a long time.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Generally speaking, the ideological control was improved around the end of World War II. President Roosevelt announced “Four Freedoms”: Freedom of speech and expression, Freedom to  worship the God, Freedom from fear and Freedom from want. The principle of Four Freedoms was accepted and written in the World Convention of Human Rights and got the universal acceptance.

The allowance and safeguard for the freedom of philosophic thinking provides the essential condition of development of philosophy. In 20 century , many new philosophic theories appeared in Western countries,such as Pragmatism of John Dewey(1859-1952) , Analytic Philosophy of Bertrand Russell(1872-1970)and Ludwig Wittgenstein(1889-1951), Structuralism of Louis Althusser(1918-1990),Science Philosophy of Karl Popper(1902-1994). Western philosophy has been developing flourishingly.

The above facts showed that :the limitations and controls of philosophical thinking were harmful without any benefit. The free development of philosophic thinking was and will be very important for the progress of human being.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Identity and Spiritual factors of Western Philosophers

In Chapter 2,it is talked that the ancient Chinese philosophers were mostly scholars working for politics.They took the contribution of their ideas to the governors as their main task .

Comparatively , the Western philosophers might be called Liberal scholars.The linkage between them and the governors were not close.Some philosophers were suppressed by the governors.

In ancient Greece,most Natural Philosophers ,began from Tales,were slaveowners,They made their living by themselves ,not depending on the governors. They made researches on philosophy according to their own interest and curiosity. The meaning of the word “Philosophy” in ancient Greece was Loving the knowledge . This was why they made researches on the Essence of Matters. These kinds of knowledge were useless for the governors. But they were the beginning of Science.

The best example showing that philosophers in ancient Greece did not depend on the governors was the fact of Socrates.He was finally sentenced to death by the governor . Plato established an academy and taught philosophy there depending on his own ability. Even though Aristotle was the teacher of Alexander,but he left politics just after Alexander established the strong Empire.. Aristotle then established an academy of his own

In recent and modern periods of Western countries , some philosophers had high positions in the government ( as John Locke). But many philosophers were persecuted or wanted by the government ,as Voltaire , Jean Jacques Rousseau, Karl Marx , etc . Some philosophers stayed away from politics,as Immanuel Kant , Edmund Husserl ,etc .

Generally speaking , most Western philosophers were Liberal Scholars. This identity determined that they had a spirit of loving knowledge and pursuit of the truth. This was the important reason that Western philosophy could produce Science .

Same as the case of Chinese Philosophy ,the factors of geography , economic ,social structure, politics ,the identity and spirit of Western philosophers combined together to form the Western philosophy. It is difficult to say which factor is the most important.

Chapter 4

Communication between Chinese and Western Philosophy

On the comparison and communication between Chinese and Western philosophy, Western philosophers already had discussions from 18 century. In 19-20 century, many discussions were made by famous Chinese philosophers,even though not so systematic. Before the discussions on the synthesis of Chinese and Western Philosophy .it is necessary to review the contributions of those predecessors

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p<>{color:#000;}. Contributions of Chinese Philosophers to the Communication between Chinese and Western Philosophy.

1)Yan Fu (严复)(1854-1921)

Yan Fu was from Fujian province of China. He was the chief editor in the Education Ministry of Qing dynasty and also the president of Translation Bureau of Capital University in China

His main contributions were the translations into Chinese of several important Western books on philosophy , social science ,economics, etc . He was the first man introducing Western thinking to China.

Those famous books that he translated were :

A. Evolution(《天演论》): The title of original book is Evolution and Ethics and other Essays written by T.H. Huxley.

B.. Origin of Wealth(《原富》):The title of original book is An Inquiry into Nation and Causes of the wealth of Nations written by Adam Smith.

C.Spirit of Law (《法意》).The title of original book is De I’esprit des Lois written by C.L.S. Montesquieu.

D.Right Limitation of People and oneself 《群己权限论》),The title of original book is On Liberty,written by J.S.Mill

E. Logic Science of Mill 《穆勒名学》),The title of original book is A System of Logic written by J.S. Mill

F.Talk on Sociology(《群学肆言》 .The title of original book is The Study of Sociology written by H. Spencer.

Even from the point of view of today , the above books are still very important Western academic books in philosophy ,economics ,sociology ,etc

Among these books, Evolution was the most influential one ,which gave the Chinese people (especially the young generation ) great encouragement .

2) Liang Qichao (梁启超)(1873-1929)

Liang was from Guangdong province of China. He was one of the leaders of the famous Wu Xu Coup( a political reform movement in Qing dynasty happened in 1898) and a representative of the reformers in recent China. He was a professor of Qinghua University in his late life.His important works are An Introduction of Academic Achievements in Qing Dynasty,The Academic History in Recent 300 years of China,etc.

He had travelled to many Western countries. After the Corp , he went and lived in Japan. He went to Canada and USA in 1903 and to Europe in 1918 ,visiting many countries there . So ,he was quite familiar with the Western culture.

In the communication between Chinese and Western culture and philosophy,his main contributions were the two below:

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p<>{color:#333;}. The theory of New People:

He published his work The theory of New People in 1912 . He said :

To have the new people was the first important factor in China today.

In his theory of New People , there were some points of view:

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p<>{color:#000;}. Liberty

He said :

To get the true liberty ,you must begin with removing the slave in your heart.

In China’s history ,there were only few ancient and modern philosophers emphasizing the idea of Liberty.So the fact that Liang took Liberty as the beginning of New People had very important philosophic meaning.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Rights and Law

He said:

There were much struggles for rights competition. Only the Laws could establish and guarantee the rights.

The thinking of Liberty ,Rights and Law was apparently came from Western philosophy ,not from Chinese philosophy.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Fusion of Chinese and Western Philosophy

On the relation between Chinese and Western Philosophy , Liang proposed the theory of Fusion of Chinese and Western Philosophy .He said:

The important point is that If you study Chinese Learning but give up Western Learning , the Chinese Learning must be useless. If you study Western Learning ,but give up Chinese Learning ,the Western Learning must be no basis . These two cases will be no help to the management of the world.”

Among the recent and modern Chinese philosophers, on the consciousness of the communication and fusion between Chinese and Western Philosophy, Liang was a prominent one.,

3) Wang Guowei (王国维)(1877-1927)

Wang was from Zhejiang province of China . His main achievements were in the fields of literature and esthetics. His wrote famous works: On Popular Poetry,Research on Traditional Opera in Song and Yuan Dynasties,etc. He was a professor in Beijing University and Qinghua University , At his last time , he suicide himself in the Kunming Lake in Beijing for his belief.

Wang was the pioneer scholar introducing to China the theories of Germany Philosophers,as Kant , Schopenhauer, Nietzsche ,etc.

On the communication between Chinese and Western philosophy, his main contributions were:

A. He affirmed the position of Philosophy in China

In ancient China ,there were only Learning of Classical Works and Learning of different Scholars ,but no position for Philosophy in the academic circle. A senior officer Zhang Zhitong(张之洞) said :” Philosophy is useless and harmful ”.Aiming at such speaking ,Wang wrote many articles and pointed out that:

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p<>{color:#000;}. Philosophy is not only useful ,but also necessary. He said :

The highest fulfillment of knowledge is only Philosophy.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Philosophy was an inherent knowledge of China .

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p<>{color:#000;}. He proposed actively to establish a study field of Philosophy in Chinese universities

B .He made researches on the framework of Chinese philosophy using Western philosophic thinking.

He wrote a book Logic Study of scholars in Zhou and Qing Dynasty.

He classified the ancient Chinese theories on human nature into Monism(Zhou Dunyi ,周敦颐) ,Dualism(Mencius,孟子) and Pluralism(Han Yu,韩愈)

It is not necessary to say that his classification is reasonable or not ,but we must recognize that Wang was the pioneer Chinese scholar using the method of Western philosophy to make research in Chinese Philosophy.

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p<>{color:#333;}. He translated many books of Western philosophy

Wang translated 18 books of Western and Japanese Philosophy. The important ones were:(the years mentioned were the time of translation)

Introduction of Philosophy( Kuwaki ,1902)

Outlines of the History of Ethics(Henry Sdgwick,1903)

Three Changes of Soul( Nietzsche,1904)

On Thinking( Schopenhauer,1905)

Bibliography of Immanuel Kant( Thomas Kingsmill Abbott,1906)

An Essay concerning Human Understanding(John Locke,1907[*)*]

From the time of translation , It may be seen that in the early years of 20 century , Wang had made continuous and hard efforts and great contributions to the introduction of Western philosophy to China.

4)Xiong Shili (熊十力)(1885-1968)

Xiong Shili was from Hubei Province of China. He is one of few philosophers in China who have original thinking. He was the establisher of the Modern New Confucianism. ,

He studied Confucianism while he was young. In 1911, he joined in the revolution led by Dr. Sun Zhongshan . As the revolution went to low tide, he decided to do academic research. He had deep understanding of Buddhism and turned from Confucianism to Buddhism. During the Anti-Japan War he studied Confucianism again. He turned from Buddhism to Confucianism and created the Modern New Confucianism .

In 1946 ,he worked in the Philosophy Department of Huanghai Chemical Engineering Institute. The leader of this Institute Sun Xuewu asked him a question:” In ancient China ,there were many valuable discoveries, as the compass, botanical pharmacology, etc. Why from Qin dynasty to now, more than 2000 years , China had very few valuable discoveries?”

To answer this question , Xiong wrote an article Chinese philosophy and Western philosophy. In this article ,Xiong presented his opinions on the comparison between Chinese and Western Philosophy as follows.

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p<>{color:#333;}. Special understanding of Chinese philosophy

He said in his article :

Due to the great misfortune in the environment , Confucian philosophy lose its tradition . The Cosmogony and Life Philosophy of Vigorousness and Daily Renewal in Zhou Yi(《 周易》) was no more understood in the Confucian Textual Researches.

In my opinion. Xiong ‘s idea is a very valuable thinking. In ancient China, especially in the understanding of the objective world , the most thing lacked was the spirit of Innovation(Renewal ). But Science is just the fruit of the spirit of Innovation.

B. The affirmation and criticism on Chinese philosophy

Xiong’s opinion was that comparing with Western philosophy ,emphasizing Ontology is the main character of Chinese philosophy

I agree with his opinion .In Chapter 5 of this book . it will be discussed that , In the respect of Ontology,the level of Chinese philosophy is higher than that of Western philosophy.

Xiong also pointed out the shortcomings of Chinese philosophy. He said:

Western philosophy is good at logical analysis which Chinese philosophy ignores . The ancient clever men had their transcendent thinking. They didn’t like to do logical analysis .

Xiong’s opinions help us to understand the strengths and weaknesses of Chinese philosophy.

C.The affirmation and criticism on Western philosophy

Xiong ‘s opinion was that Western philosophy came from ancient Greece. It encouraged the spirit of outward pursuit which was a strong energy.

Comparing with the affirmation ,Xiong had more criticism at Western philosophy. He said :

Western philosophy couldn’t separated from knowledge . It was difficult to come into the region of transcendent thinking.

He pointed out that while Science becomes flourishing and much killing weapons are utilized , there will be possibility for human being to be exterminated , if the wisdom of Ontology is lacked.,

D.Expectation of the fusion of Chinese and Western Philosophy

Xiong didn’t propose that China only pays attention to Chinese philosophy and rejects Western philosophy. He advocated the fusion of Chinese and Western philosophy

Xiong said :

Philosophy couldn’t reject knowledge ,but needs to transcend knowledge .

It means that transcendence of knowledge will make the knowledge have the full application for the welfare of human being.

Xiong’s opinions are worthy for us to have deep review.

6)Hu Shi (胡适)(1891-1962)

Hu Shi was from Anhui Province of China .He was one of the leader of the famous May 4th Movement (a cultural and political movement ) in China in1919. He was the president of Beijing University and the National Academy at Taiwan. He had famous accomplishments in the fields of literature,philosophy ,history, etc.

In philosophy, his main contribution was his work Outline of the History of Chinese Philosophy . It was published in 1918,only its first volume(Ancient History of Philosophy).

It was not the earliest book on the history of Chinese philosophy . History of Chinese Philosophy written by Xie Wuliang (谢无量) was earlier one (1916). But Hu’ book was the first book on history of Chinese philosophy which had very wide and great influence . While Hu’s book was published , it was welcomed extensively in China. Two months later ,it was reprinted.

Hu’s book has the following values:

A.Hu’s book itself was a fruit of communication between Chinese and Western philosophy. Writing this book,Hu didn’t use the Chinese traditional method ,but use the academic method used in Western philosophy.

In the introduction of this book, he said that his methods were:

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Collecting historical materials

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p<>{color:#000;}. Validating the truth of these materials.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Removing those incredible materials.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Putting those credible materials in order so that the theories of different philosophers become systematic

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p<>{color:#000;}. Doing research on the interactive effects between different theories and reasons of their changes.

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p<>{color:#000;}. The last step is to make evaluations on those philosophic theories.

This series of methods was learned from the research on the history of Western philosophy,not from traditional Chinese learning.

B, In the Introduction of this book ,he made a rather complete explanation on the concept of “Philosophy”.

He pointed out that Philosophy should have the following contents:

#
p<>{color:#000;}. How the universe come from ?(Cosmogony)

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p<>{color:#000;}. The extent,effects and methods of knowledge( Logic and Epistemology)

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p<>{color:#000;}. How the human life should be?(Life philosophy or Ethics)

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p<>{color:#000;}. How to let people to have knowledge,to be able to think,to do good and not  

evil?(Education philosophy)

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p<>{color:#000;}. How to organize and manage the country(Political philosophy)

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p<>{color:#000;}. Does man have an end?(Religion philosophy)

Hu Shi is the first scholar in modern China who had a complete understanding of Philosophy.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Hu Shi made serious textual research on many ancient materials of Chinese philosophy.

He pointed out that Guan Zi (《管子》), Lie Zi (《列子》), etc were fake books . He said :” Only The Book of Poetry(《诗经》) may be the most ancient historical material ,because it had some true records of the solar eclipse.

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p<>{color:#333;}. Different from other Chinese modern philosophers , Hu paid high attentions to Lao Zi and Mo Zi .

He took Lao Zi as the first philosopher of ancient China. Some other Chinese philosophers didn’t pay enough attention to Lao Zi . In Feng Youlan (冯友兰)’s book New Edition of History of Chinese philosophy. Lao Zi was introduced in 11 Chapter.

Hu Shi paid special attention to the School of Mo Zi .He wrote 6 Chapters on it , but only 5 Chapters on Confucius.

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p<>{color:#333;}. Expectation of a new philosophy appeared in China

Hu said:

We have two academic thoughts today , one came from our traditional books ,the other is the old and new Western theories. After the convergence of these two ,if China couldn’t not produce a new philosophy , we ’ll fail to live up this good opportunity .

Today , It seems that Hu’s expectation has not been realized yet . This is the problem that this book concerns

7) Feng Youlan (冯友兰)(1895-1990)

Feng Youlan was from Henan Province of China .In 1915 ,he graduated from Beijing University and studied in Columbia University(USA) as a graduate student in 1918. After he returned to China ,he was a professor in Zhongshan University ,Guangdong University,Yanjing University and Beijing University . He was the director of philosophy department in Qinghua University . During the Anti –Japan War , he wrote his famous books Zhen Yuan Six Books (《真元六书》). The words “Zhen Yuan” came from Book of Change,which means a period of great change of a country.

He wrote History of Chinese Philosophy in 1934-1935. In 1946 ,while he was invited as a visiting professor of University of Pennsylvania(USA) , he wrote the book Brief History of Chinese Philosophy(in English).which was the primer for Western people to know Chinese philosophy. In 1980 ,he wrote New Edition of History of Chinese Philosophy. In the Encyclopedia Britannica, he and Xiong Shili were introduced as two outstanding philosophers of modern China.

On the comparison and fusion of Chinese and Western philosophy ,His main contributions are as follows:

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p<>{color:#000;}. Zhen Yuan Six Books expressed the fusion of Chinese and Western philosophy

New Idealist Philosophy(《新理学》) was one of Feng’s Six Books .In this book ,he used the method of logic thinking to explain the theory of Idealist Philosophy in Song dynasty

He made rigid logic proofs for the concepts of Li (idea,理), Que (energy,气),Daoti( way,道体),Daquan(completeness,大全),which were the basic idea in Idealist philosophy(理学) .

B, Feng’s opinion of the comparison between Chinese and Western philosophy

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p<>{color:#333;}. The realm of life or the religious feelings

He said in the first Chapter of Brief History of Chinese Philosophy:

In any religion,there is philosophy in its core part.

The source of Western culture came from rational thinking of ancient Greece and humane feeling of Christianity. In the fields of Morality , Western philosophy got more thinking from Christianity..

This is the religious feelings in Western philosophy

In Feng’s book he said ,there are 4 realms of life:①realm of nature;②realm of utility;③realm of morality;④realm of universe.

Mencius said :

If you live with all your heart and soul. you may understand the universe.

Feng pointed out that this is the realm of human’s life.

Feng said that either in Confucianism or in Taoism ,there is no religious feeling. Both of them take the realm of universe as the highest goal of human life ..

Feng pointed out that this is the essential differences between Chinese and Western philosophy

B) Extremely sophisticated and or without doctrine of the mean

“Extremely sophisticated and doctrine of the mean” is a saying in the ancient book Zhongyong(the Mean,《中庸》 ). It means that Chinese philosophy talked the highest realm of universe and at the same time it talked the common morality in human daily life(doctrine of mean ). Western philosophy talked the essence of the world (also sophisticated ) ,but paid less attention to common morality in human daily life.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Positive or negative methods

So called in Feng’ book the Positive method is the method of logic analysis.Western philosophers gave clear definition to each concept. Aristotle presented the method of Syllogism for logic analysis. Feng said that the logic analysis is a permanent contribution of Western philosophy to Chinese philosophy.

So called Negative Method in Feng’s book is the method which was difficult to be expressed by language. Really, it is the method of Intuition or feeling.Feng said , in Chinese philosophy , this method is at the dominant position.In those famous books of Chinese philosophy ,as Lao Zi,The Analects of Confucius,Zhuang Zi, etc .we can only see very short sentences or parables and stories without logic analysis.

The above differences that Feng Youlan mentioned help us to understand

the differences between Chinese and Western philosophy.

8) Zhang Dainian(张岱年,1909-2004)

Zhang was from Hebei Province of China. He graduated from Beijing Normal University. He was a professor of Qinghua University and Beijing University

In 2002, He had a lecture in Beijing University : Some Problems on the comparison between Chinese and Western Philosophy .His main points of view are as follows:


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p<>{color:#000;}. The Comparability between Chinese and Western Philosophy

Since Chinese and Western philosophy face to the common problems , there must be comparability between them .

He pointed out even though there are differences between Chinese and Western philosophy ,but the differences are not absolute. In both Chinese and Western philosophy ,there are many schools of thought.Some Chinese schools of thought were similar to Western philosophy . And some Western schools of thought were similar to Chinese philosophy.

For example, Western philosophy pays much attention to logic analysis.The school of Mo Zi also paid attention to logic analysis .

The author considers that the opinion of Zhang is important. There are commonalities between Chinese and Western philosophy,so there is the possibility to synthesize them.

B.The comparison of Ontology between Chinese and Western Philosophy

Zhang said ,in the Ontology of Western philosophy,the Noumenon and the Phenomenon are separated. But in Chinese philosophy , they are united .These two elements have difference and also have sameness.

He pointed out that in Chinese philosophy, the relation between Noumenon and the Phenomenon seems like the source and the flow of a river. The Phenomenon appears outside and Noumenon remains inside.

C.Anylatic explanations of Chinese philosophical concepts

Zhang analyzed some concepts of Chinese philosophy using Western concepts:

Dao(道) : It is similar to “Logos” in ancient Greece.

Qi(气): It is similar to “material “in Western language ,but not the same completely.

Shen (神):In Chinese philosophy,it has 3 meanings :①the God;②Man’s spirit;③Delicate changes.

Cheng (诚):According to Zhu Xi ,it has 2 meanings , Reality and inevitability

D.Synthetical Creativity

In 80th of 20 century , Zhang presented his theory of Synthetical Creativity

. His theory of Synthetical Creativity means the synthesis of 3 philosophic thinking: Materialism, Idealism and Analytic Philosophy.

Materialism: He accepted the New Materialism of Karl Marx and also the Process philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead(1861-1947)

Idealism: He considered that Idealism is the speciality of Chinese philosophy,

Analytic Philosophy. : He regarded that Analytic philosophy is the most important contribution of Western philosophy which is required by Chinese philosophy,

Besides the above famous Chinese philosophers, there are many other younger Chinese philosophers, who have their contribution to the comparison and fusion of Chinese and Western Philosophies. Their opinions will be introduced in the related Chapters of this book.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Evaluations of Chinese Philosophy by Western Philosophers and Scientists

1)Introduction and Evaluations of Chinese Philosophy by Western Philosophers

A. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz(1646-1716)

Leibniz was a famous philosopher of Germany. He was the earliest one who introduced Chinese philosophy to Western world.

He said :

Both we and them have their own knowledge which could be used to communicate with each other. In the deepness of knowledge and theory of philosophy . we might stronger than them .But in the field of practice, they have more achievements than us. This means the field of morality and political science.

The rules of Chinese people guided them towards the peace of society . Their goal is to avoid the disharmony between people.(Qin Jiayi:Talking China by German Philosiophers,1999)

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p<>{color:#333;}. Voltaire(1694-1778)

Voltaire was a famous French philosopher and writer. He was one of the ideological leader in the period of the European Enlightenment Movement

He wrote in his On Morality:

The morality of Confucius is the only correct morality that can be accepted by people. Confucius was a man not the God . So he was not religious . He was a representative of religious freedom.

In the period of Enlightenment Movement,.the introduction of the philosophy of Confucius gave great help to the breakthrough of Theology which controlled everything in the Middle Age of Europe.

Due to the great influence of him in the Enlightenment period, his positive evaluation attracted a wide attention to Chinese philosophy in the Western intellectual circle,

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p<>{color:#333;}. Freiedrich Hegel(1770-1831)

Hegel was a famous German philosopher in 18-19 century. But on the evaluation of Chinese philosophy ,he had biased opinion . Although in his opinion , there are some ideas which are worthy to be considered.

His evaluation of Confucius was that :

In the talk of Confucius with his students, there were only commonsense of morality which we can find everywhere.…Confucius was a practical wise man ,with no speculative philosophy in his thinking.

The fact is that Chinese philosophy had high level Ontology,not only moral or practical philosophy( it will be discussed in Chapter 5 of this book). Although Chinese philosophy was strong in Moral Philosophy exactly.

Hegel pointed out some characteristics of Chinese philosophy ,but his opinion on Chinese philosophy was superficial.

D, Bertrand Russell(1872-1970)

Russell was a famous philosopher in early 20 century.He was the establisher of Analytic Philosophy.

In 1921, he was invited to visit China and took lectures in China. In his speeches in China, besides the introduction of his own philosophy , he elaborated his opinions on politics ,economy,culture and philosophy of China.

His main opinions on Chinese philosophy were as follows:

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p<>{color:#333;}. He gave positive evaluation of Chinese culture and philosophy

He pointed out some characteristics of Chinese culture:①Chinese words: he said that Chinese word is an ideographic language which is more stable than alphabetic languages used in Western countries; ②He gave high evaluation of the Ethics Theory of Confucianism;③The imperial examination system: he pointed out the this system was fairness and justice , although it had less creativity.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Evaluation of Confucianism

He made a active affirmation on the non-religiousness of Confucianism.He said that Confucius ,different from the creators of other religions ,gave people rules of morality which had not any religious assertion.

His opinions were different from that of Hegel . The author regards that Russell ‘s opinions are correct.

He also pointed out the shortcomings of . Confucianism. He said that filiality and the clan authority perhaps were the biggest shortcomings of Confucianism…It weakened the public spirit of people.

The author does not agree with his criticism at filiality. Filiality is the essential part of Confucianism which has the active meaning for the harmony of family and society. Of course ,the clan authority is a limiting factor of the progress of society.

Russell gave Taoism very high respect,He said that Taoism advocated nature and free development . They were not tolerant with any intervention of the nature.…The thinking of Taoism made the life of Chinese people more elegant,more tolerant and more conscientious than the Western cruel life.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Karl Theodor Jaspers(1883-1969)

Jaspers was one of the main representatives of the Existentialism.His philosophy spanned across philosophy and religion,and also across the West and the East . He presented the opinion of the Axial Age(600-300 BC when many great teachers of mankind appeared in the period )

Jaspers gave very high evaluation of Chinese philosophy. His evaluation of Confucius was that Confucius revived the ancient learning to relieve the human being.

His evaluation of Lao Zi was :

In the philosophy of Lao Zi,there was no difference between metaphysics, ethics and political science.

E. Martin Heidegger (1889-1976)

Heidegger was the main establisher of the Existentialism.During World War II , he had supported the Nazi government. After the war ,he had been prohibited of lectures for several years . But his outstanding contribution to philosophy are recognized by the world 。

He had rather deep understanding of Chinese philosophy.Before 1930 , he read the book of Lao Zi and Zhuang Zi . He pointed out that the idea of “The Unity of Heaven and Man” was an important idea in Chinese philosophy. Very few Western philosophers had the similar idea.

The thinking of Heidegger could be divided into two periods by 1930.Before then , his thinking was expressed in Existence and Time. After then ,it was expressed in On the Essence of Truth.

The change of his thinking was related with the background of times.He was living in the first half of 20 century. Along with the rapid development of industrialization and electrification, mankind had too much destruction of the nature.So ,in his second period of thinking ,he didn’t put “Being-There”(man himself) at the priority ,but emphasized the Square Structure—Heaven ,Earth, God and Man

He didn’t put man at the first place of the Square Structure.His thinking was quite similar to the idea of “The Unity of Heaven and Man” in Chinese philosophy.

2)The Affirmative Evaluation of Chinese Philosophy by Western Scientists

Chinese philosophy was noticed not only by Western philosophers ,but also by many famous Western scientists;

A. Niels Henrik David Bohr(1885-1962)

Bohr was one of the most important physicist in 20 century. In 1920 ,he established the Theoretical Physics Institute in Copenhagen,Denmark . He got the Nobel Prize in 1922

In 1927 ,he presented the theory of Complementation Principle in Quantum Mechanics. He pointed out the complementation relationship between the properties of Particle and Wave.

In 1937 ,while he visited China ,.he found astonishingly that his Complementation Principle was elucidated by Lao Zi 2000 years ago .Lao Zi said [*:*]

All things connote the Yin and Yang ,They keep acting upon each other.(Lao Zi ,Chapter 42)

Bohr said Lao Zi’s theory expressed his idea of Complementation Principle.

B. I.llya Prigogine(1917~2003)

Prigogine presented theTheory of Dissipative Structure and got the Nobel Prize in 1977.

He gave very high evaluation of Chinese philosophy. He pointed out that the newest achievements of Western science were very similar to the thinking of Chinese philosophy.

He said:

The traditional Chinese academic thinking emphasized the research of Wholeness ,Spontaneity and Coordination. The development of modern science ,especially the researches in Physics and Mathematics in recent 10 years ,as the Theory of Mutation presented by René Thom(1923-2002) ,the Renormalization Group(RNG ) and Bifurcation theory,etc are more accordant with the thinking of Chinese philosophy :( From Existence to Time)

He expected that it is perhaps possible to combine together the Western tradition (with its experimental and quantitative expression ) and Chinese tradition (with its Spontaneity and Self organization)( From Chaos to Order)

C. John Archibald Wheeler(1911-2008)

Wheeler is a famous modern American physicist.He presented the Simplicity Principle and the Theory of the Black Hole .

In 1981,while he visited China, he watched a Chinese Drama. He saw that Jiang Ziya( 姜子牙,a famous officer in the ancient period of Spring and Autumn) had a flag with the word “Nothing” at his hand. The translator explained that Lao Zi had a saying— Existence are created from Nothingness. He was very delighted , He wrote in his book:

I haven’t thought of that the conclusion obtained by many generations in Western countries using a lot of efforts and money was already found in ancient China long time ago .

D. Stephen William Hawking(1942-

Hawking is the most famous Cosmologist in the contemporary period.

In his famous book Brief History of Time.he said that there are much similarity between his theory of creation of Cosmos and Lao Zi’s theory of “ All things come from Nothing”.

In summary,beginning from Leibniz and Voltaire in 17-18 century,up to today , even though a few philosophers (as Hegel ) had some prejudice against Chinese philosophy , many famous Western philosophers and. scientists gave high evaluation of Chinese philosophy. Especially ,the Cosmogony of Lao Zi and Ethics philosophy of Confucius obtained very high attention by them .

While we are making research in the Synthesis of Chinese and Western philosophy , the opinions of Western philosophers and scientists are very valuable for us to consider.

Chapter 5

Comparison and Synthesis of Cosmogony and Ontology in Chinese and Western Philosophy

The comparison of Chinese and Western philosophy could not only be limited to a single pair of concepts ,as “the unity of heaven and man” of Chinese philosophy and “ the separation of subject and object “of Western philosophy . It also could not be limited to a few characteristics ,as Chinese philosophy emphasizing morality and Western philosophy emphasizing knowledge. It’s necessary to have a comprehensive and systematic comparison of them .

In this book ,the author will make the comparison and synthesis of them in seven aspects:①Cosmogony and Ontology;②Epistemology;③Moral Philosophy;④Political Philosophy;⑤Beauty Philosophy;⑥Love Philosophy;⑦Life and Death Philosophy.

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p<>{color:#333;}. Introduction of Cosmogony and Ontology

Cosmogony is the philosophic theory of the origin of cosmos.

The term of Ontology was firstly proposed by the German philosopher Goclenius(1547-1678). “Ont” came from Greek ,which means “ Be” or “Exist” in English. So Ontology is the philosophy of Being or Existence

There are two problems needed to be clarified in the discussion of Cosmogony and Ontology

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p<>{color:#000;}. The origin of the cosmos and the essence of the world

In philosophy , the question that Cosmogony should answer is where the cosmos came from ? This is the problem of the origin of the cosmos.

The question that Ontology should answer is what is the essence of the world .

These two questions are different but related with each other. In many circumstances ,they are the same question.The origin of a thing determines the essence of it

For example,when we ask what is the essence of Man ? it may be answered that :the essence of Man is the basic character of Man .

Now we ask: what is the origin of Man . The correct answer is that Man comes from Man (father and mother).

Just because Man comes from Man , Man will surely have the basic character of Man .It shows that the origin of Man determines the essence of Man .

In Western philosophy,Cosmogony is separated from Ontology. Ontology is one of important part in Western philosophy. The problem of origin of the cosmos is seldom discussed in Western philosophy. The reason is that in Western culture ,especially in ancient and recent periods, Christianity had very strong influence on Man’s thinking . About the origin of the cosmos, in ancient Greek Mythology and the doctrines of Christianity,there was already explanation that both the cosmos and the Man were created by God . In modern period , the problem of the origin of the cosmos is a problem of Astronomy or the science of Cosmology.

The situation was very different in China . In ancient China,the influence of religion was not strong at all . This was why that Cosmogony and Ontology were often combined together in traditional Chinese philosophy

Lao Zi had a saying:

One knows the beginning of the Ancient . And this is called the law of Dao.

(Lao Zi ,Chapter 14)

Its meaning is that if you know the origin of the Ancient, you could understand the rule of Dao. Lao Zi’s Dao means the wholeness and essence of the cosmos .Dao is the basic concept of Lao Zi’s Ontology.

This saying shows that Cosmogony was combined together with Ontology.

Modern Chinese philosophers also combined Cosmogony and Ontology together .

Feng Youlan(冯友兰) ,in the Introduction of his book History of Chinese Philosophy .said :

Using the modern terms , Philosophy contains three main parts:

Cosmogony—its goal is to find a theory of world.

The Theory of Life—its goal is to find a theory of life.

The Theory of Knowledge —its goal is to find a theory of knowledge.

He said further, Cosmogony has two parts“

A. The researches on the Noumenon of “Existence” and the essential factor of “Truth”. This is so called Ontology

B. The researches on the origin , history and destination of the world. This is so called Cosmogony.

There was duplication in his saying( Cosmogony contains Cosmogony). But it shows that he put Cosmogony and Ontology together . It was difficult to separate the two .

According the character of Chinese philosophy ,we ’ll discuss Cosmogony and Ontology together in this Chapter.

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p<>{color:#333;}. The Relation between Man and the World

In the researches of Ontology , there is another important problem : the relation between man and the world .

The difference between philosophy and science is that science faces to the problem of the rules of the world. But philosophy faces to the relation between man and the world,including the relation between man and man

Therefore ,in both Chinese and Western philosophies ,man has a very important position.

How to understand the relation between man and the nature or the world ? it is an important problem in Ontology.

The following discussions will Involve the two aspects mentioned above

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p<>{color:#333;}. Comparison of Chinese and Western Philosophy on Cosmogony and Ontology.

The main differences in Cosmogony and Ontology of Western and Chinese Philosophy are as follows:

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p<>{color:#000;}. Creationism and Naturalism

A, Creationism of Western Culture

Western culture began in ancient Greece . The ancient Greek culture did not begin with philosophy ,but with Greek mythology. Before the beginning of ancient Greek philosophy(6th century BC ), the mythological poems of Hesiod and Homer had been spreading more than 300 years. The idea that God created the world was comprehensively remained in the mind of people.

The book Theogony written by Hesiod(750-700 BC ) told the process of the creation of the world by God. Briefly to say, the earliest cosmos was created by Chao (the eldest God) . In Chao, Goddess of Earth —Gaea was born. She was the creator of all Gods . Afterwards ,Jose —the grandson of Gaea became the King of all Gods . He established the order of the world of Gods

Related to the idea of Creationism, the idea that all things had their Souls was also accepted by ancient Greek people.

The ideas of Creationism and Soul were the earliest thinking of Cosmogony and Life in ancient Greece。 Even in the thinking of ancient Greek Natural philosophers ,and also Plato, Aristotle etc , these two ideas were dominant all along.

For example, Tales,who was the earliest philosopher recognized by Western world,made research on the phenomenon of magnet. He regarded that the phenomenon of magnet. proved that all things in the world were filled of God.

Plato (427-347 BC) presented the Theory of Ideas. He said that God created all things according the Ideas.

Aristotle (384-322 BC ) presented the Theory of Substance. But he still take God as the highest concept of his philosophy.

At the beginning of the first century, Jesus appeared in the Palestine in west Asia. He propagated the Gospel of the kingdom of heaven. After he died ,his disciples established Christianity. The followers of Christianity increased rapidly . It was accepted by many middle and upper class circles.In 380 AD , the Rome Empire announced Christianity as its national religion.

In the Bible of Christianity, it was said clearly that the world and the mankind were created by God in 7 days. This doctrine was believed by all the believers of Christianity .

In the Middle Ages of Europe. Aurelius August (340-430)and Thomas Aquinas(1224-1274).as the representatives of Theological philosophers ,used their philosophy to certify that God created the whole world.

After the Enlightenment Movement of Europe , the circle of philosophy got rid of Creationism to a certain extent. But in the thinking of those most famous philosophers , there was still the component of Creationism.

For example, Rene Descartes(1596-1650)believed God . He certified the existence of God by his rational method. George Berkeley(1685-1753) regarded that the final goal of natural sciences was to praise God

In the idea of Reason of Immanuel Kant(1724-1804),there contained God and the Immortality of Soul.

Freiedrich Hegel(170-1831)presented the concept of Absolute Spirit as the highest idea of his whole philosophy .He regarded that the Absolute Spirit was reflected in God .

In summary, we may say that in ancient and recent Western philosophy ,the thinking of Creationism had been at the dominant or important position .

B. Naturalism (or Dao-begetting theory ) of Chinese philosophy

2500 years ago ,in the far east ,a great philosopher—Lao Zi appeared in China . He presented a theory of the origin of the cosmos —Naturalism which is completely different from the Western Creationism. In the author’s opinion ,it may be named Dao-begetting theory which means that the cosmos was begotten from Dao

In his book Lao Zi ,or The Book of Dao and De(《道德经》),Lao Zi said :

Dao begets the One;

The One begets the Two;

The Two begets the Three;

The Three begets all things of the world.”( Chapter 42)

Man takes Earth as his model;

Earth takes Heaven as its model;

Heaven takes Dao as its model;

Dao takes the Nature as its model.” (Chapter 25)

The term of “Dao-begetting theory” comes from the above sentences:

Since the name “Dao-begetting theory: is not familiar to the readers , in the following parts of this book, I’ll use the name Naturalism more often. These two terms have the same meaning.

The above sentences told us the Cosmogony and Ontology of Lao Zi . Their meanings are :

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p<>{color:#000;}. Dao is the origin of the cosmos

The essence of the cosmos or the world is Dao . The heaven , the earth and the man , all takes Dao as their model or their basis. And Dao takes the Nature as its model .

So , the final basis of the Nature is the Nature itself.

This thinking conforms completely to the modern natural science . It will not be displaced by any other thinking.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The Cosmogony of Lao Zi had some more sayings:

Nothingness “ may be used to designate the beginning of Heaven and Earth.

“Existence” may be used to designate the mother of all things.”(Chapter 1)

The meaning of the above sentences is that the cosmos began from Nothingness. Nothingness created Existence . And Existence created all things of the world.

There is a thing integratedly formed

And born earlier than Heaven and Earth.

Silent and empty,

It relies on nothing.

Moving around forever,

We may regard it as the mother of all things.

I do not know its name ,

So I name it as Dao,

And I further name it as Great . (Lao Zi,Chapter 25)

The meaning of the above sentences is as follows.

