Do-It-Yourself Anti-Corruption: How To Shut Down Dirty Politicians and Corrupt C

Do-It-Yourself Anti-Corruption:


How To Shut Down Dirty Politicians and

Corrupt Companies

From The Comfort of Your Living Room


By Public Wiki























Revision 2.2 – Check back for newer revisions and updates




Table of Contents

Forward 6

“How to File a Federal Lawsuit without an Attorney” 8

Hunt down a list of every investor and supplier for the corruption target 10

Organize a consumer boycott of the corrupt entity 10

Expose the stock market manipulations of the corrupt politician and their stock market rigging in order to kill off their illicit stock value 10

You will learn how to make a checklist of the corrupt entities in any given cartel and take them out one-by-one. You will find that the information and evidence over-laps make the take-downs easier and easier as you go along: 16

Stock market rigging is no longer a ‘conspiracy theory’ | New York Post 16

Shocking Deutsche Bank Report Is Proof the Stock … 16

Is Our Stock Market Rigged? – Forbes 17

Proof It Is Rigged: “Fed Moved 93% of Entire Stock... 17

The market is rigged and here’s how individuals can play it | Daily … 17

The Stock Market is Rigged – The Daily Reckoning 17

Former New York Stock Exchange Head Says That … – True Activist 17

How to investigate your elected officials and dirty corporations 18

How to investigate the actions of public officials 21

Step One: Preparation 22

Step Two: Determining the Best Method to Make Contract 23

Step Three: Making Contact 24

Step Four: Conducting the Interview 25

Step Five: Documenting the Information 26

How to investigate official documents 27

25 questions you should ask any government document 27

Ten Steps to a Successful Political Staffer Investigation 31

How to Use Your Computer to Investigate the Corrupt 34

Part 1 of 3: Finding Public Records 34

Part 2 of 3: Performing Web Searches 35

Part 3 of 3: Going the Extra Mile 37

Tips 37

How to investigate a politician and their campaign billionaires online 38

Online Methods to Investigate the Who, Where, and When of a Person 41

NOW: How To File Your Case in the “Court of Public Embarrassment” 45

50 Offline Guerrilla Tips to help you win the war against the corrupt who try to control the news 46

How To Be an FBI-Class Special Investigator and hunt down corrupt weasels 70


Keys To An Ideal Case Outline: 71









Interview Techniques for Private Investigators That Quickly Build Rapport 79

List of additional training books: 82

Organizations that can help you in your take-downs: 103

Anti-Corruption Intergovernmental Organizations 104

Other International Organizations 104

Other Organizations by Country 105

Albania 105

Argentina 105

Austria 105

Australia 105

Brunei 105

Brazil 106

Bulgaria 106

China 106

Colombia 106

Ecuador 107

El Salvador 107

Hong Kong 107

India 107

Indonesia 107

Italy 108

Korea 108

Liberia 108

Malaysia 108

Mexico 108

The Republic of Montenegro Agency for Anti-Corruption Initiative 108

New Zealand 108

Paraguay 109

Peru 109

Philippines 109

Portugal 109

Sierra Leone 109

Singapore 110

South Africa 110

Thailand 110

UK 110

U.S.A 110








[][] Forward

This booklet is free and it is for anybody who wants to stand up for justice against the corrupt few who consider themselves to be “above the law”. These are your Anti-Corruption 101 lessons. After reading and practicing what you learn in this book, you can move on to advanced lessons with the books and organizations listed at the end of this document.

This book will teach you how to hunt down and destroy any dirty politician or corrupt corporation without breaking a single law. As long as they have engaged in crimes and illicit unethical activities, they are “fair game” and law enforcement will even help you bring your targets down.

You have only one rule: Don’t break the law.

The opposition is, invariably, a big dumb corrupt entity who is slow, cumbersome and running for cover. Even if they have trillions of dollars to spend against you, they will never have your speed, creativity, motivation, the millions of consumers and voters who support your mission backing you up and the good guys in actual law enforcement. You can take down the largest corporation on Earth, the biggest politician in the world or the most powerful covert cartel ever created. You just need persistence and dedication. If they did the crime, they can always be brought down.

The corrupt can’t counter-measure two distinct weapons of justice:

1.) Transparency and 2.) The Unexpected.

This WIKI Booklet will teach you how to terminate corrupt officials, from the comfort of your living

room, using those two, aforementioned, resources and a bit of patient work on your personal computer.

The following techniques usually only work on entities who are actually engaged in criminally corrupt

activities. If you don’t like someones face, or are jealous of their girlfriend, these tactics are unlikely to

work. If the target is an actual crook, you can nail them.

The following links, articles and DIY “how to” tips will get you, and your community, well on the way

to the documentation, case building and termination of those who abuse the public.

You are going to “take down” the corrupt politicians and the sneaky campaign financing billionaires

hiding behind them and pulling their strings. On Wall Street and in Silicon Valley, groups of billionaires huddle together and create “bubble’s of corruption and self-deluding echo chambers of rationalization” in order to convince each other that the crimes they commit are “for the greater good” of their fraternity house ego-manias.. They drink their own Kool Aid.

You will use the “Three D’s”: You will Discover, Document and Disclose to publicly expose: Secret

PAC cash trails; covert family trusts; stock market payola; hiding of cash with friends and family

members; prostitutes; illegal expense use; revolving door bribes; junket and sports ticket bribes; illicit

hirings; rigged-game grants and government kick-back contracts; and much, much more…

You will create a “non-survivable scenario” for your corrupt official, all without breaking a single law,

and WITH the help from journalists and law enforcement professionals.

In every city, state and federal agency there are three groups of people. You must be aware of this for your work with the law enforcement people who will be helping you. There are the Good Guys (the dedicated Elliot Ness-types who became cops in order to shut down crooks), the Bad Ones (The corrupt opportunists who are just as dirty as the corrupt politicians you are hunting) and the Worker Bees (these folks punch the clock and are just there to get the paycheck). The Worker Bee types will generally default to help The Good Guys because they don’t like anything that messes up routine or that could get their Department investigated. The odds are in your favor but you must carefully seek out the “Good Guys” in any given law enforcement group. You only need a couple Good Guy cop types to do their job to help run a complete take-down on any corrupt entity of any size. In actuality, as your back-up plan, you do not even need any law enforcement to assist you in preparing your case. You will learn, with this book and the links in this book, how to prepare a complete case file and deliver it to the public, the global media, public interest law organizations and every law enforcement agencies so that they can easily complete the prosecution. By helping all of these over-worked, yet appreciative, groups you can get karma brownie points, ethical satisfaction and, sometimes, CASH REWARDS.

While you are doing all of the strategic investigation, you will also have a number of scenario packages

ready for the unexpected event that will, eventually, occur, that you can instantly react to, piggy-back

on to and use to flood the media with your disclosures, or put the target in an inextricable position.

You will learn how to build your case file, assemble a virtual team, produce your evidence and deliver

it globally to everyone who might have an interest.


One option you have is to use the court system to make the world aware of the crimes and put the charges on permanent public record. Even if you lose the case or get it dismissed before it can go to trial, you have still put the “bad guys” on file in public records for their crimes. Write your lawsuit on “pleading paper” in a way that tells the story of their crimes for the permanent public record.

[][][] [* How to File a Federal Lawsuit without an Attorney”*]

by Alan L Sklover

Our society helps those in your circumstances to get your “day in Court” in several ways:    

1. Your best bet would be to contact the “Pro Se Law Clerk” for the Federal District Court nearest you. When the EEOC issues a “Right to Sue Letter” you then have ninety (90) days in which to file your lawsuit in your local Federal District Court. Each of the Federal Districts Courts has at least one “Pro Se” Law Clerk to assist individuals, like you, who do not have attorneys representing them. “Pro Se” is a Latin phrase that means “For Oneself” and a Pro Se Law Clerk’s sole job is to assist individuals in your circumstances in filing and maintaining a lawsuit by yourself. 

The staff of the Pro Se Law Clerk in your Federal District Court can help you by answering questions about forms, deadlines and procedures, but they are prohibited from giving you actual legal advice. Most have a ready supply of forms for your use to fill in, or model your Court materials from, as well as written guides to filing your case without an attorney. 

The Pro Se Law Clerk’s office cannot, however, (a) recommend a legal course of action, (b) predict how a Judge or Court will decide any issue, © interpret the meaning of a Judicial Order, or (d) interpret the law, legal doctrines, or cases for you. 

To contact the Pro Se Law Clerk for the Northern District of Illinois, which is your Federal District, you can call (312) 435-5691. 

2. Additionally, Law School “Student Law Clinics” often provide supervised law students to assist those without attorneys in matters such as yours. Many law schools have “Law Clinics” which are comprised of law students, acting under the supervision of clinical teachers, Law Professors and experienced attorneys. Law Clinics commonly assist those without attorneys deal with either the Court system or government agencies while giving students practical training intended to help them develop effective advocacy skills.    

In your area, The University of Chicago Law School is home to many student legal clinics, including one that might just be best for you: the “Employment Discrimination Project.” To contact them at the University of Chicago Law School, go to www.law.uchicago.edu/clinics/Mandel/employment or dial (773) 702-9494.   

3. A third approach would be to try to obtain an attorney’s guidance and assistance – even if it is not representation – by means of a Bar Association’s “Pro Bono” assistance programs. Many states and local bar associations suggest – and some even require – that their attorney-members engage in what is called “pro bono public” legal efforts. “Pro bono publico” (or “pro bono” for short) means “for the public good.” You might try to locate an attorney who is interested in your case, or the issues you raise, who will either take on your case, or act as a legal advisor to coach and mentor you through the federal lawsuit process. 

Though most attorneys are quite busy in their own law practices, (a) younger lawyers seeking experience, (b) older lawyers who are retired or semi-retired, and © many other lawyers who are seeking experience in a new area of law, may be willing to assist you without charge, or for a reduced charge.  I would suggest you consider this way of moving forward, and contacting the Illinois State Bar Association at (217) 525-1760, or visit their “LawyerFinder” website at www.illinoislawyerfinder.com

4. While I am sure representing yourself sure sounds difficult, intimidating and complex, the Federal Courts are really quite patient, accommodating, and understanding with people who cannot locate or cannot afford attorneys, and so represent themselves in Court. I must admit that I am almost always quite impressed at how kind, helpful and compassionate most Federal Court personnel – and most especially Federal Judges – are to people in your circumstances. With lawyers, while always polite and gracious, Court personnel can be a bit “unforgiving,” but with non-lawyers they really are quite wonderful. I have seen just super-human patience and compassion shown to those who have the courage and conviction to represent themselves in Court – which is their right to do. I think representing yourself in Federal Court might be a daunting challenge, it might, too, be a wonderful and inspiring experience for you. 

And what an advantage you have over attorneys: you cannot be disbarred! (Just joking.) 

5. No matter what you do, you cannot miss your deadline for filing your lawsuit – there will be no “second chance” given to you. One thing I do want to share with you, Brenda, is that your deadline for filing your Federal Court Complaint (what we lawyers call the “Statute of Limitations”) is not flexible, but entirely strict and unforgiving. Read the instructions carefully on your “Right to Sue Letter” issued to you by the U.S. EEOC, because it sets forth your Statute of Limitations for filing your Federal Court Complaint. Even if it is not perfect, complete or exactly what you’d like it to say, I do recommend you do not permit yourself to miss that deadline, because to do so is, what in law we call “fatal to your claim.” After filing, within a reasonable period of time you will be able to file an Amended Complaint, but only if you met your deadline with your initial Complaint. 

The opposition will immediately try to get your case dismissed by filing a “motion to dismiss” but you get to see their game plan when they do. You will then need a lawyer to help you write the response to the court to tell the story of why the case should not be dismissed.