Dao began before Heaven and Earth . Dao is no sound and no form . Dao exists independently. Dao is cycling forever. Dao is the creator of Heaven and Earth.

The theory of Lao Zi that the cosmos came from Nothingness and his description about the situation of the beginning of the cosmos obtained very high evaluation by many world level famous physicists. They affirmed that Lao Zi ‘s theory was quite coincidental with the newest discovery and theory of modern Science .of Cosmology

Comparing with the Creationism of Western culture, we have to recognize that the theory of Lao Zi reached the highest level of ancient Cosmogony,since it conforms to modern science of Cosmology.

The outstanding achievement of Lao Zi in Cosmogony is the glory of China. But in a long period , comparing with the introduction of Confucius to the world ,there are few introduction about Lao Zi ‘s theory in China and also abroad . The author thinks that it is not fair and wise.

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p<>{color:#333;}. Theory of Essence and Theory of Wholeness

On Ontology, what the Western philosophy pursues is the Essence of the world . What the traditional Chinese philosophy pursued was the Wholeness of the world. Both Essence and Wholeness are the Noumenon of the world but they have different angles of view

A.Theory of Essence of Western Philosophy

Theory of Essence of Western philosophy began with Tales. The ancient Greek Natural Philosophers pursued the essence of the world using their rational thinking. Generally ,they regarded one single substance as the essence of the world. Tales regarded that Water was the essence of all things . Anksimandros regarded that Gas was the essence of all things . Heraclitus regarded that Fire was the essence of all things . These theories were the beginning of the Ontology of Western philosophy.

Plato presented the theory of Ideas. He divided the world into two parts: the world of Ideas and the world of Senses. The world of Senses was changeable ,but the world of Ideas was absolute and permanent . So, from the view of Plato , only the Ideas are the essence of the world ..

Aristotle did not agree with Plato’s Theory of Ideas. He presented the Theory of Substances. He took the Substances as the essence of the world .

Plato’s “Ideas” actually means the commonality in different types of a certain thing ,which shows the essence of this thing.

Since what all sciences (natural and social sciences) pursue are just the essence of different things . So ,Plato’s concept of Ideas opened the door of all sciences.

In fact ,the theory of Substance of Aristotle was not in contradiction with Plato’s theory of Ideas. Because to pursue the Ideas of things, you must start from the Substances. Theory of Substances is the channel which any science must pass through.

So ,we may say that the Theory of Essence of ancient Western philosophy was composed of Plato’s Theory of Ideas and Aristotle’s Theory of Substances.

We must recognize that Theory of Essence has very important contribution to human culture . All the success of sciences in Western world get the benefit from the Theory of Essence of Western philosophy.

B.Theory of Wholeness of Chinese Philosophy

Chinese philosophy observes the Noumenon of the world from a completely different angle of view comparing with Western philosophy. What it views was the Wholeness of the world.

The Theory of Wholeness began in Book of Change(Yi Jin,《易经》). The basic elements of Book of Change are two Components,each one was named a Yao(爻): Yin(阴) Yao(- -) and Yang(阳) Yao(—) .Three Yaos form a Trigram.There are 8 Trigrams as follows:

 

Quan (Heaven)(乾) Xun(Wind)(巽)

Kun (Earth) (坤) Dui (River)(兑)

Zhen (Thunder)(雷) Kan (Water)(坎)

Li (Fire) (离) Gen (Mountain) (艮)

Picture 1 8 Trigrams in Book of Change

From the above picture, you may see what the ancient Chinese philosophers pursued was not the essence of the world ,but the wholeness of the world.

The different combinations of twoTrigrams form 64 Hexagrams,which could explain all things in the world

Book of Change was produced in the early period of West Zhou dynasty(1046-771 BC ). Lao Zi was living in the Spring-Autumn period(770-221 BC ). Dao .which was presented by Lao Zi ,pointed out the origin of the cosmos( or the world) and also the wholeness of the world.

Lao Zi said :

Dao is great;

Heaven is great;

Earth is great;

And Man is also great.

There are four things that are great.

Of them ,man is one.(Lao Zi,Chapter 25)

From the arrangement of above sentences, you can see that  Dao is greater than Heaven and Earth. You can understand the wholeness of Dao.

The book Yi Chuan(《易传》) is a book explaining Book of Change(Yi Jing,《易经 》) which was accomplished by Confucius and his students. The explanation of Quan Hexagram in Yi Chuan was :

As heaven keeps vigour through movement,

a gentleman should unremittingly practice daily renewal .

Modern Chinese philosopher Xiong Shili (熊十力)pointed out that the Spirit of Vigour and Daily Renewal was the most important idea of the philosophy of Confucianism . It was also the Ontology of Chinese philosophy.

The Spirit of Vigour and Daily Renewal is the wholeness spirit of the cosmos and the great nature. It is also the wholeness spirit of human being.

So ,the Ontology of Chinese philosophy contains the understanding of the wholeness of the cosmos and also the wholeness spirit of the world . This is an important point of view for understanding the Ontology of Chinese philosophy.

Chinese philosophy looks at the wholeness of the world . The Wholeness thinking is the basic character of Chinese Ontology. The shortcoming of the Wholeness thinking is ignorant of pursuing the essence of things which caused the underdevelopment of science. But we should recognize that the Wholeness thinking has its superiority . It helps people to observe the nature as a whole system . In the society ,it promote the harmony and cooperation of people. Especially ,the Spirit of Vigour and Daily Renewal is a strong driving force for the progress of human being.

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p<>{color:#333;}. Theory of God and Theory of Man (Humanism)

A.Theory of God

In philosophy of ancient Europe(ancient Greece and the Middle Ages),on the relation between Man and the world , the general thinking was that the rule of the world and human being was determined by God.

Plato wrote in his book Timaeus:

Let me tell you then why the creator made this world of generation. He was good, and the good can never have any jealousy of anything. And being free from jealousy, he desired that all things should be as like himself as they could be. This is in the truest sense the origin of creation and of the world.

God desired that all things should be good and nothing bad, so far as this was attainable. Wherefore also finding the whole visible sphere not at rest, but moving in an irregular and disorderly fashion, out of disorder, he brought order, considering that this was in every way better than the other. (,translated by Benjamin Jowett[_)_]

From the view of Plato, ”Good” is the perfect, order,harmony and stable of the world and things. Since God himself is perfect and justice ,so God certainly will create the world and all things according to his own perfection and fairness. All things of the world and the total cosmos are behaving according to the will of God.

This was thinking of the Theory of God.

In the Middle Ages of Europe,the theory of God was especially emphasized by the Christian philosophers.

Thomas Aquinas said:

Because that in God ,”Good” exists in the most perfect form.so God is recognized as the highest “Good”.

.( Complete Collection of Theology)

B Theory of Man (Humanism)
The theory of God had been impacted seriously in the Renaissance in 15-16 centuries and the Enlightenment Movement in 17-18 centuries. Dante’s Divine Comedy,the Dramas of Shakespeare aroused the awakening of Man .

In the period of the Enlightenment Movement, the novels of Voltaire and the books of Rousseau pushed forward the development of Humanism.

Immanuel Kant presented the theory of “Man is the goal” which established the philosophic basis of Humanism.

Now ,let us see Chinese philosophy,we’ll find astonishingly that more than 2000 years ago ,Confucius presented clearly the thinking of Humanism.

In the period of Shang dynasty (1600-1046 BC), there was also strong belief of God . From West Zhou dynasty(1046-771 BC ) , the concept of God was becoming weak gradually .But the Kings and people respected Heaven . The belief of Heaven or the Way of Heaven was close to the Atheism ( a theory without the belief of God),but it was not equal to Humanism.

The character of Confucius philosophy was to relate the Way of Heaven with the Way of Man .He had an important saying:

It is the Man that can make the Way great ,and not the Way makes the Man great.

( The Analects of Confucius,Chapter 15)

The meaning is that in the relation between the Man and the Way of Heaven, the Man is at the active position .This was a thinking of Humanism.

On Humanism, Confucius had many other sayings:

(1)Fan Chi (a disciple of Confucius) asked :”What is Kindheartedness?” Confucius answered :”Kindheartedness is loving men “..(Same book, Chapter 12)

(2) The man who is kindhearted is willing to stand up in life by himself and also help others to stand up in life. And he is willing to be successful by himself and also to help others to be successful.(Same book ,Chapter 6 )

(3) Treat others as you want to be treated.(Same book ,Chapter 15)

The first saying above was expressed by Mencius later:

The man who is kindhearted loves men .

Kindheartedness is the key idea of Confucius philosophy. The saying ,“Kindheartedness is loving men ” expressed fully the thinking of Humanism of Confucius.

If we say that the thinking of Humanism was established in the period of the Renaissance in 15-16 centuries and the Enlightenment Movement in 17-18 centuries ,then in China ,more than 2000 years ago , Confucius had already established the thinking of Humanism.

This was a fact needed to be noticed while we are comparing Chinese and Western philosophy today .

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p<>{color:#333;}. The Relation between Mind and Matter and the Relation between Heaven and Man

Western philosophy paid attention to the relation between Mind and Matter ,which was also the relation between Spirit and Substance.Chinese philosophy paid attention to the relation between Heaven and Man ,which was also the relation between the Nature and Man . Related to the above two relationships , there was the relation between Subject and Object ,which had the meaning of Ontology ,and also the meaning of Epistemology. In this Chapter ,we’ll discuss mainly its meaning of Ontology .

The above three relationships linked with each other.Generally speaking,the Substance and the Nature are the Object . The Spirit and the Man are the Subject . From the macro point of view , it is the relation between Heaven and Man . From the micro point of view .it is the relation between Mind and Matter and also the relation between Subject and Object

In the following discussion on the relation between Mind and Matter , we’ll introduce mainly Western philosophy . On the relation between Heaven and Man , we’ll introduce mainly Chinese philosophy.

A.The Relation between Mind and Matter( Spirit and Substance)in Western Philosophy

In the book Feuerbach and the End of Classic German Philosophy written by Friedrich Von Engels(1820-1895)(translated from the

German by Progress Publishers in 1946.) Engels said:

 

The question: which is primary, spirit or nature? Was the world created by God,or it existed from the beginning by itself?

The answers which the philosophers gave to this question split them into two great camps. Those who asserted the primacy of spirit to nature and, therefore, … comprised the camp of idealism. The others, who regarded nature as primary, belong to the various schools of materialism.

More than 3000years ago before the beginning of ancient Greek philosophy, the Greek mythos told the stories of creation of the world by God. It was the beginning of Idealism .

The early Natural philosophy generally regarded that the essence of the world was a kind of substance. (water, gas ,fire etc). It was the beginning of Materialism.

After the Renaissance and Enlightenment Movement of Europe, getting rid of the control of religion and theology, natural sciences has been developing rapidly,which provides a good condition for the development of Materialism.

The argument of Idealism and Materialism was the main content of Recent Western philosophy..

The advocators of recent Materialism was Francis Bacon(1561-1626 ) and Thomas Hobbes(1588-1679). Bacon said that the essence of the world is substances. Hobbes said that the Cosmos is the summation of all things.

At the same time , Rene Descartes(1596-1650)presented the theory of Dualism, He wrote in his book Mediation on First Philosophy:

On the one hand, I have a clear and distinct idea of myself, in so far as I am a thinking and not an extended thing, and, on the other, a distinct idea of the body, in so far as it is only an extended and not a thinking thing..

(Mediation on First Philosophy:Six Mediation,translated by Micheal Moriarty)

 

Began from Descartes,the argument of Idealism and Materialism had been getting rid of theology gradually and transferring to the problem—Spirit (or Thinking)and Substance , which is the main factor of all things in the world?

There appeared many important Materialist who combated theology by natural sciences and denied that God created all things,such as Charles Louis Montesquieu(1689-1755), Voltaire(1694-1778), Holbach(1723-1789)etc

The most influential Idealism philosopher in recent period was Freiedrich Hegel(1770-1831) . He presented the concept of Absolute Idea as the highest rank of all philosophy. He regarded that Nature was the externalization of the Absolute Idea.

After Hegel , the most influential Materialism philosopher was Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach(1804-1872). He analyzed the creation and essence of religions and criticized theology seriously.

Karl Marx(1818-1883)presented New Materialism against old Materialism. In his book The Outline on Feuerbach,he wrote:

The chief defect of all hitherto existing materialism – that of Feuerbach included – is that the thing,reality, sensuousness, is conceived only in the form of the object or of contemplation, but not as sensuous human activity, practice, not subjectively.

The New Materialism of Marx was to understand the things by combination of object and subject . And man’s practice was the channel of the combination.

So ,according to the New Materialism , In the Mankind World( the world influenced or created by mankind),we have to recognize that the world is created by the combination of subject and object , or the combination of substance and spirit.

From 20 century,many modern schools of philosophy didn’t discuss Ontology anymore . The main philosopher of Analytic Philosophy —Bertrand Russell(1872-1970) regarded that using rigorous logic language ,there was no opposition in Matter and Mind. So it was not necessary to have debate of Idealism and Materialism.

But in the late period of Analytic philosophy, Willard Van Orman Quine,1908-2000) was a influential philosopher. His theory of Logical Pragmatism affirmed again the necessity of the discussion on Ontology .

So , the investigation of the relation between Mind and Matter has not stopped yet .

B.The Relation between Heaven and Man in Chinese Philosophy

The relation between Heaven and Man was an important problem in Chinese philosophy. In the history of Chinese philosophy, there were two thoughts: one was the Unity of Heaven and Man,the other was the Separation of Heaven of Man .

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p<>{color:#000;}. Theory of Separation of Heaven and Man

In the period of Shang and Zhou dynasties,people held respect for and fear of Heaven. They thought that the Man’s disaster and blessing were all determined by Heaven, In the period of Spring-Autumn ,people began to question the authority of Heaven.

In the book Zhu Zhuan(《左传》)(A historical book of the period of Spring-Autumn) ,it said:

The way of Heaven is far .The way of Man is near These two are not related with each other. How can Man know Heaven?([_ Zhu Zhuan -Zhao Gong 18 ]^[_th]^ year)

Xun Zi (荀子) clearly presented the idea of separation of Heaven and Man. He said :

To clarify the separation of Heaven and Man.

Utilizing heaven is better than praising Heaven.

He pointed out that Man had to understand the rule of Nature and to use it . His thinking was the beginning of the thought of separation of Heaven and Man .

The scholars Liu Zhongyuan (柳宗元) and Liu Yixi(刘禹锡)in Tang dynasty also supported the thought of Separation of Heaven and Man.

Liu said :

Growth and Disaster are determined by Heaven . Law and battle are determined by Man. You must look them as two . They do their selves and are not related with each other.”.

(Answer Liu Yuxi on the theory of Heaven)

Liu Yuxi presented the theory of “Mutual win of Heaven and Man”.He said:

Things that Heaven can do ,but Man can’t. Things that Man can do ,but Heaven can’t.So I say that Heaven and Man have mutual win with each other . What Heaven can do is to create all things. What Man can do is manage all things “( Theory of Heaven

So ,even though the thought of “Unity of Heaven and Man “ was dominant in ancient China .we can’t say that it was the only thought. We have to recognize that there was a clear thinking of “Separation of Heaven and Man “ in ancient China.

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p<>{color:#333;}. Theory of Unity of Heaven and Man

In Chinese philosophy ,the theory of “Unity of Heaven and Man “ may be classified into 4 types:

(1)Unity of Heaven and Man based on the view of Nature

Lao Zi said :

Man takes Earth as his model;

Earth takes Heaven as its model;

Heaven takes Dao as its model;

Dao takes the Nature as its model.” (Lao Zi, Chapter 25)

Zhuang Zi (庄子)said:

I am living with Heaven and Earth together. I combine with all things as One.” (Zhuang Zi )

“Heaven” or “ Heaven and Earth” that Lao Zi and Zhuang Zi talked was the Nature. Their regarded that Man and Nature are united together in a wholeness . Man’s activities should accord with the Nature.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Unity of Heaven and Man based on the human nature.

Mencius said :

He who has exhausted all his mental constitution knows his nature.Knowing his nature,he knows Heaven.eaven.To preserve one’s mental constitution,and nourish one’s nature,is the way to serve Heaven.

(Mencius,Chapter 13 ,translated by James Legge)

The above saying means that Both Man’s mental constitution and man’s nature come from Heaven. And Man’s nature is good. So if you has exhausted your good heart and preserve your human nature ,you ’ll understand Heaven and obey Heaven .

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p<>{color:#000;}. Unity of Heaven and Man based on Life philosophy

The philosopher Zhang Zai(张载) said :

Qian (乾,means Heaven )is my father . Kun (坤,means Earth) is my mother. I myself am very small living with them indivisibly; So ,The space of Heaven and Earth is my body. The mind of Heaven and Earth is my nature. I take all people as my compatriot. I live with all things in the world (Zheng Meng,正蒙)

This saying has been very famous in China. Especially the last two sentences :” I take all people as my compatriot. I live with all things in the world”

which shows a very noble philosophy of life ,obtaining the comprehensive appreciation by intellectuals in all historical periods of China..

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p<>{color:#000;}. Unity of Heaven and Man based on mystery theory

The famous philosopher in Han dynasty—Dong Chongshu(董忡舒) presented the theory :“ Heaven and Man are one thing.” He emphasized “Unity of Heaven and Man “ in a mysterious way . He completely personified Heaven , He said Heaven was “King of hundred Gods” ,which meant the highest God. He said:

Heaven has his rage of happiness and angriness ,and also his heart of joy and sadness,which are compatible with Man.“(Chunqiu Fanlu《春秋繁露》)

In his theory ,Heaven is the highest ruler of Universe and has his will and feeling. His theory led to divinatory theology in Han dynasty.

Both New Confucianism in Song Dynasty and Mind Theory in Ming Dynasty affirmed the theory of “Unity of Heaven and Man”. Their explanation of this theory followed the theory of Mencius based on human nature. Wang Yangming in Ming Dynasty said:

The body of mental constitution is the human nature . Human nature is the Principle ( “Li” )

( The complete works of Wang Yangming)

Its meaning is that Human nature is the carrier of human heart.and human nature comes from the principle of Heaven. This thinking was inherited from the theory of Mencius mentioned above .

3.The Synthesis of Cosmogony and Ontology in Chinese and Western Philosophies

In the 5-11 chapters of this book , the synthesis of Chinese and Western philosophy will be discussed . The synthesis of two philosophy systems will build a kind of new philosophy .which may be named:Synthesis Philosophy. The author believe that Synthesis Philosophy will be helpful to the progress of culture,philosophy,science,art ,politics ,economics,morality , etc in the world and also in China.

This chapter discusses synthesis of Cosmogony and Ontology in Chinese and Western Philosophy.

1)Synthesis of Naturalism and Cosmology

Cosmology is a natural science of the origin and properties of the Cosmos.It began from the theory of Heliocentric theory established by Nicolaus Copernicus ( 1473-1543) . In 18 century , Immanuel Kant(1724-1804)presented Nebular Hypothesis. In 1946,American physicist George Gamov,1904-1968) presented the Theory of Big Bang which said that the Cosmos was created in a process of big bang about 20 billion years ago. In 1942,the most famous cosmologist Stephen William Hawking(1942-)developed the theory of Black Hole . He pointed out that Black Hole emitted radiation The temperature of radiation was inversely proportional to mass of Black Hole. Black Hole was becoming small in the process of emitting of radiation ,and temperature is rising higher and higher. Then Big Band began and the Cosmos was created .

Hawking came to China three times in 1985,2002 and 2006 respectively.He admired Lao Zi very much. In his famous book Brief History of Time,he pointed out that his theory of the origin of Cosmos is very similar with the theory of Lao Zi— “ Existence are created from Nothingness”. Before the Big Bang , he said that the situation is:”Neither emptiness nor existence. and either emptiness or existence”.

 

Lao Zi described the beginning of Cosmos:

 

There is a thing integratedly formed.And born earlier than Heaven and Earth.

Silent and empty,It relies on nothing.Moving around for ever,We may regard it as the mother of all things.

 

Hawking said :what Lao Zi described was the process of positive and negative particles at the moment of big bang .

 

It is astonishing that the cosmogony present by Lao Zi 2500 years ago is very similar with the modern science of cosmology.

 

It was not a special case in the history of human culture.

 

2400 years ago, ancient Greek philosopher Democritus,(460 ---370 BC ) presented the Atomic theory. He said that the essence of the world was atoms and emptiness.

In 19 century , British scientists John Dalton(1766~1844) proved the existence of atoms using scientific method .

 

Thus , the philosophic thinking of ancient philosopher is possible to accordant with modern science. The reasonable explanation of these facts is : that ancient philosopher and modern scientist face to the same great nature and the same world. The thinking of ancient philosophers were not groundlessly. They had to observe a large amount of facts and to consider carefully. Modern scientists made their conclusion by strict experiments and mathematical proves. This is the reason that the genius ancient philosopher and outstanding modern scientist are able to obtain very similar conclusion.

In the Cosmogony of Chinese philosophy . after Lao Zi., Zhou Dunyi(周敦颐, 1017-1073 presented the theory of Supreme Ultimaste(Taiji,太极)。 He said :

There are the Ultimateless (Wuji ,无极) and yet the Supreme Ultimate (taiji ,太极). The Supreme Ultimate through Movement produces the Yang(阳).The Movement ,having reached the limit ,is followed by Quiescence,and this Quiescence produces the Yin(阴).When Quiescence has its limit.there is a return to Movement .Thus Movement and Quiescence,in alternation,become each the source of the other.The distinction between the Yin and Yang is determined and the Two Forms (i.e. the Yin and Yang )stand Revealed.

By the transformations of the Yang and the union there with the Yin, Water,Fire,Wood,Metal and Soil are produced. These Five elements diffuse in harmonious order and the four seasons proceed in their course. (,translated by Dr.Bodde)

The Naturalism (or Dao-begetting theory) and the theory of Supreme Ultimate were the elite part of Cosmogony in Chinese philosophy. The author believe that in the future,they will give help and inspiration to modern research of Cosmology Science.

On the problem of Cosmogony .how to understand the Creationism in Western culture. The author ‘s opinions is that the Creationism is a traditional belief of Christianity. Up to now, there are more than 2 billions believers of Christianity in the world . The origin of Cosmos is a problem that has not been clarified completely (perhaps it will not be clarified for ever). On such transcendent problems ,we must allow the believers of different religions have their own understanding and beliefs.

Therefore ,to answer the problem of the origin of Cosmos , the main method certainly is the scientific research of modern cosmology. And at the same time the belief of Creationism should be allowed.

2)Synthesis of Theory of Essence and Theory of Wholeness

Reviewing the history of human culture,we have to recognize that in the field of science, Western culture has been far exceeding Chinese culture,

The advancement of Western science was related to its economic basis which took industry and commerce as its main body .Comparing with agriculture ,industry ,transportation and seafaring have more urgent requirement of science. Besides,there is important relation between philosophic thinking and the progress of science.

In above chapters ,it was introduced that from ancient Natural philosophers to Plato and Aristotle, they all paid attention to the research on the essence of the world. Theory of Water presented by Tales , theory of Number presented by Puthagoras ,theory of Idea presented by Plato ,etc ,all of them were related with the essence of the world . Especially , the concept of Plato’s “idea” was directly related with the essence of matter.

In the Hellenistic period, Archimedes (287-212 BC)presented Law of Buoyancy. In the period of Renaissance, Copernicus ( 1473-1543), presented Heliocentric theory, Galileo(1564-1642)presented Law of Falling Bodies. Later, Newton (1643-1727)presented the Law of Universal Gravitation. Darwin (1809-1882)presented theory of Evolution. All the natural sciences pursued the basic rules and the essence of natural world or biological world .

It may be said that the attention paid to the essence of the world by Western philosophy pushed forward the continuous progress of science..

Comparing with the attention to essence of Western philosophy , Chinese philosophy paid more attention to the wholeness of the world . Began from Yin and Yang in Book of Change, Dao of Lao Zi , Supreme Ultimate(Taji) of Zhou Dunyi , Matter(Qi,气) of Zhang Zai(张载) ,Principle (Li ,理) of two Cheng (二程)and Zhu Xi(朱熹),all those theories are pointed to the wholeness of the world。Pursuing the Wholeness of the world had been the traditional thinking in Chinese philosophy. Chinese philosophers had not the tradition to pursue the essence of things . This was an important reason that in ancient China,science had not been well developed.even it was not the only reason.

But , the researches on the wholeness is not unimportant. From 20 century , there appeared many new scientific theories which took the Wholeness and Systematicness as the object of their researches as follows:

1) The System Theory: In 30-40’s of 20 century, Austria Theoretical Biologist Ludwig Von Bertalanffy(1901-1972) presented General System Theory. Its main principle is that the function of wholeness is larger than the sum of its factors.

2) Information Theory: in 1949, American mathematician Claude Elwood Shannon(1916-2001) presented Information Theory. It points out the importance of information in the movement of a system and also the rule of measurement, transfer,exchange,storage of information

3) Cybernetics: It was established by American mathematician Norbert Wiener(1894-1964)in 1984 . Cybernetics makes researches in the feedback and control functions in a system and also the stability ,optimization of system .

4) The theory of Dissipative Structure: It was established by Belgium physicist I.llya Prigogine(1917~2003). He made research in the process from disorder to order of a system.

5) The Synergy theory. It was established by German physicist Hermann Haken (1927-). He made research in the coordination of subsystems in a large system.

The above scientific theories of the Wholeness and Systematicness make great contributions to the progress of science from 20 century. It may be said that those most important achievements of modern sciences ,such as the utilization of atomic energy , space exploration , ecological system, artificial intelligence ,etc ,are all directly related with the sciences of Wholeness .

But the problem of Wholeness and Systematicness has not been paid enough attention in Western philosophy. So , the thinking of Wholeness and Systematicness in Chinese Philosophy is worthy to be paid fully attention.

The author ‘s opinion is that in the future development of philosophy , it is necessary to combine the theory of essence of Western philosophy and the theory of wholeness of Chinese philosophy together and to establish a complete Ontology. This new Ontology will push forward the rapid development of various natural and social sciences

. Agricultural science is a science with strong character of Wholeness and Systematicness. The author has been working in the researches on Agricultural System for many years. I made the conclusion that any agricultural problems are consisted of four subsystems: agricultural biology .agricultural environment ,agricultural technology and agricultural economics . And agricultural systematic modeling is the best method for the research of agricultural systems.

I believe that the future researches in medical science ,biology .chemistry ,physics and all natural and social sciences need the synthesis of specialized research and systematic research . This synthesis will open up bright prospects for all sciences

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p<>{color:#000;}. Enhancement of Humanism

In the Spring and Autumn Period,Confucius presented clearly the thinking of Humanism

It is the Man that can make the Way great ,and not the Way makes the Man great.

He pointed out in the relation between Man and World,Man is at the the dominant position. The thinking of Humanism was inherited by Mencius , Han Yu ,Dong Chongshu and later Chinese philosophers.

In ancient Greece,there was also the thinking of Humanism. Protagoras(490-420 BC)said :

Man is the measure of all things.

But his thinking was not dominant at that time.

From ancient Greece to the Renaissance in 15-16 century ,in more than 2000 years , Theory of God had been the dominant thinking throughout . After the Renaissance and the Enlightenment Movement, Humanism has been popularizing and enhancing .

Humanism was appeared in Chinese philosophy about 2000 years earlier than that in Western philosophy , This was a historical fact that Chinese people could feel glory

In Chinese history , Humanism was mainly seen in the theory of People’s Will.. In the early period of Han ,Tang ,Song ,Ming and Qing dynasties . The emperors and officers paid more attentions to people’s livelihood. People had a rather stable and peaceful life . This is one of important reasons that China maintained her unity and culture more than 2000 years.

After the Enlightenment Movement of Europe, Humanism led great progress in Western countries.

But either in China ,or in Western countries,the populization of Humanism has not been smoothly. In China , Humanism was mainly interference by Autocracy .In Western countries ,Humanism was interfered by Theory of God, Colonialism,Imperialism, etc Today ,it was interference by Terrorism,etc.

So ,while we discuss the synthesis of Chinese and Western philosophy, it is hoped that Humanism should be enhanced continiously in the world

Today , the meaning of Humanism is that all human civilizations —politics ,economics,culture ,science,etc should take the well-beings of people as their main and final goal .

In modern society ,how to cognize the Theory of God.?

In the author’s opinion,the Theory of God is a religious belief. Up to now,there are about 80% people in the world believe different religions. The doctrines of main religions all contain the spirit of Love. Doctrine of Christianity is :” Loving people just as loving yourself”. Doctrine of Islamism is “Believing God and doing Good”. “Doing Good “means “Loving people”.Doctrine of Buddhism is “Relieving all people”.

Therefore ,based on the principle of “Loving people “ , the Theory of God is basically concordant with Humanism.

So ,to synthesize the theory of Humanism and the theory of God is beneficial to the harmony between believers of different religions and those people without religious belief

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p<>{color:#000;}. Synthesis of the Chinese and Western philosophy in the Relation between Mind and Matter(or Spirit and Substance)

The relation between spirit and substance is an important problem in Western philosophy

In above text ,we have introduced the long time argument of this problem in Western philosophy.

In 19 century,Karl Marx presented a rather complete answer ( see the above) . His opinion was that in the world of mankind,all things are produced by the combination of subject(through man’s practice)and object . Generally speaking,the object is the factor of substance . The subject is the spirit factor of man. So the world was produced and running by the common function of spirit and substance.

The concept of Li (理,Principle) presented by Two Chen (Chen Hao 程颢and Chen Yi程颐)and Zhu Xi (朱熹)in Song dynasty meant the inner principle of the world ,. It also meant man’s understanding of the world .So ,it was a concept which combined Mind and Matter together.

In ancient Chinese philosophy, the famous philosophers who emphasized the function of Mind were Luo Jiuyuan (陆九渊) in the Southern Song dynasty and Wang Yangming (王阳明) in Ming dynasty

Lu Jiuyuan said :

The universe is my mind,my mind is the universe。Collected Works of Lu Jiuyuan

Wang Yangming said:

Mind is the Principle .How can there be affairs and Principle outside the Mind.(Record of Instructions)

Their theory was named the Theory of Mind.

The Author’s understanding is : the Theory of Mind had the meaning of Ontology and also the meaning of Epistemology.

From the view of Epistemology., you can understand their saying, All man’s understanding of the world comes from Man’s Mind.

From the view of Ontology , in the world of mankind( what Lu and Wang discussed were the world of Ethics), the idea that “Mind is the principle” is basically correct..

Wang Yangming Said :

Where the Mind exists is the Matter.What the Mind uses is the Matter (Collected Works of Wang Yangming)

So ,the complete opinion of Wang Yangming was the Unity of Mind and Matter.

WangYangming lived in 15-16 century , Karl Marx lived in 19 Century . These two philosophers got a similar opinion that Mind(Subject ) and Matter(Object ) are combined together.

The author agree with their opinions .In the mankind world(the world influenced by mankind ),all things are produced by the joint function of Mind and Matter. The function of Mind was more important .

After 1949 . there happened two deviations of political policy in China. Both of them related to the incorrect understanding of the relation between Mind and Matter. One was “the Great Leap Movement” in 1958. The leaders and newspapers propagated the slogan: “ If you can think of something ,then you can get success of it.” This movement caused great famine in the later years.. The other deviation was the criticism against Idealism in many years. The highest leader denied the contributions of all intellectuals. It caused the terrible Cultural Revolution in 1966-1976 .

These deviations in policy showed that a correct understanding of the relation between Mind and Matter is very important for people and also for a country.

In the whole world ,a complete and correct cognition of the relation between Mind and Matter is a problem worthy to be concerned .


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p<>{color:#000;}. Synthesis of Chinese and Western philosophy in the Relation between Heaven and Man
The relation between Heaven and Man was an important problem in Chinese philosophy. The dominant thinking was the Unity of Heaven and Man. It has been introduced above.

There were a few discussions on this problem in Western philosophy. The thinking of the following philosophers should be mentioned.

Francis Bacon(1561-1626 ) was an very important philosopher in 16-17 centuries. His famous saying was:

Knowledge is power.

He also said :

Man’s Knowledge and Man’s power are united together. Man don’t know the reason , so he can’t get the result. If you want to command the nature,you must obey the nature.(New Tool)

Karl Marx (1818-1883) said :

Animals only produce itself. Man produce the whole nature. Animals construct things only according to the measure of its own species which it belongs . Man understand to treat the object using its inner measure everywhere.”( Economics and Philosophy Manuscript in 1844)

The opinion of Marx was that Man produce or reform Nature according to the rules of Nature itself .

The thinking of them represented the view of the relation between Man and Nature of Western philosophers ,that Man must cognize nature ,reform nature and utilize nature continuously..

In 20 century , German philosopher Martin Heidegger( 1889-1976)presented a theory of Tetragonal Structure,which means : Heaven , Earth ,God and Man.In the Tetragonal Structure,Man is not the Master of the nature ,but the Watcher of the nature.

Heidegger’s thinking of Tetragonal Structure was quite similar to the thinking of Lao Zi ,who presented the theory of the relation between Dao ,Heaven ,Earth and Man .

If we synthesize the theory of the relation between Heaven and Man , we could have the following cognitions:

(1) We must persist in the idea of the Separation of Heaven and Man. The theory of Separation of Heaven and Man was presented by ancient Chinese philosophers Xun Zi ,Liu Zhongyuan ,Liu Yuxi etc . In Western philosophy ,it was also the thinking of Bacon and Marx,They pointed out that Man should cognize and reform the nature

After the Enlightenment Movement of Europe,science has been getting great progress. The life of mankind has been greatly improved owing to Man’s cognition and reformation of the nature.

Today the task of cognition and reformation of the nature is far from accomplishment

There are many diseases ,such as cancer, Alzheimer’s disease. Diabetes mellitus , Cardiovascular disease, etc have not been conquered yet

As the total population of human being is continuously increasing,to satisfy people’s requirement of quantity and quality of food by agricultural sciences is still a severe task.

In pure sciences ,as physics,chemistry ,biology ,astronomy, etc ,there is great area of unknown field.

under these circumstances; we must pay enough attention to the thinking of “Separation of Heaven and Man “.

(2) At the same time , we also need to pay attention to the thinking of “Unity of Heaven and Man” of Chinese philosophy.

From 16-17 centuries up to now .mankind has been making too much interference and destruction upon the nature . The main facts are:

①There are serious pollutions of environments as air,soil ,river,lake, etc

#
p<>{color:#333;}. Extinctions of a great amount of biological resources


#
p<>{color:#000;}. Owing to the too much emission of greenhouse gas (CO2 ,CH4 etc ),the temperature of whole earth is increasing,which is a serious threat to the life of human being..

Therefore ,we must pay enough attention to the philosophic thinking of
“Unity of Heaven and Man”. We must control and decrease the destruction of the nature. and maintain the ecological balance of the Earth so as to guarantee the sustainable development of human being and also the nature.

4.Summary of this Chapter

We may summarize briefly about the synthesis of Cosmogony and Ontology in Chinese and Western philosophy as below:

(1)Comparing by human reason, the Naturalism(or Dao-begetting theory)of Chinese philosophy is superior apparently to Creationism of Western culture.. The theory of Dao-begetting presented by Lao Zi reached the highest level in ancient Cosmogony. His theory ,even today, obtains very high evaluation by many worldwide famous physicists and cosmologists .

(2) Humanism presented by Confucius was 2000 years earlier than Western Humanism.The Humanism theory of Confucius was inherited by Mencius ,Xun Zi ,Han Yu ,Zhu Xi ,etc and became the dominant philosophic thinking in ancient China. So the ancient thinking of Humanism in Chinese philosophy had been an important contribution to the world philosophy. Of course, the Western Humanism after the Renaissance and Enlightenment Movement had been giving great contribution to the progress of the world .

(3)The theory of Wholeness and the theory of Essence,both were very important theories in Ontology to explain the world. The Western theory of Essence opened the door of science ,giving great contribution to the progress of modern sciences. The theory of Wholeness in Chinese philosophy containing the systematic thinking of the world will push forward the progress of all fields of modern science .

Synthesis of thinking of Essence and thinking of Wholeness will lead the synthesis of specialized research and systematic research ,which will create a bright prospect of future development of science.

(4)The relation between Mind and Metter(or Spirit and Substance) is an important content of Ontology. Marx’s theory of the Unity of Subject and Object and Wang Yangming’s theory of the Unity of Mind and Matter are the complete understanding of the relation between Mind and Matter . Their theories will conduct the Innovation and progress of human being.

(5)The relation between Heaven and Man is also an important problem in Ontology . It may be concluded that we must persist in the theory of “Separation of Heaven and Man “,so as to push forward the endless progress of science. And at the same time ,we must persist in the theory of “Unity of Heaven and Man:” so as to realize the harmony of Man and Nature and the sustainable development of the world economy and of Man’s family —the Earth..

Chapter 6

Comparison and Synthesis of Epistemology in Chinese and Western Philosophy

1. Introduction of Epistemology

Either Western philosophy or Chinese philosophy faces to the problem of the relation between Man and the world. The issue that Epistemology discusses is Man’s cognition of the world.. That is why Epistemology is a very important part of philosophy. In Western philosophy, it may be said that Epistemology is the core part of philosophy. Especially since recent period, there had been the Epistemological Turn in Western philosophy. It means that Western philosophy turned from the discussion of Ontology to that of Epistemology .

The key problem of ancient Chinese philosophy was morality . But it also paid attention to Epistemology.

The main problems that Epistemology..discusses are the follows:

① What is the goal of Man’s cognition?

② Does Man can cognize the world?(Limitation of Man’s cognition )

③ How does Man cognize the world? (Method of Man’s cognition)

④ The relation between cognition and practice

From the view angle of synthesis of Chinese and Western philosophy , we ‘ll discuss mainly the problems of goal and method of Man’s cognition .

2.Comparison of Epistemology in Chinese and Western Philosophy

1)Pursuing Knowledge and Being an Upright Person

The problem that Western Epistemology concerns is mainly the methods of Man’s cognition, not the goal and motivation of cognition. But . If we want to compare Western and Chinese Epistemology. we have to consider the goal and motivation of Man’s cognition.

A. The main goal of Man’s cognition in Western philosophy is to pursue knowledge

In Western philosophy,the main goal of cognition is to understand the objective world and things. The motivation of cognition comes from Man’s curiosity and the goal of reformation and utilization of the nature. In summary , in Western philosophy ,the goal of cognition is to pursue knowledge.

From the thinking and stories of Western philosophers and scientists,we may understand the goal and motivation of their pursuit of truth and science.

A) Pursuing knowledge is Human nature.

Aristotle’s first sentence in his book Metaphysics is:

Pursuing knowledge is the nature of human being.

B) Pursuing knowledge is to find the truth,to give people happiness and to improve human nature.

Francis Bacon(1561-1626 )was the pioneer of Empiricism in Western philosophy and the father of Western experimental science.

In his famous essay Of Study,he said:

Study serve for delight ,for ornament ,and for ability . Their chief use for delight is in privateness and retiring, ……the chief use for ability is in the judgement and disposition of business.

They (means the Study )perfect nature,and are perfected by experiences,.

Histories make men wise;poets witty;the mathematics subtile,natural philosophy deep,moral grave,logic and rhetonic able to content.

He regarded that main goals of Man’s pursuing of knowledge are:① for delight; ②for ability and finding the truth;③ for perfecting the nature;④for improving human nature .

C) Curiosity of scientists

Many world level scientists made researches in science with the motivation of their curiosity.

The great Russian Chemist Mikhail Lomonosov(1711-1765)was born in a fisher’s family. While he was young ,he followed his father to do fishing in the sea.He was very interested in all natural phenomena in the sea. He asked his father many questions:”Why there appears bright watermarks in the sea?””Why there is beautiful northern lights in winter night?” ,etc .

The greatest modern physicist Isaac Newton(1642-1727) said:

I don’t know what I may seem to the world,but as to myself,I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the sea shore,and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary,whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.

The greatest physicist in 20 century Albert Einstein(1879-1955) said :

In one sense, the development of our thinking came from curiosity.

The most beautiful thing we can experience is the mysterious. It is the source of all true art and all science.

Imagination is more important than knowledge. For knowledge is limited, whereas imagination embraces the entire world, stimulating progress, giving birth to evolution.(The complete works of Einstein)

E) The responsibility for the mankind and motherland

Albert Einstein said :

The value of a man resides in what he gives and not in what he is capable of receiving.

The main contribution of the great chemist Madam Curie was the discovery of Radium. While she refined Radium successfully, others persuaded her to apply for a patent .But she refused . She said that Radium is useful for the patients, we should not get profit from it .

Her famous saying was:

We should not idly spend the life, should be able to say: I had already made the matter which I can do.

B.The main goal of Man’s cognition in Chinese philosophy is to be an Upright Person

In the Classic Works of ancient Chinese philosophy.the direct discussion of Man’s cognition was not too much . But there were many discussions on Study.

We have to recognize that study is an important method of cognition.In fact ,everyone’s most understanding of the world comes from study.

In ancient China , the main method to understand the world was to study those Classic Works,which included Works of ancient history ,ancient philosophy ,ancient poets and ancient rites, etc.

There were many discussions about the goals and motivation of study in The Analects of Confucius(《论语》)

A disciple of Confucius Zi Xia remarked :’A man who can in his duties to his parents is ready to do his utmost; in the service of the King ,is to do the best of his life;and in intercourse with friends is found trustworthy in what he says ,—such a man may not have the chance to study .I must consider him to be really an educated man (Chap. 1)

This saying shows that in Zi Xia’s opinion ,the goal of study (cognition) was to be filial to his parents, to be loyal to the King,to be faithful to friends.

Confucius said:’When the gentlemen are highly educated ,it makes them love the people.(Chap.17)

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Confucius explained to his disciple Zi You about six virtues :

First,there is the mere love of morality, that alone ,without study,one will be become foolish

Second,there is the mere love of knowledge:that alone ,without study, one will tend to be dissolute.

Thirdly ,there is the mere love of honesty,that alone,without study, one will be heartless.

Fouthly,there is the mere love of uprightness, that alone,without study, one’s behaviors will be disordered.

Fifthly, there is mere love of courage, that alone,without study, one will be reckless.

Sixthly, there is mere love of strength of character,that alone,without study, one will be eccentric.(Chap.17)

These sayings elaborate rather completely Confucius’s opinion of the goals of study. The whole meaning is that if one doesn’t study ,he will become foolish, dissolute and heartless. He will produce troubles in the society.

Zi Xia remarked:An officer who has fine ability should devote himself to study. A student who has fine ability in study should enter the public service.Chap.19) :

(translated by Gu Hongming (辜鸿铭) with some modifications by the author)

From the above statements ,it may be seen that in ancient Chinese philosophy,the goals and motivation of study (cognition) were mainly: to raise one’s morality, to be a clever ,upright man , to be filial to his parents, to be loyal to the King,to be faithful to friends.to know the rules of things ,not to make mistakes and to serve the public.

In Western philosophy and culture ,the main goal of Man’s cognition is to pursuing knowledge. In Chinese philosophy and culture, the main goal of Man’s cognition is to be an upright and good person. This is a basic difference between Western and Chinese Epistemology

Of course,Western philosophy contains Moral philosophy and Life philosophy. In these field ,Western philosophy discusses the problem of being a upright and good person also . In Chinese philosophy, there were the fields of Cosmogony and Ontology ,the problem of pursuing knowledge was discussed also .

2)Analysis Method and Synthesis Method .

In aspect of Epistemology, Western philosophy emphasizes the method of Analysis. Chinese philosophy emphasizes the method of Synthesis.

A.Analysis Method in Western philosophy

Analysis method mainly means two methods: one is Single Factor Analysis, the other is Logic Analysis,which contains Formal Logic and Logic Reasoning

A)Single Element Analysis

Tales said that the original substance of all things is Water

Anaksimenes said that. the fundamental substance of all things is

Air.

Heraklitus said that Fire is the basic element of the world..

Puthagoras said that all things are Numbers.

Parmenides said that the only true being is “the One”, which is the unchangeable existence.

Plato presented the Theory of Ideas.

Aristotle presented the Theory of Substance.

It may be seen what most ancient Greek philosophers pursued was a single factor (or element) : water,air ,fire,number, existence ,ideas or substance, etc.

Some philosophy books said,Plato’s Theory of Ideas was a thinking of Dualism since he classified the world into two parts: Ideas World and Sensible World. In the author’s opinion ,the two are not equal in importance.According to Plato’s saying,Sensible World is changing continuously,but Ideas World is absolute,stable and eternal. The whole world is composed of Ideas World,not Sensible World .So the Ideas World is the essential factor.The thinking of Plato was basically Monism,not Dualism.

In the history of Western philosophy, there have been many arguments. The problems of these arguments were which factor is the dominant one.

In the Middle Ages of Europe, there was an argument of Nominalism and Realism. The essence of this argument was that Individual and Universal, which is the existing object?

In the recent period of the West, there was an argument of Materialism and Idealism. The essence of this argument was that Substance and Spirit ,which is the dominant factor?

This is the “Single Factor Analysis” in Western philosophy.

B)Logic Analysis

Logic Analysis contains two methods: Formal Logic and Logic Reasoning

[(1)Formal Logic
**]The method of Formal Logic was established by Aristotle。

In Formal Logic . the first requirement of understanding the objective thing is to have a clear definition.

Formal Logic has 4 basic rules:

a)The rule of identity: A is A

b)The rule of non-contradiction: A is not non A

c) The rule of excluded middle: A or Non A ,only one of them is correct

d) The rule of sufficient reason: If A ,then B .

We have to recognize that Formal Logic is the basic method of Man’s cognition of the objective world. All sciences are getting beneficial from Formal Logic. In Man’s daily life , Formal Logic is also the basic method to be applied.

In 19-20 centuries, Mathematical Logic was established on the basis of Formal Logic ,which uses Mathematics to raise the level of Formal Logic. Mathematical Logic is useful in the field of Logic science ,Mathematics and Computer science ,etc. But in all fields of natural and social sciences,Formal Logic is still used comprehensively. .

(2) [Logic Reasoning
**]The method of Logic Reasoning was established by Rene Descartes(1596-1650)

Descartes said in his book Discourse on Method(1637):

The first was never to accept anything for true which I did not clearly know to be such.

The second to divide each of the difficulties under examination into many parts as possible,and as might be necessary for its adequate solution.

The third ,to conduct my thoughts in such order that ,by commencing with objects the simplest and easiest to know. I might ascend by little and little ,and ,as it were ,step by step ,to the knowledge of the more complex; assigning in thought a certain order even to those objects which in their own nature do not stand in a relation of antecedence and sequence.

And the last ,in every case to make enumerations so complete ,and reviews so general ,that I might be assured that nothing was omitted.

(Discourse on Method ,translated by John Veitch)

These four steps or rules build together the method of Logic Reasoning,

The first rule is the standard of the truth of Rationalism. It should be very clearly appearing in my mind ,which I couldn’t suspect.

The second rule is the method of analysis—to decompose a complex thing into simple things.

The third rule is the method of reasoning—to reason the simple things towards the complex thing step by step and finally get a knowledge .

The firth rule is the method of induction— to use the facts as much as possible to verify the knowledge obtained..

The Reasoning Method had a far-reaching influence on different sciences in more than 300 years after the time of Descartes . It may be said the all modern sciences have been established on the method of Logic Reasoning

B. Synthesis Method in Chinese philosophy

In Chinese philosophy ,the method of cognizing the world was basically Synthesis,which is shown in Binary Structure and Multivariate Structure,mainly the former.

From ancient time up to now, Binary Structure has been appeared very often in Chinese philosophy. Sometimes ,there was Ternary Structure or Multivariate Structure.

The earliest book of Chinese philosophy Book of Change was a book full of the method of Synthesis.

The basic Binary Structure shown in Book of Change was Yin(阴) and Yang(阳).The word “Yang“ means sunshine ,representing the male property of all things. The word “Ying “means the shadow or darkness,representing the female property of all things.

A Ying combined with a Yang is the Dao.Book of Change

Dao is the Noumenon of the world .Dao is composed of Yin and Yang. It means that all things in the world are composed of the Binary Structure of Yin and Yang.

In history of Chinese philosophy, the Binary Structure was the dominant method of thinking..Unity of Heaven and Man,Unity of Li(理,principle )and Matter(气),Unity of Mind(心) and Substance(物), Unity of Body(体) and Use(用),Unity of Kindheartedness(仁) and Righteousness(义),Unity of Knowing and Doing, etc ,all of them show the thinking of Binary Structure.

In Chinese philosophy,besides Binary Structure, there were also . thinking of Ternary Structure and thinking of Multivariate Structure

In Book of Change,three Lines (爻) compose a Trigram(卦)。The explanations of three lines are : Heaven ,Earth and Man —three Talents(三才)。

In Book of Change,different combinations of three Lines construct Eight Trigrams ( 八卦)。 Different combinations of Eight Trigrams formed 64 Hexagrams, which could explain all phenomena in the world. This was the Multivariate Structure of the world.

It may be said that Synthesis thinking of Binary Structure and Multivariate Structure is the most important method in Chinese philosophy. It should be noticed that the method of Synthesis has been proved to be a correct and very important method in modern sciences.

C. Dialectics in Chinese and Western philosophy

Dialectics is a cognition method corresponding with Formal Logic. Either in ancient Chinese or in Western philosophy ,there is the using of Dialectics

In the West , Dialectics started from Heraklitus(535-475 BC).He emphasized the change of things.

In China, Dialectics started from Lao Zi. He lived in the same period of Confucius(551- 479 BC ),and was elder than Confucius .So the time of Lao Zi was earlier than Heraklitus.

Dialectics and Formal Logic are two different thinking methods.

In Dialectics, a concept does not have a fixed definition . Dialectics doesn’t obey the four rules of Formal Logic.

Usually ,Dialectics observes things in dynamic situation. Dialectics is suitable to observe the complex processes of things.

We should say that Dialectics is an important method of Man’s cognition. But it is not the main method. Up to now ,all the progress in natural and social sciences depend on Formal Logic and Logic Reasoning ,but not on Dialectics,

It is worthy to notice that Dialectics is different in Chinese and Western philosophy.

In Western philosophy , Dialectics emphasizes the struggle and sublation ( or abrogation ) between two counterparts of a thing.

Freiedrich Hegel(1770-1831)made important contribution to Dialectics.

A important sentence in his famous work Logic is :

Its own nature is the cause of its abrogation,and by its own act passes into its counterpart.(Logic,translated by Russell)

Both Karl Marx(1818-1883) and Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( 1870 -1924) affirmed Dialectics and made some development of it .

In his article On the Question of Dialectics ,Lenin said:

The unity(coincidence,identity,equal action)of opposites is conditional ,temporary,transitory,relative. The struggle of mutually exclusive opposites is absolute,just as development and motion are absolute.

[_(_] _On the Question of Dialectic_,1915)

But ,Dialectics in Chinese philosophy emphasizes the unity , harmony and mutual complementary of two opposites

Lao Zi said:

Existence and Nothingness beget each other

Long and Short manifest themselves by comparison.

High and Low are inclined as well as opposed to each other.

Musical sound and singing voice harmonize each other.

Front and Back follow each other.(Lao Zi ,Chap.2>)

It may be seen in Lao Zi’s Dialectics,the two opposites are harmonizing with each other. You couldn’t find the struggle or abrogation of them

The famous philosopher Fang Yizhi (方以智) in late Ming dynasty said:

The Blend of two things means: Two combine into One.

(Uniform of East and West)

Modern Chinese philosopher Yang Xianzhen (杨献珍1896-1992) emphasized the theory of “Two combine into One” . He was criticized seriously in the abnormal period of 50-70th , 20 century in China,because it does not conform to the saying of Lenin.

In fact, “Two combine into One” is the main meaning of Chinese Dialectics.

From above introduction ,it may be seen that in the thinking of Dialectics in Western philosophy emphasizes Analysis .And the thinking of Dialectics.in Chinese philosophy emphasizes Synthesis.

In summary, the Synthesis thinking in Chinese philosophy is very valuable to cognize the world and the society. At the same time the Analysis thinking in Western philosophy is also very important ,especially in the development of sciences.

3)Mechanism and Empiricism.

The important difference between Chinese and Western Epistemology is that Chinese Epistemology emphasizes Experience and Western Epistemology emphasizes Mechanism.

Experience and Mechanism.are two basic methods to cognize the world

Before Immanuel Kant(1724-1804),in Epistemology of Western philosophy ,there were two schools,one was the British Empiricism and the other was Rationalism of European Continent,

According to Empiricism ,all knowledge came from senses..

Francis Bacon(1561-1626 )said:

There are and can be only two ways of searching into and discovering truth. The one flies from the senses and particulars to the most general axioms.… The other derives axioms from the senses and particulars, rising by a gradual and unbroken ascent, so that it arrives at the most general axioms last of all. (Novum Organum )

In his opinion,all knowledge come from Man’s senses.

He also advocate the method of Experiment.

John Locke(1632-1704)was another philosopher of Empiricism having great influence. He said in his Essay Concerning Human Understanding:

Whence has it all the materials of reason and knowledge?To this I answer in one word,from experience.”(<BooK II,Ch.I)

The main representational philosopher of Rationalism was Rene Descartes(1596-1650)

The famous saying of him is :

Ï think,therefore I am.

[_[_][.*]

Its meaning is that because I am thinking,it proves that I am existing..

He said in the same article:

I may now take as a general rule,that all that is very clearly and distinctly apprehended (conceived)is true.

He presented the method of Logic Reasoning(see above).

The essential of his Epistemology is:Man’s cognition of the world can only depend on rational thinking and logic reasoning.

These above two schools of Epistemology (Empiricism and Rationalism )were criticized by people. Rationalism was criticized as Dogmatism since it doesn’t pay attention to objective experience. Empiricism was criticized as Skepticism. David Hume(1711-1776)said that Man’s experience don’t have constant causal relationship

People raised a question ?Is knowledge of science possible?

Immanuel Kant(1724-1804)answered the question.He presented Skepticism. David Hume(1711-1776)said that Man’s experience don’t have constant causal relationship

People raised a question ?Is knowledge of science possible?

Immanuel Kant(1724-1804)answered the question.He presented the theory of “ a prior ( Innate) Synthesis Judgement”,which combined Empiricism and Rationalism together. According to Kant ,Man’s knowledge have two sources: one comes from experience and the other comes from “a priori”(innateness).So called “a priori “or “innateness” is the inborn ability of rational thinking.

It may be said that Kant already answered basically the question of the source of Man’s knowledge which is the synthesis of Man’s experience and Man’s rational thinking. All Man’s knowledge of the world are the rational reasoning based on Man’s experiences.

Now ,we’ll discuss the difference between Western and Chinese Theories on cognition of the world.

If we make a research in the difference between Western and Chinese culture ,we may find that those Chinese theories are different with those Western theories. The Western theories are Mechanical theories, The Chinese theories are Empirical theories. Mechanical theories are sciences . Empirical theories ,in the author’s opinion ,may be called pseudo-science.

A. Mechanical theory(Science)

Western philosophy pursues the essence of things and pays attention to the method of experiment and logic analysis .It helps the development of various sciences.

In ancient Greece , there were two achievements that attained the level of “Science”, Both of them appeared in the Hellenistic period(323-30 BC ). One was Euclidean Geometry;the other was the Lever Principle and the Law of Buoyancy discovered by Archimedes. Euclidean Geometry; was famous for its rigorous logic reasoning. Archimedes opened the road to express physical laws by very simple mathematic equation.

Since the Renaissance,the marks of the beginning of modern science were :①Nicolaus Copernicus ( 1473-1543) presented the Heliocentric theory by his long time astronomic observation and rational thinking ;②Galileo Galilei(1564-1642) discovered the Law of Falling Bodies by the combination of scientific experiments and mathematics.

The great British physicist Isaac Newton(1642-1727) presented the three Laws of Mechanics and the Law of Universal Gravitation which established the foundation of modern Physics .

The common methods that these scientists used were:①Scientific experiments;②Method of mathematics and ③ Logic analysis.

Later ,all natural sciences have been developing alone this road and getting great success.

In the aspect of Epistemology,firstly ,the scientists obtains the required data from scientific experiments. Then they pursue the inner mechanism of the objective matters or movements. Finally, they express the mechanism using the form of mathematics

This is the road that got the help from Western philosophy . It obtains the mechanical theory by the compound application of experiment ,logic reasoning and mathematics

B. Empirical theory(pseudo-science.)

The situation in ancient China was quite different.

In ancient China , there were high achievements in agricultural and medical sciences.

In agricultural science, there were many famous books .According to the historical records ,there were 542 ancient books related to agriculture. The most famous ones were :Lv’s Spring and Autumn(《吕氏春秋》) in Qin dynasty.Book of Fansheng(《氾胜之书>》)in West Han dynasty,Important Technologies for Serving People(《齐民要术》)in North Wei dynasty,Agricultural Book of Chen Fu(《陈旉农书》)in South Song dynasty,Complete book of agriculture(《农政全书》)in Ming dynasty, etc

The book Important Technologies for Serving People has 92 chapters and 110 thousands words. It contains the technologies of grain crops,fiber crops.feed crops ,vegetables.fruit trees, forest, etc .In the field of animal husbandary,it contains poultry , livestock . sericulture, pisciculture, etc. In the field of food processing ,it contains the processing of crops,vegetables,fruits and livestocks products.

Even though the ancient agricultural books do not have the modern agricultural sciences ,such as agricultural meteorology,soil science,plant physiology,genetic science, etc .but ,they have very detailed summaries of agricultural experiences. They made important contribution to agricultural development in ancient China. .

In the field of medical science,there were many famous books in ancient China,such as: Shen Nong’s Herbal Classic(《神农本草经》), Huangdi’s Internal Classic (《黄帝内经》) in Pre-Qin perod , Treatise on febrile and miscellaneous diseases(《伤寒杂病论》)in Han dynasty, Valuable Prescriptions (《千金方》)in Tang dynasty,Pulse Classic(《脉经》),A-B Classic of acupuncture and Moxibustion (《针灸甲乙经》), Compendium of Material Medica(《本草纲目》)in Ming dynasty, etc .

Huangdi’s Internal Classics (《黄帝内经》)was a very famous medical Classic book in ancient China..It was named as one of three remarkable books of ancient China.(the other two were Book of Change(《易经》) and Classic of Dao and De(《道德经》).In Tang dynasty, Monk Jian Zhen(鉴真) took this book to Japan .It was treated as the Royal treasure of Japan . It was not only a medical book but combined philosophy ,medical science, Health science,geography, astronomy ,meteorology, psychology,etc together as a whole.

Huangdi’s Internal Classics (《黄帝内经》) is not mainly a medical book ,but a book of long life. This is the basic difference between ancient Chinese and modern Western medical science . The goal of Western medical science is to cure diseases. The goal of ancient Chinese medical science was to maintain Man’s health and long life.

As to the understanding of diseases, ancient Chinese medical science had its special views. In Huangdi’s Internal Classics,it said :

If a man has been affected by cold,he has to close the door to protect himself.If he lives restlessly,his spirit of Yang will not be conserved,

If a man has been affected by hot,he will be sweating ,fretting and wheezing. He will talk too much,His body will be as hot as burning. He must sweat to spread the hotness,

If a man has been affected by moisture,his head will fell heavy just as be wrapped by something. If he couldn’t get rid of it ,his large muscles will begin to shrink and small muscles will become weak .

If a man has been affected by wind. his four limbs will feel painful alternatively.His spirit of Yang will be exhausted.

From the above statement,you may see that its understanding of diseases was not in the aspects of pathogen (bacteria or virus, etc). It considered more on the environments and the factors of Man’s psychology and spirit. These factors are usually not considered enough in Western medical science.

We cannot say that there was no theory in ancient Chinese agricultural and medical science. In ancient Chinese medical science ,there was a rigorous theoretical framework in its inner part.

We can only say,the theories of ancient Chinese agricultural science and medical science did not belong to the same theoretical system as that of Western science . The theories of ancient Chinese agricultural and medical sciences are of experience ,of wholeness and of synthesis. The theories of modern Western agricultural and medical sciences are of essence,of mechanism and of analysis.

These two theoretical systems have their own advantages and disadvantages. The reasonable way is to synthesize their advantages and make a higher and better theoretical system . This problem will be discussed in the later part of this chapter.

4)Rationality and Intuition

Man’s cognition of the world may be classified into two methods: the rational and the irrational method

So called rational method is that: firstly Man has sense or sensible recognition of things;then Man pursues the essence or universal of them through rational cognition ,and finally Man understands the inner mechanism of things.

Rational method is the common method of various sciences(natural and social sciences). It may be said that there is no science which is not based on rational method.

In Western philosophy, the Greek Natural philosophers found that the essence of the world were water,air ,fire ,Logos or number. Plato presented the theory of Ideas. Aristotle presented the theory of Substance.What they used were all rational method.

In the Hellenistic period , Euclidean’ Geometry and Archimedes‘s Law of Buoyancy were all obtained by rational method.

In the Renaissance period, Copernicus presented the Heliocentric theory and Galileo discovered the Law of Falling Bodies. Since the Enlightenment Movement , Newton discovered the Laws of Mechanics. Descartes presented the Logic Reasoning .They all used the rational method.

It may be said ,rational method is the basic method applied in Western science and philosophy

Intuition is a method different from rational method. In intuition ,Man begins with his sense or sensible cognition and comprehends the essence of things directly ,without using rational thinking and logic reasoning .

In ancient Chinese philosophy, the application of Intuition were much more than that used in Western philosophy. It may be said that Intuition was the dominant method used in ancient Chinese philosophy.

The earliest book of philosophy of ancient China was Book of Change. In this book ,two lines ,Yin (- -)and Yang (—) were used to explain all things and changes in the world. Both of them are diagrams. Yang (阳)represents Heaven or the Sun.Yin (阴)represents Earth or the Moon . This was Man’s Intuition ,not rational thinking.

In the book Lao Zi(or Classic of Dao and De),the first sentence is:

The Dao that can be expressed in words Is not the true and eternal Dao.(translated by Qin Zhengkun)

The meaning of this sentence is:

A thing that can be expressed by words means that it can be understood by rational method.

But Dao is not such a thing. Dao cannot be understood by words or rational method . So ,Dao can only be understood by Intuition.

The kernel idea of Confucius was Kindheartedness. He gave it a definition : “Kindheartedness is loving Men “. But he didn’t give an explanation of his definition :why Kindheartedness is loving Men .

So , it may be said that this definition came from Confucius’s Intuition.

The famous German philosopher Hegel criticized Confucius:”Confucius was only a practical and wise man. There were not a little speculative philosophy in his sayings.”

Of course Hegel ‘s criticism is not fair and correct ,but it shows that there was lack of rational thinking in Confucius theory.

In Tang dynasty,Huineng (慧能),the creator of Chanism (禅宗) presented the method of Sudden Enlightenment (顿悟). It was just the method of Intuition .

In Song dynasty, the creator of School of Principle(理学),Zhou Dunyi (周敦颐) presented “the Diagram of the Supreme Ultimate(太极图)。 Cheng Yi (程颐)presented the theory of “The combination of one Yin with one Yang is Dao”. Wang Yangming (王阳明)presented the theory of “Mind is the Principle”. In all these thinking , Intuition is much more than Rationality.

In Summary ,it may be said that in ancient Chinese philosophy ,the method of Intuition was dominant .

Western philosophy emphasizes rationality. Chinese philosophy emphasizes Intuition . This was the one of the differences between these two philosophies.

Of course, in modern Western philosophy ,Intuition has been paid much attention by many philosophers. In ancient Chinese philosophy.the rational method was also applied by some philosophers. This problem will be discussed in the later part of this chapter.

3.Synthesis of Chinese and Western Epistemology

In summary,in the field of Epistemology,Chinese and Western philosophy have apparent differences.But they still have many common points which provides the condition for their synthesis..

We have to say,Chinese and Western Epistemology,both have their unique advantages. Synthesizing the advantages of them will produce a new Epistemological system,which will play an active and creative role in the development of philosophy and science

1) Synthesis of pursuing knowledge and being an upright man

Western Epistemology emphasizes how to pursue knowledge . Chinese Epistemology emphasizes how to be an upright man

To say objectively, to be an upright man is more important than to pursue knowledge. In both Western and Chinese histories, there were persons who were very knowledgeable but bad in morality .

The ancient Greek Sophists were these amateur teachers who obtained money by teaching young people on rhetoric and debate. Later they became persons distorting the truth and seeking personal benefits They were despised by Socrates ,Plato and Aristotle.

In South Song dynasty of China .Qin Gui(秦桧)was the prime minister . He was a man of wide knowledge. His calligraphy was excellent . But ,in the war between South Song and Jin(in the North). He framed the famous patriotic general Yue Fei (岳飞) and sentenced Yue to death. So Qin Gui became a famous traitor criticized by people throughout China’s history later,.

Therefore , what man needs is not only knowledge, More important, man should have good morality

Confucius said :

Men of intellectual character delight in water sceney.Men of moral character delight in mountain scenery.(Analects of Confucius, Chapter 6)。

This saying has the meaning that there is equal importance of pursuing knowledge and being an upright man . Man of intellectual character pays attention to pursue knowledge which is changeable similar to water. Man of moral character pays attention to be an upright man ,whose will is unchangeable similar to mountain..

Some philosophy books ,in the field of Epistemology, only discussed the method of cognition.In the author’s opinion ,while we compare the problem of synthesizing Chinese and Western Epistemology,we have to consider not only the method ,but also the goal of Man’s cognition.

The problem of the goal of Man’s cognition is related closely to one’s life aspirations and also to the national policy of education. As to national education. It should have a policy to have a complete content which includes morality ,intellectual, health and beauty.

It should help students from their childhood ,besides to have knowledge ,to be friendly ,honest .self-confident ,hardworking, brave and dedicative.It should help the society to cultivate knowledgeable and also moral citizens.

That is why in the field of Epistemology, it’s necessary to have the synthesis of pursing knowledge and being a upright man . This is one content of the synthesis of Chinese and Western Epistemology

2)Combination of Analysis Method and Synthesis Method

The most important advantage of Western Epistemology is emphasizing the Logic Analysis,including the Formal Logic and Logic Reasoning. This thinking of Epistemology was closely related to Western Ontology which emphasizes the essence of the world. For the purpose of understanding the essence of the world , It is essential to apply the method of Logic Analysis.

In ancient Chinese philosophy,we cannot say that there was no Logic Analysis.

The theory of Human nature presented by Mencius was based on Logic Analysis.

Mencius said:

The feeling of commiseration is the beginning of kindheartedness. The feeling of shame is the beginning of righteousness.The feeling of modesty is the beginning of propriety. The sense of right and wrong is the beginning of wisdom.Man has these four beginnings just as he has four limbs. (Mencius,Book 3)

The above statement of Mencius has a rigorous logicalness. As to four human natures ,he had clear definitions . He pointed out the casual relationship between four human natures and four human moralities . Finally ,he made a conclusion that all these human natures were inborn.

Mencius theory of human nature proved that in ancient Chinese philosophy ,there was Logic Analysis.

But it was a fact that in ancient Chinese philosophy, the dominant method applied was Synthesis which was expressed in Binary Structure and Multivariate Structure.

.Unity of Heaven and Man,Unity of Principle and Matter,Unity of Mind and Substance, Unity of Body and Use,Unity of Kindheartedness and Righteousness,Unity of knowing an doing ,all of them shows the thinking of Binary Structure.

Comparatively ,Western philosophy,from ancient time to now,paid more attention to Single Factor Analysis: Water,Air ,Fire,Number, Ideas or Substance . Philosophers were separated into two groups : Nominalism or Realism, to argue that Individual or Universal, which factor is the determinative one. Later, philosophers were separated into two groups : Materialism or Idealism, to argue that Substance or Spirit.which factor is the determinative one.

Single Factor Analysis made important contribution to the progress of Western philosophy and sciences.

In Western philosophy ,the methods of Binary Structure and Multivariate Structure were applied relatively few (not no ).

But in Western natural and social sciences,we may find much applications of Binary Structure and Multivariate Structure.

Binary Structure has been widely applied in modern sciences. For example,

In Physics, the basic Binary Structure is energy and mass .According to the theory of modern Cosmologist Hawking(1942- ). In the earliest origin of Cosmos—Black Hole, there are only two existences:Energy and Mass

Modern Physics recognizes comprehensively that Light has the Wave-Particle Duality.

The basic Chemistry reactions are Composition and Decomposition.

In Biology ,the basic Binary Structure is :Organism and Environment

In Economics, the basic Binary Structure is: Production and Consumption

In Modern sciences ,there are also Ternary Structure.

In Quantum mechanics, the movement of electron is determined by three Quantum number: the principle quantum number(n) ,the angular quantum number(l) and the magnetic quantum number(m) .

In modern Biology , the basic substances of life are: DNA,RNA and Protein.

The author wrote a book Foundation of Agricultural System. I observed Chinese and international agriculture from ancient up to now and got a conclusion that all agricultural systems are composed of four subsystems : Agricultural organisms, Agricultural environments , Agricultural technologies and Agricultural economics.

If we look at the world culture and world politics ,we may understand that Multivariate Structure—Multivariate Cultures and Multivariate Politics are the basic guarantee of World Peace and World Cooperation.

In summary ,as to the Man’s cognition method of the world , it is wise for us to use the combination of Analysis and Synthesis. We should persist in applying the elite of Western Epistemology—Method of Logic Analysis . We also should be adept in the application of the elite of Chinese Epistemology—Method of Synthesis including Binary Structure and Multivariate Structure.

The synthesis of Western and Chinese Epistemology will have active contribution to the development of philosophy and sciences world widely .

3)Synthesis of Mechanism and Experience

As stated above,in Western Epistemology,the experiences are promoted to become Mechanical Theory. In Chinese Epistemology, the experiences are promoted to become Empirical Theory.

Mechanical Theory is Science(natural and social sciences). The whole human’s history proved that science have been one of the most important cultural achievements of mankind . The great progresses in Man’s substantial life and social improvement have been getting benefits from sciences

Undoubtedly,science is a valuable achievement of Western culture and Western philosophy. In China’s May 4th Movement in 1919 , Chen Duxiu(陈独秀),and others introduced the idea of Science (with Democracy together) into China. Their contribution is undeniable.

Now ,the problem is how to evaluate the value of Empirical Theory produced in ancient Chinese culture.

In the author’s opinion,as to these Empirical Theories formed in Chinese history ,we should have enough appreciation and pay enough attention to .

My opinion may be explained by following examples;

A.In agricultural science, the theory of high yielding rice production was presented by a famous farmer Chen Yongkang(陈永康)

Chen was a farmer living in the countryside nearby Shanghai. In 50th of 20 century ,based on his hard labor and cleverness in the management of rice production,he obtained the yield more than 500 kg/mu( 7.5 t/ha) stably each year. This yield level of rice is the highest in that period in China(even in the world).

Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences (JAAS),where I was working,invited Chen as a Senior Researcher . JAAS joined many scientists in different fields( agronomy,soil science ,agrometeorology,plant pathogy,crop physiology,etc) from JAAS itself and some Institutes of China Academy of Sciences to have a cooperative research on Chen’s experiences

After deep researches in about 5 years,the scientists concluded that there is a quite complete theory of rice management in Chen’s experience.It mainly involves:

1) the optimum dynamics of rice population development

2) the optimum dynamics of rice inner nutrition expressed as the changes of three times of green leaf color and three times of yellow leaf color.

3)cultivation of the healthy rice single plant in different developing periods.

4)applying fertilizers and irrigation at optimum time with optimum amount according to different weather ,soil and crop conditions.

The final research paper was reported on the International Symposium of Science held at Bejing in 1964. The report got very high evaluation by scientists from different countries in the world.

At that time, British plant physiologists presented a method to show crop population by leaf area index(LAI). But they didn’t presented the theory of optimum crop population dynamics which is a part of Chen’s theory .

So, it may be said that the scientific theory of Chen on rice management attained the top level in the world.

B.In medical science

It should be recognized that the theory of ancient Chinese medical science is Empirical theory,not Mechanical theory . It had not reached the level of modern science. But it should be seen that it is entirely possible to be promoted to attain the level of modern science.

According to a report published In American today Medical Sciences (July of 2013) ,from the news of the First Conference of Chinese and Western Cardiology. the effectiveness of traditional Chinese medicine herb Qili(芪苈) for curing Chronic heart failure attracted the high attention of international Medical community . The editor evaluated that this research opens the door of hope to cure Chronic heart failure.

From this report, we may predict that the ancient Chinese medical science, including many traditional Chinese herbs,will be scientically proved and be used in the international medical community.

Therefore , we should not despise the traditional Chinese Empirical theories. The Mechanical theories and Empirical theories have to be synthesized together to cognize the inner valuable value in these Empirical theories and to promote them to the level of modern science.

4) Synthesis of Rational Cognition and Intuition.

It has been stated above,the rational cognition is a method began with sensible experiences ,through logic analysis ,understands the essence of objective thing. Intuition is a method which directly grasps the essence from sensible perception. Intuition may be called irrational cognition.

In ancient Chinese philosophy, the method of Intuition was applied widely.

Lao Zi’s Dao(道) ,Confucius’s Kindheartedness(仁),Hui Neng’s Sudden Enlightenment(顿悟), Zhou Duni’s Supreme Ultimate(太极),Zhang Zai’s Matter(气), Cheng Yi ‘s Principle(理) ,Wang Yangming’s Mind (心), In these theories ,the irrational element was certainly more than the rational element .

It is introduced above ,in ancient Chinese philosophy, there are rational cognition ,as Mencius’s theory of human nature. But the method of Intuition was dominant .which was named by Feng Youlan the “Negative Method”

In Western Philosophy ,rational cognition was dominant. The books written by Plato ,Aristotle . Locke, Montesquieu, Kant ,Hegel etc ,all had very detailed analyses and discussions. Comparatively ,ancient Chinese books of philosophy ,as Dao De Classic(《道德经》), Analects of Confucius (《论语》) ,etc were all very short in length.There was apparent difference.

But , in modern Western philosophy,there appeared many theories affirming the method of Intuition

In 19 century,Arthur Schopenhauer(1788—1860)was the earliest philosopher who presented the theory that Intuition was the most important method of Man’s cognition.

Schopenhauer pointed out that….our inner-experience must be a manifestation of the noumenal realm and the will is the inner kernel of every being. [(_]From Wikipedia [)_]

According to Schopenhauer ,the Inner-Experience had the same meaning as Intuition,by which Man will find the noumenon of the world.

In 20 century ,French philosopher Henri Bergson(1859—1941) affirmed strongly the method of Intuition

He presented the Theory of Two Times: one is True Time ,the other is Scientific Time. True Time is successional and gapless. Scientific Time is discontinuous counted by hours ,minutes and seconds.

In his opinion, only Man’s Intuition could cognize the things happening in the True Time.

Phenomenology was a very important theory in the modern Epistemology. Its creator, Edmund Husserl (1859~1938) made a complete summary of Man ‘s cognition.