[][] Hunt down a list of every investor and supplier for the corruption target

Contact all of those people and let them know the true facts about the corrupt entity they have hooked up with. Ask them to withdraw support for the corrupt entity. Cut off the corrupt entities source of cash. This book will teach you how to track them down and reach out to them in high volume.

[][] Organize a consumer boycott of the corrupt entity

Using the techniques in this book, you will let every member of the public know what a scum-bag the corrupt person or company is.

[][] Expose the stock market manipulations of the corrupt politician and their stock market rigging in order to kill off their illicit stock value

Dirty politicians, their campaign financiers and corrupt tech companies use the following illegal tricks to “Flash Boy”, “Skim”, “Pump-and-dump”, “Cook the Books”, “Server Manipulate”, “False Sequence”, “Google Rig”, “Force a Lie” and falsely inflate their stock market profits. You will learn how to cut them off and put their stocks back to realistic market values so that they can no longer manipulate public monies for illegal gain. The dirty technology companies pay off the Senators and other corrupt politicians that they buy, with stock warrants and hidden transfers to those politicians families or family trust funds. Now you will terminate all of that funny business.

  • * You will learn how to make a checklist of the corrupt entities in any given cartel and take them out one-by-one. You will find that the information and evidence over-laps make the take-downs easier and easier as you go along:














[][] [+ Stock market rigging is no longer a ‘conspiracy theory’ | New York Post+]

[+ cached+]

Some called it a conspiracy theory, tinfoil hats and that sort of stuff. … As I’ve reported many times, SP futures contracts are the vehicle of choice for rigging the market. … Foreign central banks, of course, really don’t need a discount to buy SP futures contracts.


[][] [+ Shocking Deutsche Bank Report Is Proof the Stock …+]

[+ cached+]

Is the Stock Market Rigged? Deutsche Bank AG (USA) (NYSE:DB) has publicly accepted a charge of roughly…


[][] [+ Is Our Stock Market Rigged? – Forbes+]

[+ cached+]

Of late the most common question I get asked whether on the golf course or at dinner with friends is whether our markets are rigged?


[][] [+ Proof It Is Rigged: “Fed Moved 93% of Entire Stock... +]

[+ cached+]

The federal reserve is an effect of the system…not the cause of the system. You all have been crying…


[][] [+ The market is rigged and here’s how individuals can play it | Daily …+]

[+ cached+]

The stock market is rigged and always has been says Heidi Moore, the U.S. economics and finance editor at The Guardian. That’s why many …


[][] The Stock Market is Rigged – The Daily Reckoning

[+ cached+]

The Stock Market is Rigged. The stock market may be rigged…but not always against you. Lots of people…


[][] [+ Former New York Stock Exchange Head Says That … – True Activist+]

[+ cached+]

This article ( Former New York Stock Exchange Head Says That The Stock Market Is Rigged ) is free and open source. You have permission to …


The articles above, and tens of thousands of other articles all confirm the same thing: DIRTY POLITICIANS AND DIRTY CORPORATIONS RIG THE STOCK MARKET.

So this means you get to shut their rigging down. You will find that ZEROHEDGE.COM and thousands of other sites will go into great detail to help you identify, track and expose the market rigging techniques they use in partnership with known corrupt banks like Deutsch Bank, Goldman Sachs and HSBC.








[][] How to investigate your elected officials and dirty corporations

By Clay Johnson

With last week’s Iowa Caucuses in the United States, we’re starting the long haul to November’s

election day where we’ll be inundated by hundreds of advertisements and speeches filled with all kinds

of promises. But how do you know whether those promises will be kept, or what the your member of

Congress is really about? The truth is, a candidate can tell you a lot more about what they’re going to

do via their actions and their associations than their advertisements and speeches. And thanks to the

work of a lot of great watchdog groups, a lot of that information is now publicly available online.

So how do you get started digging underneath the rhetoric and into the good stuff?

First, let’s figure out who all your representatives are. Project VoteSmart makes this easy just type in

your zip code, and they’ll tell you who all your representatives are from the state level on up. If you live

in a relatively dense area, chances are you live in a five digit zip code that has more than one legislative

district in it, so the chances are that you’ll need to know your Zip+4— you can figure that out courtesy

of the USPS.

Now that you know who your rep is, it’s time to put on your private investigator hat on. Start local! —

but I think that’s a much better place to start. Your local city council and state representatives impact

your daily life far more frequently than your representative or even the president. If you live in

California, Texas, Louisiana, Wisconsin, Maryland or Minnesota, you’re really in luck, because

OpenGovernment.org is pulling together a great website for you to see what’s happening in your area.

For everyone else, Google for your state’s state legislative website, or if you’re a developer, check out

the Sunlight Foundation’s OpenStates project, which has bulk data available for 44 states.

We’re still a little behind with county and municipality votes and websites. But search for yours, you

may have something useful out there. The most important thing about local candidates is that they’re

accessible. While you can (and should) try and meet with your federal representatives, sometimes the

travel to Washington can be too burdensome. But local candidates are there and waiting for you to call

them. Call their office, and ask for a meeting, and ask them what they’re about. You’ll be amazed at the

reception you get.

There are two great tools for researching federal (President, Congress) office-holders: GovTrack.us and

OpenCongress.org. If you live in the 7th Congressional District of Virginia, for instance, here’s Eric

Cantor’s page in on GovTrack, and on OpenCongress. Take a look at the bills they’ve sponsored and co-

sponsored, and what they’ve voted on, and see if they align with your issues. And if they don’t — well,

you know what to do.

As important as the voting record is the company your member keeps. InfluenceExplorer.com, from the

Sunlight Foundation is a great place to start. If you’re interested in Ron Paul for instance, you can see

how much money he’s raised, as well as what his top Earmark requests are. Over on OpenSecrets.org

you’re able to see what industries have Ron Paul as a top recipient of money, and even sort donors by

zip code. At the state level, the National Institute on Money in State Politics offers the same service on


Another interesting thing to look at is how politicians invest their money. OpenSecrets also has the neat

feature of being able to see the kinds of investments that your member of Congress makes — they’ve

catalogued each member of Congress’ “Personal Financial Disclosure” form — the form all high-level

government employees have to fill out when they get their job. What’s the top asset held by a member

of Congress you ask? That’d be the Milwaukee Bucks, owned entirely by U.S. Senator Herb Kohl.

If you want to dig deeper, *all* of this data is generally a hard-working non-profit compiling and

delivering government data in a usable format. The federal financial contribution stuff comes from

fec.gov, laws come from Thomas.gov (which celebrates its 17th birthday this week), and state official

information comes from elections, ethics, and secretaries of state websites across the country. With a

little sleuthing, you can figure out whether or not your politicians are right for you and make a little

4more sense out of how your government works.

In 2012, don’t just listen to what the candidates have to say, or even listen to what everybody else has to

say about them. Part of a healthy information diet means getting closer to the source: watch what they

do, instead. If you can, meet directly with them, too. In my 10 years working in Washington, I’ve yet to

hear a scheduler complain that their member has too many meetings with their constituents. Book some

travel to Washington (April is a great time to visit, for the Cherry Blossoms), meet with your member

of Congress, and participate in democracy.

Photo remixed from Dirk Ercken/Shutterstock.

Notes: Also see:





[][] How to investigate the actions of public officials

In this post, Michael Corwin, a professional investigator who resides in New Mexico, provides five

steps for investigating the actions of public officials. While many of the decisions of public officials are

made behind closed doors, Corwin explains that with the right preparation, it is possible to find quite a

bit of useful information about the actions and motivations of public officials.

The investigator I trained with called people with information “walking, talking sources”. Intelligence

agencies refer to them as “Humanint”. People possess vast amounts of information and are often a

critical source of information when conducting an investigation. The interview is the process that

investigators use to access that information.

Your ability to investigate the actions of public officials, including those in your state making decisions

about public education that can lead to profiteering by private companies, will be enhanced by your

ability to conduct interviews and document that information.

There are five steps to an effective interview. Within each of these steps there are actions you can take

that will improve your chance for success. Familiarize yourself with this process, but understand that

just like in life, interviews are not cast in stone. You might receive a “tip” call from an insider at the

education department or from a legislator’s office wanting to provide you with information, and in that

case you will need to jump right into the interview and bypass some of the steps entirely.

[][] Step One: Preparation

Interviews are not meant to be a fishing expedition. Every interview should have a purpose and a path

to achieve that purpose. Rowing out into the middle of the ocean and dropping a line with whatever

bait you have on the boat is a much less effective way of catching a fish than going to a location where

you know the type of fish already inhabiting that location and what food they like to eat. Preparation is

the key to success for most interviews.

For example, through court records research you learn that there is a former administrator from your

state’s education office that is suing the department for being terminated. Part of the fired employee’s

claim is that she reported suspected illegal conduct within the department such as “pay to play”

involving the director.

The information contained in the lawsuit becomes your basis for the interview preparation. Break the

information down that you want to document into categories based upon the who, what, where, when,

why and how that we all learned to use as students in school.

Rather than create a script of questions to ask, use the categories of information you created to develop

an outline of information to cover during the interview. Scripted questions lead to stilted interviews and

missed opportunities.

Interviews meander like rivers rather than follow grid patterns. You must be able to follow new or

unanticipated information that surfaces during the interview to its logical end. Using a checklist of

questions also makes it harder to truly listen because you are focused more on your own questions than

upon the interviewee’s answers.

Once you have prepared your outline your next step is determining the manner of contract.

[][] Step Two: Determining the Best Method to Make Contract

There is a great scene in the film “All the Presidents Men”, in which Dustin Hoffman and Robert

Redford show up unannounced at a series of front doors of people they want to interview. The in person

cold call, as investigators refer to this process, is often the most effective approach to someone you

think may be reluctant to speak with you.

It uses the element of surprise to catch people when their guard is down, and allows them to see that

you are a nice person, which hopefully humanizes you to them.

But this is a labor-intensive process, which is not practical when there is time pressure or a significant

geographic distance between you and the interviewee. You also must consider personal safety too.

When possible it is best to have two people go since you will be entering a stranger’s home.

The telephone is often a poor substitute when contacting people, as you have to get past caller-ID,

protective family members and voice mail. It is best used when time is short, or you are too far away to

go in person. Though it is the preferable approach when you believe the person you want to interview

is willing to speak with you.

For those that you think are cooperative and nearby, you can use the telephone to set an appointment

6and then meet with them in person at a place like a coffee shop where you can do the interview face to

face. Face to face is always preferable because the ability to read a person and demonstrate that you are

hearing what they have to say is much better face-to-face than over the telephone.

Emails can also be used as a manner of contact, but are less effective because you are unable to engage

in the give and take that an interview requires. Perhaps instant messaging or Skype video chats can

work as a hybrid process for willing interviewees that are too far away to meet in person.

Once you have figured out the method of approach, the next step is to take a deep breath and make


[][] Step Three: Making Contact

Whether face to face or over the phone you have about ten seconds to convince an interviewee to speak

with you. Start with who you are and why you are contacting this person. Give them a reason to speak

with you.

“Hi my name is Mike Corwin, and I am looking into (always better to say than investigating) some

information involving the public education department.” Follow up your introduction with “have I

caught you at a bad time?” or “would you have a couple of moments?”

This serves two purposes. The first is you are acknowledging that you are imposing upon the

interviewee (empathy) and the second purpose is to ferret out any objections to being interviewed.

Just as in sales, overcoming objections is part of the process of conducting an interview. If the

interviewee does not offer up any objections then you can go directly to step four, and begin the

interview itself. If the person offers up an objection, then you must determine if the objection is one

that can be ignored or must be overcome.

The most common objections are: “I don’t have time”, “I don’t know anything”, “I don’t want to get

involved”, or “I could lose my job if I talk to you.”