He presented the concept of Intentionality which means a structure of Man’s ideology composed of Activity of Intention and Object of Intention.

According to his theory ,Man’s Intentionality could be classified into three types:①Rational cognition( used in science and philosophy ;②Intuition cognition(used in art and philosophy;③Imaginary cognition (used in religion and myths).

Philosophy may use rational cognition and also Intuition cognition.

In summary ,in Chinese philosophy, the method of Intuition was dominant . But some philosophers (as Mencius) used rational method. In Western philosophy, rational method was dominant .But many modern Western philosophers affirmed the method of Intuition.

In the author’s opinions, in the field of Truth(science) ,we should apply the rational method .But in the field of Good,Love and Beauty,the method of Intuition may be more important.

4, Summary of this Chapter

1)Epistemology has been the kernel problem of Western philosophy. Chinese traditional philosophy paid much attention to Study . Study is an very important method in Epistemology. The knowledge of everyone’s understanding of the world come from Study mostly.

2) In the aspect of the goal of Man’s cognition ,Western philosophy emphasizes pursuing knowledge. Chinese philosophy emphasizes being an upright man . As to everyone himself .he should pay attention to obtain various knowledge. At the same time ,he should also pay attention to be an upright man. As to the whole society ,Man should develop various sciences to understand and utilize the nature. At the same time ,.Man should raise the morality of whole society.

3)In the aspect of the method of Man’s cognition,Western philosophy emphasizes the method of Analysis(Formal logic and Logic reasoning).Chinese philosophy emphasizes the method of Synthesis(Binary Structure and Multivariate Structure)

In today and tomorrow’s development of sciences ,the best way is to combine the method of Analysis and the method of Synthesis together.Man should pursue continuously the essence and mechanism of all things in the world,.At the same time ,Man should also pursue the wholeness and Systematicness of the world. Multidisciplinary researches are essentially necessary,and will be the direction of future sciences.

4)The achievements of Western Epistemology have been appeared in the Mechanical theories (Sciences).The achievements of Chinese Epistemology have been appeared in Empirical theories,especially in agricultural and medical sciences. We should not despised those Empirical theories Of course,it is necessary to scientize them. It is wise to build a complete scientific system combing the Western and Chinese wisdom of Epistemology.

5)Western philosophy pays attention to rational method of cognition . Chinese philosophy pays attention to Intuition method. It should be said that both rational and Intuition methods are very important for Man’s cognition of the world . The reasonable way is to synthesize these two methods and apply them in their suitable fields.

Chapter 7

Comparison and Synthesis of Chinese and Western Moral Philosophy

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p<>{color:#000;}. Introduction of Moral Philosophy

The kernel of Chinese philosophy (especially Confucianism) was moral philosophy. The kernel of Western philosophy was Epistemology,but moral philosophy was also paid attention to .

Discussing moral philosophy ,it’ s necessary to clarify the relation between the concepts of Good,Moral,Morals(Morality), Ethic, Ethics(Theory of Ethic),and Moral philosophy

Good may be classified into Individual’s Good and National Good. Good of Individual behavior is Morals.

As to the origin of word,Ethic and Morals had the same meaning. The former came from Greek and the later from Latin.

In English ,the word Moral(adj.) is different from the word Morality(Morals,noun) and Ethic(or Ethics) .The former describes Good behaviors of Man. The later means the reason or the rules of Good behaviors.

Modern Ethics may be divided into three levels :

1) Practical Ethics: It discusses what behaviors are good or moral . The standards are different owing to difference of customs ,habits and religions of different nations. It may be named Applied Ethics.

2)Theory of Morality. It discusses the reason of Good . In the West ,some philosophers (as Plato ,Aristotle ,etc ) had an opinion that Good is Virtue .. Some philosophers(as Hobbes, Locke,etc ) had a opinion that Good is Happiness. This is a problem of the Theory of Morality.

3) Meta Ethics.It was formed in the beginning of 20th century . It discusses the language and logic in morality or ethics, for example,what are the meaning of morality and immorality ? how to distinguish morality and immorality?

Chinese philosophy did not pay attention to language or logic analysis of morality. In Chinese philosophy ,the first and the second level were important. The following discussion will be mainly at these two levels.

In the book Good Philosophy and Common Value,written by the author , I have concluded six basic problems in Good Philosophy. They are:

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p<>{color:#000;}. The essence of Good : The Theory of Virtue and the Theory of Happiness.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Good and human nature: Theory of Good human nature and Theory of Evil human nature.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Types of Good: Individual Good and Social Good.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Principle of Good: Good for oneself and Good for others..

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p<>{color:#000;}. Cause of Good: The internal cause and external cause.

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p<>{color:#333;}. Evaluation of Good: Motive and Effect.

These problems all belong to the second level of Ethics mentioned above. They will be discussed in the following text

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p<>{color:#000;}. Comparison of Chinese and Western Moral Philosophy

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p<>{color:#000;}. General comparison

In the author’s opinion,in the aspect of moral philosophy .the level of ancient Chinese philosophy was higher than Western philosophy

The reasons are:

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p<>{color:#000;}. Moral philosophy was the kernel of ancient Chinese philosophy while it was not the kernel of Western philosophy.

The attention on Moral philosophy that paid by Chinese philosophers were much more than that by Western philosophers. In the most important book of Chinese philosophy—Analects of Confucius (《论语》), Moral philosophy was the basic content. The successors of Confucius—Mencius ,Xun Zi,Han Yu,Cheng Yi,Zhu Xi ,Wang Yangming ,etc . all of their philosophies were mainly Moral philosophy.

(2)The number of ideas of Moral philosophy that presented by Chinese philosophy ,especially about the moral behaviors(the first level introduced above) is much more than that presented in Western philosophy.

In Confucius’s Moral philosophy, the kernel idea was Kindheartedness(仁). In Analects of Confucius , there were many sayings about Kindheartedness that contained many demands of the moral behaviors for being an upright man ..

There were following sayings:

Fan Ci (a Confucius’s disciple)asked:”What is Kindheartedness?”

Confucius answered:”Loving men.”(Chap.12)

Desiring to sustain oneself,one should sustain others.Desiring to develop oneself,one should develop others.(Chap.6)

Do not do to others what you do not wish yourself.(Chap.15)

Is Kindheartedness remote and difficult ?If a man wish to have Kindheartedness,then Kindheartedness. will come to him .(Chap.7)

Men need Kindheartedness more than the necessaries of life ,such as fire and water(Chap.15)

Kindheartedness is loving men” was the kernel idea of Confucius moral philosophy

Do not do to others what you do not wish yourself”. This sentence is recognized worldwide as the Golden Law of Morality.

The fourth saying above means that Kindheartedness is in your heart and will .

The fifth saying shows that Kindheartedness is a urgent expectation of people. It indicates the relation between Kindheartedness and politics.

All the above sayings were the moral theories of Chinese philosophy.

There were also many sayings about the moral behaviors in

Analects of Confucius

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Zi Zhang (a Confucius’s disciple)asked about Kindheartedness. Confucius remarked: “A man who can carry out five things wherever may be a man of Kindheartedness.

They are:Respect,,Considerateness ,Trustworthiness,Diligence and Generosity.”(Chap.17)

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p<>{color:#000;}. Fan Chi asked about Kindheartedness. Confucius remarked:”In dealing with yourself,be serious; in business,be earnest; in intercourse with others,be loyal.”(Chap.12)

Zeng Zi said :”The principle in the master’s life and teaching is comprised in the two words:Conscientiousness and Charity”(Chap.4)

Confucius remarked:”Ä young man ,when at home,should be a good son ;when out in the world ,a good citizen. He should be circumspect and truthful. He should be in sympathy with all men ,and intimate with man of Kindheartedness.”(Chap.1 )

Confucius remarked:”When directing the affairs of a great nation, a man must be serious in attention to business and faithful in his engagements.He must study economy in the public expenditure and love the people.He must employ the people at the proper time of the year.”(Chap.1)

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Confucius remarked:”My aim would be to be a comfort to old men, to be trustworthy by my friends;and to care for the young people.(Chap.5)

These sayings of Confucius were related to many Man’s virtues,such as: Respect,Consideration for others ,Trustworthiness,Diligence , Generosity., Conscientiousness ,Charity ,Loving people,Care for the old and young men ,etc.

Respect— be respectful to old men ,for example, the teachers

Considerateness — be considerate for others,placing oneself in the position of others,not to demand others too much.

Trustworthiness— it is an expression of self-love and the responsibility for others and the society.

Diligence—no matter what you do ,you are diligent and hardworking. It is an expression of love for others and the people.

Loyalty— Loyalty said by Confucius didn’t mean only that to the Kings. It more meant the loyalty to others and people. You should be responsible for them and serve them as much as possible .

In the Western philosophy, from ancient to modern periods,you can’t find so detailed demands about Man’s moral behaviors.

(3)Comparing with Western philosophy ,Chinese philosophy paid more attention to the practice of morality which was the problem of the Unity of Knowledge and Practice.

Confucius remarked: Those who know it are not as good as those who love it;those who love it are not as good as those who find their joy in it. ”(Chap.6)

Mencius remarked When he obtains the desire for serving the public ,to practice his principles for the good of the people;and when that desire is disappointed,to practice it by yourself alone. ([_Mencius,Book 6 )

Wang Yangming said:

To know is the beginning of to do. To do is the completion of to know.

If you say you know,your doing is there. If you say you are doing , your knowing is there.

The goal of true knowing is doing.It can’t say you know without doing.

( Complete works of Wang Yangming)

This was the Theory of Unity of Knowing and Doing presented by Wang Yanming.

These philosophers all emphasized that: Man have to combine knowledge and practice together. In this aspect ,Western philosophy had not so much statement.

Of course, it should be recognized that in the fields of Logic analysis of moral philosophy and the classification of moral theories:as theory of Emotion , Utilitarianism of Morality, Pragmatism of Morality, Rationalism of Morality ,etc, Western philosophy is stronger than Chinese philosophy. About the demands of Man’s morality, Western philosophy emphasizes Liberty,Justice ,etc which are especially worthy to be studied by Chinese philosophy .

In summary , In the author’s opinion, generally speaking , the level of Chinese moral philosophy is higher than that of Western philosophy. In some fields, the level of Western philosophy is higher than that of Chinese philosophy

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p<>{color:#000;}. Theory of Virtue and Theory of Happiness

The inner meaning of morality is Good. According to the statement of Aristotle,there were two kinds of Good: Personal Good and Polis(City-state) Good. Morality was the Personal Good.

What is Good?As to an individual person ,the word “Good” is used to evaluate the moral character of him or his behaviors.

But ,what is the standard of the evaluation?The problem had been argued in the history of Western philosophy for a long time. In traditional Chinese philosophy,the opinions were basically similar.

In Western philosophy,there were mainly two opinions:one was the theory of Virtue and the other was the theory of Happiness.

This was a problem related to the difference between ancient Western philosophy and modern Western philosophy, and also to the difference between modern Western philosophy and traditional Chinese philosophy.

Theory of Virtue

Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle combined Good with Virtue

. He said:

The Good of Man comes to be “ working of the Soul in the way of Excellence” or, if Excellence admits of degrees, in the way of the best and most perfect Excellence. (Ethics of Aristotle, Vol 1-7,translated by T Taylor)

The meaning of “a working of Soul in the way of Excellence” is very close to the meaning of “Virtue” or Man’s morality

Christian philosopher Thomas Aquinas said: “ God is the highest Good.” Christian Good is expressed in three Virtues:Virtue of belief,Virtue of hope and Virtue of love

In Chinese philosophy, the thinking that Good is Virtue was dominant. From ancient China up to modern China, all philosophers and politicians affirmed that Good is Virtue.

Confucius said:

Kindheartedness is loving men.

Mencius said:

The feeling of commiseration is the beginning of Kindheartedness

Han Yu said:

Fraternity is so called Kindheartedness.

All their thinking came from the theory of “Good is Virtue”.

The first sentence of Chinese Classics The Great Learning was:

What the Great Learning teaches is to illustrate illustrious virtue,to renovate the people,to attain the highest Good.

In 1934,the leader of The Kuomintang Party of Republic of China —Jiang Jieshi (蒋介石)initiated the New Life Movement . He advocated “the sense of propriety, justice, honesty and honour”. All these are Man’s virtues ,not Man’s happiness.

In the period before and after the establishment of PRC, Mao Zedong(毛泽东) advocated the spirit of “Doing everything for other’s benefit and nothing for one’s own.” This demand also belongs to the Man’s virtue .

In summary , from ancient to modern periods ,.it has been recognized continously that Good is Man’s virtue.

Even in China today , the idea that Good is Man’s morality is accepted by people comprehensively.

Theory of Happiness

The thinking of “Good is Man’s happiness “ was presented firstly by Epicurus(341-270 BC)in ancient Greece period. He classified happiness into two kinds: physical and spiritual. He said that spiritual happiness is higher than physical happiness.

This thinking was covered in the Middle Ages of Europe

17 century was the beginning of Enlightenment Movement of Europe. In that period ,there appeared some philosophers who presented the theory of “Good is ‘Man’s Pleasure”. The word “Pleasure” has the same meaning as “Happiness”.

Thomas Hobbes(1588-1679) combined Good with Man’s desire. He said:

But whatsoever is the object of any man’s Appetite or Desire; that is it, which he for his part call the Good: And the object of his Hate and Aversion, Evil. [(_] _Leviathan,Part 1 ,Chap.6)

John Locke(1632-1704)is the most important philosopher who advocated that Good is Pleasure. He wrote:

Good and evil, what? Things then are good or evil, only in reference to pleasure or pain. That we call good, which is apt to cause or increase pleasure, or diminish pain in us;… And, on the contrary, we name that evil which is apt to produce or increase any pain, or diminish any pleasure in us.( An Essay of Concerning Human Understanding,Book 2,Chap.20)

Locke’s thinking of “Good is Pleasure” had the same meaning as Hobbes’s thinking of “ Good is Desire”. Because everyone has the desire to have pleasure. And Locke was just the pioneering philosopher of modern idea of Liberty . Locke’s thinking of Good has been accepted comprehensively by modern Western philosophers.

So ,an important difference of Chinese and modern Western moral philosophy is that Chinese moral philosophy emphasizes “Good is Man’s Virtues”. And Western modern moral philosophy emphasizes “Good is Man’s Happiness(or Pleasure)”.

3)Theory of Good human nature and Theory of Evil human nature

The relation between morality and human nature is an important problem in morel philosophy, Generally speaking, the theory of Good human nature was dominant in Chinese philosophy,while the theory of Evil human nature also existed in it. The theory of Evil human nature was dominant in Western philosophy,while the theory of Good human nature also existed in it.

The Theory of Good human nature and the Theory of Evil human nature in Chinese philosophy.

The kernel of Confucius’s philosophy was Kindheartedness. The basic meaning of Kindheartedness is “loving men “.

But where Kindheartedness comes from ? It is inborn or acquired from education or practice?

Confucius himself hadn’t answered this question.

Confucius remarked:

Men ,in their nature,are alike;but by practice they become widely different.

(Analects of Confucius ,Chap.17)

Mencius clearly presented the Theory of Good human nature. His famous statement was:

The feeling of commiseration is the beginning of KindheartednessThe feeling of shame is the beginning of righteousness. The feeling of modesty is the beginning of propriety. The sense of right and wrong is the beginning of wisdom. Man has these four beginnings just like he has four limbs. (Mencius,Book 5[_)_]

According to Mencius ,the four .beginnings are the human nature.The feeling of commiseration is just man’s Kindheartedness. He put it as the first of four beginnings which showed that he paid high attention to Kindheartedness.

Four beginnings are men’s inborn nature and men’s essential characteristics. If men has not the feelings of commiseration, shame , modesty and the sense of right and wrong,then men has no difference from animals.

Mencius didn’t think that education is not important. He named these feelings as four beginnings which means that they are the beginnings of morality. Education and practice are still important.

Mencius’s theory of Good human nature had been the dominant thinking in traditional Chinese moral philosophy. Han Yu(Tang dynasty), Zhu Xi (Song dynasty ),and Wang Yangming(Ming dynasty),etc,even though they had different theories in other aspects;but as to the theory of Good human nature,thay all had the same opinion..

In ancient time, Chinese philosopher,Xun Zi(荀子) clearly presented the theory of Evil human nature. In the book (Xun Xi) ,there is a special Chapter titled: “The Evil human nature”. He said:

The nature of man is evil ,his goodness is acquired by training.

(Xun Zi ,Chap.23)

In Xun Zi’s opinion,Mencius had not clarify the difference between human nature and acquired practice. Human nature is evil. The reason of that man has the good mind and good behaviors is the acquired education and self-cultivation

Xun Zi said:

Men is born with desire.When these desire are not satisfied,they cannot stop seeking their satisfaction.When these seeking for satisfaction is without measure or limit,there can only be contention..When there is contention ,there will be disorder. (Xun Zi ,Chap.9)

In the history of Chinese philosophy, only few philosophers agreed Xun Zi’s opinion.In Song dynasty ,Chen Yi (程颐)criticized Xun Zi clearly. He said :

Mencius’s talking on the Good human nature is correct. Xun Zi and Yan Zi ,didn’t understand human nature. Mencius was outstanding in Confucius’s school .because he understand human nature.Human nature is Good at all. Those evil persons are owing to their acquired characters. (Posthumous book of Cheng Yi)

The later Chinese philosophers had the same opinions as Cheng Yi .So ,the theory of Good human nature has been dominant in Chinese moral philosophy.

The Theory of Evil human nature and the Theory of Good human nature in Western philosophy.

Christianity had deep influence upon Western culture and philosophy.In the doctrines of Christianity, all men had original sin(because Adam ate the forbidden fruit). This is the background of the theory of Evil human nature in Western culture. Just due to that all men have their original sin ,they hope the redemption from God.

In the history of Western philosophy, the first philosopher who presented the theory of Evil human nature was Thomas Hobbes(1588-1679).He wrote:

if any two men desire the same thing, which nevertheless they cannot both enjoy, they become enemies; and in the way to their End, … endeavour to destroy, or subdue one another.

There Is always War of Every One Against Every One

[*(*] Leviathan.Book 1,Chap.13)

This is “the Law of the Jungle”, which mentioned by people often. Its meaning is that men struggle with each other,just like the animals struggle in the jungle

The design of Western political systems,as democratic election, the separation of three powers ,the independence of judicature,the supervision by public opinion ,etc .all of them are established on the theory of Evil human nature

Because human nature is evil. It’s essential to establish these systems to do supervision and precaution.

In Western philosophy , the theory of Good human nature also existed

Plato remarked:

Of this( means Good) then, which every soul of man pursues and makes the end of all his actions*,*(The Republic,Vol.6[_)_]

In 18 century ,the famous British philosopher David Hume(1711-1776)wrote:

The epithets SOCIABLE, GOOD-NATURED, HUMANE, MERCIFUL, GRATEFUL, FRIENDLY, GENEROUS, BENEFICENT, or their equivalents, are known in all languages, and universally express the highest merit, which HUMAN NATURE is capable of attaining.

[(_] _An Enquiry Concerning the Principle of Morals,Chap.2)

So, in Western philosophy, there are both the theory of Good human nature and the theory of Evil human nature. But from the view that Christianity had great influence upon Western culture ,and also from the design of political systems in Western countries, it may be said that the theory of Evil human nature has been the dominant thinking in the Western philosophy.

Analysis of Two Theories of Human Nature

In the author’s another book Philosophy of Good and Common Value,It is said that as to the two theories mentioned above ,its necessary to understand them from the original nature of human being

In the original nature of human being, there are two basic characters :Individuality and Sociality,both came from the fact that Man is a kind of advanced social animal .

Any kinds of organism has their Individuality. They have the instinct. to live and to breed individually. Between individuals ,while resources are limited , there must have competition and content.. The survival competition caused the evolution of all organisms. This is the theory that clarified by the great biologist Charles Darwin in 19 century.

The theory presented by Xun Zi and Hobbes that there must be competition between men is coincident with the original nature of human being.

The pursuing of Liberty ,from the view of its essence,is the awakening of Man’s Individuality. Man cognizes that the Liberty of himself is his . basic desire and pleasure . So ,pursuing Liberty is Good. And Liberty is one of kernel common values in modern society,

Therefore,Man’s Individuality has two facets,one is Good (Liberty),and the other is Evil(Harm others to benefit oneself)

At the same time,there is Sociality in Man’s original natue. Not all animals have the nature of Sociality. But all social animals (as honey bee, ant ,etc )have their Sociality. They have the instinct to have cooperation and to help others in their group

Human being is the highest kind of social animal . Man has highly developed wisdom and emotion. Both of them cause Man to have love and sympathy for others. Love makes Man to be cooperative and harmony that raises apparently the ability of existence and makes Man to become the master of the earth. The Sociality of human being establishes the Good in Man’s nature.

This is the reason that both the Good human nature and the Evil human nature came from the original nature of human being. We can’t say which is right and which is wrong.

But ,the theory of Good human nature is dominant in Chinese philosophy . The theory of Evil human nature is dominant in Western philosophy . This is one of the differences between Chinese and Western moral philosophy.

4)Kindhearted Love and Justice

The above two problems: ①Theory of virtue and Theory of happiness; ②Theory of Good human nature and Theory of Evil human nature ,both belong to the field of Moral Theory(second level in Ethics). The following discussions are the problems of moral behaviors(first level in Ethics)

There are many demands for Man’s moral behaviors . In Chinese and Western moral philosophy,what is the main demand for morality? The author ,after reading many books of Chinese and Western philosophy,have a opinion that :the kernel idea in Chinese moral philosophy is Kindhearted Love(仁爱) and that in Western philosophy is Justice.

More than 100 years ago ,Liang Qichao(梁启超) had a similar opinion.He said :

”Generally speaking ,China likes to talk on kindheartedness,while the West likes to talk on Justice.

(The Theory of New People, 1912)

Kindhearted Love in Chinese Moral Philosophy

The earliest philosopher who presented the thinking of Kindheartedness was Confucius..

Fan Ci asked: what is kindheartedness , Confucius answered: loving men .

(Analects of Confucius ,Chap.12 >

Mencius summarized the thinking of Confucius :

Kindheartedness means loving men.

He said:

The kindhearted man loves men . …. He who loves others is constantly loved by them.”

(Mencius,Chap.8)

Confucius and Mencius established the most important idea in Chinese moral philosophy—Kindhearted Love

The later Confucianists inherited the thinking of Kindhearted Love and had some developments 

Han yu (韩愈,Han dynasty)said:

Fraternity is Kindheartedness

He enlarged Kindhearted Love toward Fraternity,which meant the love for all people

Zhang Zai (张载,Song dynasty ) said:

One loves people just as he loves his compatriot.

Cheng Yi(_]程颐,Song dynasty ) [_said:

Nature (性)is the principle(理)

The meaning is : the Good human nature is the principle of the world

Wang Yangming(王阳明,Ming dynasty)said:

Mind (心)is the principle

The meaning is: Kindhearted Love is in Man’s heart. This is the principle of the world .

The modern ideologist Sun Zhongshan (孙中山)said:

Fraternity is our Infinite hope and the greatest thinking.

Thus, in Chinese moral philosophy, the thinking of Kindhearted Love has been persisting in throughout the history continuously. It is reasonable to say that Kindhearted Love is the kernel idea in Chinese moral philosophy

In Chinese moral philosophy, the Righteousness (义) was also paid attention to .

Mencius said:

Kindheartedness is Man’s mind. Righteousness is man’s road.

(Mencius,Chap.11)

The meaning is that Kindheartedness comes from Man’s mind and Righteousness is the road to realize Kindheartedness.So , . Righteousness that Mencius mentioned is the demand for putting Kindheartedness into behaviors. Righteousness is the continuation of the idea of Kindhearted Love.

Righteousness has the similar meaning with Justice in Western philosophy,but not the same

Justice in Western Moral Philosophy

Western moral philosophy also paid attention to Love.Plato paid very high attention to Love. He said:

We have him (Eros—God of Love)as the cause of the greatest Good. (

Plato:Symposium)

“The greatest Good” means the greatest well-being of mankind

In the book written by David Hume(1711-1776) An Enquiry Concerning the Principle of Morals,there is a special chapter —:

Of Benevolence

The word “Benevolence” has basically the same meaning as Kindhearted Love

But ,looking Western moral philosophy as a whole, Justice ,other than Kindhearted Love ,is the most important moral idea in it.

Justice is either a moral idea or a political idea. In fact ,it is difficult to separate moral philosophy from political philosophy completely.

The idea of Justice strides across moral philosophy and political philosophy.

Ancient Greek philosophers took Justice as the highest morality.

Plato ,in his book The Republic,stated in detail his opinion of Man’s Good and Four Virtues.

He presented the theory of three division of the soul: Man’s soul is composed of three components—reason,passion and desire. The coordination of these three components produces Man’s four virtues:
Wisdom,Temperance , Courage and Justice.

Plato pointed out that if a man has a suitable combination of reason ,passion and desire;his passion and desire are guided by his reason,then he is a man of justice.

It may be seen that in Plato’s opinion, Justice is the synthesis of wisdom,temperance and courage. Justice is placed at the top location in four virtues.

In 18 century, David Hume(1711-1776) also paid high attention to Justice. In his book An Enquiry Concerning the Principle of Morals ,there is a special chapter titled “Of Justice”. He said ;

The use and tendency of that virtue(Justice) is to procure happiness and security, by preserving order in society.

Hence justice derives its usefulness to the public: And hence alone arises its merit and moral obligation.

Hume pointed out the importance of Justice to human happiness.He regarded Justice as the origin of Man’s merit and morality.

The famous economist Adam Smith (1723-1790),in his book The Theory of Moral Sentiments,wrote a special chapter “Of Justice and Beneficence”. His opinions were:


#
p<>{color:#000;}. Beneficence comes from Man’s heart.Beneicent behaviors should be encouraged. But it should not be forced to do by everyone.


#
p<>{color:#000;}. Justice is a Constraint for Man’s behaviors. If someone has behaviors violating Justice , making harm to others,he must be punished . So ,everyone should abide by the rules of Justice

In 20 century,American philosopher John Rawls(1921—2002) wrote his famous book A Theory of Justice.He said in Chapter 1:

I begin by describing the role of justice in social cooperation and with a brief account of the primary subject of justice,the basic structure of society. I then present the main idea of justice as fairness, a theory of justice that generalizes and carries to a higher level of abstraction the traditional conception of the social contract.

 

From the statements of ancient and modern philosophers, it may be seen that Western philosophers paid special and high attention to Justice

Summarizing their opinions ,it may be regarded that :

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Justice is a idea related to Man’s practice in society.Justice is also a idea related to public merits and human well-being

② The maintenance of Justice depends not only the consciousness of people .but also by law and rule of law.;

③ Justice is a rule beneficial to all people. It’s a idea related to the harmony of society.

④Justice is a idea directly related to the fairness and equity of society.

The author’s opinion is : Both Kindhearted Love and Justice are the basic demands of Man’s morality,which beneficial to human society. Kindhearted Love emphasizes the emotion and behaviors based on mutual love between people. Justice emphasizes the fairness,liberty and eqauity in human society. Kindhearted Love comes from Man’s heart. Justice requires the constraint of law..

Chinese moral philosophy emphasizes Kindhearted Love . Western philosophy emphasizes Justice. The difference in this aspect are closely related to the different views of ethics and values in Chinese and Western culture.

5)Pursuing Liberty and Keeping Ritual and Law

Liberty is a kernel idea in Western moral philosophy.In Chinese moral philosophy, there is not no Liberty. But the discussion on Liberty is much fewer than that in Western philosophy.

In Western philosophy ,Liberty is the rule of Man’s will and behavior . . In traditional Chinese philosophy ,the correspondent rule was Ritual or Keeping ritual.

Western moral philosophy emphasizes Liberty

Although Liberty belongs to human nature.but people cognize this nature through a long period.

In the period of ancient Greece and the Middle Ages of Europe,the idea of Liberty had not been paid attention to..

In the period of Enlightenment Movement in 17-18 century, the idea of Liberty was clearly presented.

The idea of Liberty is related with the economic and political demand of Capitalism. The development of Capitalistic economy requires that everyone has his freedom to own his property,and the freedom of management of his property. Capitalism also requires the personal freedom so that the business owners could employ his employees or workers. For the goal of economic freedom ,people require the ideological and political liberty.

Once the idea of Liberty was presented , it was welcomed by all people and became an important ideological weapon for striving the right of liberty.

The idea of Liberty promoted great liberation of Man’s thinking which led to a series of Liberty : freedom of thought,freedom of speech,freedom of opinion,academic freedom and freedom of association ,etc.

A brief introduction of the development of the idea of Liberty in Western philosophy is as follows:

#
p<>{color:#000;}. In 17 century, British philosopher Thomas Hobbes(1588-1679) was the pioneer who presented the idea of Liberty .He said:

Liberty, …to use his own power… of doing any thing, which in his own Judgement, and Reason.(Leviathan,Book I ,Chap.14)

(2)In the same period later, John Locke(1632-1704)was the most important philosopher who supported the idea of Liberty.

He wrote :

So far as a man has power to think or not to think, to move or not to move, according to the preference or direction of his own mind, so far is a man free.

[(_] _An Essay of Concerning Human Understanding ,Book 2,Chap.21)

(3)In 18 century ,French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau(1712-1778) wrote :

All being born free and equal。

( The Social Contract,Book 2 ,Chap.2)

All being born free and equal.” is a very saying of great influence upon the whole world,which was written in the United States Declaration of Independence and The French Declaration of Human Rights.

(4) In 18 century ,British economist and philosopher Adam Smith made a special devotion to the idea of Liberty.He found an very important rule of economy: if there is the freedom of economic freedom ,then the economic prosperity will be realized

(5) in 19 century German philosopher Immanuel Kant(1724-1804)

In his book Critique of Practical Reason wrote that Man should have will by himself and establish his own law. ,He raised the idea of Liberty to the level of philosophy.

(6)The author regards that the philosopher who made the greatest contribution to the idea of Liberty is John Stuart Mill(1806-1873).He presented a basic principle of Liberty:

Everyone’s freedom shouldn’t impede the freedom of others.

(On Liberty)

He stated that Liberty should be in a series: freedom of thinking,of opinion ,of personality ,of practice ,of unification ,etc . These contents of Liberty was written in the Constitutions of many modern countries.

(7) In 19 century, two important German philosophers Karl Marx(1818-1883)and Friedrich Engels(1820-1895)presented the final goal of social progress:

We shall have an association, in which the free development of each is the condition for the free development of all.

[*(*]The Manifesto of the Communist Party)

Briefly to say, the final goal is an association of free persons

(8)American president Franklin D. Roosevelt(1882—1945)had a speech on his third Presidential Inauguration ,presenting the idea of Four Freedoms: freedom of speech and expression, freedom of worship God, freedom from want, freedom from fear.

The United Nations ,in 1948,accepted his Four Freedoms inThe Universal Declaration of human rights

(9)In 20 century,philosopher Friedrich von Hayek(1899-1992)presented the opinion:Liberty is the Guarantee of social prosperity

(10)In 20 century , British philosopher Isaiah Berlin(1909-1997)classified freedom into two kinds: positive freedom and passive freedom. He said passive freedom is more important than positive freedom ,because passive freedom is the guarantee of people’s freedom.

From the above very brief introduction of the development of the idea of Liberty in Western philosophy,it may be seen that Liberty is a very important idea in Western moral philosophy.

In Chinese philosophy.Lao Zi and Zhuang Zi did have some thinking of Liberty.

Lao Zi said :

Tao always remain inactive.Yet it acts upon everything in the world.

If lords and kings can keep it,all creation will grow and develop naturally.

(,Chap.37)

His thinking of inactivity of Tao and kings is the ideological origin of Liberty.

Zhuang Zi inherited Lao Zi’s thinking of Liberty

He wrote a chapter titled “The Happy Excursion” in his book.

In the Northern Ocean there is a fish,by the name of Kun,which is many thousands Li (a unit of distance) in size. This fish metamorphoses into a bird by the name of Peng ,whose back is many thousands Li in breadth. When the bird rouses and flies,its wings obscure the sky . When the bird moves itself in the sea ,it is preparing to start for the Southern Ocean,

(Zhuang Zi,Chap 1>)

The real meaning of what he said is the will of Liberty which is the freedom of Man’s thinking and activity.

But ,as mentioned above, the statement of the idea of Liberty in Chinese philosophy was much less than that in Western philosophy.

Chinese philosophy emphasized Keeping Ritual and Law

Ritual is one of kernel ideas of Confucianism. According to the theory of Confucianism,Ritual ,other than Liberty,is the standard of Man’s behaviors.

Why Chinese philosophy emphasized Ritual ,and Western philosophy emphasized Liberty? This question has been answered in Chapter 2 and 3 of this book.

From ancient to recent period, China’s economy was based on agriculture. Agriculture is a self sufficient economy which required the unification of country and stability of society. For establishing the unification and stability, all officers and people should keep a certain standard of behaviors which is the political and social background of Ritual.

The following is a brief of the statements of Ritual and Law in ancient China.

(1) The Book of Ritual (礼记[_)_]’s statement on Ritual

The book of Ritual recorded various regulations,systems and rites of marriage, funeral,memorial ceremony,cloth ,diet, banquet ,etc in Pre-Qing Period.

According to the Book of Ritual : Ritual involved many moral demands for people,such as: parents should love their children; sons and daughters should be filial towards their parents,brothers and sisters should be fraternal with each other ,husband should be mercy to his wife.wife should be obedient to her husband; the old should love the young ,the young should respect the old, king should be kindhearted and righteous to officers ;Officers should be loyal to the king,etc.

(2)Confucius’s statement on Ritual

There is a record in The book of Ritual :

Confucius remarked:”Ritual was the rule which was used by the ancient kings to accept the principle of Heaven and to manage the emotion of people. Therefore ,losing it will cause death,obtaining it will cause aliveness.“ The book of Ritual,Chap.7)

The above sentence means that in the opinion of Confucius ,Ritual was very important which related to the aliveness or death of country and society.

In Analects of Confucius ,there is a paragraph related to Ritual. .

Yan Yuan(a disciple of Confucius)asked :What is Ritual.Confucius answered:”Restrict yourself and conform to Ritual . Once everyone does like that . the whole world will have the Kindheartedness.”

Here, Confucius related Ritual with Man’s Kindheartedness. It should be said that it was an important progress in the theory of Ritual in ancient China. ,

It may be seen that the thinking of Confucius is : Ritual is the condition of Kindheartedness .And Kindheartedness is the goal of Ritual . Kindheartedness is higher than Ritual

(3)Mencius’s statement on Ritual

Mencius said:

The feeling of modesty is the beginning of propriety(Ritual).

(Mencius,Book 5[_)_]

According to Mencius , Ritual comes from Man’s nature.

(4)Xun Zi ‘s statement on Ritual and Law

Xun Zi had important contribution to the theory of Ritual ,that is①the origin of Ritual ;②the joint use of Ritual and Law

He said:’

Man are born with desires,If their desires haven’t been satisfied,they won’t stop pursuing them . If the pursuit goes beyond normal limits,disputes will arise.Desputes begets turbulence and turbulence begets trouble and disaster. Therefore the ancient kings created Ritual to classify people,to satisfy people’s desire and requirement.(,Chap.19)

This explanation of the origin of Ritual is very close to the origin of Law. Therefore, he presented the theory of Joint Use of Ritual and Laws”.

He said:

If a governor keeps the Ritual and respect the virtuous persons, he could be a king. If a governor keeps the laws and love people,he could be an overlord. (Xun Zi,Chap.27)

This is a very important statement ,which shows that Xun Zi not only paid attention to Ritual , but also paid attention to Law. And in his opinion,Law was more important than Ritual,. Since in the Spring and Autumn period of ancient China ,an overlord was more successful and powerful than a king.

Xun Zi’s high attention paid to Law supported the thinking of the Legalists in ancient China. The philosophy of the Legalists will be introduced more detailed in next chapter

Both Ritual and Law are problems of political philosophy and also of moral philosophy. In the aspect of moral philosophy, the theory of Joint Use of Ritual and Law produced the moral demand of “Keeping Ritual and Law” for all people.

From Qin and Han dynasties,in fact ,the governors in all dynasties implemented the theory of Joint Use of Ritual and Law. Therefore Keeping both Ritual and Law became an very important moral demand for people in ancient China.

So ,it may be said that Keeping both Ritual and Law is one of the kernel ideas of Chinese moral philosophy.

Of course, the idea of Keeping Ritual and Law is different from the idea of Liberty .But these two idea are related to each other and they are possible to be synthesized. ,


#
p<>{color:#000;}. Synthesis of Chinese and Western Moral Philosophy

Same as Ontology and Epistemology, even though there are many differences between Chinese and Western moral philosophy, there is also internal commonality within them . So ,there exists the possibility to have synthesis of them

1)Synthesis of Theory of Virtue and Theory of Happiness

What is Good? This is the first problem of moral philosophy. The dominant thinking of Western modern philosophy is :Good is Man’s Happiness(or Pleasure) . The dominant thinking of Chinese philosophy is: Good is Man’s Virtue..

Theory of Virtue(Good is Man’s Virtue) and theory of Happiness(Good is Man’s Pleasure) ,these two theories seem opposite. From the view of theory of Virtue, the theory of Happiness is vulgar.From the view of theory of Happiness, the theory of Virtue is conservative

But these two theories are possible to be synthesized

Aristotle said :

The Good of Man comes to be‘a working of the Soul in the way of Excellence’.

(The Nicomachean Ethics, Book 1,1098)

 

A working of the Soul in the way of Excellence has the same meaning of Man’s Virtue.

 

He also said:

 

What is the highest of all the goods which are the objects of action?

0…So far as name goes, there is a pretty general agreement: for HAPPINESS

 

(The Nicomachean Ethics, Book 1,1095)

 

So, in Aristotle’s opinion,Good is Man’s Virtue and also, Good is Man’s Happiness.

Immanuel Kant had a statement on Liberty which expressed the unification of morality and Man’s desire:

Freedom and the consciousness of it as a faculty of following the moral law with unyielding resolution is independence of inclinations, at least as motives determining our desire, and so far as I am conscious of this freedom in following my moral maxims, it is the only source of an unaltered contentment . …. This may be called intellectual contentment.

( The Critique of Practical Reason, Book 2,.Chap.2)

This statement has several meanings:

#
p<>{color:#000;}. He took Liberty as Man’s unyielding resolution which means that Liberty is Man’s highest will.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. This resolution (Liberty) follows the law of morality;

③ While Man follows morality to have his Liberty ,he will obtain the intellectual contentment

According to Kant’s statement, the Liberty following the law of morality is the true Good.

Kant ‘s statement reached a very high level in Western moral philosophy

In Chinese philosophy , Mencius had statements:

. The feeling of commiseration is the beginning of Kindheartedness.

(Mencius,Chap.4)

What Man can desire is called Good

(Mencius,Chap.14)

The first statement shows that Kindheartedness is Man’s inborn nature. So , to be Kindheartedness is Man’s inborn desire

From the second statement, it may be understood that Kindheartedness is Good, since It is Man’s Desire. It will give Man Happiness

Here, Mencius linked Man’s Virtue(Kindheartedness) and Man’s Happiness(satisfaction of desire) together.

Summarizing the thinking of the Chinese and Western sages, It can be understood that the theory of Virtue and the theory of Happiness are possible to be synthesized.

A reasonable and complete cognition is that the greatest Virtue of Man is to pursue the greatest Happiness of Man .

Today ,China and all the world require the synthesized opinion of Good. Your Good should be expressed in loving others and loving people ,and at the same time it should be expressed in pursuing your own Liberty and in realizing your own right ,desire and value,which gives you happiness.

The progress of the cognition of Good will push forward the progress of whole society in the world.

2)Synthesis of Theory of Good Human Nature and Theory of Evil Human Nature

In Chinese philosophy , the theory of Good human nature is dominant. In Western philosophy,the theory of Evil human nature is dominant.

Theory of Good human nature and theory of Evil human nature seem to be two opposite theories.But they are possible to be synthesized.

The reason is that Man has the nature of both sociality and individuality. Man’s sociality produced the Good of human nature.Man’s individuality has dual character. Under the condition of not interfering the other’s liberty and happiness ,but pursuing one’s own liberty and happiness, individuality is Good, If one harms others to benefit himself, then individuality causes Evil. So ,in general , Man has both Good nature and Evil nature,

In the author’s opinion,human nature is basically Good.And Evil nature is existent.

Why to say that human nature is basically Good. There are the following reasons:

#
p<>{color:#000;}. From the view of Human nature. Man’s sociality causes the Good nature. Man’s individuality causes both Good and Evil nature. To see human nature synthetically,the proportion of Good nature is more than that of the Evil nature.

#
p<>{color:#333;}. From the view of the origin of human being, Human being was originally one of the higher animal. Why human being can become the master of the earth? It was because that he had highly developed wisdom and also highly developed emotion . These two factors caused human being to be the highest social animal.His wisdom let him cognize that to get success in the struggle against beasts or natural disasters ,he must depend on the power of Man’s group.. His emotion made him love and concern each other. Both wisdom and emotion caused Man became the master of the earth,.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. From the view of the history of Mankind,even though there were many wars between countries or nations, but in general ,Man has been getting great progress in both material civilization and spiritual civilization, Today, peace and development is the dominant direction of the world development. So the whole history of Mankind tells us that in the Human nature, the Good nature is dominant.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. From the view of worldwide religions. All religions has a common doctrine— Love. Christianity has the doctrine of “Love others as love yourself”. Islam has the doctrine of “ Believe in God and be good”. Buddhism has the doctrine of “Deliver all people from torment.”. Taoism has a doctrine of “ Respect Tao and Virtue”. The number of believers of different religions is more than 80% of the world population.

That is why to say that the human nature basically is Good

But , actually , the evil human nature is existent.

In Western philosophy,Homas Hobbes(1588-1679) presented the theory :”if any two men desire the same thing, which nevertheless they cannot both enjoy, they become enemies”.

In Chinese philosophy, Xun Zi presented the theory:” Men is born with desire.When these desire are not satisfied,…,there can only be contention.”.

Their theories explained that in Human nature, there exists the nature to content with each other.In the content ,Evil is not avoidable.

In modern Western politics,the theory of Evil human nature is the basis of political system. Western politics emphasizes the separation of powers, the democratic supervision of government,etc..All of these political systems relate to the cognition of the Evil human nature.In modern society ,if the Evil human nature is not recognized,it’s impossible to have a good design of political system

Therefore, as to Human nature ,a reasonable cognition is that: Human nature is basically Good ,but the Evil nature is existent.

The synthesis of the theory of Good human nature and the theory of Evil human nature is beneficial to understand the essence of human being,to understand the history of mankind,to maintain the peace and cooperation between countries ,to respect religions and to establish a perfect political system .

3)Synthesis of Kindhearted Love and Justice

Chinese philosophy pays much attention of Kindhearted Love .Western philosophy pays much attention to Justice. In fact , they are two complementary moral ideas.

Why Man needs morality?The basic goal of morality is to have Man’s behaviors beneficial to everyone’s own reasonable development and to the fairness ,mutual love and harmony of whole society. According to these requirements, it’s necessary to have both Kindhearted Love and Justice and also their synthesis.

Comparatively to say , Kindhearted Love comes from Man’s heart. It expresses the feeling of mutual love between people. Justice should be expressed in Man’s practice be accordant to the Laws and also the reflection of social fairness and equity

Mencius said:

Kindheartedness is Man’s mind and Righteousness is Man’s road

(Mencius,Chap.11)

The meaning of Mencius’s Righteousness is close to that of Justice ,even not the same .Anyhow,according to Mencius, Kindheartedness should be combined with Righteousness or Justice.

In the book An Enquiry Concerning the Principle of Morals (Chapter 1),the famous Western philosopher David Hume(1711-1776). explained the general principle of morality . Chapter 2 is “Of Benevolence. Chapter 3 is “ Of Justice”. His theory told us that Benevolence (same meaning as Kindhearted Love) and Justice are two most important factors in morality and they two should be considered together.

In Human’s history many facts showed that Kindhearted Love and Justice were combined together.

In 1945, the fascist invaders German and Japan surrendered. There were the Nuremberg trial and the Tokyo trial.

The fact exposed by the Nuremberg trial was : the German fascist Gestapo. made a bloodbath of a living region of the Jews.

The fact that the Tokyo trials exposed was: on Dec.13,1937,after the occupation of Nanjing by Japanese army , there was a massacre killing about 300 thousands people ,.One-third of Nanjing city was destroyed.

At the Nuremberg trial, 12 war criminals were sentence to death..At the Tokyo trial ,7 war criminals were sentence to death .

Both the Nuremberg trial and the Tokyo trial were the combination of Kindhearted Love and Justice.

Kindhearted Love is the starting point and also the goal of Justice. The starting point and goal of two trials mentioned above is Man’s Kindhearted Love.

Justice is the guarantee of Kindhearted Love.If there were no sentences of Justice showed in the two trials , there would be no way to express Man’s Kindhearted Love upon the countless killed people.

The sentences of Justice by the Nuremberg trial and the Tokyo trial have guaranteed the people in the world not to be harmed again by those brutal forces. This is the great Kindhearted Love for the worldwide people

Joining Kindhearted Love emphasized by Chinese philosophy and Justice by Western philosophy will be a complete principle of Human morality.

4)Synthesis of Pursuing Liberty and Keeping Ritual and Law

Western philosophy emphasizes “pursuing Liberty”. Chinese philosophy emphasizes “keeping Ritual and Law”. Is it possible to synthesize these two thinking?

The answer should be positive.

The idea of “Keeping both Ritual and Law” is not out of date. Of course , today , all Rituals and Laws should be accordant with the requirement of modern society .

Many moral demands in ancient China are still suitable in the modern society,such as,parents should love their children; sons and daughters should be filial towards their parents,brothers and sisters should be fraternal ,the old should love the young ,the young should respect the old, etc. It’s necessary to add some new moral demands,such as ,to pursue Man ’s Liberty,to keep the principle of Equity, Fraternity,Fairness,Justice,to keep Constitution and Laws in your living country,to have the spirit of creativity in science and business,etc . Here,there is good synthesis of Western morality and Chinese morality.

Adam Smith(1723-1790) was a famous economist and philosopher. He had written only two books in his whole life. One is An Inequity into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations and the other is The Theory of Moral Sentiments. Both had great influence upon the world.

In the first book ,he made a active affirmation on Liberty. In his opinion, if there is freedom of property ownership, of management ,of marketing exchange, the economics must be developing rapidly. But at the same time ,Man should have noble morality and virtues.

The virtues that Smith mentioned were: Prudence,Benovolence and Justice He also talked on the relation between morality and keeping the laws

He said:

Proper resentment for injustice attempted, or actually committed, is the only motive which can justify our hurting or disturbing in any respect the happiness of our neighbour. To do so from any other motive is itself a violation of the laws of justice.

(The Theory of Moral Sentiments,Part 6,Section 2)

Here, we can see that ,in the opinion of Smith. Man’s morality ,firstly,comes from his heart.,and it is also limited by the laws. So ,there is a combination of morality and law-keeping.

The complete thinking of Smith is that in the economics, the principle of Liberty must be insisted on . At the same time, in the whole society, it is necessary to persist on morality of Prudence,Benovolence , Justice and Law-keeping. Then the society will have a rapid and healthy development.

John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)is one of Western philosophers who made important contribution to the idea of “Liberty”.

In his famous work On Liberty . he said:

The only freedom which deserves the name, is that of pursuing our own good in our own way, so long as we do not attempt to deprive others of theirs, or impede their efforts to obtain it.

(On Liberty,Chap.1>)

He pointed out a definition of Liberty that one has all Liberty with the only limitation of not impeding other’s Liberty.

Here is the combination of Liberty and Law-keeping. Since law does not allow anyone to impede the other’s Liberty. Everyone can have his full liberty in the extent of law’s allowance,but can’t beyond this extent

In summary,what Adam Smith said was the combination of Liberty and Morality. What John Mill said was the combination of Liberty and Law-keeping.

So,there is the synthesis of Pursuing Liberty (which is emphasized by Western philosophy )and Keeping Ritual and Law( which is emphasized by Chinese philosophy).

In modern society,in one respect, everyone should have his full liberty to realize his own will ,thinking and creativity, in another respect ,everyone should keep the common morality and law of his country to maintain the harmony ,order and stability of the society.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Summary of this chapter

1)In the theory of Good(morality),Chinese philosophy emphasizes the theory of Virtue(Good is Man’s virtues).Western philosophy emphasizes Man’s Happiness(Good is Man’s happiness)

Man’s well-being is Man’s greatest happiness. To realize Man’s well-being is the greatest Man’s virtue. So ,the complete theory of Good is the synthesis of the theory of Virtue and the theory of Happiness.

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p<>{color:#000;}. On Human nature, Western philosophy emphasizes the theory of Evil human nature. Chinese philosophy emphasizes the theory of Good human nature.

From countless facts in the history of human being , it is reasonable to say that Human nature is basically Good,but the Evil nature exists truly

If we deny that Human nature is basically Good , we could not explain the continuous progress in substantial and spiritual civilization of human being. We also could not explain the general direction of Peace and Development of the world today and in the future.We also could not explain that the more than 80% of people in the world believe religions and all religions take Love as their common idea.

But ,we should recognize that the Evil human nature exists truly. All the modern design of political systems are based on the theory of Evil nature. Without democratic supervision to prevent the Evil nature of officers and businessmen, there will be no guarantee of the well-being of people .

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Chinese philosophy emphasizes Kindhearted Love .Western philosophy emphasizes Justice . Kindhearted Love and Justice, these two Man’s very important morals should be joined together. Without the Kindhearted Love towards people, there will be no Justice. Without Justice to fight against Fascism, Imperialism, Despotism, Terrorism,.etc ,there will no Kindhearted Love for the people.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Chinese philosophy emphasizes Keeping Ritual and Law. Western philosophy emphasizes Pursuing Liberty. It is necessary to combine these two thinking together. A reasonable society should let people have full liberty to give full play to everyone’s ability, cleverness and creativity. At the same time ,everyone should keep the constitution and laws of his own country. This is the requirements of a stable ,orderly and progressive society.

Chapter 8

Comparison and Synthesis of Chinese and Western Political Philosophy

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p<>{color:#000;}. Introduction of Political philosophy

Aristotle had a famous statement on Politics:

Man is natural a political animal。.

In biological populations, there are some social animals.as honey bees,ants,etc. Human being is the highest social animal on the earth. According to Aristotle’s explanation .the main difference between human being and other animals is that human being has the speaking ability and the ability to distinguish Good and Evil. Language makes man able to communicate;the distinguishing ability of Good and Evil make man able to treat the contradictions in social life.

In the author’s opinion,the greatest difference between human being and other animals is that Man has highly developed wisdom and highly developed emotion. These two make Man willing and able to live in a society.

According to Aristotle, the social living of human being began with the combination of man and woman. The cohabitation of man and woman developed into a family. Many families developed into a village . Many villages developed into a city-state.

In the world history ,the earliest country was ancient Egypt(3100 BC ), In China , the earliest dynasty was Xia (2037 BC ). From then ,gradually , all human being have been living in countries.

According to Aristotle, politics is Man’s essential character. No one can live separately from politics.

Aristotle also said:

The end (of Good) is the same for a single man and for a state, that of the state seems at all events something greater and more complete whether to attain or to preserve.

(Nicomachean Ethics,1094)

What moral philosophy discusses is the Good of individuals. What political philosophy discusses is the Good of city-state or country. The above statement of Aristotle shows that these two Goods have inner linkage and commonality.

Moral philosophy discusses the good heart and good behaviors. Political philosophy discusses the good governance and good politics.

In the fields of philosophy, ontology is the basic theory . epistemology is related to the development of philosophy itself and that of sciences. Moral philosophy is related to the moral behaviors of individuals..Political philosophy is related to everyone’s rights and life, to the progress of country and to the peace of the world . So ,it may be said that in all fields of philosophy, political philosophy is the field which has the closest relation with everyone’s benefits and the welfare of human being.

Political philosophy discusses the following problems:

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p<>{color:#000;}. The origin of political power

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p<>{color:#333;}. The properties of political power

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p<>{color:#000;}. The principles of governance of the country

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p<>{color:#000;}. Comparison of Chinese and Western Political Philosophy

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p<>{color:#000;}. Theory of Destiny and Theory of Contract

The origin of political power relates with the rationality or legitimacy of the power which is the primary problem of political philosophy

If a political power has no legitimate basis, it couldn’t be recognized by the people.People have the right to disobey it ,even overthrow it.

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p<>{color:#333;}. Theory of Destiny in Chinese traditional political philosophy

From ancient time up to the revolution in 1911,the political system had been Imperial Autocracy. In that long period,the theory of the legitimacy of political power was Theory of Destiny. Especially as to the first emperor of a new dynasty, why he could obtain the imperial throne? The only answer was that he obtained the throne from the Heaven.The Heaven determined that he should be the emperor.

The thinking of the theory of Destiny was very old.In the ancient book─Book of History(《尚书》),it wrote[_:_]

King of Xia had made many crimes. The Heaven orders me to kill him

( Declaration of Tang)

While Zhou (周)dynasty was established instead of Shang (商)dynasty.Book of History wrote:

King of Shang had a lot of crimes. the Heaven orders me to kill him

(Declaration of Tai)

The first emperor of Han (汉)dynasty was Liu Bang(刘邦). He originated from a low officer. Why he could become the emperor? Han Wudi( 汉武帝),the later emperor of Han) asked the scholars. The famous philosopher Dong Zhongshu (董仲舒) said ,he found a reason:”The emperor received the will of Heaven to be the emperor.”(Three policies of Heaven and Man ,《天人三策》)It meant that The Heaven ordered Liu Bang and his descendant to be the emperors.

From Zhou dynasty to Qing(清)dynasty,all people called the emperors:”Son of Heaven”. The emperors had to go to Tai Mountain worshiping the Heaven . All of these were related to the Theory of Destiny .

In the development of the Theory of Destiny, there appeared some reasonable elements,mainly the combination of the will of Heaven and the will of people.

A student of Mencius asked his teacher:

Was the case that Yao (尧) gave the emperor to Shun (舜)?

Mencius said :”No ,the emperor cannot give the emperor to another.…Yao presented Shun to Heaven,and Heaven accepted him,and that he exhibited him to the people,and the people accepted him. .…Heaven gave the empire to him. The people gave it to him.

(Mencius,Chap.14)

So, in Mencius’s opinion, the position of emperor was given by both the Heaven and the people.

Mencius said also:

Declaration of Tai said:”Heaven sees according to what my people see;Heaven hears according to what my people hear.”

(Mencius,Chap.14)

It means that the Heaven observes things according to the eyes of the people;and she listens the sounds according to the ears of the people.

Mencius’s thinking was that the Destiny of Heaven came from the will of the people.

His thinking was close to the Theory of Contract in Western philosophy

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p<>{color:#333;}. Theory of Contract in Western political philosophy

In ancient Greece ,Plato and Aristotle did not have a clear statement on the origin of political power.

In the Middle ages of Europe, The Christian philosopher Thomas Aquinas(1224-1274)had a clear statement that political power was given by the God.

He said:

The governor can only belong to both a man and the God, who is Jesus Christ

(St.Thomas Aquinas: On Politics and Ethics)

In the Middle ages of Europe, the power of Pope is higher than that of the King.. At the time of accession to the throne for the King,it was necessary to have the papal coronation.

The Divine Right Theory in ancient Western political philosophy was similar to (not the same as ) the Theory of Destiny in Chinese political philosophy

In Recent to Modern period, the kernel thinking in political philosophy has been the Theory of Contract

In the Hellenistic period, Epicurus(341-270 BC)presented the early thinking of the Theory of Contact. The Old Testament and New Testament were also the kind of contract between the God and the believers. So ,in Western civilization, the Theory of Contact had its historical origin,

The earliest philosopher who applied the thinking of Contact in political philosophy was Thomas Hobbes(1588-1679).

In his famous work Leviathan, he said :

one person, of whose acts a great multitude, by mutual covenants one with another, have made themselves every one the author, to the end he may use the strength and means of them all as he shall think expedient for their peace and common defense.

This done, the multitude so united in one person is called a Commonwealth; in Latin, Civitas.

Leviathan ,Chap.1)

The main meanings of the above sentences is that the origin of a country(commonwealth) is the mutual contract (covenants)of the people.

His thinking was based on the Man’s equity ,liberty and also the natural laws. Since every ones are equal and free , they are able to have the mutual contract.

Why they need a contract to have the country ?Because only a country can help them to have peace and defense.

Hobbes’s thinking had an epochal meaning in Western political philosophy. His theory denied the theory of the Divine Right in ancient Western political philosophy

After Hobbes, the most important political philosopher in the West was John Locke(1632-1704).

Hobbes was a strong supporter of the King Autocratic System. Locke was an active supporter of Constitutional Monarchy. But in many aspects Locke’s thinking followed that of Hobbes.

Locke derived his Theory of Contact from his Theory of “Natural State” .He said that in the natural state ,Men have their natural rights of equity and liberty. But the state of nature had many shortcomings :

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p<>{color:#333;}. Natural State had not laws which could be accepted by the people.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Natural State had not a fair verdict maker

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p<>{color:#333;}. Natural State had not power to support the correct verdict.

In such situation ,people were willing to give up a part of their own rights,and to transfer these rights to the appointed persons and let them according to the mutual agreements protect the untransferable rights of the people . The mutual agreements was the contract between the people and the government. This was the origin of country.

After Locke, The advocator of the Theory of Contact was Jean-Jacques Rousseau(1712-1778)

He wrote

The problem is to find a form of association which will defend and protect with the whole common force the person and goods of each associate, and in which each, while uniting himself with all, may still obey himself alone, and remain as free as before. This is the fundamental problem of which the Social Contract provides the solution.

(The Social Contract and Discourse,Book 1,Chp.6)

He named the whole common force of all individuals as “ Corporate capacity”and its will as “General will”.

It should be pointed out that the thinking of “General will” has serious defect. It provided the theoretic basis of the Democratic Tyranny during French Revolution

The Theory of Contract established by Hobbes.Locke , Rousseau,etc has been the dominant thinking in Western political philosophy. Up to 20th century ,American famous political philosopher John Rawls(1921—2002) still affirmed this theory.

Comparing the Theory of Destiny in traditional Chinese political philosophy and the Theory of Contract in Western political philosophy, it should be recognized that the Theory of Contact is more reasonable and progressive. The differences between these two theories are:

(1)The Theory of Destiny is not accordant with science.From the view of science, Heaven is the sky or the nature.which couldn’t determine who should be the emperor. The Theory of Contract excludes the determination of the political power by the nature

(2) The Theory of Contract emphasizes that the basis of political power should be the agreement of the people. This is the theoretical basis of modern democratic politics.

2)Theory of People Orientation and Theory of Democracy

The opinion of Theory of People Orientation in Chinese traditional political philosophy was that any political power should depend on people and serve the people .The opinion of the Theory of Democracy of Western political philosophy was that the master of political power is the people.

Both of these two theories answer the same question: what is the property and goal of political power?


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p<>{color:#000;}. Theory of People Orientation in traditional Chinese political philosophy

The theory of People Orientation was the kernel thinking in traditional Chinese political philosophy.

From the ancient Xia,Shang and Zhou dynasties up to Qing dynasty, the political system of China had been Emperor Autocracy. The master of country was not the people,but the kings or the emperors. But whether the political power could be stabilized or continued or not was determined by the support of the people .

The meaning of the theory of People Orientation was that any political power should depend on the people’s support ,should take the benefits of people as its goal of political practice. And then the political power could be stabilized.

The thinking of the theory of People Orientation originated very early.

Book of History(尚书) wrote:

People is the basis of the state. The stability of the basis makes the peace of state

Many ancient Chinese philosophers supported the theory of People Orientation.

Confucius said:

When the people have plenty, the prince will be plenty. If the people are not plenty , the prince will not be plenty

(Analects of Confucius,Chap.13)

Mencius was the philosopher who had the most clear thinking of the theory of People Orientation. He said:

Those who govern others are supported by them.

(Mencius,Chap 5)

When a ruler rejoices in the joy of his people,people also rejoice in his joy. When he grieves at the sorrow of his people ,people also grieve at his sorrow.…In such a case,he will attain to the Imperial dignity.

(Mencius,Chap 2)

There is a way to get the empire;—get the people.and the empire is got. There is a way to get the people; —get their hearts,the people are got.

(Mencius,Chap.7)

Another important successor of Confucius was Xun Zi. He advocated the theory of King Orientation. But he also paid much attention to the people.He said:

The ancient book wrote:” The King likes a boat , the people like the water.Water could make the boat stable ; it could also overturn the boat.”

(Xun Zi ,Chap.9)

In the period of Late Ming dynasty and early Qing dynasty,some famous philosophers also had the thinking of the theory of People Orientation. Huang Zhongxi(黄宗羲) said :

Our goal is for the people,not for the emperor. Our service is for the people ,not for one family

(Interview with the Scholars of Ming)

From the above brief introduction, it may be seen that the theory of People Orientation was the dominant thinking in Chinese traditional political philosophy.This theory was accepted by those wise emperors of different dynasties. They all paid attention to the benefits of the people.This was an important reason that China maintained more than 2000 years of stability and civilization.

B.Theory of Democracy in Western political philosophy

The democratic thinking and system began in ancient Greece.The character of the Athens democratic politics was that all citizens were the governors. But the Athens’s democratic politics was limited to the class of slave owners. The slaves had not democratic rights.

The Athens’s democratic politics had its special condition . In Athens, there were only 400 thousands people. So it is possible to have direct democracy .

But ,the ancient Greek philosophers did not regard democratic system as the best political system.

Plato ‘s teacher Socrates was sentenced to death by the direct democratic vote.So he certainly denied the system of direct democracy.

Aristotle also gave democratic system a negative evaluation. What he supported was Elite politics.

In the Middle Ages of Europe ,The power of the God was the highest ,so,there was no democracy.

Up to recent period. The pioneering philosopher who supported democracy was John Locke(1632-1704). He developed the theory of Contract . ,and presented the theory of Government Legitimacy and also theory of Limited Government . His main thinking were:


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p<>{color:#000;}. The contract was made between the people and the government. While the government disobey the contract ,the people have the right to oppose ,even change the government .The only basis of Government Legitimacy is the agreement of the majority of people. This is the basic principle of democratic politics.


#
p<>{color:#000;}. According to Hobbes’s opinion, in the contract ,the people give all rights to the government. But Locke’s idea was different . Locke’s theory is that the people only give a part of their rights to the government . The people do not give the basic human rights of Life,Liberty and Property to the government. The main responsibility of the government is to protect these basic human rights of the people. While the government encroaches on these basic human rights.it will give up the right of governance automatically

The government only have the rights that people agree to give him . This is the theory of Limited Government. In the modern period ,Locke’s thinking has been accepted in the world comprehensively.

It may be said that Locke established the theoretic basis of modern democracy.

After Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau(1712-1778) made important contribution to the modern democratic idea.

An important idea of Rousseau was the Sovereignty of People.The meaning is that the sovereignty of a country belongs to the people for ever. According to this theory , certainly ,people have the right to limit or to take back the rights that people give to the government ,

According to the theory of the Sovereignty of People, it requires that :


#
p<>{color:#333;}. The government leader should be selected according to the will of the people.


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p<>{color:#000;}. The people have the rights to supervise the government or recall the governor.


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p<>{color:#333;}. The important issues of the country should be determined according to the will of the people.


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p<>{color:#000;}. The government should guarantee all the legitimate rights of the people

Therefore ,according to the theory of the Sovereignty of People, a complete idea of democratic politics may be formed,.

After Rousseau,British philosopher John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)made important contribution to the idea of Democracy.He answered the question why it should be democratic politics. What benefits that democracy could give the people.His answer was:

(1)Each is the only safe guardian of his own rights and interests

(Mill:Considerations on Representative Government,Chap.3)

So ,only the democratic system can have the best management and service for the people.


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p<>{color:#000;}. Only in a democratic system ,people can play fully their enthusiasm,initiative and creativity,then the country will have the best development.

Therefore , only the democratic system can give the greatest well-being of all people.Democracy conforms to both the principles of Justice and Utility.

This is a deep analysis of the idea of Democracy.

Today ,Democracy is comprehensively accepted by almost all countries in the world

3)Theory of Rule of Virtue and Theory of Rule of Law

Theory of Destiny and theory of Contract relate to the origin of political power. Theory of People Orientation and theory of Democracy relate to the property and goal of political power. Theory of Rule of Virtue and theory of Law relate to the principle and method of governance.


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p<>{color:#000;}. Rule of Virtue and Rule of Law in traditional Chinese political philosophy

In traditional Chinese political philosophy, Confucianism advocated Rule of Virtue, Legalism advocated Rule of Law. Of course the Legalist ‘s Rule of Law was different from modern Rule of Law


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p<>{color:#000;}. Rule of Virtue of Confucianism

Confucian theory of Rule of Virtue was related with its theory of Destiny and its theory of People Orientation. In the thinking of Confucianism,the will of Heaven comes from the will of people. The theory of People Orientation taught that the governors must depend on the people and serve the people. These theories told that the governor must demonstrate himself of his moral behaviors and must educate the people to be moral. Theory of Rule of Virtue was also based on the theory of Good human nature.Since the human nature is Good, so ,Rule of Virtue is possible and is the best method of governance.

Theory of Rule of Virtue expressed in following aspects:

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p<>{color:#333;}. The King should demonstrated himself of his moral behaviors

Confucius said:

Politics means uprightness, if you are upright,who dares to be not upright?

(Analects of Confucius ,Chap.12)

If a man is upright in his own conduct, he will have his orders be practiced without trouble. But if a man himself is not upright in his own conduct ,his orders will be disobeyed

(Analects of Confucius ,Chap.13)

Mencius said :

Let the prince be kindhearted , there will be no one who is not kindhearted . Let the prince be righteous, there will be no one who is not righteous. Let the prince be upright,there will be no one who is not upright. Once rectify the prince,and the kingdom will be firmly settled.

[*(*]Mencius,Chap.7)

These sayings of them means that only when the governor himself is upright ,kindhearted and righteous, then all officers and the people will be upright ,kindhearted and righteous.


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p<>{color:#333;}. Educating people to follow family ethics and social morality

Mencius suggested a prince:

To teach the relations of humanity:between father and son,there should be affection; between sovereign and minister,righteousness;between husband and wife,attention to their separate functions;between old and young,a proper order;and between friends,fidelity.

(Mencius,Chap.5)

Confucianism paid high attention to family ,regarding that it should have family ethics firstly,then the society and country could be well managed

In Song dynasty , Chen Yi said:

The way to govern the country is just the way to govern a family.

The way of a wise king is that: cultivate one’s moral character and manage the family’s affairs well. If the family is managed well ,then the world will have a good governance

( Works of Two Chens)

(3)Rule of Virtue requires the Kindhearted Politics

The Kindhearted Politics was the most important principle and content of Confucian Rule of Virtue

Mencius was the philosopher who advocated the Kindhearted Politics most actively. The main suggestion that he gave to the King of Liang was to practice the Kindhearted Politics. He said:

Practicing a commiserative politics with a commiserative mind,the governance of your empire will be as easy a matter as running thing in your palm.

(Mencius,Chap.3)

Treat with the Reverence the elders in your own family,so that the elders in the other’s families shall be similarly treated. Treat with the kindness the young in your own family,so that the young in the other’s families shall be similarly treated. Then , the governance of your empire will be as easy a matter as running thing in your palm.

[*(*]Mencius,Chap.1)

He also suggested:

If Your Majesty will indeed practice the kindhearted politics,being sparing in the use of punishments and making the taxes light …and that the strong people,during their days of leisure ,shall cultivate their filiality,fraternity,sincerity and truthfulness,then you will have them employed ,with sticks, to oppose the sharp weapons of the troop of Qin(秦) and Chu(楚)。

[*(*]Mencius,Chap.1)

The above statement means that the Kindhearted Politics will make a country strong to resist foreign aggression

In the author’s opinion, the thinking of Confucian Kindhearted Politics ,although is incomplete, but it contains the reasonable element . Even in modern period, it still has its important practical significance


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p<>{color:#000;}. Theory of Rule of Law of ancient Chinese legalism

In the period of Warring States what the Kings accepted was not the Confucian Theory of Rule of Virtue ,but the Theory of Rule of Law of Legalism

Legalism was a very important school of ancient Chinese political philosophy. The earliest politician who presented the thinking of Legalism was Guan Zhong (723-645 BC,管仲) 。 He helped the King of Qi State(齐国) become one of five overlords in the Spring-Autumn Period. Confucius gave high respect to Guan. He said:

If there was no Guan Zhong ,we’ll now live like savages.

(Analects of Confucius, Chap.14)

Confucius pointed out that Guan Zhong had important contribution to the creation of civilization.

Guan Zi was a book written by the successors of the theory of Guan Zhong .it said:

If the government was not carried on by the law,then the country affairs will not be in order, the political commands will not be practiced.If the King practiced the law by himself , then it will be practiced by the people.

(Guan Zi ,Chap.16)

Xun Zi himself was a Confucian, but he presented the Theory of Joint use of Ritual and Law. He said:

If there is no Ritual , the society will be no order.

What is Law? Law is the beginning of governance

(Xun Zi, Chap.11,12)

The first saying was the thinking of Confucianism . The second saying was the thinking of Legalism. So ,the thinking of Xun Zi was the combination of Confucianism and Legalism.

An important successor of Legalism was Shang Yang (商鞅)。He carried on the famous Reform of Shang Yang ,which helped Qin State (秦国) become very strong and finally unified the whole China.

Han Fei (韩非) was the most important philosopher of Legalism. He said:

Manage the country by rule of law

The law does not protect the powerful persons.

Punishment does not avoid the minister . Rewarding the good does not leave the ordinary man

(The Work of Han Fei )

In China ‘s modern history, there are reversal evaluation of Legalism.During the Cultural Revolution,It was propagated that Legalism was progressive and Confucianism was reactionary. After the Revolution , Confucianism has been respected ,and Legalism has been seldom talked about

In the opinion of the author, of course ,it was incorrect to have negative evaluation of Confucianism. But today , if we only respect Confucianism,but neglect the other schools of ancient China,including Legalism, it is also not correct. It should be recognized that ,especially in political philosophy, the ancient Legalism was a valuable ideological resource, The thinking of Legalism, emphasizing the importance of Law and the fairness in the practice of Law, still have active and realistic meaning in China today.

B.Rule of Law in Western political philosophy

In Western political philosophy , Rule of Law is the principle of governance of country ,which is opposite to Rule of Man . Rule of Law means that the governance of country must be in accordance with the Law.Rule of Man means that governance of country is in accordance with the will of Someone

In ancient Greece ,Plato ‘s idea was that the state should be governed by philosopher. There was a thinking of Rule of Man .

Aristotle presented the idea of Rule of Law. He said:

it is more proper that law should govern than any one of the citizens.Upon the same principle, if it is advantageous to place the supreme power in some particular persons, they should be appointed to be only guardians, and the servants of the laws

.

It means that Rule of Law is better than Rule of Man. The government or the leaders must manage the country according to the Law.

In the Middle Ages of Europe, the theocracy was the highest power, which was represented by the Archbishop of Rome. So it was rule of man

The most important philosopher who advocate Rule of Law was John Locke(1632-1704). He said:

And so whoever has the legislative or supreme power of any common-wealth, is bound to govern by established standing laws, promulgated and known to the people, and not by extemporary decrees;…. And all this to be directed to no other end, but the peace, safety, and public good of the people.

(John Locke:Two Treatises of Government,The Second,Chap.9)

Locke’s thinking of “govern by established standing laws, promulgated and known to the people” may be regarded as the beginning of modern Rule of Law.

As to the Law of Nature,Locke explained:

The state of nature has a law of nature to govern it, which obliges every one and reason, which is that law, teaches all mankind, who will but consult it, that being all equal and independent,no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty, or possessions:

(John Locke:Two Treatises of Government,The Second,Chap.2)

Therefore , in Locke’s opinion, the basic goal of Law of Nature or other laws is to protect the rights of life ,liberty and property for the people.

In 18 century, German philosopher Immanuel Kant(1724-1804) also paid much attention to Rule of Law. In his opinion, law must expresses the common will of all people The meaning of the Theory of Contract is that all people agree with the common will expressed in the law.

Since the law is created by the agreement of people,so people have the responsibility to obey the law.

Friedrich von Hayek[*(*]1899-1992) was an important philosopher of Liberalism. He paid high attention to Rule of Law.

In his book The Constitution of Liberty, he expressed his opinion:

The extreme importance of Rule of Law is based on the fact that it enlarge the possibility for people to live together peacefully for their mutual benefits.

The thinking of Hayek shows that the Liberalists definitely do not oppose the Rule of Law . Contrarily, they pay much attention to the Rule of Law.

The modern Rule of Law was the safeguard of Democracy and Liberty.It also is the normalization of Democracy and Liberty.

The Liberty of Man ,of course, is very important . But it is not unconstrained. The famous British philosopher John Stuart Mill(1806-1873)said that everyone’s liberty should be limited in the extent of not encroaching on the liberty of others.

How to guarantee this principle of Liberty? The only way is to depend on Rule of Law.

Democracy has the same situation. Democracy cannot be separated from the orbit of the Rule of Law..

It should be pointed out that the theory of Rule of Law presented by ancient Chinese Legalists is different from modern theory of Rule of Law

The main differences are:

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p<>{color:#000;}. The goal of Rule of Law presented by ancient Chinese Legalists was to maintain the Imperial Autocracy,but that of modern Rule of Law is to guarantee the people’s sovereignty.

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p<>{color:#333;}. The main method of Rule of Law of ancient Chinese Legalists was punishment.The principle of modern Rule of Law is to control the illegal activities ,and at the same time to protect the legal rights of people.

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p<>{color:#333;}. The Rule of Law of ancient Chinese Legalists did not limit the power of the King or Emperor. The modern Rule of Law has to limit the power of government

But the fairness of the Rule of Law of ancient Chinese Legalists still has its active meaning in modern society.

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p<>{color:#000;}. Theory of Centralization of Power and the theory of Separation of Power

Any country has the problem of centralization and separation of power. If there is no centralization of power ,.there will be no efficiency of country management . If there is no separation of power, there will no way to treat the complex issues in a country .

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p<>{color:#333;}. Theories of Centralization and Separation of Power in China

In ancient China, the theory of Centralization of Power was dominant,but there still existed the theory of Separation of Power

In the Pre-Qin period of China ,Confucius had supported the theory of Centralization of Power

In the book Analects of Confucius,there is a paragraph:

The Prince of Qi asked Confucius about politics. Confucius answered:”Let the prince be a prince,and let the officer be a officer.Let the father be a father,and let the son be a son,

The Prince replied: “It is very good. If the prince is not a prince ,and the officer is not a officer.…even though I had a Revenue,how I enjoy it?”