Of those objections, fear of losing a paycheck is the most difficult to overcome. If the interviewee says,

“I have to get my kids to soccer in twenty-minutes”, or some other genuine time constraint, ask for a

better time to contact them. If the they say, “I have a bunch of (nonspecific) things to do today” then

respond with something like, “I understand, this will only take a few moments” and ask your first

question. Generic time objections usually fade away once the interviewee begins talking.

“I don’t know anything” can be addressed easily, respond with something like, “I hear you, then this

won’t take more than a moment, I just wanted to run something past you and get your take on it.” Then

ask your question. Once you get the person talking they will tell you what they know. You are

contacting them because you already know that they know something that you need to confirm.

“I don’t want to get involved” or “I could lose my job” are tougher objections to overcome. You must

respect genuine fear, such as getting fired and losing a paycheck. The best approach is to demonstrate

that you understand the concern, “I can see that you are worried” and then say something like, “I am

speaking with several other people”, which downplays the fear of being singled out. You can also offer

to speak with them for “background information only” so that only you will know what they have to

say. You must then honor that promise and look for other ways to document that information should the

person agree to speak with you. However, if the person still objects to speaking with you, the best thing

to do is to thank them for their time and try again at another time.

The importance of how you make contact cannot be overstated as it often determines the success of the


[][] Step Four: Conducting the Interview

Interviews are about listening. Not about talking. They are about building rapport when you can in

order to help make the interviewee comfortable with you and the process. Pets, kids, hobbies, or work

are topics that can help put people at ease. This is harder to do over the telephone than it is to do in

person since you lack visual cues.

A simple way to build rapport over the phone might go “so how long did you work at the education

department? What was it like?” If the interviewee responds that it was great until the new director

started. Ask what the person liked about the work before the new director came in and caused

problems. The trick is to get the person comfortable speaking with you.

Once the person is comfortable with you ask your first question and then be quiet. Do not rush in to fill

silence with additional questions. Let the interviewee fill the silence. The more she does the more

information you will get from her.

Questions should be open ended. Avoid questions that can be answered with a simple yes or no. The

more the person speaks the more information you will get. With each topic you want to cover start with

general questions and work towards the specific. This helps to uncover and pursue information that you

may not have been aware of before the interview began.

This is also why you want to avoid working off of a script. Working off of a script means you will miss

this type of information that could be critical to your investigation.

A great way to get additional information is to ask questions like, “how so?” or “why do you think that

is?” These types of questions get the interviewee to expand on her answers.

With an in person interview you can use bodily language to demonstrate your interest in what the

person tells you. Lean forward and make eye contact. This is called reflexive listening and works


Over the telephone you have to balance your silence against interrupting the flow of the interview. A

great way to do that is to give occasional encouragement with statements like, “wow, really?” or

reword and restate it back to the interviewee “so what your saying is”.

Once you have covered all of the topics you wanted to cover, ask, “Is there anything else that you think

I should be aware of” and let them respond. Follow up with questions to lock down anything they offer.

Then you can close out the interview.

Ask if it is okay to call the interviewee if you run across additional information that you want to run by

them. Most people will say yes. Thank them for their time and let the person know that you are truly

appreciative of them speaking with you.

[][] Step Five: Documenting the Information

When possible you should take notes during the interview. Try to avoid using bullet points as that

means you are interpreting what the person tells you rather than documenting what they tell you. Try to

write down what is said in the manner that it is said. This takes practice.

Saying “let me back you up for a second and make sure I understand” helps buys some time to

complete your writing as you repeat out loud what the person told you. If you are more comfortable

typing your notes into an IPAD or laptop, go ahead and do that. Though they are difficult to lug with

you on an in person cold call.

There are some people who are comfortable being recorded, but most are not. Many smart phones have

apps that allow you to record and works well with a person willing to be recorded.

After the interview is completed read through your notes and add anything that the person said that you

missed as you took your notes. You can also add notes that provide context to what was said.

Interview notes can be tough to read months later. When possible type up a summary of the interview

as you may need to come back to the interview months later.

[][] How to investigate official documents

Written by Don Ray

[][] 25 questions you should ask any government document

How to find the stories behind official documents

The investigative journalist never takes things at face value. They probe and question to get to the truth.

Some journalists accept official documents without question; not so the investigative journalist. If you

are to uncover the story you need to keep asking questions.

1: Who’s your daddy?

Find out who created the document and why. Somebody had to have a reason to create a form or

document. Figure out which person or agency went to the trouble of making a form.

2: When were you born?

9Find out the issue date and ask about updates. In most bureaucracies, the form will change to adapt to

conditions the makers never anticipated. There are times when earlier versions of the same form asked

for different information.

3: What language do you speak?

Make sure you understand the terms. Agencies and departments and ministries love jargon, acronyms

and codes. If you don’t understand what everything means, you’re missing out.

4: Where do you live?

You might need to make another visit. If you didn’t get the document from its regular source, it’s

important to know where it resides. Sometimes you can meet its family.

5: Who else is in your family?

Find out what other documents may be on file. Government agencies are never content with just one

form. When you learn everything about the function of the form, you’ll find others with even more


6: Are you married?

Is there another document that is wed to this one? Purchase orders always lead to bills of lading and

receipts. When you know to look for the related documents, you will always discover more details and

new leads.

7: Why are you here?

Figure out the need for the document at the time of issuing. Usually it came about because of some

need – maybe a crisis. Sometimes it’s a law or regulation that required it. Get to the bottom of why

someone conceived it.

8: Just what is your job anyway?

Understand its purpose today. As crazy as bureaucrats are, they still wouldn’t make a form or document

that has no purpose. When you understand what it’s supposed to accomplish, you will figure out the

system – and that’s the key to knowing what’s really going on.

9: What information do you have?

Ask about every piece of information. Make sure you understand what every speck of ink on the

document means. This applies to what was on the blank form as well as the information someone filled


10: Who told you this stuff?

It had to learn the information from someone. Did someone actually weigh the person getting the

driver’s license or did they rely on what the applicant told them? If you don’t know how they came up

10with the information in a form or document, you leave yourself open to making errors.

11: Who else are you allowed to talk to?

Find out if it’s a public record. The more personal or sensitive a document is, the more restrictions there

may be on who is allowed to possess it, read it or process it. Always find out who’s allowed to see it

and, even more important, who’s not allowed to see it and why.

12: Did you verify the information?

People can write whatever they want on a form. Forms are, in essence, questionnaires. Find out what

systems are in place to ensure that the information is incorrect. If the agency or department is lazy in

this situation, it could be an invitation for corruption and misuse.

13: How do I know you’re telling me the truth?

Yes, documents can also lie to you. Think about your own resume. Do you really know how to use

those machines and systems you claim you’re efficient at operating? Just because it’s in print doesn’t

mean that it’s true. Be suspicious. Verify the information independently.

14: What other secrets are you keeping?

Look for codes and fine print. Too many investigative people look only at what’s filled in on a

document, and not what the document is specifically asking for. Some journalists request blank copies

of every document or form an agencies uses. Then, they ask for the documents or regulations that

explain the encoded information.

15: Who else have you been talking to?

Maybe there’s a log of who’s seen the file. Some documents are so important or sensitive that anyone

who looks at it, copies it or checks it out must sign a register of some sort. Get that register.

16: If you don’t know the answer, who might?

See if it leads you somewhere else. So the document provides someone’s date of birth but not the place

of birth. Figure out which related document (documents are often members of families) might have the

missing information. Maybe even an earlier version of the same one.

17: Are you legal?

Make sure you don’t have a fake or altered document. Never trust someone who introduces you to a

document. Interrogate the document and be alert to answers that just don’t sound (or look) right. Sure,

you want to believe that someone gave you an official document, but don’t get lazy. Find its twin and

look for things that don’t match.

18: How did you get here?

Find out how a document gets from A to B. If you ask the officially recorded death certificate how it

11got to that file cabinet, you might learn that it spent a month or so being processed somewhere else.

Next time, you can look for newer documents while they’re in transit.

19: Are you retired?

Some documents have become obsolete. Bureaucrats love to redo documents. Always check to ensure

that the information in one document hasn’t been superseded by a newer version. Sometimes the issue

date of the document is at the bottom of the form.

20: What’s your life expectancy?

Check records-retention policy. It’ll happen to you for sure, unless you’re careful. You look at

documents in some public office and later decide you want copies. But when you get there, you

discover that someone decided to put it in the bin or the shredder. Know how long they’re allowed to


21: Who have you been intimate with?

Find out who has processed or handled it. Signatures, check boxes, initials, rubber stamps and even

metadata will give you clues as to who had reason to have contact with the document. Be suspicious of

the signatures of top-level officials. They hardly ever sign documents themselves. Find out who really

signed or initialed it.

22: Are you really a blonde?

Make sure someone hasn’t altered the document. Many a journalist has lost his or her credibility

because they didn’t verify every piece of information in a document. Sometimes the changes are

obvious to the eye if you examine it closely enough. Don’t trust them.

23: Do you have any twin brothers or sisters?

There may be copies in other offices. Before computers, people made a fortune selling carbon paper to

government agencies. It seems that they want everyone to have a copy of just about every document. If

the distribution list isn’t printed on the form, look to the laws, policies or directives to find out where

all those copies go.

24: Would you be willing to testify in court?

A certified copy will save court time. When you can get a government official to certify that the copy is

true and correct, you’ll prevent a lot of potential problems. If it turns out that something is not correct,

the burden falls on the official who certified it.

25: You’re not planning on leaving town, are you?

Put your copies in a safe place. There’s nothing more devastating than to lose the actual evidence you

had that proved the corruption. Always scan your documents and keep digital copies in various safe

places. There are forces out there who don’t want you to be able to share the evidence you’ve found.

12Picture by Jennifer George and released under Creative Commons Don Ray is a seasoned broadcast and print investigative reporter. He has worked worldwide for IREX and many other training and consulting organisations. All his tips, techniques and modules can be reused under the terms of Creative Commons BY-NC 4.0. You can email Don Ray if you want his help.

[][] Ten Steps to a Successful Political Staffer Investigation

If a problem or complaint has come up at your company, a proper investigation can help you figure out

what happened -- and what to do about it. It can also help your company avoid liability for employee

wrongdoing, but only if you act fast and take effective action to remedy the problem. Below, you’ll find

the ten steps to a successful workplace investigation. For detailed information about how to investigate,

including separate chapters on common problems like harassment, employee theft, drug use, and more,

get a copy of The Essential Guide to Workplace Investigations, by Lisa Guerin (Nolo).

1. Decide whether to investigate.

Before you put on your detective’s hat, take some time to decide whether you really need an

investigation. In a few situations -- for example, if all employees agree on what happened or the

problem appears to be minor -- you may reasonably decide that a full-blown investigation is

unnecessary. Usually, however, it’s best to err on the side of conducting an investigation. If the problem

is more serious than it seemed, failing to investigate can lead to legal trouble -- and continuing

workplace problems. And sometimes, you just can’t tell how widespread or substantial a problem is

until you do a little poking around.

2. Take immediate action, if necessary.

You might have to act right away -- even before you begin your investigation -- if a situation is volatile

or could otherwise cause immediate harm to your business. If an employee is accused of sexually

assaulting a coworker, stealing valuable trade secrets, or bringing a weapon to work, you’ll probably

want to suspend the accused employee temporarily -- with pay -- while you look into the matter. But be

careful not to prejudge the situation or lead the accused employee to believe that you’ve already made

up your mind.

3. Choose an investigator.

You’ll want an investigator who is experienced and/or trained in investigation techniques, is impartial

and perceived as impartial by the employees involved, and is capable of acting -- and, if necessary,

testifying in court -- professionally about the situation. If you have someone who meets this job

description on your payroll, you’re in luck. If not, you can hire an outside investigator to handle things

for you.

4. Plan the investigation.

Take some time up front to organize your thoughts. Gather any information you already have about the

problem -- such as an employee complaint, a supervisor's report, written warnings, or materials that are

part of the problem (such as X-rated emails or threatening letters). Using this information as your

guide, think about what you’ll need to find out to decide what happened. Whom will you interview and

what will you ask? Are there additional documents that employees or supervisors might have? Is there

anyone who witnessed important events -- or should have?

5. Conduct interviews.

The goal of every investigation is to gather information -- and the most basic way to do that is by

asking people questions. Most investigations involve at least two interviews: one of the employee

accused of wrongdoing, and another of the employee who complained or was the victim. Sometimes,

you will also want to interview witnesses -- others who may have seen or heard something important.

When you interview people, try to elicit as much information as possible by asking open-ended


6. Gather documents and other evidence.

Almost every investigation will rely to some extent on documents -- personnel files, email messages,

company policies, correspondence, and so on. And some investigations will require you to gather other

types of evidence, such as drugs, a weapon, photographs, or stolen items.

7. Evaluate the evidence.

The most challenging part of many investigations -- especially if witnesses disagree or contradict each

other -- is figuring out what actually happened. There are some proven methods of deciding where the

truth lies -- methods all of us use in our everyday lives to get to the bottom of things. You'll want to

consider, for example, whose story makes the most sense, whose demeanor was more convincing, and

who (if anyone) has a motive to deceive you. And in some situations, you may just have to throw up

your hands and acknowledge that you don’t have enough information to decide what really happened.

8. Take action.

Once you decide what happened, you’ll have to figure out what to do about it. If you conclude that

serious wrongdoing occurred, you will have to take disciplinary action quickly to avoid legal liability

for that employee’s behavior and to protect your company and other workers from harm. In deciding

how to handle these situations, you should consider a number of factors, including how serious the

actions were and how you have handled similar problems in the past.

9. Document the investigation.

Once your investigation is complete, you should write an investigation report that explains what you

did and why. This will not only give the company some protection from lawsuits relating to the

investigation, but will also provide a written record in case of future misconduct by the same

employee(s). Among other things, your report should explain how and when the problem came to the

company’s attention, what interviews you conducted, what evidence you considered, what conclusions

14you reached, and what you did about the problem.

10. Follow up.

The last step is to follow up with your employees to make sure that you’ve solved the problem that led

to the investigation. Has the misconduct stopped? Has the wrongdoer met any requirements imposed as

a result of the investigation -- for example, to complete a training course on sexual harassment? If the

investigation revealed any systemic workplace problems (such as widespread confusion about company

policy or lack of training on issues like workplace diversity or proper techniques for dealing with

customers), some training might be in order.

by: Lisa Guerin, J.D.

[][] How to Use Your Computer to Investigate the Corrupt

Finding Public Records

Performing Web Searches

Going the Extra Mile

In this day and age, you can never be too cautious when it comes to meeting someone new. This is

especially important if you’re hiring someone to watch your kids, dating someone you’ve met online, or

are hiring someone for a sensitive job. While you can still hire a private investigator to find any dirt,

using a variety of tools online can actually provide a significant amount of information and insight. Just

be sure to not put too much stock into what you read.

[][] Part 1 of 3: Finding Public Records

Know what to expect. When you are searching public records, you are only getting a small

piece of the larger picture. You may find an arrest record, but the details are almost never

included. Oftentimes reports will contradict each other, as they come from different sources

with data gathered at different times. Always take everything you read with a large grain of salt,

and do your best to verify any information through other means.

 Even information such as the person’s favorite movies or music could be largely

incorrect. They may have made that list five years ago and their tastes are completely

different now.

Understand what is made public. Common information obtained from public records can

include simple things such as name, address and phone numbers. In addition, birth, death,

15marriage & divorce records and criminal, court, sex offender registries can be searched in some

areas. Licenses, property information and a number of other records are kept by the government

and certain organizations.

Use a free public records search. There are a variety of sites online that will allow you to

search public records for free, and even more that will do so for a fee. Keep in mind that all

public records aren’t necessarily free, and getting the appropriate permit and authorization can

take a significant amount of time. Likewise, any records that a site returns may be outdated or

incomplete. Here are a couple good places to start:

 Free Public Records Search Directory – This site allows you to search public records

from any state or on a federal level. If the record cannot be obtained by the search, it will

often tell you who to contact to obtain it. You will need to know the general location of

the person you are investigating.

 Family Watchdog – This site contains the National Sex Offender Registry, and allows

you to search for offenders by name or location. Keep in mind that details are often not

provided, which can contribute to an unwarranted negative view.

 Your local department of corrections website – Almost all states will allow you to

search publicly available criminal records. The address is different for each state, but

searching for “ department of corrections” should quickly get you there.

Use a paid search. A paid public records search may yield more results than a free search, but

keep in mind that all of the records it retrieves are available if you put the time in contacting the

various agencies. If you don’t have time to do this, paying for a search may be a better use of

your time and money.

[][] Part 2 of 3: Performing Web Searches

Use a people search engine. There are several search engines that focus solely on retrieving

information about a person from their public social network profiles and online activity. These

searches are usually free, though most offer advanced searches for a fee. Using multiple

services may help to paint a more complete picture. Popular choices include:1

 Pipl – This site will return social network information, age, and location for free. You

just need to enter a name, though you can narrow it down by adding a location. Be aware

that a common name will result in a lot of results.

 123People – This site will also return social network information, but will also provide

16links to paid public records searches and criminal background checks.

 ZabaSearch – This is another search site that will return similar information, and

provides quick links to paid searches for phone numbers and addresses.

Perform a search with a few different web search engines. Though it may seem obvious, you

can actually find a lot of information about a person from a quick web search. The more you

already know about that person, the more results you will get from the search. Use multiple

search engines to find more results that others might not have.

 Search by name – This is the basic search, and will usually return social network profiles

and any mentions in local press.

 Search by email. Searching by the person’s email address may return results from sites

that contains their email address but not their name. You may not find much with this

search, but it may help fill in the cracks.

 Username search. Try searching for the person’s email address without the domain. For

example, if the person’s email is [email protected], you would just search for

“coolcat74”. Oftentimes people will register for forums and websites just using their

standard username. This can help you track down forum posts and give you some insight

into what that person thinks.2

Cross-reference your result. You are likely to get a wide range of search results from your

various inquiries. Remember, it is always best to assume that the information you find is false or

incomplete. Compare your results against each other and see what sort of patterns and

consistencies emerge. This can help make sure that what you’re finding is at least somewhat


[][] Part 3 of 3: Going the Extra Mile

Create a fake Facebook profile. This method is pretty dirty, but you may be able to create a

fake profile (ideally with an attractive photo) and request to be that person’s friend. It will help

to have some mutual friends first. Becoming friends will typically give you access to all of their

private information that they only allow friends to see.

 Many people would consider this to be a massive invasion of privacy, so only do this if

you feel you absolutely have to. Be prepared to face serious consequences and be

labeled a creep and stalker if you get caught.

17Talk to the person. The only way you’ll be able to truly verify any information is to talk to the

person directly. If you’re performing a job interview, you should be able to address any issue

you have without raising eyebrows. If you’re investigating someone on a personal level, you

may have to be a little more tactful about how you bring things up.

[][] Tips

 Searching public records can cost a lot of money. You can also hire an investigator, which is

probably better suited to do the job, but that will probably cost you even more.

 Most records are held at the state or provincial level. Each state has different levels of access for

different records. Try using a search engine to type "*State Name* *Record Type* Record

Search” (e.g. “California Birth Records Search”)

 Most local police departments have records available for viewing. However, most of them are

not available online. State and federal governments usually have records search available


 Try searching each database using only last name (if it is not a common one like Smith or


 Write a list of all the important things you do know about the person and then what you don’t

know. Try to make a checklist, or in other words, create a dossier on the person so you have

ample information on the individual.


 Ancestry.com has many genealogy databases that can be searched through.

 Be careful when signing up for a so called “detective sites” they can cost money up front then even more later on as each search can cost you more any more.

 When legal matters are at hand, leave the authorities and law enforcement to take care of it.

[][] How to investigate a politician and their campaign billionaires online

Today, I will explain briefly how to investigate a person on the Internet using some online tools that

allow you to use e-mail addresses, phone numbers or simple names to trace other information. I beg

you, use them with extreme caution and only for lawful purposes. I do not take any responsibility in

this regard!

19If you want to know how to investigate a person on the Internet starting from his email address, my

advice is to take advantage of this important data to flush out the social profiles associated with it. How

is it done? Just use Rapportive , a great free extension for Chrome, Firefox and Safari that integrates

into Gmail and allows you to discover all the profiles on Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn associated

with a particular email address.

To inquire about a person using Rapportive , all you have to do is install the extension on your PC,

open Gmail and start composing a new email. At this point, type the email address of the person to be

searched in the To: field and wait for the right hand side bar appear all the contact information.

If everything goes in the right direction, Rapportive will find all the social profiles on Facebook ,

Twitter, LinkedIn and Google+ associated with the email address entered . In this way, you can

discover a lot of new information about the person you want to find online.

20If you do not know the email address of the person you want to investigate , you can groped luck and

use Rapportive to find his address. The possible combinations to try to locate the e-mail are just so

many (name + [email protected], [email protected], [email protected], etc. . ) But

with the immediate feedback Rapportive the mission is not impossible.

Do you need to investigate a person on the Internet knowing only his name? In this case, the work gets

even more complicated, but you can make use of various tools online that can help you find

information quickly:

 Pipl -a free online service that gathers all the information , pictures and videos available on

social networks and Internet sites to rebuild , or groped to reconstruct the online identity of


 Facebook – the most popular social network in the world. If a person “exists” on the Internet, it

definitely has a Facebook profile in its name .

 Google – sometimes looking for the name of a person on Google in quotes (example “John

Doe” ) is able to obtain very valuable info.

READ ALSO: How to surf on Facebook without log in

21Are you interested to investigate a person on the Internet starting from his phone number? In this case I

can not promise results particularly accurate or reliable at 100%, but I suggest you take a look at the

following service:

Whooming – a free online service that lets you discover private numbers and anonymous using the

technique of call forwarding . Using it, you can discover the real details of who is calling you with the

anonymous and from this information to find more information about this person.

I’ve been shocked at how much info I’ve been able to find out about myself online, and it’s a bit

unnerving. I’m not in favor of encouraging people to go snooping on their friends and neighbors and

22enemies, but it’s going to happen anyway, and the info is all out there, and I admit I have the kind of

curiosity and web-savvy that makes me a good person to answer your question. So here are some

sources that might interest you:

Start by using Google if the person’s name is relatively uncommon. A lot of what you can find out

about a person is just through web pages or news articles where they are mentioned. Maybe they even

have a blog in which they blab all about their personal life:


See also: http://peoplefind.com/peoplesearch/google_peo

For blog searches in particular, try:


You can find out basic contact info (address, phone, email) through one of these sites:







You can find out where a person works (or used to work) and possibly a brief bio or job description



You can find out where a person went to high school and when they graduated (also college, work, and

military records) from:


You can find out about a person’s ancestry, U.S. Public Records info, and some historical info (all the

good stuff is subscription only, but you can get a free 14-day trial subscription) at:


There’s a huge list of links of site that will help you locate people or find out about them at Cyndi’s



For lots more info (most of it you have to pay for, but some is free) see:


23Here, in particular, is their list of free database searches:


Once you have one piece of information about a person (such as what university they went to) you

might be able to find out more by following that thread, for example go to that university’s website and

do a search on them. There might be an alumni database or alumni association website which would

have info about what that person is currently up to (though most of these are usually password-

protected and available only to fellow alumni).

There is some info on people searching at Wikipedia:


Finally, Net Detective people search software (which you can download) claims to provide unlimited

searches on people, criminal records, credit reports, etc., for three years after a one-time $29 charge.