(Analects of Confucius, Chap.12)

Here,it should be noticed: this was Confucius’s answer of the question on politics.So ,it showed the political idea of Confucius. In the opinion of Confucius , the prince(or Kings) must maintain the highest position of power

Xun Zi ,the successor of Confucius .supported the theory of King Sovereignty .He said:

The King is the wellspring of the people.

(Xun Zi ,Chap.12)

The King considers how to use his mandate as the means to collect together his physical power and consolidate his inner power. When his physical power is collected,the feudal lords are unable to weaken him.When his inner power is consolidated ,they cannot take away his greatness

(Xun Zi ,Chap.9)

The first sentence means that the King is of the essential person of the country and of the people.

The second paragraph means that the power of the King is the most important factor of a country being strong and stable

Ancient Chinese Legalists had more clear opinions on the King Sovereignty theory.

According to Han Fei (韩非),to consolidate the governance , the King should have a complete strategies. He should give the clear task to every officer ,and inspect the practice of them . He should have the power to determine their living or death. He should hide his true will to control the behaviors of the officers.

In the history of China ,the dominant political idea was the theory of King Sovereignty and the Centralization of Power. But there was also the Theory of People Orientation and Separation of Power.

Mencius had the strongest thinking of People Orientation. He said:

The people are the most important element in a nation ; the country is the next ,and the king is the lightest.

(Mencius,Chap.14)

In Han dynasty, scholar Dong Zhongshu(董仲舒) said :

Flexing the power of people to extend the power of the emperor. Flexing the power of the emperor to extend the power of Heaven

(Chun Qiu Fan Lou 《春秋繁露》)

He meant that , in a country ,the position of the King is higher than that of the people. And the position of Heaven is higher than that of the King.

According to Confucianism ,the will of Heaven is conformed to the will of the people. So Dong affirmed the theory of King Sovereignty, and at the same time ,he affirmed the theory of People Orientation.

His thinking may be a good representative of the dominant political philosophy in ancient China..

It should be noticed that in ancient China, besides the theory of Concentration of Power,there existed the fact of the separation of political powers as follows:.

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p<>{color:#333;}. The system of Prime Minister

In the long history of ancient China,the political system was Imperial Autocracy, But only by the emperor himself ,it was impossible to manage a country. So ,there appeared the system of Prime Minister to help the emperor .

In the Spring-Autumn period, the prince of Qi appointed Guan Zhong (管仲) as the prime minister.Guan had high level of both knowledge and ability. He helped the prince of Qi become one of five overlords in that period .

In Han dynasty, there was a system of three prime ministers ,one was responsible for military ,one for administration and the other for supervision.

In Tang dynasty ,there was a good system of separation of three powers, one was responsible for helping the emperor to do the decision ,one for administration ,and the other for auditing .

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p<>{color:#333;}. The system of Supervision

In ancient China ,the system of supervision had two main tasks: one was to present expostulation for the emperor; the other was to supervise and impeach the officers.

In Tang dynasty , there had the most perfect system of supervision in China’s history. Emperor Taizong of Tang (唐太宗)listened modestly to the expostulation of prime minister Wei Zheng(魏征) and became one of the most successful emperor in China’s history.

From Song to Qing dynasty ,even though the system of supervision had been weakened,but the institution of supervision had been existing .

So ,in summary , in China’s history , although the theory of Centralization of Power was dominant ,but there existed certain systems of Separation of Power.

B Separation and Centralization of Power in the West

In the history ,the political system of the West was quite different from that of China.

In ancient Greece,the political system implemented was City-State Democracy.

In the aspect of philosophy,the political system that Aristotle praised was neither Autocracy nor Democracy ,but Republic System ,a mixed political system which he regarded as the most stable system .

Aristotle presented creatively the theory of Three Elements in a political system . He said:

There are three things in all states which a careful legislator ought well to consider, which are of great consequence to all. …The first of these is the public assembly; the second ,the officers of the state, …; the third, the judicial department.

(Aristotle:Politics-A Treatise on Goverrmemt.1298)

This was the origin of the thinking of separation of three powers in the West.

In the Middle ages of Europe, what the Christian philosopher Thomas Aquinas(1224-1274)advocated was the Theocracy. The God had the highest power.

The founder of modern Western political philosophy was John Locke(1632-1704). A series of modern democratic political thinking ,as the theory of natural rights,theory of limited government, etc were all began with him.‘

In Locke’s theory of government, a very important content was : Separation of Power of the government.

Locke presented the idea that the power of country should be separated into three parts: the right of legislation ,of administration ,and of foreign affairs. The rights of legislation is to formulate and promulgate the laws. The rights of administration is to implement the laws and manage the country affairs . The rights of foreign affairs are to establish foreign alliances,declare war, and make peace with foreign countries.

He emphasized that these three power should not be concentrated at the hand of one person (as the emperor) . The three powers should have mutual supervision and restriction.

He mentioned that these three powers are separated but not parallel.The legislation right is the highest right in a country. The institution of legislation must be created by vote of the people so as to represent the will of people. So ,the people are the owner of the highest power of the country. This is the essential meaning of Democracy.

Locks’s theory of Separation of Power , although,was not perfect (he didn’t separated out the right of Jurisdiction) ,established the theoretical basis of the theory of Separation of Power in Western political philosophy..

The scholar who presented the complete and perfect theory of Separation of Three Powers was the French philosopher Charles Montesquieu(1689-1755).

The main content of the Separation of Three powers are: the mutual independence and mutual restriction of the rights of Legislation , Execution and Jurisdiction.

 

The presupposition of this theory is that the absolute power must produce the absolute corruption

So it is necessary to built a democratic country ruled by law with the separation of three powers.The West modern politicians and philosophers all regards that the separation of three powers is the indicator of a democratic and law-ruling country. On the opposite, it must be an authoritarian country.


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p<>{color:#333;}. Synthesis of Chinese and Western Political Philosophy

Comparatively to say , Chinese moral philosophy has richer content than Western moral philosophy , and Western political philosophy is more advanced than Chinese political philosophy.

The comparison of Chinese and Western political philosophy was related with the history. After the Enlightenment Movement of Europe In 17-18 centuries, with the development of capitalism , the modern political ideas, as Liberty,Equity ,Democracy, Rule of Law ,etc have been affirmed and popularized in the Western countries, In China, up to 20 century , these advanced ideas began to be introduced,about more than 200 years later than the West. Even today , there still has a rather large space for them to be popularized in China

But, in the author’s opinion , while we recognize the progressiveness of Western political philosophy, the active and reasonable elements in Chinese political philosophy should be noticed and be accepted . The synthesis of Chinese and Western political philosophy is beneficial not only to the progress of China ,but also to the progress of the world.

The synthesis of Chinese and Western political philosophy will be discussed in the following four aspects.

1)Synthesis of the theory of Contract in Western philosophy and the theory of People’s Will in Chinese philosophy

Theory of Contract in Western philosophy provides the theoretical basis of the legitimacy of government. The brief meaning of the Theory of Contract is that the legitimacy of government comes from the contract signed by the people ,or between the government and the people,so that it comes from the agreement and mandate of the people.

But many Western philosophers pointed out that in the history , there has no real fact that a contract was signed between the government and the people.

In 18 century , famous philosopher David Hume(1711-1776)wrote in his book,Of the original contract

Almost all the governments, which exist at present, or of which there remains any record in story, have been founded originally, either on usurpation or conquest, or both, without any pretence of a fair consent, or voluntary subjection of the people

(David Hume: Of the original contract)

In Hume’s opinion , the reason that people need a government is to maintain the peace and order of the society, or to have the justice of the society.This is Hume’s political philosophy of Utilitarianism.

The contemporary philosopher John Rawls(1921—2002) agreed with Hume’s opinion. He recognized that there was no fact of contract signed between the people and the government. In his opinion , Locke’s theory of Contract and Hume’s theory of Utilitarianism,essentially are the same . Only a government which could maintain the peace and order ,realize the comprehensive benefit of the people ,could obtain the agreement from the people to conclude a contract (as to make the Constitution)with the government. Otherwise, the people are not willing to conclude the contract..

In the traditional Chinese political philosophy, the basis of political power came from the Destiny which meant that the Heaven determined who could be the king or emperor. Of course , the theory of Destiny was not comfort to human reason and science. But in the traditional Chinese theory of Destiny ,there existed the reasonable element ,that the will of Heaven was joined with the will of the people.

Mencius introduced the saying in Declaration of Tai and said:

Heaven sees according to my people see;Heaven hears according to my people hear.” (Mencius,Chap.14)

It meant that the will of Heaven came from the will of people. The thinking of Mencius was basically the same as the theory of Contract in the West.

So ,either the Chinese traditional theory of Destiny,or the Western theory of Contract ,had the meaning that the legitimacy of government comes only from the agreement of the people or the will of the people.

This is the basis of the principle of the theory of People’s Sovereignty

In the modern world , the Constitutions of most countries are agreed directly or indirectly by the people. People agree with the Constitution only because it is conform to the benefit of the people.

Because the only basis of the legitimacy of government comes from the agreement and authorization of the people, the leaders of the government must be voted directly or indirectly by the people. The policies of the government must conform to the benefit of the people . These are the basic principles of modern democratic politics,recognized world widely .

It is the primary principle of the synthesis of Chinese and Western political philosophy.


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p<>{color:#333;}. Synthesis of the theory of Democracy in Western philosophy and the theory of People Orientation in Chinese philosophy

It should be clarified that the theory of Democracy and the theory of People Orientation are different. The theory of People Orientation was the traditional political philosophy of China. The theory of Democracy is the modern political philosophy accepted widely after Enlightenment Movement .

The meaning of the theory of People Orientation is that the Sovereignty of a country belongs to the emperor or king,but who must take the people as the basis of the country. The political power must depend on the people, serve for the people,take the benefit of the people as the basic goal of the country..

The meaning of the theory of Democracy is that the Sovereignty of a country belongs to the people. The creation of the government must be voted (directly or indirectly) by the people. The government must be supervised by the people. The policies of the government or the ruling party must be conform to the benefit of the people.

The human history has already proved that the theory of Democracy is advanced and correct. Democratic politics has been the common trend of the world. The theory of People Orientation was a traditional and incomplete political theory.

The reason is that the theory of People Orientation essentially serves for the ruler(emperor ,king or other persons). Its basic goal is to consolidate the ruling position of the ruler. But how to guarantee the ruler take the benefit of the people as his real goal? The theory of People Orientation itself could not answer this question. If we look the history of China’s history, usually , in the early period of a dynasty, the emperors rather paid attention to the people’s benefit . But the later emperors were either weak in ability ,or greedy of enjoyment, and most officers went to be corrupt. All of them disregarded the basic benefits of the people.

This is why a country (including China) must insist on the principle of Democracy. Today , China’s government take Democracy as one of the kernel Socialist Values. It is correct.

But ,if we make a objective observation of the world history , we will notice that Democracy is not universally effective . Democracy could not guarantee the policies of government conform to the benefit of the people anytime or in any case.

Such historical facts are not few. For example:


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p<>{color:#000;}. In 399 BC , the ancient great philosopher Socrates was sentenced to death with two crimes,one was that he did not respect the God, the other was that he misled the young . The sentence was decided by a democratic voting of a ratio of 281:200.


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p<>{color:#000;}. Before the World War II , the German dictator Hitler coming to power was determined by a democratic procedure. He obtained the support of more than 90% of German people. What was the result? Hitler brought the great disaster to Germany and to the total world.


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p<>{color:#000;}. In 2003, USA launched the war against Iraq. It was decided by the democratic procedure in the American Congress with the reason that Iraq possesses weapons of mass destruction.But at the end of the war ,such weapon was not found there. In this war .more than 110 thousands soldiers of Iraq and 4366 American soldiers died.

Therefore ,in the author’s opinion,, the theory of People Orientation should not be completely denied . A wise and reasonable thinking should be the synthesis of .the theory of Democracy and the theory of People Orientation .

In any country, Democracy is absolutely required . The people should have full democratic rights . The leader of the government should be elected by direct or indirect people’s voting. The government should be supervised by the people and by public opinion. Before making the policies and decisions of the government , people ‘s opinion should be listened to or consulted with comprehensively.

On the other hand ,the theory of People Orientation is still required .All the leaders and officers in the government should take the benefit of people as their basic orientation. If any democratic procedure or democratic decision does not conform to the benefit of the people ,such democratic procedure or decision must be reformed so that to improve the system and policy of Democratic politics.

The principle of democratic decision is that the minority subordinates to the majority. But quite often , the truth is at the hand of minority. So ,the democratic consultation system should be established ,so as to protect and respect the opinions of minority

The opinion of majority sometimes has the inclination of Populism(Hitler came to power was due to Populism). So , the responsible government or party should vigilantly resist the Populism.

In these aspects , the theory of People Orientation is required. Since this thinking is beneficial to the people.

This is the synthesis of the theory of Democracy and the theory of People Orientation.


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p<>{color:#333;}. Synthesis of the theory of Rule of Law in Western philosophy and the theory of Rule of Virtue in Chinese philosophy

There is no doubt that either in the world ,or in China, the principle of Rule of Law is more reasonable than Rule of Virtue. The main reasons are:

A.The Confucian ‘s Rule of Virtue ,practically, is a kind of Rule of Man

Confucius said:

Politics means upright, if you are upright,who dare to be not upright?

(Analects of Confucius ,Chap.12)

Confucian politics depends on the upright, justice and kindheartedness of the king or the morality of the king. But how to guarantee king’s morality.Looking into the China’s history of more than 2000 years ,in fact ,there was no way to guarantee.. In China’s history , there appeared often tyrannical kings or fatuous kings. In the 28 years after the establishment of PRC, basically, there was the ruling of one person—Mao. Although there were some achievements ,but many great disasters happened in this period,such as the Anti-Rightist Movement, the Great Leap Forward Movement,the Cultural Revolution,etc

B , The Confucian Rule of Virtue paid attention to the social rank. It advocated:

Ritual is not applied to common people. Punishment is not applied to the officers

(Book of Ritual,Chap.1)

It is not a fair and just social policy.

In 2014, the central government of China emphasized “ Manage the country by Rule of Law”. It is a correct direction

Only by ruling of Law, the country could advance along the right path, and not go on a wrong path due to the change of the leader. Only by ruling of Law, the fairness and justice for all people could be guaranteed; the corruption of the officers could be restrained; people’s enthusiasm could be mobilized; and the country could be developing on a healthy way .

But , in the traditional Chinese theory of Rule of Virtue , was there some reasonable elements ? The answer of the author is : Yes.

In the Confucian theory of Rule of Virtue, there are two thinking worthy to be paid attention,even today ,one is demonstrative effect of the leaders; the other is the thinking of Kindhearted Politics of Mencius

The behaviors and morality of the leaders and officers has apparent demonstrative effect on the people.So the education and supervision of the morality are still important in the politics of a country.

The thinking of Kindhearted politics was related to the theory of Rule of Virtue. According to Mencius, the spirit of Rule of Virtue expressed mainly in the Kindhearted politics

Mencius said:

Treat with the Reverence the elders in your own family,so that the elders in the other’s families shall be similarly treated. Treat with the kindness the young in your own family,so that the young in the other’s families shall be similarly treated.

(Mencius, Chap.1)

This is a very noble and high level thinking of politics.

In the author’s opinion , such political thinking is conformed to the modern thinking of social security and social fairness.

The main service objects of modern social security are the vulnerable people,including the elder , the children, the disabled persons, the sick men , the unemployed,etc.

Mencius’s thinking was that that government and officers should not only to take care for them ,but also take them as their family members with love . They should not only implement the social security policies ,but also have a kindhearted feeling and love towards the vulnerable people.

Of course ,in modern society, the social security policies should be put into the laws. Modern rule of law must contain social security .

So , the Chinese traditional theory of Rule of Virtue and the Western theory of Rule of Law could be synthesized together.to create a more complete and reasonable political philosophy.

4)Synthesis of the theory of Separation of Power and the theory of Concentration of Power

The modern theory of Separation of power was presented basically by John Locke(1632-1704). Its complete form was presented by Charles Montesquieu(1689-1755).

The theory presented by them had the historical background.

Locke(1632-1704) was living in the period of Britain’s Stuart dynasty. After the Great Charter movement. the Parliament ,representing the industrial and commercial capitalists, had rather strong power to resist the power of the King ,who represented the feudal aristocratic class.

In 1683-1658, the dictatorial governor Cromwell implemented the policies conformed to the capitalist class. There formed two parties in the Parliament:, the Whigs,representing the capitalists , and Tories,representing the aristocratic class.In 1688, the Whigs launched a palace coup , receiving James II’s daughter Marie and her husband William back England. From then , the Constitutional Monarchy system began in England.which is called The Glorious Revolution in history.

Locke was the important theorist of the Whigs. He saw that neither the autocracy of the King ,nor that of Cromwell was not beneficial to the people and the country , Under this background , he presented the theory of Separation of power.

Montesquieu(1689-1755) was living in the early period of 18 century,when the .King Autocracy of France went toward the peak and then turned to decline rapidly ,. The economic and political crisis was very serious . In such situation , he presented a complete theory of Separation of Three Powers.

So , the theory of Separation of power was presented to oppose the autocracy. According to the theory , any part of the power ,if not restrained , will form autocracy and bring the country to disaster.

The theory of Separation of Power was based on the theory of Evil human nature. Lord Acton of Britain had a famous saying:

Power tends to corrupt,and absolute power corrupts absolutely.

From the view of modern China’s history , the separation of power is necessary , In the period of Republic of China (1911-1949) and the early period of PRC (1949-1976), the over concentration of power caused great disasters in China.

In the political report of the 18th National Congress of the CPC held in 2013 , it presented that :

To ensure the mutual restraint and mutual coordination of the decision-making power, executive power, supervision power .To ensure that state organs exercise their powers in accordance with the statutory authority and procedures

So ,the ruling party of China has basically recognized the principle of the separation ,the mutual restrain and coordination of the political powers .

A problem should be discussed : on the basis of the separation of power, is it necessary to have a certain degree of concentration of power? In other words, does the traditional Chinese theory of the concentration of power should be completely denied ?

In the author’s opinion, on the basis of separation of power, a certain degree of concentration of power is still required. Otherwise , the country has no ability to have enough efficiency for its governance

There are many examples to prove this idea.One example is the medical reform of USA .

USA is one of few countries in the developed country which has not implemented the Medical Security Policy for all people.

Early in 1912, the President Theodore Roosevelt(1858—1919.) appreciated the medical reform of Germany and tried to implement it in USA . But due to the opposition of the later President, he failed.

In 1945,President Truman suggested to implement the Compulsory Insurance Policy,but it was not supported by the Congress

In 1962, President Kennedy suggested to establish the Medical Insurance Policy for the old people, but it was not supported by the Congress

In 1994, President Clinton, with the help of his wife Hilary Clinton, advocated the Universal health insurance project . But it was not passed in the Congress.

In 2009.President Barack Obama made a hard effort to push forward the Medical Reform ,but he meets great difficulties. In 2010 , The Health Care Reform Bill was finally passed in the Congress.

The Medical Reform Project is beneficial to a large population in USA , but it has not been implemented in 100 years. It shows that the Western political system does has certain defects.

From the above example, we may see that on the basis of Separation and mutual restrain of powers , a certain degree of Concentration of power is beneficial to the efficiency of the government and benefit of the people.

The fact is that in the political system of modern Western countries,there is not only the separation of power ,but also a certain degree of concentration of power.

Modern political systems of the West countries may be classified into two types:one is the Cabinet System(as the great Britain ),the other is the Presidential System(as USA)

The Cabinet System :The members of the Parliament are elected by the the people. The leader of the majority party becomes the prime minister . So the decision of prime minister usually can be supported by the Parliament,hence to guarantee the concentration of power.

The Presidential System:The President is elected directly or indirectly by the people.The members of Congress are also elected by the people. The party which the president belongs to is not certainly the majority of the Congress. Therefore the decisions of the President sometimes are not supported by the Congress. But according to the Constitution , the President has a strong power. He is the Head of the country, the commander in chief of the armed forces , the leader of the government , the decision maker of foreign affairs, the important founder of legislation,etc .so as to guarantee a certain degree of the concentration of power.

According to the above introduction in this chapter.in ancient China, although the main system was Imperial Autocracy.But there existed certain system of separation of power (as the prime minister system , the supervision system ,etc). In the modern Western countries ,although the main system is the separation of three powers ,but there exists certain system of concentration of power

Therefore, a suitable combination of the separation of power and concentration of power is required in any country. If there is no separation of powers, the absolute autocracy must be formed .If there is no concentration of power, there must be a government with low efficiency .

Modern country should accept the theory of Separation of power and establish the mutual restrain of powers. The theory of Concentration of Power of the traditional Chinese political philosophy ,after eliminate its unreasonable elements , its reasonable elements may be accepted.

This is the synthesis of the theory of Separation of Power and the theory of Concentration of power.

The contemporary leaders of China presented the principle of a combination of the Leadership of Party, the Rule of Law and the People’s Sovereignty .This principle has the consideration of the synthesis of the theory of Separation of Power and the theory of Concentration of Power


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p<>{color:#000;}. Summary of this Chapter,

!) The essential meaning of the Theory of Contract in the Western political philosophy is that the legitimacy of government comes from the agreement of the people. The theory of Destiny in the traditional Chinese political philosophy ,of course ,was not conform to science . But the Confucian thinking was that the will of Heaven comes from the will of the people. Therefore ,after eliminating the unreasonable element , there are some reasonable elements in the Chinese traditional theory . These two theories are possible to be synthesized.They both recognizes that the legitimacy of government can only be obtained by the agreement and authorized by the people.

2) In the history , the theory of People Orientation in the traditional Chinese political philosophy was aimed at the consolidation of the Imperial Autocracy .

From the view of world history ,of course , the theory of Democracy is a progressive direction . But it should be noticed that Democracy is not universally beneficial to the people. The principle of decision by the majority sometimes will cause disasters of Populism .

Therefore , a reasonable political thinking is the synthesis of the theory of Democracy and the theory of People Orientation. In the democratic political system , the principle of People Orientation should be insisted on. If the decision of Democracy disobey the benefit of the people,the democratic system should be reformed and improved.

3)The traditional Chinese political philosophy emphasized the theory of Rule of Virtue The modern Western political philosophy emphasizes the theory of Rule of Law.

Of course , the theory of Rule of Law is a correct and progressive direction .

But it should be seen that there are some reasonable elements in the theory of Rule of Virtue. Especially the Confucian’s theory of Kindhearted Politics is a thinking closely related to the modern social security policy . This theory asks all government not only pay attention to the weaker of the society ,but also pay hearty love to them .

So ,it is reasonable to synthesize the theory of Rule of Law and the theory of Rule of Virtue.


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p<>{color:#333;}. In ancient China ,the dominant thinking was the theory of Concentration of Power .But there existed certain systems of the Separation of power .

In modern Western countries , the dominant thinking is the theory of Separation of Power ,but there exists the political design of the Concentration of Power.

A suitable combination of the Separation of Power and Concentration of Power is essential to all countries so as to avoid any types of Autocracy and at the same time to guarantee the efficiency of the government

This is the synthesis of these two theories

Chapter 9.

Comparison and Synthesis of Chinese and Western Beauty Philosophy

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p<>{color:#000;}. Introduction of Beauty Philosophy

Truth,Good,Beauty and Love are all Man’s highest spiritual pursuits.Beauty gives Man pleasure ,gives Man spiritual energy. So , Beauty is the source of strength for human being to maintain life and progress.

Either from the view of whole mankind or that of individual’s life, Man could not live without Beauty. If there is no beauty and art─literature,music ,painting .dance,drama,movie , TV drama, beauty of architecture,beauty of gardening,beauty of cloth , everyone will feel that there is no pleasure and no meaning in the life.

That is why that Beauty has great importance to human being.

To discuss the problem of Beauty, it’s necessary to analysis the relation between Beauty philosophy and Esthetics.

The concept of Esthetics was presented firstly by German philosopher Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten(1714-1762). Up to now , Esthetics has been already a rather complete science with rich content related to beauty and art ,

Beauty philosophy is the theoretical basis of Esthetics. It is also one of the branches of Philosophy.

In the philosophic system of Kant, there is a part of Beauty philosophy.Kant wrote three most important books on philosophy. :

The Critique of Pure Reason discusses the problem of Epistemology

The Critique of Practical Reason discusses the problem of moral philosophy .

The Critique of Judgment discusses the problem of Beauty philosophy.

In the book written by the author,Beauty Philosophy.it is presented that the main tasks of Beauty philosophy are :

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Discuss the essence of Beauty— what is Beauty?

#
p<>{color:#333;}. Discuss the origin of Beauty

#
p<>{color:#333;}. Discuss the relation between the essence of Man and Beauty

#
p<>{color:#333;}. Discuss the relation between Beauty and Truth ,Good and Love

#
p<>{color:#333;}. Discuss the relation between Beauty and other branches of philosophy,as Ontology ,Epistemology, Good philosophy .Love philosophy,etc

#
p<>{color:#333;}. Discuss the importance of Beauty to Man’s life.

2. Comparison of Chinese and Western Beauty Philosophy

There are apparent differences between Chinese and Western Beauty philosophy. Western Beauty pays attention to discussing the problem of : what is the essence of Beauty? Chinese philosophy pays attention to discussing the problem of how to have the Beauty, which means the basic method of Beauty.

This book is not a special book of Beauty Philosophy.It does not prepare to introduce the detailed history of Western and Chinese Beauty philosophy. Who might be interested in details of Beauty philosophy could read the Book Beauty Philosophy (published by Wuhan University Press,2014) .

In this book , the main different views of Western and Chinese Beauty philosophy will be discussed

1)Theory of Perception and Theory of Imagery

A, Theory of Perception in Western Beauty Philosophy

As mentioned above , Western Beauty philosophy emphasizes the discussion of the problem of the Essence of Beauty.

Ancient Greek philosopher Puthagoras presented the view that Beauty is harmony.

Plato presented the view that Beauty is the Idea of Beauty.

Aristotle presented the view that Beauty is completeness.

In the Middle Ages of Europe, Christian philosopher August presented the view that Beauty is created by the God.

In 17-18 centuries ,Western philosophers were classified into two schools: one was Empiricism, the other was Rationalism.In 18-19 centuries , Kant and Hegel was the synthesizer of Western recent philosophy.

The recent Western philosophers ,in the aspect of Beauty,all took Perception as the kernel idea, which is named by the author: Theory of Perception.

#
p<>{color:#333;}. The view of Beauty of Empiricism

The main representative of Empiricism was John Locke(1632-1704). He wrote:

Whence has it all the materials of reason and knowledge? To this I answer, in one word, from EXPERIENCE. In that all our knowledge is founded; and from that it ultimately derives itself.

(An Essay Concerning Humane Understanding,Book 2.Chap.1)

In the field of Beauty philosophy, the main philosophers of Empiricism were the British philosophers Shaftesbury(1671-1713). Francis Hutchison (1694-1747),etc

Shaftesbury, according to the Empiricism theory of Locke , presented an idea that :Beauty is also a perception of Man ,which is sensed by Man’s Inner Eyes. His opinion is that while Man sees some forms or listens some sounds, he could recognizes the beauty,refinement and harmony. The distinguishing ability can only come from inner eyes ,which means , from the human nature.


#
p<>{color:#000;}. The view of Beauty of Rationalism

Alexander Gottlied Baumgarten(1714-1762) was a German Rationalistic philosopher. He is recognized as the founder of Aesthetics His opinion is :

The purpose of Aesthetics is the perfection of sensuous knowledge itself. Its perfection is Beauty. Its imperfection is Ugly

(Theoretical Aesthetics)

So ,in his opinion , the essence of Beauty is the perfection of sensuous knowledge..

What is the difference between” Beauty is perception of Man “ of Empiricism and “Beauty is the perfection of sensuous knowledge” of . Rationalism.?

The understanding of the author is that Perception and Sensuous Knowledge are two related but different concepts.

While Man sees forms or listens sounds,(saying of Shaftesbury) ,these are the Perception,but not Sensuous Knowledge.

For example, while we see the color and form of plum flower. it is Man’s Perception. While we know that it is the flowers of plum tree which blossom in the winter and has the valuable character of not being afraid of cold ,these are the Sensuous Knowledge

So ,Sensuous Knowledge is established on the basis of Perception and is the rational extraction of Perception..

While Man’s Sensuous Knowledge attains perfection ,it is Beauty. This definition of Beauty can summarize all high level arts ,as painting ,music ,poem ,drama, novel ,etc .

It may be said that the perfection of Rational Knowledge is Science . The perfection of Sensuous Knowledge is Beauty or Art ,


#
p<>{color:#000;}. Hegel’s opinion on Beauty— Beauty is the perceptual embodiment of Rationality

Freiedrich Hegel(1770-1831) was one of main philosopher of Western Rationalism philosophy. The highest concept of his philosophy is the Absolute Idea.

On Beauty ,his opinion was that Beauty is the perceptual embodiment of Rationality. The meaning of this saying is that Beauty needs Rationality as its premise. The Rationality, which he mentioned ,is Man’s thinking or ideal. Hegel pointed out that if Man’s rationality(thinking or ideal) could be expressed by sensuous forms (could be seen or listened), it is Beauty.

The view of Hegel is different from the view of Baumgarten. The Beauty that Baumgarten mentioned does not requires Rationality as its premise. But the Beauty that Hegel mentioned has this requirement. .

It may be said that both of these two opinions have their correctness . The opinion of Baumgarten can be used in a more wide extent including natural beauty and art beauty, if they appear the perfection of sensuous knowledge. Some arts ,as poem,drama,novel ,etc do have certain Rationality as their premise. Hegel is correct


#
p<>{color:#000;}. Modern Beauty Philosophy

Henri Bergson(1859—1941),the founder of Life Philosophy, presented the opinion that the intuition is the only method to understand Beauty. Intuition is not a cognitive method of rationality , but a cognitive method of perception . It cognizes the Beauty directly from the perception.

Edmund Husserl (1859~1938) was the founder of Phenomenology. The theory of Phenomenology was an important breakthrough of Epistemology. Husserl presented the concept of “Intentionality” which is the combination of Intentional activity and intentional object . His theory is that Man has different types of Intentional activities. To pursue the Truth , Man uses the methods as observation ,analysis ,experiment ,judgment,etc To pursue Beauty ,Man uses the methods as perception ,feeling,intuition,etc

In summary , as to the understanding of Beauty, a common opinion of Western philosophers is to emphasize the concept of Perception.

If we compare Science and Art, it may be recognized that the opinion of Western philosophy is reasonable. In Science ,Man obtains the cognition of Truth through observations ,experiments and theoretical extraction . But in Art ,Man obtains the cognition of Beauty through perception or intuition

B. Theory of Imagery in Chinese Beauty Philosophy

“Imagery”(意象) is the kernel idea in Chinese Beauty philosophy.This is the common opinion of ancient and modern scholars. The idea of Imagery is different from the idea of Perception

The idea of Imagery began in Zhou’s Book of Change(《周易》)_] ,which was composed of two books: one is [_Book of Change(《易经》) and the other is Appendices of Book of Change(《易传》). Book of Change was a book written in the early period of Zhou dynasty(mainly used for predicting the fate) . Appendices of Book of Change ,which made explanation of Book of Change ,was written in the Warring States Period。

The text of Book of Change is composed of three parts:Images, Explanation and Meanings. There are 64 Hexagrams in the book . Taking the first Hexagram –Qian (乾, Creative) as a example,

Its Image is Qian above(≡)and Qian below(≡)

Its Explanation is that the Creative works great , successful and perseverant.(元亨利贞).

Its meaning is that how Great the Creative is ! It is Strong and Justice.

(大哉乾乎,刚健中正

In the period of Wei-Jin, Wang Bi (王弼) was a talent young philosopher. His famous theory was that understand the meaning and forget the image.

What he meant was not to deny the image ,but to understand the Meaning through the Image. This is the meaning of “Imagery “ in Chinese Beauty philosophy..

In ancient China , all arts ,as poem ,painting , calligraphy,music , sculpture,etc involved the idea of Imagery : expressing the inner meaning through the outside image.

In the later history , the idea of Imagery has been developing ,but does not leave the basic meaning of it .

In Tang dynasty, famous poet Wang Changling (王昌龄) said:

There are three states: substantial state , feeling state and meaning state.

“Meaning State “(意境) has a deeper content than Imagery(意象). In the concept of Imagery , the image usually means the type or form of something.The Meaning State means a wider extent,such as scenery

Another famous poet in the middle Tang dynasty Sikong Tu(司空图) had deep explanation of the idea of Imagery.He pointed out :

Thinking is accompanied by the realm.

There is image outside image and scenery outside scenery .

In the period of Ming and Qing dynasties ,philosopher Wang Fuzhi(王夫之) wrote

To have a excellent combination of feeling and scenery.

Scholar Wang Shizhen(王士祯) presented the theory of Verve(神韵). He said:

The highest level of poem is to attain Verve.

In the period of Republic of China,famous philosopher Wang Guowei(王国维) presented the theory of Realm(境界.. He wrote:

Realm is the highest level of poetry.

( Talks on Poetry)

Realm is a high level principle of appreciation of the Beauty.It contains and higher than the idea of Imagery.

In summary , the Western idea of Perception emphasizes the image of the object of Beauty. The Chinese idea of Imagery pursues the inner thinking ,feeling , sentiment,etc involved within the image.

The difference between the Western theory of Perception and the Chinese theory of Imagery created very deep influence upon the characteristics of Western and Chinese arts ,especially in the fields of poetry and painting.

2)Theory of Pleasure and Theory of Kindhearted Beauty

The other important difference between Chinese and Western Beauty philosophy is that Western Beauty philosophy emphasizes that Beauty gives Man pleasure, Chinese Beauty philosophy emphasizes that Beauty should be combined with Kindheartedness.


#
p<>{color:#000;}. Theory of Pleasure in Western Beauty philosophy.

Not all Western philosophers emphasize that Beauty gives Man pleasure . But in the author’s opinion,”Beauty gives Man pleasure”is one of the most important views in Western Beauty philosophy.

In the period of ancient Greek , Puthagoras(580-500 BC)presented the view that Beauty is Harmony. It involves the meaning of “Beauty gives Man pleasure”. Since Harmony will give Man pleasure

In respect of music ,while Man listens the elegant and beautiful melody, he will feel pleasant

In respect of painting, while Man sees the harmony of colors and the excellent fusion of image and meaning ,he will feel pleasant

In respect of poetry, while Man reads the wonderful sentences and understands their deep content ,he will feel pleasant .

In all arts , Man find Beauty. So Beauty comes from the feeling of pleasure.

The philosopher who firstly presented the theory that Beauty gives Man pleasure was David Hume(1711-1776).

In his book A Treatise of Human Nature,he wrote:

Beauty is such an order and construction of parts, as either by the primary constitution of our nature, by custom, or by caprice,is fitted to give a pleasure and satisfaction to the soul. This is the distinguishing character of beauty,… Pleasure and pain, therefore, are not only necessary attendants of beauty and deformity, but constitute their very essence

(ATreatise of Human Nature,Book 2, Part 1,Section 8, of Beauty and Deformity)

In the author’s opinion ,the importance of these sentences is that he pointed out that Beauty needs the fitness of human nature and the object. This fitness create Beauty. This is a breakthrough opinion 。 Hume’s View is that Pleasure is the reason which create Beauty ,but pleasure is not equal to Beauty .He wrote:

We find, that an object produces pride merely by the interposition of pleasure.

(Same as above)

Here “pride”has the meaning of feeling of Beauty.So ,Hume’s explanation of Beauty is that the object produces pleasure and pleasure produces Beauty . This is a quite deep analysis of Beauty.

The most important philosopher in Recent period of the West was Immanuel Kant. His outstanding contribution to Beauty philosophy is to point out that Beauty gives Man pleasure. He wrote:

Taste is the faculty of estimating an object or a mode of representation by means of a delight or aversion apart from any interest. The object of such a delight is called beautiful.

(The Critique of Judgement ,Section 1, Book 1)

The important points in this saying is:


#
p<>{color:#000;}. Beauty gives Man delight


#
p<>{color:#000;}. Beauty is not related with interest.

What the key opinion of Kant gives us is that Beauty gives Man pleasure(delight) . This is the main character of Beauty which distinguishes Beauty from Truth and Good. It is also the reason of the importance of Beauty to human being. Just because that Beauty gives Man pleasure,it makes Man feel happiness of life and gives Man a strong energy to overcome various difficulties

B .Theory of Kindhearted Beauty in Chinese Beauty philosophy

In ancient China, on Beauty, what the philosophers emphasized,besides the idea of Imagery .was the combination of Beauty and Kindheartedness,.which named by the author: Theory of Kindhearted Beauty.

Confucius was the first philosopher who presented the theory of Kindhearted Beauty. He said:

Hold fast to morality;depend on Kindheartedness, and enjoyed the pleasure derived from the pursuit of arts

(Analects of Confucius,Chap.7)

In ancient China, the students should have six talents:: ritual,music ,shooting ,driving,writing and calculating. Among them , ritual ,music and writing(literature) ,all belong to the field of Beauty

The above saying of Confucius means that Beauty should depend on morality and kindheartedness. This was the basic opinion of Confucianism on Beauty.

Mencius also had important statements on Beauty:

One who could command his desires is called Good. He whose Good is part of himself is called Trust . He whose Good has been filled up is called Beauty . He whose Good is brightly displayed,is called Great..

(Mencius ,Book 14)

The Desires that Mencius mentioned is related to the human nature.According to Mencius’s theory of Good human nature ,Man has the inborn natures of the feeling of commiseration.