I haven’t tried it to verify how useful it is, but it looks great:


See also: http://lookup-someone-online.com/

[][] Online Methods to Investigate the Who, Where, and When of a Person

By: Henk van Ess |

Editor’s Note: The Verification Handbook for Investigative

Reporting is a new guide to online search and research techniques to using user-generated content

(UGC) and open source information in investigations. Published by the European Journalism Centre,

a GIJN member based in the Netherlands, the manual consists of ten chapters and is available for free

download. We’re pleased to reprint below chapter 2, by Internet search expert Henk van Ess.

Online research is often a challenge for traditional investigative reporters, journalism lecturers, and

students. Information from the web can be fake, biased, incomplete, or all of the above.

Offline, too, there is no happy hunting ground with unbiased people or completely honest governments.

In the end, it all boils down to asking the right questions, digital or not. This chapter gives you some

strategic advice and tools for digitizing three of the biggest questions in journalism: who, where, and


1. Who?

Let’s do a background profile with Google on Ben van Beurden, CEO of the Shell Oil Co.

a. Find facts and opinions

25The simple two-letter word “is” reveals opinions and facts about your subject. To avoid clutter, include

the company name of the person or any other detail you know, and tell Google that both words should

be not that far from each other.

The AROUND operator MUST BE IN CAPITALS. It sets the maximum distance in words between

the two terms.

b.What do others say?

This search is asking Google to “Show me PDF documents with the name of the CEO of Shell in it, but

exclude documents from Shell.” This will find documents about your subject, but not from the

company of the subject itself. This helps you to see what opponents, competitors or opinionated people

say about your subject. If you are a perfectionist, go for

inurl:pdf “ben van beurden” –site:shell.*

because you will find also PDFs that are not visible with filetype.

c.Official databases

Search for worldwide official documents about this person. It searches for gov.uk (United Kingdom)

but also .gov.au (Australia), .gov.cn (China), .gov (U.S.) and other governmental websites in the world.

If you don’t have a .gov website in your country, use the local word for it with the site: operator.

Examples would be site:bund.de (Germany) or site:overheid.nl (The Netherlands).

With this query, we found van Beurden’s planning permission for his house in London, which helped

us to find his full address and other details.

d.United Nations

You are now searching in any United Nations-related organization. In this example, we find the Shell

CEO popping up in a paper about “Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management.” And

we found his full name, the name of his wife, and his passport number at the time when we did this

search. Amazing.

26e. Find the variations

With this formula you can find result that use different spellings of the name. You will receive

documents with the word Shell, but not those that include “Ben” as the first name. With this, you will

find out that he is also referred to as Bernardus van Beurden. (You don’t need to enter a dot [.] because

Google will ignore points.) Now repeat steps a, b, c and d with this new name.

2. Where

1. Use photo search in Topsy

You can use www.topsy.com to find out where your subject was, by analyzing his mentions (1) over

time (2) and by looking at the photos (3) that others posted on Twitter. If you’d rather research a

specific period, go for “Specific Range” in the time menu.

2. Use Echosec

27With Echosec, you can search social media for free. In this example, I entered the address of Shell HQ

(1) in hopes of finding recent (2) postings from people who work there (3).

3. Use photo search in Google Images

Combine all you know about your subject in one mighty phrase. In the below example, I’m searching

for a jihadist called @MuhajiriShaam (1) but not the account @MuhajiriShaam01 (2) on Twitter (3). I

just want to see the photos he posted on Twitter between Sept. 25 and Sept. 29, 2014 (4).

283. When

1. Date search

Most of the research you do is not based on today, but an earlier period. Always tell your search engine

this. Go back in time.

29Let’s investigate a fire in a Dutch chemical plant called Chemie-Pack. The fire happened on Jan. 5,

2011. Perhaps you want to investigate if dangerous chemicals were stored at the plant. Go to

images.google.com, type in Chemie-pack (1) and just search before January 2011 (2). The results offer

hundreds of photos from a youth fire department that visited the company days before the fire. In some

photos, you can see barrels with names of chemicals on them. We used this to establish which

chemicals were stored in the plant days before the fire.

2. Find old data with archive.org

Websites often cease to exist. There is a chance you can still view them by using archive.org. This tool

can do its work only if you know the URL of the webpage you want to see. The problem is that often

the link is gone and therefore you don’t know it. So how do you find a seemingly disappeared URL?

Let’s assume we want to find the home page of a dead actress called Lana Clarkson.

Step One: Find an index

Find a source about the missing page. In this case, we can use her Wikipedia page.

Step Two: Put the index in the time machine

Go to archive.org and enter the URL of her Wikipedia page,

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lana_Clarkson. Choose the oldest available version, March 10, 2004.

There it says the home page was http://www.lanaclarkson.com.

Step Three: Find the original website

30Now type the link in archive.org, but add a backslash and an asterisk to the URL:


All filed links are now visible. Unfortunately, in this case, you won’t find that much. Clarkson became

famous only after her death. She was shot and killed by famed music producer Phil Spector in February


Dutch-born Henk van Ess teaches Internet research, social media, and

multimedia/cross media. The veteran guest lecturer and trainer travels around Europe doing Internet

research workshops. His projects include “Fact-Checking the Web” (CSI Internet), Handbook

Datajournalism, and speaking as a social media and web research specialist.


How to

Use Tumblr

How to

Behave Professionally on Social Media

How to

Access Criminal Court Records

Sources and Citations

1. ↑ http://www.pbs.org/mediashift/2007/09/people-searches-let-everyone-investigate-you247/

2. ↑ http://lifehacker.com/5845900/how-to-use-the-internet-to-investigate-your-next-date-


3. http://helpmeinvestigate.com/

[][] NOW: How To File Your Case in the “Court of Public Embarrassment”

Now that your evidence, data, peer-to-peer investigative team and website are in a compelling state,

you can deploy your charges and evidence to the world.

Some corrupt business Cartels control main-stream news. A handful of old white men control and own most of the “big name” news outlets you know of and they order the news to hide things that they do not want shown. Facebook, Google, Linkedin, Twitter are owned and controlled by the campaign financiers for the Obama Administration. They exchange coordinated information rigging of the internet for exclusive government contracts and stock market valuation manipulations. You will need to work hard to bypass their censorship of news about their, or their friends illicit activities.

When 9/11 happened in the U.S.A. electronic circuits were put into most electronics and U.S. servers (ie: Cisco products, Juniper Networks Products, Intel Products, etc.) which were designed to let law enforcement look at any files or email that mentioned certain keywords. The security implementation of these “backdoors” was poorly executed and these companies subjected all of their customers to hackers. The hackers did, indeed, get in. Russia, China, Guccifer and thousands of others have scooped up everything important in Silicon Valley, Wall Street and every government office for over a decade. Now they are selling a posting that material back over the web. Hackers love to embarrass corrupt companies that they don’t like. Keep your eyes open and, soon enough, a Snowden/Wikileaks/Guccifer/Panama Papers/Swiss Leaks type of data blast will likely appear to burst some bad guy’s bubble.

Here are some of the steps you will use to bypass those who try to control the media for corrupt means:

The following post is a joint collaboration between Elish Bul-Godley (@elishbulgodley) and Neil

Sisson (@neilsisson).

Not everyone can afford to hire a marketing consultant, so we offer you a spectrum of kick-ass

guerrilla weapons to arm your marketing war chest with. A lot of small businesses are facing

budgeting setbacks and low cash-flow which can lead to a downward spiral of less advertising, less

promotional activity and less sales. The ultimate result? Staring into that dark abyss of zero revenue.

Don’t surrender to these cash-strapped times. Instead, don some Recessionista fatigues and arm your

business with these creative cost-saving tactics. We’ll show you how great sales and marketing

campaigns can be low on cost if big on innovative ideas, imagination and creativity.

The revolution starts here…Read on to pick up 100 low cost marketing ideas that include both online

and offline activities.

Definition of Guerilla Media Outreach

Jay Conrad Levinson’s Guerrilla Marketing site simply puts it as “The achievement of conventional

goals (e.g. Profit) using unconventional methods such as investing energy and ideas instead of money.”

Here is a great blog outlining the tactical thinking and mindset that can help you win the war.

Guerrilla versus Gorilla – Small Companies Can Win .

[][] 50 Offline Guerrilla Tips to help you win the war against the corrupt who try to control the news

Guerrilla marketing behaviour delivers publicity via local unconventional marketing activity that

makes people sit up and notice..think “Shock & Awe”.

Public Relations and Publicity

1. The oldest guerrilla trick is old fashion PR so keep at it. Pick up the phone and give local journalists

what they need most; great news content – its all about spinning your activity to make it a human

interest story. The Guerrilla marketing tactics below are your means to this end.

32Treat Your Premises like A Billboard

2. Give a Graffiti artist some free drawing space by letting him use his artistry on your shutters or paint

a mural on the side of your Building e.g Homeless Charity Simon Community building.

In this picture the premises were used as a billboard with a very witty recruitment ad:

33343. Create in-house exhibitions in vacant display space on your premises to make it more trendy,

appealing and noticeable. E.g. Flaghship Department store Brown thomas use art installations

from 17 local Artists.

Edgy Window Displays

Your Window Display is your Billboard. Get their attention with a head turning window display even if

it comprises stuff you may not eventually sell and chances are, passers-by can be turned into passing

trade. You may be mentioned by word of mouth and profiled in the media. Some ideas:

4. Get a live display real human beings like your staff work in your windows.

5. Create a Smashed window effect as seen in this Apple Store just using window paint.

6. Put up a controversial Political slogan to get noticed.

In the picture below homeless charity ‘The Simon Community’ put out a slogan lobbying for Mental

health on their premises:

35Occupy & Pop-up

If you need to trial a regional market or neighbourhood or need to sell on a seasonal basis, use vacant

or slack premises that are unused and help regenerate the city in the process.

7. Local municipal councils are a great source of vacant units as they need to regenerate old

neighbourhoods. Approach the landlord of a vacant block by offering to spruce up their

neighbourhood and entice long term tenants through your pop-up activity. There are agencies that help

you find them or start a pop up space too.

Here’s an example from a Pub using the vacant hoarding nearby to highlight its location:

36Urban Art, Reverse-Graffiti & Street Propaganda

Great for evoking curiosity and planting brand awareness in specific geographical points in your city.

Clever if its used on a route like a bridge with high footfall, allowing you to target specific locations or


In this picture, local electricity board ESB worked with the municipal authorities to revitalise the

cultural quarter in Dublin by using a Street artist to work on the theme of Electricity on an old

Building they own in the district:

37Here is a great example from Ikea:

Ikea Follows Banksy and Turns to Graffitti Street Art

Caveat: Be careful when engaging in street tactics as you are encroaching on public space – people

38usually forgive you for imposing your image or promotion on a public space only if it is entertaining,

temporary, and an improvement to the environment or aesthetic.

8. Use floor stencilling on vacant urban spaces e.g. the Movie Troll-hunter was marketed using a

stencil on Bridges in the city saying “Troll Below” sparking off curiosity.

9. Use 3d Floor artist to do something mind-boggling outside your premises front door

10. Chalk it up :write your website in chalk outside a major event related to what you do say in the

carpark or registration driveway

11. Use Reverse Graffiti : Street artists use soap instead of a spray can and a stencil to scrub out an

image in public space.

Check out some great examples of Street Propaganda

12. Sustainable design blog, Inhabitat posts some in “Clean Green Street Art hits San Francisco!”

13. “20 Cool and Creative Street Ads” by Bored Panda. Here is an example from their blog:

Here is an example of a clever street ad from their blog:

39Urban Hacktivism

14. Play with outdoor installations: turn an outdoor sign or piece of public works into something new

and entertaining.