“One could command his desires” means that he could insist on his good human nature. This is so called Good . He takes the Good as a part of himself ,which is called Trust .If he could express completely Good and Trust ,then it is Beauty.

So Mencius combined the Beauty with Good and Trust together.

In Han dynasty , the main successor of Confucianism was Dong Zhongshu. He wrote:

The Beauty of Kindheartedness belongs to Heaven . What is Heaven? Heaven is Kindheartedness.

Three policies of Heaven and Man 《天人三策》)

This statement combined Beauty and Kindheartedness together directly. Its basic meaning is that since Heaven is kindhearted with mankind,so it is Beauty.

He also wrote:

The Mean (中)is the excellent principle of the Beauty of Heaven and Earth.

Harmony(和) is the function of Heaven The principle of Heaven and Earth is that Beauty exists in Harmony.

(Same book as above)

He connected Beauty with Mean and Harmony. In his opinion , the mean (no extremity)and harmony of the world is Beauty. And Mean and Harmony are all related with Kindheartedness.

Modern Chinese famous educationist Cai Yuanpei(蔡元培)had his own opinion on Beauty. He wrote:

Everyone has his feeling ,but not everyone has great and noble behaviors. This is duo to the weakness of pushing power of feeling . To transform the weakness to be strong, transform thinness to be thick , it requires cultivation . The tool of cultivation is the objects of Beauty . The function of cultivation is Beauty Education.

(Beauty Education and Life)

So ,he related Beauty Education with the cultivation of Man’s noble morality.

Western Beauty philosophy emphasizes “beauty gives Man pleasure”. Chinese Beauty philosophy emphasizes “Beauty combines with Kindheartedness and morality”. This difference has great influence upon literature and arts in the West and in China .

3.Synthesis of Western and Chinese Beauty Philosophy

1)Synthesis of Western Theory of Perception and Chinese Theory of Imagery

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Western Beauty philosophy emphasizes Theory of Perception. It regards that Beauty is “ the perfection of sensuous knowledge”(Baumgarten ) or “Beauty is the perceptual embodiment of rationality(Hegel ).

Due to view of emphasizing the perception character of Beauty , Western painting and sculpture pay much attention to the reality of image. Western figure painting appears very like the real person , even the micro image of skin and muscle are expressed . Western landscape painting appears very like the real natural scene.

Chinese painting is quite different from the West painting. Chinese figure painting pays attention to the spirit and style of the person ,but not the micro image of skin and muscle. The demand of a good landscape painting is that there is poem in the painting,which involves the poetic meaning. But not the reality of grass and trees

Beauty has its nationality. On Beauty, people of different nations and different countries have their historical traditions. It’s not necessary to unite the appreciation of Beauty world widely.

The author agrees with the saying of contemporary sociologist Fei Xiaotong(费孝通) :

Let people in each nation appreciate their own Beauty. Let them appreciate the Beauty of other nations. Let all people in the world have mutual appreciations of Beauty. Let the world has great harmony.

(Speaking at the meeting of Fei’s 80 Birthday)

So , there is no necessity to synthesize completely the Western Beauty theory of Perception and Chinese Beauty theory of Imagery .

But in modern China , there are some famous artists ,who had studied in Western countries ,and at the same time ,they had deep background of Chinese tradition of arts. Their art works combines the Western theory of Perception and Chinese theory of Imagery together .

A example is the famous modern Chinese painter Xu Beihong (徐悲鸿,1895-1953)。 He is famous for his horse painting. The horses in his painting are very realistic as real horse ,expressing the micro images of skin and muscles. And at the same time , he made a full expression of the characters of grandness , perseverance ,fearlessness of dangers of the horses.

His horse painting synthesizes the advantages of both of Western theory of Perception and Chinese theory of Imagery.

2)Synthesis of Western Theory of Pleasure and Chinese Theory of Kindhearted Beauty

Although the theory that “Beauty gives Man pleasure” has not been accepted by all philosophers ,not only in China but also the West. But in the author’s view, “Beauty gives Man pleasure”is the main character of all Beauty ,including natural and art Beauty.

Why everyone likes Beauty (Beauty of person ,of scene ,and of art) . The main reason is that Beauty gives Man pleasure. Why Beauty can be listed parallel to the Truth,Good and Love as the highest spiritual pursuits of human being? The main reason is also that Beauty gives Man pleasure.. Beauty gives Man pleasure ,so that Beauty makes Man feel the happiness of life and gives Man the energy of life.

According to the view of Kant , besides that Beauty gives Man pleasure , Beauty does not have other utilitarian purpose. He wrote

Beauty is the form of finality in an object, so far as perceived in it apart from the representation of an end.

(The Critique of Judgememt,Section 1.Book 1)

The meaning of this sentence is that Beauty is a form of purposiveness without purpose.

What is purpose( in the above sentence, end) ? According to the explanation of Kant , purpose is the reason of a certain object .

For example, the purpose of food is to let Man avoiding hungry

The purpose of cloth is to let Man avoiding cold.

By this explanation, a beautiful flower is not a purpose of Man . As to Man ,a beautiful flower is a object without purpose.

But , at the same time, a beautiful flower is a form of purposiveness(In Kant’s statement : the form of finality). It is because that the form, color and smell of the flower makes Man feel pleasure

In summary, the Beauty of the flower is not a purpose of Man ,but it conform to the purpose of giving Man pleasure. So the essence of Beauty is a form of purposiveness without purpose.

In the Beauty philosophy of Kant , there is another important view : Beauty itself is not a kind of morality , but it is the Intermediary (or bridge)of cognition and morality.

If we consider the Chinese Beauty philosophy which emphasized the combination of Beauty and Kindheartedness or morality .

So , we may say that Beauty gives man pleasure ,and at the same time , Beauty enlightens human nature , helps Man cognize the society and leads Man towards morality.

According to Chinese philosophy ,Kindheartedness is the highest idea of human nature. Kindheartedness involves Loving oneself and loving the others .Confucius saying:”Do not do to others what you do not wish yourself” is the best expression of Kindheartedness .

All kinds of excellent art help Man understand and accept the idea of Kindheartedness

In Kant’s book ,he classified Beauty into two kinds: Pure Beauty and Dependent Beauty . His theory of a form of purposiveness without purpose” is mainly applicable to Pure Beauty, But , novel ,poet ,drama, movie,etc belong to Dependent Beauty . These arts, of course, give Man pleasure,but at the same time , they enlighten human nature , help Man ‘s cognition and raise Man’s morality . ,

So ,the synthesis of theory of pleasure and theory of Kindhearted Beauty is the most suitable and complete theory of Beauty.

4.Summary of this Chapter

(1) Western Beauty philosophy emphasizes the Theory of Perception. Chinese Beauty philosophy emphasizes the Theory of Imagery . Difference of Beauty philosophy gives great influence upon arts of West countries and of China.

In the aspect of Beauty and art , it is not necessary to unite the views of different nations and countries .

Fei Xiaotong ‘s opinion “Let people in each nation appreciate their own Beauty. Let them appreciate the Beauty of other nations. Let all people in the world have mutual appreciations of Beauty” is reasonable .

Of course ,if artist could synthesize the West theory of Perception and Chinese theory of Imagery ,it is quite possible to create excellent art works.

(2)Western Beauty philosophy emphasizes the Theory of Pleasure. Chinese Beauty philosophy emphasizes the Theory of Kindhearted Beauty which means the combination of Beauty and Kindheartedness.

“Beauty gives Man pleasure “ is the main character of Beauty and it is also the main reason for human being to pursue Beauty . But as to Art Beauty , Beauty could raise morality of human being .So the synthesis of the Theory of Pleasure and the Theory of Kindhearted Beauty is a complete and reasonable theory of Beauty. .

Chapter 10

Comparison and Synthesis of Chinese and Western Love Philosophy

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Introduction of Love Philosophy

There is argument in academic circle whether Love philosophy is a part of philosophy system . In most philosophy books , Love philosophy or Emotion philosophy is not involved.

The author have read more than 300 philosophy books(mostly original works) and wrote a book ,Love Philosophy. In the author’s opinion , Love or Emotion philosophy should have a space in the whole philosophy system .

The reasons are:

#
p<>{color:#000;}. From ancient times to today, the famous philosophers in China and also in the West paid very high attention to Love.

Confucius said :

Kindheartedness is loving men.

This is the kernel thinking of Chinese moral philosophy.

In the periods of ancient Greece and Middle Ages of Europe,Philosophers also paid very high attention to Love.

Plato said:

Love is the most ancient and the greatest. Love is the highest happiness .

Plato Symposium)

The famous philosopher in Middle Ages Aurelius August(354-430)said:

Comparing with Belief and Hope ,Love is the greater gift of the God. The Holy Spirit pours Love into our heart.

(Handbook of Belief,Hope and Love)

(2)Love is a noble emotion of Mankind. Emotion is the human nature which makes Man different from animals . The theme of Love philosophy is to discuss the problem of Human Emotion .

In the history of Western philosophy,from ancient Greece to Middle Ages , the problem of Emotion is always an important problem of philosophy.

Puthagoras(580-500 BC)classified Soul into three parts: rationality ,wisdom and emotion .

Plato(427-347 BC ) classified Man’s soul into three parts: understanding, emotion and will.

Both of them took Emotion as an important part of Human soul .

David Hume(1711-1776)followed the classification of Plato ,in 1737 ,he wrote the book The Treatise of Human Nature, which contains three Books:

Book 1 Of Understanding

Book 2 Of Passions

Book 3 Of Morals

Hume classified Man’s Soul into two parts: Understanding and Emotion (Passion). And Human’s Morality is formed by the combination of Understanding and Emotion.

In his book mentioned above , he wrote a complete part about Man’s Emotion (Passions),. It shows that he paid high attention to Man’s Emotion .

In the book written by Immanuel Kant(1724-1804). Kant discussed the problem of Asthetics( In German : Aesthetik).

What is the meaning of Aesthetics ? Freiedrich Hegel(1770-1831)explained in his book Aesthetics:Lectures on Fine Art, he wrote:

The accurate meaning of Aesthetics is the science of feeling and emotion.

So Aesthetics has the meaning of appreciation of Beauty and also the meaning of Emotion.

In Kant’s book The Critique of Judgement,Kant discussed the problem of Beauty and also the problem of Emotion .

In 19-20 centuries , the scholars of School of Sigmund Freud , Sigmund Freud (1856—1939),Herbert Marcuse(1898-1979),Erich Fromm (1900—1980),etc all paid high attention to the problem of Man’s emotion .

According to the above reasons , it may be regarded that , in the whole philosophy system ,if there is no discussion of Man’s emotion or Love ,it is not complete.


#
p<>{color:#000;}. Comparison of Chinese and Western Love Philosophy

1)Both Chinese and Western philosophy paid attention to Kindhearted Love

There are many different ideas that Chinese and Western philosophy have emphasized(see above chapters in this book).But astonishingly, as to the idea of Kindhearted Love(or Benevolence) there exists high consistency. This is a problem worthy to be noticed in the research of comparison and synthesis of Chinese and Western philosophy.

A, Chinese philosopher’s sayings on Kindhearted Love

Confucius said :

Kindheartedness is loving men.

This is the basic explanation of Kindheartedness of Confucius,who took Kindheartedness as the most important Human morality .

In the book Analects of Confucius,Kindheartedness has many meanings. From the above Confucius saying, it may be seen that Kindhearted love is the basic meaning of Kindheartedness.

Mencius was the successor of the Kindhearted Love thinking of Confucius . He said:

The feeling of commiseration is the beginning of Kindheartedness

Feeling of commiseration is the emotion of compassion upon others and love for others . He put Kindhearted Love at the top place of Human nature. This was a important development of the theory of Kindhearted Love.

Mo Zi said:

Human society needs universal love and mutual benefit

(Mo Zi , Book 4)

Confucian Kindhearted Love is connected with family and social relationship. Man should have more Love for family members or friends and less Love for other people. Mo Zi advocated that Love should be given to all persons. His thinking is close to the thinking of Fraternity in the West .

In Tang dynasty , Han Yu said:

Fraternity is so called Kindheartedness.

(Han Yu : On the origin and nature of the truth)

He presented clearly the idea of Fraternity and defined that Kindhearted Love is Fraternity. This was a great developed step of the Confucian thinking of Kindhearted Love [[
]]

In Song dynasty ,Zhang Zai said:

One loves people just as he loves his compatriot.

Cheng Yi said :

Nature is the principle.

It means that the Kindhearted Love is the Human nature which is the principle of the world. He raised the idea of Kindhearted Love to the level of Ontology.

In Ming dynasty ,Wang Yangming said:

Heart is the principle.

It means that Man’s heart is Kindhearted. This is the principle of the world. He regarded that Kindhearted Love comes from Man’s conscience

In Modern China , Sun Zhongshan said:

Fraternity is our Infinite hope and the greatest thinking.

From the above brief introduction, It may been seen that the cognition of Kindhearted Love has been deepening continuously in Chinese Love philosophy ,from Confucius’s theory of Morality to Mencius’s theory of Human Nature , then to Cheng Yi’s theory of Ontology ,and then to Wang Yangming’s theory of Conscience

B, Western philosopher’s sayings on Kindhearted Love

Someone might think that Western philosophers talked more on Liberty ,Democracy ,etc ,but less on Kindhearted Love or Love . The fact is not the case

Ancient Greek philosopher Plato paid high attention to Love . He said

The love, more especially, which is concerned with the Good, and which is perfected in company with temperance and justice, whether among Gods or men, has the greatest power, and is the source of all our happiness and harmony, and makes us friends with the Gods who are above us, and with one another.

Of all the Gods ,Love is the best friend of men, the helper and the healer of the ills which are the great impediment to the happiness of the race.

(Plato Symposium)

Aristotle said :

Friendship seems too to hold states together, and lawgivers to care more for it than for justice; … and when men are friends they have no need of justice, while when they are just they need friendship as well, and the truest form of justice is thought to be a friendly quality.

Nicomachean Ethics,Book 8)

Therefore, since each of these characteristics belongs to the good man in relation to himself, and he is related to his friend as to himself (for his friend is another self), friendship too is thought to be one of these attributes… that the extreme of friendship is likened to one’s love for oneself.

Nicomachean Ethics,Book 9)

In the above sayings of Aristotle, he expressed high attention to Love (friendship). He expressed the opinion which is quite close to the thinking of Confucius’s saying:

Do not do to others what you do not wish yourself.

(Analects of Confucius ,Chap.15)

Aurelius Augustinus(354-430)was the precursory philosopher in the Middle ages of Europe. His opinions were:

God is Love

If Man doesn’t have Love, even he believes the truth ,and he hopes the real happiness, it is useless.

(Handbook of Faith ,Hope and Love)

In Western philosophy, there are great difference between ancient (including the Middle ages) and recent and modern philosophy ,but astonishingly, as to the idea of Love , philosophers in different periods have basically the same view.

In 18th century , David Hume(1711-1776)was a active supporter of the idea of Benevolence,which has basically the same meaning as Kindhearted Love .

In his book An Enquiry concerning the Principle of Morals,there is a special chapter—Of Benevolence.

It may be esteemed, perhaps, a superfluous task to prove, that the benevolent or softer affections are estimable; and where ever they appear, engage the approbation and good-will of mankind. The epithets SOCIABLE, GOOD-NATURED, HUMANE, MERCIFUL, GRATEFUL, FRIENDLY, GENEROUS, BENEFICENT, or their equivalents, are known in all languages, and universally express the highest merit, which HUMAN NATURE is capable of attaining.

[*(*]An Enquiry concerning the Principle of Morals.Chapter 2 Of Benevolence),

He regarded Benevolence as the highest value of mankind

In 19th century , German philosopher Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach(1804-1872) said:

The highest and the most important principle must be the Love between men and men .

Love is the absolute essence of mankind

(Collection of Philosophy Works of Feuerbach)

It is a rare exception in the comparison of Chinese and Western philosophy that from ancient to modern ages , both Chinese and Western philosophy have paid same and high attention to the idea of Kindhearted Love or Benevolence.

From this exception , we must recognize that Kindhearted love or Benevolence has special importance to human being .

Of course ,there is certain degree of difference between the understanding and explanation of Chinese and Western philosophy on Kindhearted Love or Benevolence.

Chinese philosophers have been giving Kindhearted Love more philosophic meaning; from Confucius’s view of morality ,to Mencius’view of human nature ,to Cheng Yi’s view of ontology , and to Wang Yangming’s view of Man’s conscience.

From ancient Greece to the Middle ages ,Western philosophers had been giving Love more Theological meaning(Augustinus: “God is Love.”). In 18th century, philosophers related Love with utility and value(Hume: “Benevolence is the highest merit of mankind).In 19th century , philosophers related Love with Man’s essence(Feuerbach:” Love is the absolute essence of mankind.”)

2) Theory of Love of God and Fraternity in the West and Theory of Filiality in China

A. Theory of Love of God and Fraternity in Western Philosophy

From ancient Greece to recent and modern periods, Western theories of Love usually related with the God.

Plato said:

Love is a mighty God, and wonderful among Gods and men, For he is the eldest of the Gods, which is an honour to him

Thus numerous are the witnesses who acknowledge Love to be the eldest of the Gods. And not only is he the eldest, he is also the source of the greatest benefits to us.

(Plato :Symposium)

In the Middle Ages, Augustinus said:

The God wants us to worship him by Faith ,Hope and Love

(Handbook of Faith, Hope and Love)

Coming to recent period,philosophers still talked on Love related with the God.

Baruch de Spinoza(1632-1677)said :

Modes of thinking, such as love, desire, or any other of the passions, do not take place, unless there be in the same individual an idea of the thing loved, desired, etc.

Thought is an attribute of God, or God is a thinking thing.

(Spinoza:Ethic ,Part II

Of course, Spinoza’s view of God is different from that of Augustinus. His opinion is that God is the nature. The above statement means that Man’s thinking belongs to human nature. So Man’s Love is created from human nature. This opinion is closed to the opinion of Mencius.

In 19th century,philosopher Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach(1804-1872) said:

Love is God himself.Besides Love ,there is no God..Love makes man become God and makes God become Man . Love is the real combination of God and Man ,and of spirit and nature

(Selection of the Works of Feuerbach)

Feuerbach was a Materialist. He made the sameness of God and Man . He really emphasized Love of Man ,not Love of God

So ,in Western philosophy ,the idea of Love had been developing from Theology to Humanism.

Now ,we’ll discuss the idea of Fraternity in Western philosophy.

In the Great French Revolution, Fraternity was a slogan In conjunction with Liberty and Equity.

Some scholars said that the idea of Fraternity originated from Christianity. In the author’s opinion , the idea of Fraternity firstly originated from ancient Greece. Of course the reason that the idea of Fraternity has been popularized comprehensively is related with Christianity.

The meaning of Fraternity is that Love must be given to all people ,not only the family members.

Plato said:

Such is the great and mighty, or rather omnipotent force of love in general.

Not only medicine in every branch but the arts of gymnastic and husbandry are under his dominion.

(Symposium )

The above statement of Plato contained the idea of Fraternity that “Love is a omnipotent force” which means that Love is given to everything ,including medicine, art ,sport ,agriculture,etc

Aristotle talked about Friendship . His term of Friendship is not limited in the relation of friends . It contains the Love between man and woman ,husband and wife ,and also the Love given by the parents to children, the Love given by the elder to the young , the Love given by the leader to people , etc

So what the Friendship talked by Aristotle contain the idea of Fraternity

Fraternity is the doctrine of Christianity. “Love your God” and “Love others just liked love yourself” are two super classes of all doctrines of Christianity.

Love others just liked love yourself ” means that Love for everyone, including your enemy.

Bible said:

If your enemy is hungry, feed him; if he is thirsty, give him something to drink. In doing this, you will heap burning coals on his head.

Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good.

 

(Bible,New Testament , Romans 12)

´

The thinking of “ Love one’s enemy “ is seldom to be seen in other religions or philosophies . From the above statement . there is a premise in this thinking.; the enemy is in the situation of hungry and thirsty. In such time ,the goal of your helping is let your enemy overcome evil with good . This thinking conforms to modern Humanity.

In 20th century ,German philosopher Erich Fromm(1900—1980) wrote a book , The Art of Loving . He pointed out that the comprehensive answer of the problem of Human existence is the harmony of people and the Love

In his thinking there involves Fraternity,since only Fraternity could establish the harmony of people in the whole society.

B. Theory of Filial love and Theory of Universal Love in Chinese philosophy

In the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period of China,there was a debate about the problem of Love. One side of debate was Confucianism ;the other side was Moist School(School of Mo Zi). The Moism advocated the theory of Universal Love .They criticized Confucian theory of Different Love

Mo Zi said:

“Universal love is different from Different love.

Confucianists said: Love for different relatives must be different, Respect to wise persons must be hierarchical.”

(Mo Zi ,Chap.16)

Mo Zi advocated that Love given to all persons must be the same.

So his theory of Universal Love is close to the theory of Fraternity in the West.

Chinese Confucianism ,in fact ,advocated that Love must have difference. Man must love his family members (parents and off-springs) first, then love the others.

Mencius criticized severely at Mo Zi ‘s theory of Universal Love.He said:

Yang Zi ‘s principle is : “each one for himself” .which does not acknowledge the King . Mo Zi’s principle is :”to love all equally: ,which does not acknowledge one’s father. To acknowledge neither the King ,nor one’s father is to be the state of a beast.:

In aspect of Love , Chinese Confucianism advocated actively the Filiality,or Filial Love.

Confucius said:

As a son ,he rested in filiality .As a father ,he rested in kindness

[*(*]The Great Learning )

Mencius said:

If each man would love his parents and show the due repect to his elders ,the whole empire would enjoy tranquility.

(Mencius, C hap.7)

Treat with the Reverence the elder in your own family,so that the elder in the other’s families shall be similarly treated. Treat with the kindness the young in your own family,so that the young in the other’s families shall be similarly treated.

(Mencius, Chap.1)

The above statements of Confucianism showed that the Filiaty or Filial Love of Confucianism , firstly ,is the Love for parents, and then the Love for off-springs and Love for brothers and sisters, also including Love for people.

Confucian Filiality or Filial Love ,in the past more than 2000 years ,up to now,has very deep and far-reaching influence upon all Chinese people. In family ,one should have filial love for parents ,parents should have kind love for their sons and daughters. This is the idea of morality and feeling accepted comprehensively by all Chinese people ,including oversea Chinese .

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Synthesis of Chinese and Western Love Philosophy

According to the above introduction , it may be seen that the synthesis of Chinese and Western Love philosophy is quite possible.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Synthesis of the idea of Kindhearted Love ( Benevolence)of Chinese and Western philosophy

Kindhearted Love is the leading thinking of Chinese philosophy. Those most important Chinese philosophers ,as Confucius (孔子),.Zeng Zi(曾子) . Mencius(孟子),Dong Zhongshu (董仲舒)、Han Yu(韩愈), Zhou Dunyi(周敦颐),Cheng Hao and Cheng Yi (二程)、Zhu Xi(朱熹),Wang Yangming (王阳明) ,etc ,all took Kindhearted Love as their kernel thinking.

In Western philosophy,not all philosopher paid attention to Love or Benevolence (same meaning with Kindhearted Love),but Plato ,Aristotle in ancient Greece , Augustinus, Aquinas in the Middle Ages, and Hume ,Kant , Schopenhauer, Feuerbach, Fromm, Singer ,etc in recent and modern period ,all took Love or Benevolence as the important content of their philosophy.

Different philosophers have different views on Kindhearted Love. It may be summarized briefly as follows:

Confucius ‘s view of morality:

Kindheartedness is loving men.

Mencius’s view of human nature:

The feeling of commiseration is the beginning of Kindheartedness

Cheng Yi’s view of ontology

Nature is the principle.

Wang Yangming’s view of Conscience

And also “Heart is the principle.”

Hume’s view of utility

Benevolence universally express the highest merit, which HUMAN NATURE is capable of attaining.

Feuerbach’s view of essence:

Love is the absolute essence of mankind

So ,synthesizing the various views or theories of Chinese and Western philosophers on Kindhearted Love (or Benevolence) will construct a quite complete theory on Kindhearted Love

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Synthesis of the Filiality and Fraternity

Chinese philosophy emphasizes Filiality or Filial Love. Filial Love ,firstly ,means that Love of sons and daughters for their parents, and also Love of parents for their sons and daughters , and Love between brothers and sisters..

In Western philosophy ,there are similar thinking as the Confucian filiality.

Aristotle talked about Love between family members

parents love their children as being a part of themselves, and children love their parents as being something originating from them.

brothers love each other as being born of the same parents; for their identity with them makes them identical with each other (which is the reason why people talk of ‘the same blood’, ‘the same stock’, and so on).

Nicomachean Ethics,Book 8)

The above statements of Aristotle is very close to what Chinese Confucianism teaches on Filiality. It shows that the Chinese and Western philosophy on Love were very close originally .

Western philosophy advocated Fraternity ,which means the comprehensive Love for all people. The doctrine of Christianity is to love others just like love yourself ,which is the thinking of Fraternity.

In ancient China .Mo Zi’s theory of Universal Love is similar with the theory of Fraternity of the West . These two theories don’t have basic difference .

In the authors opinion,Love of Man came from human nature. Man ‘s love must began with the Love for his family members (parents ,off-springs, brothers and sisters) . At the same time ,due to the essence of Mankind( Man is the highest social animal),Man has the inborn loving for other men . So Fraternity (or Universal Love )also belongs to human nature.

Everyone lives in the filial love for his parents , the kind love for his wife or husband ,for his children and for his brothers and sisters .Man also have love for his compatriots. Those who have high knowledge and morality ,will love his country and the Mankind . This is the emotion basis required to establish the ideal world of Mankind.

This is the synthesis of theory of Filiality and theory of Fraternity. ,

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Summary of this chapter

#
p<>{color:#333;}. As to the idea of Kindhearted Love (or Benevolence), Chinese philosophy and Western philosophy have high sameness. This is a problem worthy to be noticed in the comparison and synthesis of Chinese and Western philosophy.

Of course ,the theory of Kindhearted love in Chinese philosophy and the theory of Benevolence in Western philosophy have their different emphasis. But their basic contents are the same.

So ,the synthesis of the theory of Kindhearted Love (Benevolence) of Chinese and Western philosophy will construct a complete theory of Kindhearted Love.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Western philosophy and Christianity advocate Fraternity. Chinese philosophy advocate Filiality or Filial Love. In the history of philosophy, some famous Western philosophers ,as Aristotle,etc , also supported the thinking very similar to the Filial Love of Chinese Confucianism. In ancient China, the theory of Universal Love presented by Mo Zi is also similar to the thinking of Fraternity in Western philosophy.

There is no basic contradiction between Fraternity and Filiality . The reasonable opinion is that duo to the human nature,Man firstly has the Filial love for family members. And since human being has the essence of sociality, Man,inborn, has the love for other persons which create the spirit of Fraternity.

So ,Man’s Filiality and Fraternity are possible to be synthesized .

Synthesis of Filiality and Fraternity is the basis of happiness of Mankind.

Chapter 11.

Comparison and Synthesis of Chinese and Western Life and Death Philosophy

1.Introduction of Life and Death Philosophy

As to ordinary people,they would not have too much interest in Ontology or Epistemology. Someone would not like to talk on political philosophy . But everyone will face to the problem of life and death and have certain thinking about this problem .Someone might like to get the answer from different religions.Those who don’t have religious belief might be interested to know the thinking of philosophers on the problem of life and death.

Overviewing the statements of Chinese and Western philosophers on the problem of Life and Death, It may be regarded that philosophy of Life and Death mainly discuss the following two problems:

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Problem of Soul— does Man have Soul after his death?

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Problem of Long Living—is Man possible to have a long life forever?

As to these two problems , there are different answers in Chinese and Western philosophy and also in different religions.

This chapter will introduce their opinions objectively and unbiasedly ,including some opinions of the author.

2.Comparison of Chinese and Western Life and Death Philosophy

Western philosophy ,from ancient to recent period ,paid much attention to the theory of Soul . Chinese philosophy ,with different views ,advocated the theory of Long Living.

#
p<>{color:#333;}. Theory of Soul in Western philosophy

In Western philosophy,the concept of Soul and that of Spirit are similar ,but not the same . Both of them express Man’s thinking ,wisdom ,emotion ,will, belief ,etc. All of them are spiritual activities ,different from physical activities .After death of human body,many philosophers deemed that Man’s soul does not die along., This is the theory of Immortality of Soul.

Plato was a active advocator of the theory of Immortality of Soul. He said :

Death is the separation of Soul and Body.Death is that …Soul leaves Body and exits independently

Soul is immortal and indestructible. Our Soul would exit in someplace on other world .

(Plato :Phaedo)

On the problem of Soul, the main opinions of Plato are:

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Man is the combination of soul and body. While Man is living, the two are combined together, After Man dies, the two are separated. What dies is only the body. Soul exits independently and is immortal . This is Plato’s Dualism of Soul and Body

#
p<>{color:#333;}. Soul will go to another world where it obtains the greatest happiness . So Man should face to Death bravely and happily..

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Duo to Interference of body , living persons could not cognize the truth. While soul is separated from body, Man could really cognize the truth .Only Soul could really obtain Truth, Good and Beauty. and attain the highest pursuit of Man

Aristotle wrote a special book On Soul ,It showed his high attention on the problem of Soul .

An important contribution of Aristotle is to separate thing into two parts:matter and essence(or Form). On the problem of Soul ,he wrote:

Since it is the soul by or with which primarily we live, perceive, and think:-it follows that the soul must be a ratio or formulable essence, not a matter or subject.

On the Soul ,Book 2)

So ,in his opinion , Soul is the essence of Man and is more important than Man’s body.

In the Middle Ages of Europe, theological philosophers paid more attention to Soul . The Patristic philosopher Aurelius Augustinus(354-430)said:

The Soul is a substance with rationality. The goal of its existence is to govern body

(On the Great of Soul)

The Scholastic philosopher Thomas Aquinas(1224-1274)presented an important opinion of soul . He He said:

The Soul is the spiritual substance which exits without depending on the Body. It is an immaterial spiritual substance.

In the author’s opinion , “spiritual substance”is a good expression of Soul. I‘ll use this concept in the following discussions

In the Enlightenment Movement of Europe in 17-18th centuries, it is worthy to notice that even though West philosophers used their reason in their thinking ,they still use the term “Soul” quite often .Sometimes they use the term “Heart “ or “Spirit”,both of them have basically the same meaning as “Soul “.

In18th century ,French philosopher Rene Descartes(1596-1650)said :

It is certain that this I [that is to say, my soul by which I am what I am], is entirely and absolutely distinct from my body, and can exist without it.

(Meditations on First Philosophy. Meditation V I )

The most important German philosopher Immanuel Kant(1724-1804) said :

The summum bonum(Latin,means the Utmost Good─noted by the author ), then, practically is only possible on the supposition of the immortality of the soul; consequently this immortality, being inseparably connected with the moral law, is a postulate of pure practical reason.

[_ (The Critique of Practical Reason , Vol II -4) _]

The opinion of Kant is that only recognizing the theory of Immortality of Soul , Man could attain the combination of Good and Happiness. It means that ,even in your living time,your morality could not carry to you the happiness,but you soul is immortal, your soul could carry happiness to you due to your morality.

Another important German philosopher Freiedrich Hegel(1770-1831)presented his view on Soul .

But in life externality is at the same time present as the simple determinateness of its Notion; thus the soul is an omnipresent outpouring of itself into this multiplicity and at the same remains absolutely the simple oneness of the concrete Notion with itself.

(Science of Logic,Book III ,The Idea of Life)

In Hegel’s opinion , Soul is the Notion of life . Hegel’s term of “Notion” means the Essence .So , Soul is the essence of life.

His opinion is basically same as that of the ancient Western philosophers—Soul is the spiritual substance of human life . Soul is a true substance ,not something illusive.But it is different from physical body and is a spiritual existence .

From the above brief introduction , It may be seen that from ancient to recent period , the theory of immortality of soul is the dominant thinking of Western philosophy.


#
p<>{color:#333;}. Theory of Long Living in Chinese philosophy

In traditional Chinese philosophy, there was also the idea of Soul ,which was usually named Spirit(神)

Huainan Zi (《淮南子》)was a famous philosophy book in West Han period.It was written and edited by a group of scholar guests of the King of Huainan, Liu An (刘安).,

On the relation between form(形) and spirit(神),the main view of Huainan Zi is :

Man’s spirit comes from the Heaven . Man’s form (or body )comes from the Earth.

(Huainan Zi ,Lesson on Spirit)

In Han dynasty and later,there was a debate on the relation between form (body) and spirit

Heng Tan(恒谭,23 BC-56 AD)was a famous scholar in late West Han and early East Han dynasties. He presented a theory of Candle and Fire. He said that spirit living in body,just like fire burning in candle.Without candle, fire is not possible to burn.

Hui Yuan (慧远,334-416) was a famous Buddhist in the period of North and South dynasties . He presented the theory of Wood and Fire ,refuting the theory of Heng Tan. He said that fire could transfer between woods, just as spirit could transfer between bodies.It means that spirit will not die while body dies.

This book will not discuss the problem of Soul (or spirit) in Chinese philosophy too much . The opinion of the author is that the key problem of Life and Death in Chinese philosophy is not the Soul (or Spirit) ,but Long Living

Theory of Long Living does not discuss whether there is Soul or not after Man dies. Its view is that Man’s life is eternal.

In traditional Chinese philosophy ,there are mainly three theories on the view of Long Living.

A.The view of “Heaven keeps vigorous movement” in Book of Change

The book Yi Chuan was a book explaining Book of Change(Yi Jing ) which was accomplished by Confucius and his students. In Yi Chuan,,the explanation of Qian (乾)Hexagram was : “As Heaven keeps vigorous movement, a gentleman should unremittingly practice his self-renewal .”

The famous modern philosopher Xiong Shili (熊十力) summarized this sentence as “ the Spirit of Vigour and Daily Renewal “ ,and pointed out that it is the most important idea of Chinese Cosmogony and Life philosophy.

In the author’s opinion,Xiong’s opinion is the refinement of the essence of Chinese philosophy

Yi Chuan said:

Change means Bearing and growing continuously

In Explanation of the Diagram of Supreme pole (《太极图说》) philosopher Zhou Dunyi (周敦颐, Song dynasty) said :

Interaction between yin and Yang creates all things .All things are bearing and growing continuously

The meaning of “bearing and growing continuously “is same as that of “the Spirit of Vigour and Daily Renewal” ,which Xiong mentioned.

Modern astronomy proves that the Cosmos began in the Big Bang 14 billions years ago. The Cosmos is changing and developing continuously . The solar system began 9 billions years ago . The ape man appeared 2-3 millions years ago . Late homo sapiens appeared 50 thousands years ago .

Reviewing the development of Human civilization , from the fishing and hunting era, to agricultural era , to industrial era ,to information era ,up to now ,the internet era ,is it a process of what Chinese philosophers said : “All things are bearing and growing continuously ? ”

If we go out the city to see the great nature ,we’ll see the lush grasses ,trees and flowers,see the birds flying in the sky , beasts running on the ground ,all plants and animals are bearing and growing continuously.

Even in your home, while you yourself enters the old age , you see your sons and daughters getting success in their work or business, you see your grandson and granddaughters going to the school happily , do you feel the life is “bearing and growing continuously “?

This is what Xiong Shili said “ the Spirit of Vigour and Daily Renewal”. This is the Chinese Cosmogony and philosophy of Life

The life time of individual person is really short . Everyone has a day to die . But life of the Cosmos and Human being is eternal. If you confuse your individual life with the life of Cosmos and Human being , you may understand that you yourself is eternal and long living .

This is the first thinking of Chinese traditional philosophy of the theory of Long Living.which is different from the theory of Soul in Western philosophy.

B. Confucian theory of Three Establishment

In the book Zuo Annals(《左传》)(a history book of Spring and Autumn period),it is said:

The utmost goal of a gentleman is to establish morality.The second is to establish achievement. And the third is to establish speech

(Zuo Annals, King Xiang,24)

Confucius said:

One is to set up an upright personality and endeavor to fulfill the Way,rendering one’s name famous over ensuing generations.

,1)

So ,Confucius supported the thinking of Three Establishments. .

Three Establishments is Confucian theory of Life and Death.

Confucius did not talk on ghosts and Gods ,and also did not talk on death. In Analects of Confucius, it was said:

Ji Lu (a disciple of Confucius) asked how one should behave towards the spirits of dead men.

Confucius answered: “ We cannot as yet do our duties to living men ,why should we ask about our duties to dead men “.

Ji Lu asked about death.Confucius answered:” We do not know about life ;why should we ask about death?”

(Analects of Confucius,Chap.11)

The concept of spirit of dead men is related to the concept of Soul . So , Confucius did not talked on the Soul ,but supported the theory of three establishments.

Confucian philosophy demands man ,while he is living ,to have contribution in three aspects(at least one of the three) ;The first is to have behaviors conform to morality,which is worthy to be respected and remembered by others(Establishment of Morality); the second is to have achievements for their country and people(Establishment of Achievement) ;the third is to write books or present theories , remaining his thinking to later generations( Establishment of Speech)

The thinking of Three Establishments ,in fact ,is Confucian view of Soul. Everyone ‘s life time is short ,but his influence after his death has far-reaching effect. After his death ,the most important influences are his morality ,his achievements and his speech(including his books and thinking). All of these will have effects in a long time. A good example is Confucius himself . His morality ,his theory and his contribution of  originating the School of Confucianism are immortal.

The meaning of Three Establishments is the contributions in one’s living time ,and also the influence after his death . Everyone’s contribution ,no matter big or small,will remain influence after his death.

This is the view of Confucianism on the theory of Long Living .

C . The Taoist Philosophy of Longevity

In the Classic of Taiping(太平经) of early period of Taoism,there was the content of “Living Forever” . In the period of East Jin (东晋),the famous Taoist Ge Hong(葛洪)had detailed statement on Living Forever and presented a complete method ,that is Inner Cultivation and Body Maintenance . “Inner Cultivation” means to cultivate one’s heart and mind. Body Maintenance” means that to take precious medicines . Living Forfore became the most attractive doctrine for people to believe Taoism . In ancient China ,from the emperor to common people , the main goal of their believing Taoism was to pursuit “Living Forever”

But the method of Body Maintenance(taking medicines) failed quite often ;many emperors died after taking those special medicines . Therefore, after the period of Five dynasties, the method of Body Maintenance had been fading away.

If get rid of unreasonable method of taking special medicines . Taoist doctrine of “ Living Forever” involves the active philosophy of Life ,which pursues a long and happy life .

Ge Hong(葛洪)said:

My fate is dependent on myself ,not on the Heaven

(Baopu Zi ,《抱朴子》)

Lao Zi said:

Therefore all creatures respect Tao and honor Morality.

(Taode Jing ,Chap.51)

The health activities that Taoism advocate is :

Paying attention to both body and spirit and cultivating both heart and body

Taoism combine the cultivation of body and spirit (heart) together and combine morality and long living together.

This is the third thinking of Chinese theory of Long Living. We have to say that this thinking ,even today ,has its active meaning .

3.Synthesis of Chinese and Western Philosophy of Life and Death

Western philosophy emphasizes the theory of Soul. Chinese philosophy emphasizes the theory of Long Living .

Is it possible to synthesize these two theories? The answer of the author is :Yes. It is possible

The main opinion of Western theory of Soul is : Soul is the spiritual substance of Man

What is the spiritual substance of Man ?

After Man’s death , the spiritual products remained in the world are mainly the follows:


#
p<>{color:#000;}. Man’s morality and love


#
p<>{color:#000;}. Man’s contribution to the society.


#
p<>{color:#000;}. Man’s book and thinking


#
p<>{color:#000;}. Man’s image and expression

All spiritual products that remain in the world and are not extinct may be called Man’s spiritual substance.

The Confucian three Establishments are the former three mentioned above . Besides , Man’s image and expression also could remained by painting and by modern technogies as photos and videos which are spiritual ,not real ..

So ,the meaning of Confucian theory of Three Establishments and Western theory of Soul are basically the same.

In the author’s opinion , the thinking of “Heaven keeps Vigorous Movement” and the thinking of “The Spirit of Vigour and Daily Renewal “ presented by Xiong Shili(熊十力) is a theory of Cosmogony and Life philosophy with a level higher than the theory of Soul .

The theory of Soul,generally speaking , is related to personal view. The theory of “ Heaven keeps Vigorous Movement” and the thinking of “The Spirit of Vigour and Daily Renewal “ is related to the whole Cosmos ,the great nature and human being.

Life time of individual person is short ,but life time of Cosmos , of Great Nature and of Human Being are eternal. If you fuse your personal life into the life of the Great Nature and of Human Being , then ,your personal life will be also eternal .

Chinese Taoism theory of “Paying attention to both body and spirit and cultivating both heart and body “ combines morality and long living together ,even today ,still has its active meaning .

4.Summary of this chapter

In summary ,it is possible to synthesize the Western theory of Soul and the Chinese theory of Three Establishments .

The theory of “The Spirit of Vigour and Daily Renewal “ and Bearing and Growing Continuously attains a higher level compared with the theory of Soul ,since this theory combines the personal life and life of the Great Nature and of Human Being together .then reaches the eternity of Life .

Chapter 12.

Meaning of Synthesis of Chinese and Western Philosophy —Promoting Progress of the World and China

In Recent and Modern China ,there are some books discussing the comparison of Western and Chinese philosophy.But the author have not seen a book discussing completely the synthesis of Western and Chinese philosophy.This book tries to compensate for this deficiency .

In the author’s opinion, synthesis of Western and Chinese philosophy ,not only is a academic problem worthy to be deeply discussed, but also a theme which has important meaning for promoting progress of the world and China .

1,. Meaning of synthesis of Western and Chinese philosophy on the development of philosophy

In Chapter 4 of this book ,there has been already introduced the statements and hopes of some famous Chinese philosophers on the fusion or synthesis of Western and Chinese philosophy.

Liang Qichao(梁启超) proposed the fusion of Chinese and Western philosophy .He said:

The important point is that if you study Chinese Learning but give up Western Learning , the Chinese Learning must be useless. If you study Western Learning ,but give up Chinese Learning ,the Western Learning must be no basis . These two cases will be no help to the management of the world.

Xiong Shili(熊十力) didn’t propose that China only pays attention to Chinese philosophy and rejects Western philosophy. He advocated the fusion of Chinese and Western Philosophies

Xiong said :

Philosophy couldn’t reject knowledge ,but needs to transcend knowledge .

It means that transcendence of knowledge will make the knowledge have the full application for the welfare of human being.

Hu Shi(胡适)expected a new philosophy appeared in China

Hu said:

We have two academic thoughts today , one came from our traditional books ,the other is the old and new Western theories. After the convergence of these two ,if China couldn’t not produce a new philosophy , we’ll fail to live up this good opportunity .

Today , It seems that Hu’s expectation has not been realized yet . This is the problem that this book concerns

Feng Youlan (冯友兰)proposed to combine the positive method used in Western philosophy and the negative method used in Chinese philosophy.

Zhang Dainian (张岱年)presented the thinking of Synthetic Creativity

Both of Feng’s and Zhang’s opinions helps us to think about the synthesis of Western and Chinese philosophy.

On the other side, Western philosophers and ideologists, as Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz(1646-1716),Voltaire(1694-1778),Bertrand Russell(1872-1970),Karl Theodor Jaspers(,1883-1969),Martin Heidegger (1889-1976),etc , all of them had very high evaluation of Chinese philosophy. Western scientists ,as Niels Henrik David Bohr(1885-1962),I.llya Prigogine(1917~2003),John Archibald Wheeler(1911-2008),Stephen William Hawking(1942-),all of them have very high evaluation on Lao Zi ‘s philosophy and his saying :

Dao takes the Nature as its model.

Nothingness may be used to designate the beginning of Heaven and Earth.

The above introduction shows that the fusion and synthesis of Western and Chinese philosophy is a problem which is commonly concerned by both Chinese and Western philosophers and scientists. This fact let us understand that synthesis of Western and Chinese philosophy is a academic and philosophic problem which has deep and far-reaching meaning .

It may be summarized briefly ,from the introduction of this book , that either Western or Chinese philosophy has its own strong points . The strong points of Chinese philosophy are its Ontology and Moral philosophy.The strong points of Western philosophy are its Epistemology;

and Political philosophy. In the aspect of Beauty philosophy,it is not necessary to have a common view of different countries and nations. The reasonable way is to let each country and nation appreciate its own Beauty and at the same time to have mutual appreciations of Beauty.In the aspect of philosophy of Life and Death. the basic meaning of Western theory of Soul is close to the Chinese theory of Three Establishments.The thinking of “Bearing and Growing Continuously “ is a high level theory of Life and Death. It is worthy to notice that in the aspect of Love philosophy , there is sameness of high degree on the idea of Kindhearted Love or Benevolence between Chinese and Western philosophy .

In summary, through the synthesis of Western and Chinese philosophy ,it is possible to establish a new philosophic system which combines the strong points of both philosophies to promote the progress of China and of the world.

2.The Significance of synthesis of Western and Chinese philosophy for the progress of Science .

The progress of Epistemology has been making great contribution to the development of science.

In Epistemology , Western philosophy pays attention to the method of Analysis(Formal Logic and Logic Reasoning). Chinese philosophy pays attention to the method of Synthesis ,pursuing the Wholeness of Binary Structure and Multivariate Structure.

As to the progress of science , the achievement of the West should be recognized . The progress of science could not be separated from the progress of Epistemology in Western philosophy. Especially ,Bacan’s thinking of Experiment , Descartes’ thinking of Logic Analysis, Kant’s thinking of “Synthesis Judgement of Apriori”, etc has great significance for the progress of science. In future development of science, the method combining experiment and logic analysis must be insisted on continuously .

But ,the development of science in 20th century up to now, the importance of wholeness and systematicness has been recognized in many fields of science. There are many new scientific theories,such as System Theory, Information Theory: Cybernetics, theory of Dissipative Structure, Synergy theory,etc appeared,which are dealing with the . wholeness and systematicness of the objective world. All these new theories shows that the synthetic and systematic methods are very important in the development of science.

In modern and future development of science , the best method is to combine the method of analysis emphasized by Western Epistemology and the method of synthesis emphasized by Chinese Epistemology together ,to deepen Man’s cognition of the inner rule of objective things,and at the same time to understand the wholeness and systematicness of the objective world . For this goal , the fusion of different sciences should be the direction of future science.

The achievements of Chinese ancient Epistemology were expressed in the empirical theories(especially in the field of agricultural and medical science). As to these Chinese empirical theories, It should not be Ignored or disregarded . The reasonable way is to find the precious experiences and inner philosophic thinking and mechanize them by scientific methods so that to establish the complete theory of agricultural and medical science based on both Chinese and Western theories

3. Synthesis of Western and Chinese philosophy will promote the progress of the world

Up to now, the foreign understanding of the special strong points of Chinese Philosophy is not enough. This is also a important reason that the soft power of China is not strong.

In the author’s opinion, Chinese philosophy has its special strong points in following aspects:

#
p<>{color:#000;}. China’s Cosmogony and Ontology of theory of Naturalism (or Dao-begetting theory )

Lao Zi ‘s Dao-begetting theory is a theory of the origin of Cosmos which obtains high evaluation by modern and contemporary world top scientists,as Prigogine, Wheeler,Hawking,etc. This fact in not known comprehensively neither in China, nor in the world .

More than 2000 years ago , Lao Zi presented the theory of “Dao takes the Nature as its model.”which was a remarkable theoretical creation.His theory conformed to the basic principle of modern science—Nature takes nature itself as its model . Today and tomorrow ,this principle will not be replaced by other theory

2)Chinese Moral Philosophy was established on the idea of Kindhearted Love which is the elite element of Confucianism . Chinese philosophy has very rich contents of Man’s morality as those advocated by Confucius:

The kindheartedness is loving men。

Confucius emphasized the following morals: .

Respect,,Considerateness ,Trustworthiness,Diligence and Generosity. seriousness;earnestness,etc .

Using the modern language, they are: filial love for parents ,kind love for children ,friendly love towards friends,respect love for the elder, diligence in works ,sincerity and harmony in the social relations ,etc.

Mencius ,.the most important successor of Confucius said:

Treat with the Reverence the elder in your own family,so that the elder in the other’s families shall be similarly treated. Treat with the kindness the young in your own family,so that the young in the other’s families shall be similarly treated.

In the author’s opinion,these moral rules have the universal value,suitable for all countries in the world .

3)In the aspect of Political philosophy,Chinese philosophy advocated theory of People Orientation. Although theory of People Orientation could not instead the theory of Democracy. But the wise way is to synthesize these two theories together. Democracy is a good political system .But Democracy is not universally efficient .

In the author’s opinion , the theory of Democracy should be combined with the theory of People Orientation. While the results created by democratic methods or procedures do not conform to the benefit of the people , those method or procedures should be reformed according to the will of the people. This problem is worthy to be paid attention not only in the developing countries ,but also in the developed countries.

4) The idea of Harmony of Chinese philosophy , in the author’s opinion ,Is a philosophic idea of great importance to the whole world.

Harmony is not only a idea of Chinese Political philosophy , it is a idea of Chinese Ontology.

In the book Appendices of Book of Change(《易传》),there is a sentence:

Maintain the utmost harmony( 保合大和)

The later philosophers ,as Wang Bi (王弼), Kong Yingda(孔颖达) ,Zhang Zai(张载) explained that the upmost harmony means the highest harmony of the Cosmos and of the whole world

In contemporary world , the idea of Harmony has multiple meanings:

#
p<>{color:#333;}. Harmony between different countries and nations in the world.

#
p<>{color:#333;}. Harmony between developed countries and developing countries

#
p<>{color:#333;}. Harmony between different social classes and layers in a country

#
p<>{color:#333;}. Harmony between different civilizations and cultures in the world

#
p<>{color:#333;}. Harmony between different ideologies and academic schools

#
p<>{color:#333;}. Harmony between different religions ,and so on

Therefore ,the idea of Harmony is a universal value,which has very comprehensive meaning in the human society

4.Synthesis of Western and Chinese philosophy will promote the progress of China

Synthesis of Western and Chinese philosophy .especially in the following aspects ,will help the progress of China:


#
p<>{color:#333;}. The aspects of Epistemology

It should be recognized that Western Epistemology is stronger than Chinese Epistemology. In China’s May 4th movement in 1919, the idea of Science was introduced into China. Science is a idea came from Western Epistemology.

In modern period,even though China has been obtaining great achievements in economic development ,but as to scientific creation , China has not attain the level of Western countries. One prove is that up to now ,there is no local Chinese scientist has obtained the Nobel prize of science.

In the late time of famous Chinese scientist Qian Xuesen (钱学森).while prime minister Wen Jiabao (温家宝) visited him . Qian asked a question: why our school could not cultivate outstanding talents?

The question is related to the problem in China’s education and science .

In the author’s opinion,one of the reason that China is lack of outstanding creative talents is that some Western valuable thinking in Epistemology have not been popularized in China.

The first is the thinking of Skepticism. Modern theory of Skepticism was presented by Rene Descartes(1596-1650)and David Hume(1711-1776)

Descartes said in his Discourse on Method(1637):

The first was never to accept anything for true which I did not clearly know to be such.

Hume presented theTheory of Skepticism. His reason was that the deductive method must had its premise. The premise came from the inductive method. But the inductive method can only induce a part of things, It is impossible to induce all things.

The second is the thinking of Falsificationism.

In 20 century,philosopher Karl Popper,1902-1994)presented the theory of Falsificationism. He said that the rule of development of science is not : Hypothesis —Confirmation ,but Hypothesis—Falsication —Rehypothesis. Science is developing in a process of continuous conjectures and refutations. Even though Einstein’s theory of Relativity is a advanced theory . But it is base on the premise of the constant speed of light. While new physics proves that the speed of light is not constant, the theory of Relativity must be modified,

The thinking of theories of Skepticism and Falsificationism.has been promoting the progress of science in the West.

But these valuable theories are not popularized in modern young students and scientists in China .In modern China,from primary school to university, score is the first thing for students to pursue, The standards of score are those ready knowledge or answers. It is difficult to cultivate young students to have the spirit of creativity in this kind of education.

So it is necessary to popularize the thinking of West Epistemology in China so as to raise the creative spirit of young scientists

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The aspect of Political philosophy

It should be recognized that modern Western political philosophy is advanced by one period comparing with traditional Chinese political philosophy . In modern political philosophy, the most important ideas worthy to de accepted in modern China are Liberty ,Democracy and Rule of Law.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Idea of Liberty

In ancient China, there was not no idea of Liberty. In the thinking of Lao Zi(老子) ,Zhuang Zi (庄子),Ruan Ji(阮籍),Ji Kang(嵇康),etc, there was the element of Liberty . But Liberty had not been a dominant thinking in Chinese traditional philosophy.

The theory and practice proves that Liberty has great importance for the progress of modern society..

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Liberty is the primary human nature

Human being could win the other animals on the earth ,could make full use of natural resources, could overcome various natural disasters and finally become the master of the earth, all related to Man’s will of Liberty

#
p<>{color:#333;}. Economic Liberty is the basic guarantee for Man’s society to move toward economic prosperity.

#
p<>{color:#333;}. Political Liberty is the basic guarantee for Man’s society to move towards Democracy and Rule of Law

#
p<>{color:#333;}. Ideological and academic Liberty is the basic guarantee for Man’s society to have progress of science and culture.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Idea of Democracy.

Democratic politics has high importance to all countries in the world

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Democracy is the most important basis of government legitimacy。

#
p<>{color:#333;}. Democracy is the basic guarantee of various Liberty of people

#
p<>{color:#333;}. Democracy is the basic guarantee for government serving people as good as possible

#
p<>{color:#333;}. Democracy is the basic guarantee for officers to be honest

C, Idea of Rule of Law.

The idea and system of Rule of Law have great importance to all countries in the world,including China. The reasons are:

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Only Rule of Law could guarantee the right of property and the liberty of economic management of people,and economic freedom is the basic resource of economic prosperity.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Only Rule of Law could guarantee various democratic rights of people,and People’s democratic right is the basic power of political progress.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Only Rule of Law could guarantee the ideological freedom,academic freedom . creative freedom,etc ,and these freedoms are the basic motive force of the progress of science and culture.

At 4th Central Committee of the18 th Plenary Session of the Chinese Communist Party held in 2014, it is presented that taking Rule of Law as the principle of Country management .In the author opinion, this decision carries the hope of the progress of China .

5. The meaning for Man’Personal Life of Synthesis of Western and Chinese philosophy

Synthesis of Chinese and Western philosophy has its important meaning for Man’s Life

#
p<>{color:#000;}. The aspect of Love philosophy

In the comparison of Western and Chinese philosophy, a problem worthy to be noticed is the highly sameness of the idea of Love. Love is also the common idea of main religions in the world.

The idea of Kindhearted Love has a high position in Chinese philosophy ,especially in Confucianism .

Confucius was the main philosopher who advocated the idea of Kindhearted Love in ancient China. Plato was the main philosopher advocated the idea of Love in the West. The time of Confucius was 551-479 BC . The time of Plato was 427-347 BC . Confucius was 100 years earlier than Plato . So ,it might be recognized that China is the earliest country advocating the idea of Love (or Kindhearted Love) in the world

The idea of Love (or Kindhearted Love) has great importance to everyone

Man’s Love for oneself, Love for lover of the young .Love for one’s wife or husbands , Love for one’s parents, Love for one’s children , Love for one’s friends are the greatest happiness of everyone’s life.

Man’s Love for people, Love for one’s hometown ,Love for one’s mother country.Love for ones dedicated cause’(science ,art , education ,service ,etc) are one’s noble will of life.

Man’s Love for peace, Love for liberty ,Love for social justice are the lofty goals of one’s life

2.The aspect of Philosophy of Life and Death

Everyone will face to the problem of Life and Death .Modern philosopher Martin Heidegger( 1889-1976)had a famous saying:

Living for the death

(Being and Time)

It means that everyone is living facing to death. His life value relates to his cognition of death.

Western philosophy emphasizes theory of Soul . Chinese philosophy emphasizes theory of Long Living.Synthesis of these two theories will constitute a complete theory of Life and Death.

The Western philosopher Thomas Aquinas(1224-1274)said:

The Soul is the spiritual substance which exits without depending on the Body. It is an immaterial spiritual substance

In the opinion of Western famous philosopher Hegel , Soul is the Notion of life . Hegel’s term of Notion basically means the Essence . It means that Soul is the essence of life which has the similar meaning of “Spiritual substance “..

What is the “Spiritual substance of Life?

After one’s death ,the spiritual substances remained mainly are:


#
p<>{color:#000;}. Man’s morality and Love;


#
p<>{color:#000;}. Man’s contributions and influences


#
p<>{color:#000;}. Man’s thinking and writings


#
p<>{color:#000;}. Man’s image and expression

Chinese Confucianism presented the theory of Three Establishments —Establishments of morality,Establishment of contribution and Establishment of speaking .

It may be seen that the Western theory of Soul and the Chinese theory of Three Establishments have very similar meaning .

Here, it should be mentioned that not only those outstanding Men could have Three Establishments. Even you are a common worker,common farmer or common intellectual , your morality ,your thinking and speaking and your contributions to the society (no matter large or small)will have the influence remained in your family member and also in the world after your death.

This is an active view of human life and an optimistic frame of mind.

In ancient Chinese philosophy, there was an thinking of life at a high level ,that is “ All things are Bearing and growing continuously” and “the Spirit of Vigour and Daily Renewal” . As modern philosopher Xiong Shili pointed out , it is the most important idea of Chinese Cosmogony and Life philosophy . Since this thinking makes one’s personal life fusing with the great life of nature and human being ,and attaining eternity.

#
p<>{color:#333;}. The aspects of Beauty philosophy.

Everyone likes Beauty.Beauty makes Man feel pleasure.

Due to the difference of national tradition , people in different countries have different views on Beauty.This is the reason that Beauty is different from Truth and Good

In the field of Beauty, Western Beauty philosophy emphasizes the theory of Perception,paying attention to vivid depiction of the object of Beauty. Chinese Beauty philosophy emphasizes the theory of Imagery,paying attention to express the inner feeling and meaning of the object of Beauty.

In the synthesis of Western and Chinese philosophy , it is not necessary to unite the different views of Beauty. Different countries or nations could have their own characteristics of arts.

If some artists could combine the Western idea of Beauty with the Chinese idea of Beauty, they will create outstanding works of art. In China , there are some famous painters ,as Xu Beihong(徐悲鸿) ,Liu Haisu(刘海粟) , Fu Baoshi( 傅抱石), Ling Fengmian(林风眠),Wu Zuoren(吴作人)etc , they studied the Western theory of painting but insisted on the Chinese style of painting . They created excellent Chinese paintings.

In the authors opinion , Chinese Beauty philosophy is worthy to be noticed by the Western artists . It will help them to create excellent Western paintings . .

In summary,the important meanings of synthesis of Western and Chinese philosophy are :


#
p<>{color:#333;}. It synthesizes Chinese wisdom and the Western wisdom created in past several thousands years and constitute a rather complete philosophic thinking system .


#
p<>{color:#333;}. It will promote the developments of various sciences(natural and social sciences) towards the direction of combination of specialization and systematization .


#
p<>{color:#333;}. It will help to establish a complete regulation of Man’s morality


#
p<>{color:#333;}. It will help the reform and perfection of political systems in different countries and promote the peace and cooperation between all countries in the world.


#
p<>{color:#333;}. It will support the principle of

Let people in each nation appreciate their own Beauty. Let them appreciate the Beauty of other nations. Let all people in the world have mutual appreciations of Beauty..

It also support the fusion of the ideas of Chinese and Western Beauty philosophy and promote the magnificent development of different arts in the world.


#
p<>{color:#000;}. It will take Love (or Kindhearted Love) as the common bond of emotion of human being


#
p<>{color:#333;}. It will let everyone cognizes that ,even death is inevitable,but Man’s spirit and contribution will combines with great nature and human being ,attain eternality.

In summary, It may be understood that synthesis of Chinese and Western philosophy is a academic problem of great importance .

This book can only provide a framework of this important problem which requires more scholars ,especially young scholars to enrich and improve the understanding of it.

Main References

(Total References: More than 300)

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Chinese Philosophy,History, Agriculture and Medicine

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Books in Chinese

Four Books and Five Classics(四书五经),Shenyang Press,1996

Book of Changes(易经) ,Shanxi Ancient Works Press,1999

Lao Zi (老子),Liaoning National Press,1996

The Analects of Confucius(论语),Shandong Friendship Press,1988

Mo Zi(墨子),Shanghai Ancient Works Press,1995

Zhuang Zi(庄子),Jilin Literature and History Press,2004

Mencius(孟子),Bashu Book.Co.1996

Xun Zi(荀子),Yue Lu Book Co.,1990

Han Feizi(韩非子),Yuanfang Press,2004

Chunqiu Fanlu(春秋繁露),Dong Zhongsu(董仲舒), China Economy Press,2002

Lun Heng(论衡),Wang Chong(王充),Guizhou People Oress,1993

Wang Bi Collection(王弼集校释),China Book Co.1987

Bao Puzi(抱朴子内篇),Ge Hong,China Social Scenece Press,1995

Han Changhyu Collection(韩昌黎全集) ,China Book Co.1991

Liu Zhong Yuan Collection (柳宗元全集), Shanghai Ancient Works Press,1997

Liu Yixi Collection (刘禹锡全集),Shanxi Ancient Works Press,,2000

Zhengmong(正蒙), Zhang Zai(张载), Shanghai Ancient Works Press,2000

Two Cheng Collection(二程全集).China Book Co.1981

Lu Jiuyuan Collection(陆九渊全集),China Book Co.1980

Chuanxi Record(传习录),Wang Yangming(王阳明),,Jiangsu Ancient Works Press,2001

Huang Zhongxi Collection(黄宗羲全集) ,Zhejiang Ancient Works Press,2002

Dai Zheng Collection(戴震全集) , Shanghai Ancient Works Press,,1980

Introdution of Ancient Chinese Literatures, Zhang Taiyan(章太炎), Shanghai Ancient Works Press,1997

Liang Qichao Collection(梁启超全集), Baihua Literature and art Press.2002

Sun Zhongshan Collection(孙中山全集) , Unification Press,1997

Duxiu Collection(独秀文存),Chen Duxiu,Anhui Press,1987

Hu Shi Collection(胡适全集), Guangming Daily Press,1998

Liang Suming Collection(梁漱溟全集),Qunyan Press,1993

Xiong Shili Collection(熊十力全集).Qinyan Press,1993

Outline of Chinese Philosophy(中国哲学史大纲),Hu Shi,East Press,2004

New Edition of History of Chinese Philosophy(中国哲学史新编),Feng Youlan(冯友兰) ,People Press,1998

History of Chinese Philosophy(中国哲学史), Liu Wenying(刘文英), Nankai Press.2002

New Edition of History of Chinese Philosophy(新编中国哲学史), Lao Siguang(劳思光) ., Guangxi Normal University Press,2005

Wisdom of China(中国的智慧),Zhang Dainian(张岱年) ,Shanghai People Press,1999

Chinese Modern philosophy(中国现代哲学),Zhang Wenru(张文儒),Beijing University Press,2001

Synthetic Creativity(综合创新),Study of Zhang Dainian(张岱年学记),Liu Fubei(刘鄂培),Qinghua University Press,2002

Brief History of China(简明中国通史), Lv Zhenyu(吕振羽),People Press,1955

History of Chinese Agriculture(中国农业史), Research Office of Chinese Agricultural Heritage,Science Press,1984

Huangdi Neijing(黄帝内经),China Book Co.2009 Menifest of the Communist Party

2)Chinese Classic Books in English

Book of Changes , Translated by Wand Rongpei.etc Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press,2007

The Books of Tao and Teh, Translated by Gu Zhengkun,China Translation Co,2007

The Discourses and Sayings of Confucius ,Translated by Gu Hongming. Yunnan People Press,2011

Chuang Tzi, Translated by Feng Youlan ,Foreign LanguageTeaching and Reserch Press,2012

The Great Learning, Translated byJames Legge, Foreign LanguageTeaching and Reserch Press,2011

The Doctrine of The Mean , Translated byJames Legge, Foreign LanguageTeaching and Reserch Press,2011

Mo Zi Says,Edited by Cai Xiqing, Xinolingua Press,2011

The Works of Mencius, Translated byJames Legge, Foreign LanguageTeaching and Reserch Press,2011

Xun Zi Says , Edited by Cai Xiqing, Xinolingua Press,2012

A Short History of Chinese Philosophy, Feng Youlan ,Jiangsu Literiture and Art Press,2012

Confucian Filiality, Gao Wangzhi,CN Times Books Inc.2013

(Referenced in this book with some modification by the author.)

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Western Philosophy

1)Books in English published or copied from the webs of Tower Babel,Baidu ,Jingdong,etc

The Republic ,Plato

Symposium ,PLato

Nicomachean Ethics,Aristotle

Medititaion of First philosophy,Descartes

Leviathan,Hobbes

An Essay Concerning Human Understanding,Locke

TwoTreatises of Government, Locke

An Enquiry concerning the Principle of Morals ,Hume

A Treatise of Human Nature ,. Hume

The Critique of Pure Reason,Kant_

The Critique of Pratical Reason,Kant_

The Critique of Judgement , Kant

Considerations on Representative Government,Mill

Menifest of the Communist Party,Marx

The History of Western Philosophy, Russell,Simon & Schuster,1972

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Books in Chinese

Routledge of History Philosophy,C.C.W.Taylor, translated by Han Dongfei,etc,China People University Press,2003

Text book of History of Philosophy, Wilhelm Windelband, translated by Han Donghui,Commercial Press,1997

A Beief History of Philosophy, Will Durant, translated by Xiao Yao,Chinese Friendship Press,2004,

Collection of Plato, translated by Wang Xiaoyang ,People Press,2003

Metaphysics, Aristotle, translated by Wu shoupeng , Commercial Press,1996

New Tool , Francis Bacon, translated byXu Baokui, Commercial Press,1984

Letters on Philosophy, Voltaire, translated by Gao Daguan ,Shanghai People Press,2002.

The Social Contract, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, translated by He Zhaowu, Commercial Press,2003 Commercial Press,1984

The Phenomenology of Mind , Freiedrich Hegel, translated by He Ling, Commercial Press,1997

Science of Logic , Freiedrich Hegel, translated by Liang Zhixue,People Press,2002

Selection of Marx and Engels,People Press,1975

Collection of Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche,Edied by Liang JIe, Reform Press,1995

Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis, Sigmund Freud, translated by Peng Shen,Shanxi People Press,2001

h1<>{color:#000;}.

General Introduction to Pure Phenomenology, E.Edmund Husserl, translated by Li Youzheng, Commercial Press,1997

Being and Time , Martin Heidegger, translated by Chen JIaying,Sanlian Book Co.2000

Existentialism Is a Humanism,Jean-Paul Sartre,translated by Zhou iliang ,Shanghai Literature Translation Press,1988

Collection of Michel Foucault , translated by Pi Xiaozhen,Shanghai Fareast Press,1998

The Protestant Ethic and the spirit of Capitalism , Max Weber, translated by Yu Xiao,Sanlian Book Co.,1987

Specters of Marx ,Jacques Derrida,. translated by He Yi,China People University Press,1999

Philosophical Apprenticeships, Hans-Georg Gadamer,translated by Xia Zhengping, Shanghai Literature Translation Press,2004

Capitalism ,Socialism and Democracy, Joseph Alois Schumpeter. translated by Wu Liangjian , Commercial Press,2002

History of Western Esthetics, Zhu Guangqian ,People Press,1964

Essentials of Western Contemporary Philosophy, Zhao Dunhua,Beijing University Press,2001

History of Western Philosophy,Edited by Ye Xiushan ,Jiangsu People Press,2004

Moderm Western Philosophy,Liu Fangtong,People Press,1990

3.Moral Philosophy

Ethic (in English), Baruch de Spinoza,Tower Babel

Basis of Moral Metaphysics, Immanuel Kant, translated by Sun Xiaowei ,China Social Science Press,2009

The System of Ethic, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, translated by Liang Zhixue, Commercial Press,2010

TheTheory of Moral Sentiment (in English),Adam Smith, Tower Babel

The Elements of Moral Philosophy,James Rachels, translated by Yang Zhongyuan , China People University Press,2009

Chinese Hostory of Ethic , Cai Yuanpei,Shanghai Ancient Book Press,2005

Theory of Good and Evil, Ni Suxiang,Wuhan University Press,2001

Research on View of Value,Chen Zhanglong,Nanjing Normal University Press,2004

Virtues of Chinese People,edited by Jing Huiming, China People University Press,2006

The History of Western Ethic Thoughts, Song Xuren ,China People University Press,2004

Confucian Filiality(in English), Gao Wangzhi,.CN Times Books,2013

Discussion of Chinese Traditional Moral Philosophy, Qing Daokuan , Unification Press,2009

4.Political Philosophy,

Politics,Aristotle, translated by Wu Shoupeng, Commercial Press,2010

Human Right and Liberty, John Locke, translated by Shi Rui , Tianjing Social Science Press,2011

Metaphics Principle of Law, Immanuel Kant , translated by Shen Suping, Commercial Press,2003

On Liberty, John Stuart Mill , translated by Xu Baokui, Commercial Press,2010

Lectures of the History of Political Philosophy,.John Rawls, translated by Yang Tongjing,China Social Science Press,2007,

A Theory of Justiced, ,.John Rawls, translated by He Huaihong , China Social Science Press,1999

The Rise and Decline of Western Liberalism , Anthony Arblaster, ranslated by Cao Haijun,Liling People Press,2004

History of Western Political Philosophy,Wang Yan ,World Knowledge Press,2010

Politics,Andrew Heywood, translated by Zhang Lipeng ,China People University Press,2006

On Democray of America, Tocqueville, translated by Zhang Xiaoming,,Beijing People Press,2007

History of Western Democracy, Ying Kefu,China Social Scence Press,1997

Chinese Traditional Political Philoosophy,Zhou Guitian, et.al.,Hebei People Press,2001

5.Beauty Philosophy,

Poetics, Aristotle, translated by Luo Niansheng,People Literature Press.

Esthetics, Freiedrich Hegel, translated by Zhu Guangqian , Commercial Press,1997

Philisophy of Art,H.A.Taine, translated by Fu Lei,Anhui Literature and Art Press,1991

Western History of Esthetics, Zhu Guangqian,People Press,1964

New Edition of Western History of Esthetics,Zhang Qiquan, Commercial Press,2010

Wenxin Diaolong(《文心雕龙》),Liu Xie,noted by Zhou Zhenfu, Commercial Press,1981

Letters on Beauty, Zhu Guangqian,People Press,2001

The Path of Beauty,Li Zehou,Sanlian Book Co.2001

Principle of Esthetics, Ye Lang,Beijing University Press,2009

Principle of Esthetics, Wang Xueyang,Shanghai People Press,2000

Modern Western Esthetics,Niu Baohong, Shanghai People Press,2002

Philosophy of Beauty,Ye Xiushan ,World Knowledge Publishing Co.2010

Brief Chinese History of Esthetics,Zhu Zhirong , Beijing University Press,2007

Chinese History of Esthetics,Chen Wangheng ,People Press,2005

6.Love Philosophy,

Philosophy of Love,Irving Singer, MIT Press,2009

A General Theory of Love.T.Lewis, et.al.Random House Inc.2000

Sex Psychology ,Henry Havelock Ellis,translated by Pan Guangdai,Commercial Press,2008

A Natural History of Love ,Diane Ackerman , translated by Zhang Min, Huacheng Press.2008

The art of Loving ,Erich Fromm, translated by Zhao Zhengguo, International Culture Publishing Co. 2004

Eros and Civilization,Herbert Marcuse, translated by Huang Yong,Shanghai Century Press,2008

Cuoro (Education of Love) E.de Amicis, translated by Xia Gaizun

Yiling Press,1997

7.Religion Philosophy and Soul Philosophy,

On the Soul ,Aristotle,Baidu Read,

Religion within the bounds of bare reason. Immanuel Kant, translated by Li Qiuling, China People University Press,2009

Religion and Science , Bertrand Russell, translated by Xu Yichun et.al. Commercial Press,2010

Philosophy and Belief , Karl Theodor Jaspers, translated by Luo Lu,People Press,2010

Christian Theory and Modernity,Ernst Troltsch, translated by Zhu Yanbing,Huaxia Press,2004

The Way of Rational Faith,An Lun,Xueling Press,2009

Walking on the Edge of Life, Yang Jiang, Commercial Press,2007

Religion Philosophy in the Enlightenment Age ,.Dan Shun, China Social Press,2010

Various Views on Soul ,Chen Junwei , China Social Science Press,2006

8.Comparison of Chinese and Western Philosophy and Culture

Chinese Philosophy and Western Philosophy, Xiong Shili,Shanghai Book Co.Press,2008

Eastern ans Western Culture and Philosophy,Liang Shuming, Commercial Press,2012

Comparison of Chinese and Western Philosophy,Zhang Zailing,North West University Press,1997

Comparison of Chinese and Western Culture,Xu Xingyan,Beijing University Press,2004

Unity of Heaven and Man and the Separationof Subject and Object,Ling Keji,Social Science Literature Press,2010

Comparison of Chinese and Western Culture,He Yi, Metallurgical Industry Press,2007

Compound Discussion of Chinese and Western Philosophy,Chen Shiquan ,Shanghai Ancient Works Press,2007

Chinese and Western Philosophy of Life and Death, Feng Fuxiang,Beijing University Press, 2002

9. Works of Philosophy of the Author

Essay on Synthesis Philosophy , Gao Liangzhi,China Culture Press,2007

Strolling on Western Philosophy 2nd Edition , Gao Liangzhi,Wuhan University Press,2014

A Brief Discussion on Chinese Philisophy,2nd Edition , Gao Liangzhi,Wuhan University Press,2014

Love Philosophy, Gao Liangzhi,,Zhejiang University Press,2011

Good Philosophy and Common Values, Gao Liangzhi,China Culture Press,2014

Beauty Philosophy, Gao Liangzhi,Wuhan University Press,2014

Does Man have Soul? —Soul Philosophy and Scientific Rational Belief, Gao Liangzhi, Zhejiang University Press,2015

(Other references are noted in the related chapters of this book)


Fusion of Chinese and Western Wisdom---Synthesis of Chinese and Western philosop

This book makes a complete comparison and synthesis of Chinese and Western philosophy in following aspects: 1)Cosmogony and Ontology 2)Epistemology 3)Moral philosophy 4)Political philosophy 5)Love philosophy 6)Beauty philosophy 7)Life and death philosophy I (the author) believe the the synthesis of valuable ideas in Chinese and Western philosophy will be beneficial to all;countries in the world.

  • Author: Liangzhi Gao
  • Published: 2016-03-04 11:40:53
  • Words: 64825
Fusion of Chinese and Western Wisdom---Synthesis of Chinese and Western philosop Fusion of Chinese and Western Wisdom---Synthesis of Chinese and Western philosop