15. Yarn bombing is a good example of people decorating the urban environment & using a product in

an unexpected but decoratively visible way – an arts and craft supplier for example could supply free

yarn to a knitting Circle and encourage Guerrilla Yarn bombing in the locality. Catch some enjoyable

examples in Time Magazine’s photogallery on “The Fine Art of Yarn Bombing”

16. Create Projections onto a blank wall at night and it becomes a natural billboard/ cinema screen e.g.

Nokia Snake Game.

17. Another great example : LeCool and Dublin city council used open-sourced collaboration on

Dublin Park(ing) Day. The message : re-using parking spaces by turning them into landscaped

gardens as a way reclaim city space. If I was a garden centre i would jump on a campaign like this with

product placement.

Get Inked

18. Body art as Advertising: using temporary body art / tattoos on your staff as they man events,

exhibitions or hand-out flyers in the street. Brand them with your suppliers logo, your logo barcodes or

QR code even.

Hack your Product

Use your products in a way you never did before

19. If you are in electronics, hardware or engineering set up a hacker group workshop or offer your

products to a hackerspace in your premises and challenge people e.g. engineering students to find new

ways to use your products as part of their thesis.

In House, and Community Events

Tap into the people in your neighbourhood who use your business by providing them with meaningful

events in-store or on your premises:

20. Service your existing customers with social events that allow them to make a positive association

e.g. a book club in a book store after hours, storytelling evenings in a cafe, coffee mornings with toys

for Mums to socialise in a nursery goods store.

Here a Street Feast is organised by local Publishers for Lecool Magazine drawing in their writers,

readers and stakeholders in the city centre they work in:

4021. Offer free exhibition space on your premises to new edgy performance artists, a nearby visual

merchandising school looking for practice or Design students. You will be getting some amazing visual

merchandising for free that may spread via word of mouth.

22. Trade marketing events Get your suppliers to offer a workshop or educational lecture to your clients

or customers for free thus getting their collaboration. a DIY store could hold free DIY or upcycling

classes using suppliers sponsorship or in-house expertise.


23. Conversely if you supply into retail: do free in-house events via demonstrations of your product

with Q & A sessions and tips on how to use your products in radical new ways.

41Old Fashioned Door to Door Selling

24. Need I say more?

Flash mobbing and Crowd sourcing as advertising

25. Use your own staff as Cast or your own customers as a captive audience : Finnair used their

hostesses to flash mob passenger with a Bollywood routine to tap into the Indian Market

26. If you are selling hospitality, or are in catering organize a Community Street feast or urban Picnic

in a vacant lot and or on your high street with neighbouring businesses.

27. My favourite example of using grassroots communities to promote an event:: the Haka Flash

mobs that took place during the NZ Rugby World Cup

Offline Gamification

Playful and Entertaining promotions engage people, tap into their competitive streak and can target


28. The most basic application is a loyalty points system on your reward card e.g. Starbucks allows

you to collect stars with every purchase. Or award a badge for targeted buying activity and let

customers qualify for the next level of rewards.

29. Gamify the In-store experience: e.g. encourage customers to buy a special basket or combination

of goods and reward with a prize, Or the classic “be the 100th customer today and win a free prize” and

so on..

30. Other games challenge the public to look out for the product and keep it in the public’s

consciousness e,g, a Treasure hunt: find the hidden prize in the packaging and you win a year’s supply,

get the golden ticket in our next Flyer mailout, spot our Product on the street .. and so on.

31. The key is to blend this offline activity with online tools in this blog: 5 brands with Winning

Gamification Strategies .

Find a Champion

32. Social enterprises and Charities use this all the time: find an important influencer in your sector or

celebrity personality that buys or uses their product and use their fame, endorsement and connections to

get noticed. It usually helps if you tie this in with charitable activity.


33. Sell your business face to face via Free Business Networking events / Business Speed Dating.

34. Shared Services & Collective bargaining– learn from Cooperatives: collaborate with your

business network to pool marketing resources, procurement and engage in collective bargaining.

4235. Barter Products and Services within your business network or set up a system of your own

between local stakeholders, e.g. Clonakilty Favour Exchange : A skills and labour system set up to

service a local business community.

36. Secret Tours get together with other businesses in your high street, local business network or town

and organise a secret tour around a theme:for example if you are in hospitality : a secret food trail

showcasing the best culinary experiences for tourists and locals e.g. Fabulous Food & Tasting Trails in


Random Acts of Kindness

37. Do something to raise a smile and bring Goodwill. For example, if you are a in the business of

providing e.g. Give Free hugs in a busy high street area outside your premises.

38. Pay it forward: be a parking fairy pay for someone’s parking outside a key establishment like

Google perhaps and stick your business card in with the parking receipt on their windscreen.

Give it away

39. In the “Nicked” viral campaign from from Ben Sherman, Display shirts were stuck on the Outside

of their flagship window and cameras captured passers bys as word of mouth spread that the products

were free : take a look at the Ben Sherman Nicked Window display viral

Product placement

40. Offer your display products as Props to local visual Merchandisers, Theatre or film producers, not

the big names of course as they will charge you.

41. Support Local community events like family days or parish fairs by offering your products for

use – e.g. Beanbag company sponsors a chillout zone at local festival proving the durability of its


Here the local network of Bicycle related businesses supported a Bike Themed Festival in conjunction

with the Municipal authorities:

4342. The Inspiration Room a space for viewing creative content from all forms of media around the


43. Lecool has published a compilation of 111 City projects around Europe ranging from popup events,

urban farming to sustainable design via their book: “Smart Guide to Utopia“ Cool Hunting

44. Design Trends and Ideas blog The Pop-Up City have great examples of urban hacktivism and

outdoor guerrilla campaigns

45. The Trendhunter.com community features micro trends, and cutting edge ideas

4446. For spontaneous raw trend information you can also checkout Trendline online magazine

47. Robert Lum of shares creative and unconventional marketing strategies in his blog:

“Top 7 Guerrilla Marketing agencies to Watch”

48. Here’s 50 more ideas! Short snappy ones from “Bootstrapping blog “a great site for startups

needing cost effective strategies:

50 Guerrilla Marketing Tactics you should be using

49. Luke Abbott Social media professional in paddypower.com rounds up:

“10 Low Budget Guerrilla Marketing examples”

50. Amy-Mae Elliot has a cool roundup of videos in Mashable in:

“ 10 Excellent Examples of Guerrilla Marketing Campaigns”

In Short: Offline Guerrilla Marketing is about using your Marketing Mix in an unexpected way in

unexpected places with unexpected tools: shock, raise eyebrows, titillate and pull at your public’s

emotional strings at street level. Or do something altruistic and service your community thus buying

you a positive human interest story spin and goodwill in the press.

Key takeaway: Keep it Local: It’s got to be high concept, appealing and relevant to your local

community and target audience.

What Next? Go Global: These real world tactics are extremely effective in themselves for getting your

brand and business noticed out there. But combine these marketing tactics with the power of the

Internet, social media and the various online tools available today, and hey Presto! You’ve just

generated food for viral online content.

50 Effective Online Guerilla Disclosure Outreach Ideas

Online tactics can broadcast and amplify the local Guerrilla Marketing activities you’ve executed

offline, but they can also help you build an online following, raise your brand’s awareness, connect to

prospects and customers you would never have previously been able to reach, and transform all of your

efforts into a comprehensive, strategic, global dominating marketing plan.

But how to get started on the Intraweb? Below are 50 idea’s for you to turn into Guerilla Marketing


Start with the basics:

Social media presents a huge opportunity for Guerilla Marketing and increasing your revenue and

customer loyalty.

Below are a number of steps you can take that will allow you to maximise the possibility of traffic and

45connecting with new customers. Think of having these social media accounts as setting up an online

platform (HQ) for you to conduct your guerilla marketing campaigns from.

51. Spend a little bit of time setting up a Facebook business page and configure your timeline

view for best results. Add lots of content in the about section and be personable so that people can

connect with you as a person and not just your brand.

Facebook is free, and your customers (and a lot of new prospects) are more than likely already using it,

so it can be a great source of direct traffic.

52. Find other pages where your customers and prospects hang out already and post there as your

page. Other people viewing those pages will see your posts and if what you’ve said is interesting (or if

your logo is interesting) they will click over to your page to check you out. Add value to the

conversations and avoid (at all costs) putting out promotional updates for your products/services on

other people’s fan pages.

53. Make it as easy as possible to get more likes for your Facebook page

54. Setup a Google+ business page. Google+ is probably the best single thing you can do at the

moment to boost the organic placement of your website in Google’s search results.

55. Setup a Twitter Account. Twitter can be an incredibly powerful tool for finding new customers for

your business and its important to have an account so that you can secure your brand name on Twitter if


When setting up the profile make sure to be personable in your profile box and customise

46the background. Put your brand name in the background if possible and the URL to your website in

both the background and more importantly in the profile section.

56. Connect all of your social media accounts so that you only need to post to one place for all accounts

to be updated. This free tool will allow you to distribute your Facebook posts to Twitter, Google+ and

LinkedIn. Now you will be able to focus on being really active on just one social network; whichever

you feel has the largest number of your target demographic of customer.

57. Write blog posts

If you don’t already have a blog, perhaps its time to start one? You can start a free blog on

WordPress.com or Tumblr.com, if your current website doesn’t have blog functionality built in and you

don’t have the budget to get one added. Just make sure that you put a clickable URL back to your main

site on your new free blog. Also use your brand name as the account name when setting the blog up.

Think about whether you have the time to commit to a blog before starting it however, as it will be a

waste of time if you don’t post at least twice a week over an extended period of time.

58. You could write guest posts on other blogs where your target market read. This is a great way of

getting yourself in front of potential future customers and making them aware of your existence and

your knowledge of your industry.

There is a hidden bonus with these posts. Not only will you potentially get direct traffic when prospects

read your post and click through to your website, but you will also get an SEO boost from the link to

your website at the bottom of your post.

59. Write how-to articles for article directories and how-to blogs. For example, perhaps you own a

building company. You could write DIY how to articles showing people how to hang pictures, paint a

room correctly, fix taps in the bathroom. These could be published on your own blog or on an article

directory like ezine

4760. Sign up for a Dlvr.it account. Dlvr It is a free service which will facilitate you publishing an RSS

feed to your social media accounts. RSS stands for Really Simple Syndication and it is a quite

straightforward to setup. If you have a blog, it will have an RSS feed that you can easily copy and paste

in to Dlvr.it which will automate posting about your blog update on social media.

61. Create videos and post them to YouTube. YouTube is a completely free resource and the 2nd

largest search engine in the world. It is a great place to get direct traffic to your website and also to get

an SEO benefit as video’s regularly show up in the first page of search results (SERPs) on Google. You

can also publish the video’s to your Facebook stream and your Google+ account.

All you need is a good smart phone or a digicam and you are all set to make a video starring your

gorgeous self, or something else related to your industry. For example if you are a Veterinarian perhaps

you could take some video of the animals in your practice doing something cute.

62. Post your video’s on your blog and add a bit of descriptive text around them to activate interest

and conversation in the comments section of your blog. Ask questions at the end of the piece.

63. Does your business involve something that you could take photo’s of? Perhaps you are on the road

a lot and could take pictures as you drive around of scenery? Or maybe you do something creative (nail

artwork, tatoos or graphic design)? Why not take your completed designs or photographs and post them

to Pinterest, your Facebook timeline and Google+ stream.

64. After a month take all your photo’s and pictures and create a photo collage video and upload it to

YouTube for extra traffic and an SEO boost.

65. Amplify your offline graffiti art campaign by videoing the whole thing. Film meeting up with your

graffiti artist, travelling to the venue, the preparation of the work and everything that happens until the

end. Think of a few questions to ask the artist and yourself. Turn the result into a cool viral video for

YouTube and Facebook.

66. Amplify your everyday activities. Do you or your staff do something during the normal course of

your working day that people would find interesting? Why not film it and create a viral video of the

daily activities in your premises?

67. For ideas, online PR & Social Marketing firm Simply Zesty sends the latest Virals

Check out the Simply Zesty viral video archives.

68. Run online/offline promotions

Does your business service the public in some way? Maybe you could give away a freebie like this pop

up eatery < http://www.cheapeats.ie/2011/02/18/crackbird-pop-up-restaurant-starts-next-week/ >

did in exchange for having prospects & customers tweet about your business.

69. Put a QR code in the window of your premises and connect it to a mobile page on your website

with the details of your business and a list of the benefits of using your firm versus your competition.

4870. Run a QR street campaign

Simon on the streets used QR codes very creatively to raise funds for homeless people last Christmas <

http://theinspirationroom.com/daily/2011/simon-on-the-streets-qr-codes/ >

71. A funny word of caution – How not to use QR codes:

72. Hire a cool sounding voiceover guy to speak over a video you create from images or powerpoint

slides to showcase your business

73. Create a mobile landing page for your QR code that will increase the number of likes to your page.

74. Get a bunch of people who live near interesting places to hold up signs with part of a message you

want to transmit on them. Compile the videos into a promotional clip

75. Have Ozzy the dog draw a picture or create a marketing message for your product or services

76. Can’t afford a graphic designer but you want a professional Timeline cove r image for your

Facebook company page? Lydia will do it for $5

77. If you are comfortable editing your website, Marcus will create an SEO report and email it to you

4978. Maybe you could use something like this in the intro part of a company video.

79. A good selection of guerilla marketing options can be found here

80. Perhaps you need a catchy jingle or other original and whacky music to accompany your video?

Check this out

81. Need a script written? Check this out: Script Writing

82. A cautionary tip: on Fiverr.com you will find a lot of people that will be will be happy to increase

the number of fans, followers and connections in the various social networks. You will also find offers

promising to tweet a massive following with your marketing message. These services are a waste of

your money because the fans/followers you will receive will not be targetted and as such will be low


83. Post a link to your latest blog posts on Digg, Reddit and Delicious. Well you’ve written the

content, why leave it to gather dust?

84. Start a discussion about your latest blog post topic. Use big forums like boards.ie or whatever your

regional hub of activity to start a discussion around the topic you’ve blogged about. You can usually

paste a link to your post in on most forums as long as you are genuinely trying to have a conversation

about the topic, and as long as its not your first post on the forum.

85. Give your exact target market something fun to do online. @betfairpoker do this really well.

86. Join some community forum’s where your target market would typically hang out. Put a link to

your website in your forum profile signature and then join the conversations happening on the website.

Say valuable things and make a contribution that is helpful.

87. Search on Google+ for people who would enjoy or find value in your product/service. Particularly

those who are very active in your niche. Add them to a special circle and message them asking for their

feedback on what you are doing.

88. Have you got something to say? Why not host your own Radio Show?? Don’t just drone on about

your products and services, talk about issues relating to your niche and give tonnes of value away for


89. Interview someone your target audience would find interesting. Blog about it, or have them on your

Blog Talk Radio show. Or have them on your Podcast. Or even better do all three, and then bundle the

MP3 and a transcription as a downloadable reward for joining the email list on your website.

90. Setup an email newsletter. Even if you are just emailing special offers out once a month its better

to have on your website than nothing. You can use Mailchimp who are free and will keep you

compliant! This will be huge for bringing traffic back to your site.

91. Create an on-line community specific to the primary related area of interest of your target market.

50For example say you have a clothes shop for babies. Perhaps you could setup a Facebook page or

group, designed to help mum’s with issues they’re experiencing with their newly born babies.

92. Record a weekly podcast, and publish it to a page on your blog and to iTunes. This free software

and some time is all you need!

93. Team up with another business owner in a related but non competing business and do a Joint

Marketing Venture online. Your JMV should involve the creation of content (any form) designed to

attract the perfect target market for both of your businesses.

94. Setup a LinkedIn group for your niche. Social Media Ireland is a very successful example of this

run by Niall Devitt.

95. Setup a LinkedIn group for your target market. For example, if the decision maker who decides to

buy your products/services is the CFO or Financial Director of a company, why not setup a group

called Chief Financial Officers Ireland?

96. Setup or join a meetup group where you can make industry or customer connections. For

example I run the user group for WordPress in Dublin, because my company builds primarily

WordPress web solutions and because I love WordPress and want to connect with other users.

97. Host a weekly webcast. At the moment this awesome new tool is free. CynoCast will allow you to

offer a new level of interactive webcast experience to an almost unlimited number of attendees.

98. Run a multi-platform competition to generate interest in your brand and products. If you give

something you sell as the prize you’ll ensure you attract your exact target market.

99. Showcase your expertise by answering questions in LinkedIn’s Answers section.

100. Finally, and this isn’t exclusively an online tip but more of a general one, wherever possible show

people the passion you have for what you do.


Guerrilla Marketing is a growing trend: executed correctly, it can be targeted at the people you want

to turn on the most. Be diligent and consistant. Be creative and have fun with it!

Do you agree that Good Marketing Campaigns can be executed on close to zero budgets? Have

you had a Guerrilla Marketing experience?


The Author: Neil Sisson

Neil is passionate about Inbound Marketing, Social Media, SEO and good Website Design. He works

with businesses and organisations all over the world to help them be more effective online. Neil is the

51Managing Director of Lime Canvas a website design and inbound marketing agency and he organises

the Dublin WordPress meetup group. Connect with Neil: LinkedIn - @neilsisson - Google+ -

Facebook http://www.LimeCanvas.com

48 Guerrilla PR Tips from Top PR Pros

Linsey Knerl – Senior Writer, WiseBread.com / Freelancer, Wise Bread

Your business is feeling the crunch this year — and your marketing budget is dwindling

as a result. We’ve asked some of the most experienced public relations professionals to

share their secrets on how to market a company on a small budget. Here are some of the

best ways to use social media and word-of-mouth marketing to gain a competitive

advantage in this tough economy.

1. Claudia Goffan, Target Latino — @TargetLatino

52Form relationships with other local businesses that cater to your customers. Ask them to

offer a discount to their customers if they mention coming from their store when they

purchase from you. Feel free to reciprocate.

2. Shannon Cortina, Springboard Public Relations — @scortina

Make a realistic list of the top five targets (news/media outlets, blogs, or social media)

that you feel your business would benefit most from being mentioned or featured on.

Research and get to know each of these targets and their influencers by reading their

articles, following them on Twitter, watching their segments, etc. Use a relevant article

or blog post of theirs to reach out to them to introduce yourself via the comments section

or through email. Taking the time to understand their coverage area, as it relates to your

business, can help you position yourself as an expert resource for their next piece.

3. Molly Lynch, Lynch Communications Group — @mollylynch

The key to Twitter is thinking of it as a dinner date, rather than an opportunity to

promote your product. A dinner date (or at least a good date) means a dialogue between

two people, who share thoughts, ideas, and interests. Twitter is not a monologue or a

place to simply post thoughts. Networking, engagement, and responses are required.

While promoting your product or company is important, successful Tweeters do not

simply post sales or information. Talk with your followers, engage them, and learn from

them. Then, they’re more likely to take an interest in your brand. Make it a two way

street and make it a great Twitter-date!

4. Amy Mannarino, TheWalters Art Museum — @walters_museum

We have found that having multiple staff members “co-tweet” about our organization

has increased our audience diversity on Twitter. Each person highlights different aspects

of the museum. For example, a marketing professional might tweet factoids about an

upcoming exhibition while a curator may add an artwork to Flickr and tweet about its


5. Kwesi Robertson, MM2 Public Relations — @kwesirobertson

Use Twitter as a Social Media Newsroom. Twitter allows a brand to quickly release

multimedia news or information about their company. To create more unified stories, I

use a free-service called Pitchengine to create social media news releases that I upload

53via my/clients twitter account(s). Pitchengine allows me to track how many views my

article has received.

6. Sarah Wilson, Sarah Wilson Business Communications — @SWBizCom

One of the primary complaints about social media is that it’s time intensive, however,

there’s really no need for that. By using tools such as TweetDeck, it’s easy to take Twitter

remarks that are appropriate for your Facebook and/or LinkedIn audiences and

simultaneously post to those accounts as well, while omitting remarks that may not be a


7. Paige Phelps, North Texas Food Bank — @ntfb

We use games. Currently we’re rolling out a Haiku contest for students and teachers.

Our newest metaphor in use here at NTFB is that the number of hungry children in our

13-county, North Texas region would fill the new Dallas Cowboys Stadium two-and-a-

half times. Using that, we’re engaging our contacts at local public and private schools to

get teachers on board with the theme “Haikus for Hunger.” We are using that as our hash

tag too (#haikusforhunger). We think it’s a fun way to open up the discussion of hunger

in the community, teach kids a little something about poetry, and have fun. The numbers

aren’t in yet, but meme games like these are always a ton of fun to play, no matter the


8. Niccolinas Soto, Public Relations Depot — @MamaPR

My advice for marketing strategies: use it all, use it consistently, and use it properly.

Don’t just join Twitter or Facebook and only post about your products. Be a part of the

online communities and really participate. Reply, comment, and give back…don’t just

take. Also, it’s clear all you’re doing is marketing when you join a site and only post

your business info, and no profile photo as well as not a single blog written or comment

given — this is the fastest way to be forgotten or bypassed by visitors. Fill out profiles

completely, and post up some helpful blog posts.

9. Ronnie Manning, Mynt Public Relations — @RManning_Mynt and @MyntPR

Become a voice in your area of expertise, and utilize the comment posting sections of

blogs and online publications. These comment boxes can allow you to link directly to

your web site and boost traffic. Follow those writers who cover you space and offer

54opinion, personal experience, and complementary comments relative to their stories. Be

transparent with who you are, put your name/title/business/website after your comment

which will help get you and your business name out there. (However, it’s very important

that you do not do a straight product or services pitch, as these types of comments will

often be removed by moderators as being too marketing-oriented.)

10. Rebecca Goldberg, DMD Insight — @RebeccaGoldberg and @DMDInsight

Small businesses have an advantage over big businesses: a unique voice. That voice is

the result of a tight-knit culture and typically one of a visionary leader who has an

inherit brand strategy because her or she is the brand. To me, that’s attractive. I think that

small businesses should capitalize on who they are and what makes them special by

letting the dreamers and do-ers share what’s going on behind the scenes.

11. Kendra Schultz, PRIME 3 — @kendraschultz

One huge marketing tactic that attains a lot of followers on Twitter or fans on Facebook,

are giveaways. Whether it’s for a free cupcake, free web-hosting for a year, free Mac

book (or whatever product/service your company provides), creating a contest where

fans/followers must tweet about your company in order for a chance to win something

free not only expands your brand awareness via hundreds-thousands of people’s Twitter

or Facebook accounts to their fans/followers, but it also keeps these followers listening

to what you have to say moving forward.

12. Marisa Puthoff, Edelman — @MarisaGPuthoff

Become familiar with Google Place Pages for local businesses. Google now provides in-

depth information when available for local businesses and places, offering information

from customer reviews, to menus and selection notes, to basic information like store

hours and an image of the location. You can visit the local business center page to make

sure your business is represented with up-to-date information and to receive insights for

how local users are finding your business’ listing. Other sites like Yellowpages.com and

Superpages.com allow businesses to post free listings under industry headings that are

searchable to consumers. You can also promote your listings on these free sites through

your social media tools.

13. Brenda Christensen, Stellar Public Relations — @brendachrist

55Be a name dropper — find out the most INFLUENTIAL influencer in your arena and

impress them with your brand. Once you’ve won them over, shout it from the Twitter

rooftops — employ Twitter lists and tweet like mad. It takes a human machine, but the

branding will put you over the top.

14. Nick Lawhead, Desautel Hege Communications — @nlawhead

Internet users are already talking about your product, service or industry with their social

networks on Twitter. An active role in this conversation positions your company as an

expert on the topic — whether you’re selling vacuums or writing services. Twitter

allows small business and consumer to connect and interact directly. Use

www.search.twitter.com to find conversations about your industry or product using key

words — then answer the questions your consumers have! Resolve the issues! Retweet

the glowing reviews! All of this adds up to you participating in the social conversation.

15. Sally Falkow, PRESSfeed — @sallyfalkow

Use our free news optimizing toolbar to help you to make your content more visible and

get it found in search engines and social sites. It has instructions and tools you can use to

improve your online visibility. http://www.press-feed.com/toolbar .

16. Menachem Wecker, George Washington Today — @GWToday

Social media tools are created for gregariouscommunity-building, and nobody likes the

self-infatuated person at the bar who cannot stop talking about her/himself. Social media

users should have to affirm a Hippocratic cyber-oath; first and foremost listen and

understand the needs and pulse of the community, and only then start to think about how

you can be of use to fellow members, and how they can be helpful to you. (And in case

there is any confusion, turning your Twitter feed into an RSS feed of your news releases

violates “do no harm.”)

17. Katie Elliott, Quinn and Co — @Quinnandco

Create a list of staff, clients, client-related people, and journalists on Twitter. This helps

with generating #Follow Fridays and keeping up to speed on client efforts. Send

personalized direct messages to people when they follow you. It’s rare, and it helps you

stand out from the crowd. We currently send an automated DM to all followers, but I

follow up with a personalized message later.

5618. Jessica Nunez, Nunez PR Group — @NunezPR

Create brand ambassadors by hosting free events and providing special coupons and

offers especially for your Facebook fans or the readers of your blog. This a fun way to

show customer appreciation and show customers the value for them to interact with your

brand online. When a customer posts positive comments to your Facebook page, blog or

other social networking site, send them a coupon, discount, or even something as simple

as a branded tchotchke. Consumers like to know that companies are listening to them

and they love to be acknowledged for it.

19. Carin Galletta, Ink Foundry — @InkFoundry

One of the items that we find missing from most small business marketing plans is

analytics. A free tool for tracking site traffic isGoogle Analytics. Before any business can

access a guerrilla marketing tactic they need to understand their baseline to gauge

whether or not the effort is working. Analytics is free and easy – there is a great tutorial

on the Google site and a bunch of YouTube “how to” videos that can help a small

business owner understand how to use it.

20. Duane B. Thomas, EdYouCation — @Edyoucation

You can gain great value from volunteering your small business for a University class as

a “working-study.”

21. Katja Presnal, Collective Bias — @katjapresnal

Always remember to engage your retail location customers in the conversation also on

Twitter by displaying your twitter account proudly in your location — as simple as

“Follow us on Twitter” and your Twitter handle printed in a piece of paper will do the

trick. Same goes for online businesses; remember to make your Twitter account visible

for your customers.

22. Chris Brown, Marketing Resources & Results — @chrisbrown330

A twitter handle or screen name is one of the most important aspects and something that

is in short supply. Get yours now!

23. Marisa Puthoff, Edelman — @MarisaGPuthoff

Post local events on MeetUp.com. If your business is hosting an event or summit, post

57the information publicly on MeetUp, where users can browse for local meet-ups in a

number of categories, both formal and just-for-fun.

24. Marie Domingo, PR Professional — @MarieDomingo

Anything you share on Twitter must be authentic and should sound like your voice as

opposed to and advertisement. The best Tweets have a call to action, or a link that

includes an interesting Twitpic (photo), website (content). The objective is to have

engaging conversations, not to drive more followers. Followers follow interesting


25. Andrea Rizk, Rizk Public Relations — @andreahrizk

Do not follow more people than are following you on Twitter. Have a bio that is

informational but shows personality.

26. Jennifer Batchelor, brpr — @brprmiami

We use Twitter to allow “backstage access” and a behind-the-scenes view to show, rather

than tell, our followers and prospective clients what it is that we do so well and how it is

that we put it all together for our branding efforts. This includes everything from photo

shoots and runway shows, to exclusive interviews with our designers, editors, and

publishers. We take it one step further by re-tweeting interesting articles as they relate to

our industries, which in itself gives great tips to our readers, and also positions us as

experts in our concentrations; however, we very rarely use our Twitter feed to directly

promote our clients. They each have their own Twitter accounts (created and managed

by us) which we use to shout each other out from time to time, and otherwise operate

independently of each other.

27. Kent Lewis, Anvil Media, Inc. — @kentjlewis

I manage a host of profiles, so I can more accurately and effectively target audiences

based on interest or point of initial contact. I syndicate my primary profiles to Facebook

and my professional profile to LinkedIn, to extend the reach and value of my tweets. I

utilize HootSuite, TweetDeck, TweetBeep and Ping.FM to streamline research,

monitoring and tracking. From Twitter, I’ve been able to generate prospective clients,

partnerships, volunteers, sponsors and speaking engagements.

28. C. Renzi Stone, Saxum PR — @renzistone33

58Think before you post — only post what you would say at a cocktail party in front of a

room of strangers. Ask yourself before posting, is this relevant? Sell thought leadership,

not services or products.

29. Dee Stewart, DeeGospel PR — @DeeGospel

Use words in your profile that will attract your ideal client to you. Treat each tweet

received and given as if they’re love notes. Use Ping.fm to cross promote your tweets

through all your other SMS platforms (Facebook, Brightkite, etc,) and have DMs sync to

your Smartphone so that you’ll be available to nurture your relationships and respond as

soon as they need you.

30. Marisa Puthoff, Edelman — @MarisaGPuthoff

Look out for opportunities to “trend” locally on Twitter. Twitter just launched an initial

version of local trends, which will allow local brands the opportunity to run coupons

through Twitter, or other campaigns that can drive discussion on Twitter and “trend” for

that area.

31. Jonnice Slaughter, Chatterbox Publicity — @chatterboxpr

One of the most unique ways that I’ve benefited from Twitter in recent months is by

saving my clients money. I scheduled an editorial visit for one of my clients to host a

lunch and to do a presentation at a popular national magazine. To cut the cost, I sent out

a tweet to other professionals who represented a local restaurant that might be interested

in co-sponsoring the lunch. I used several key hash tags, retweeted a few times, and

within 2 business days, I received a bite from a family-owned Italian restaurant. They

agreed to comp half the value of their catering for the opportunity. My client was thrilled

that I was able to save them money and found a credible restaurant willing to deliver

more than pizza, sodas and sandwiches.

32. Trip Kucera, LogMeIn, Inc. — @LogMeInNews

We first started using Twitter early last year when we noticed that many of our users

were posting unsolicited “Tweets” about LogMeIn. They would post things like “I love

LogMeIn” or “LogMeIn saved my bacon today”. We knew we had to start engaging

with our users, and the results have been great so far. Today we use the Twitter channel

to really keep our users in the know by Tweeting exclusive product sales, answering

59product questions and sharing news as well as best practices and helpful tips for remote


33. Samantha McGarry, Gomez — @Gomez_Inc

Follow key reporters on Twitter to get a better sense of their personality and interests.

Don’t be afraid to pitch reporters — as long as your pitch is timely and on topic. Ask

questions and get real-time feedback. Share useful information (plus your own

perspective/personality.) Be an active part of the dialogue.

34. Lisa Bongiovanni, Webroot Software, Inc. — @webroot

Through Twitter, we realized that many of the conversations about us were complaints

about customer service wait times or issues with the product. We began reaching out to

these people and changed their negative tweets into positive product affirmations.

Recently, we created a second Twitter account solely for customer service. This provides

our users an alternative to waiting on the phone, especially when they have easy to

answer questions. By using Twitter to interact with customers, we have inserted our

brand into the conversation and help shape customer attitudes towards our company and

products rather than just sitting by and observing the conversation surrounding our


35. Kwesi Robertson, MM2 Public Relations — @kwesirobertson

When monitoring a particular brand or client — Twitter’s search feature allows me to

scan real-time feedback. Some innovative Twitter-supplemental services like Topsy have

made the experience even more innovative.

36. Dick Knapinski, Experimental Aircraft Association — @eaaupdate

We use Twitter tips to discuss government issues to which our 160,000 EAA members

can react, such as the FAA requesting comments to an aviation rule change; Aviation

community building, such as a link to EAA members doing something cool or some new

innovation in the flying world; and to generally build excitement for our association and

its activities and programs. Use Twitter to respond to issues that are important to your


37. Carin Galletta, Ink Foundry — @InkFoundry

If you plan to distribute offers via Twitter and send out informational tweets, set up two

60accounts. And define what each account will be doing in the profile and through periodic

tweets: One will only send offers and the other will provide category information,

general “behind the scenes” info on your company, etc. You can use the second account,

however, to drive traffic/interest to the offer account — but do it sparingly. Many people

don’t want relentless sales offers coming through. For the “offer” account, create offers

that are specific just for the channel you are distributing them on. If you have a link back

to a page, make sure the page addresses the offer immediately, don’t make people search

through your site for it. Make it special — only offer it to your Twitter followers,

Facebook Fans, etc. This will increase conversions!

38. Kwesi Robertson, MM2 Public Relations — @kwesirobertson

When targeting selected media or bloggers with a pitch letter or press release, be

creative and find them on Twitter. Instead of a traditional letter or press release, create a

social media news release/media advisory that gives a more vibrant perspective of your

company’s story and personally address them on Twitter.

39. Marisa Puthoff, Edelman — @MarisaGPuthoff

Look to “linkshare” with other local businesses. Work to build partnerships with other

local businesses, who would agree to post a link to your site in exchange for promotion

on your own.

40. Cindy Kurman, Kurman Communications, Inc. — @kurmanstaff

I’ve secured business via Twitter. It’s been an awesome tool in reaching out. Recently,

we saw a tweet from probably the most followed pr person on Twitter, and she was

looking for someone to help her with a new product launch. It was an industry in which

we are well known for: restaurant/food/hospitality. I responded, she responded. We

tweeted. We talked. She hired us! We are also getting business through Facebook. All of

our social networking sites are networked so my tweets appear multiple places.

41. McKenzie Coco, FSC [email protected] — @fscNOLA

Test your messaging. Social media and online marketing is the PERFECT place to test

your outreach plan to observe the impact. Online is measurable. Is it A, B or C that

people respond to and is the response what you wanted? Before moving into a big PR or

marketing push with a huge expense, test the waters in a free space.

6142. Merredith Branscombe, The Hoffman Agency — @Merredith

Offer real value. I have hunted down and offered sources and links/articles for

journalists even when it doesn’t immediately benefit my clients.

43. Aaron Endré Quiñones, Bhava Communications — @AaronEndre

From our personal accounts, our employees retweet agency and client tweets and add

further value — and personality — by offering reactions, personal opinions, anecdotes

and humor.

44. Katie Elliott, Quinn and Co — @Quinnandco

The most important way for small business owners to market their products and services

for free is to track, monitor, and engage in conversations about your product or area of

expertise on Twitter. For example, if your business makes wedding cakes in Wisconsin,

you can monitor tweets from brides, wedding planners and other vendors in that area.

You can set up alerts for people who include the words “engaged” or “wedding

planning” in their tweets, [email protected] with a “congratulations!” This is most effective

when you engage and are genuine with people, as opposed to sending a generic message

marketing your product.

45. Elisa Lippincott,TippingPoint — @tippingpoint1

The easiest way to monitor for Tweets related to our business is by using TweetDeck to

set up search terms based on your business. If your business has a Facebook page or

account, you can also set that up as a column, so that you can see if anyone posts to your

page. We’ve secured several sales leads based on Tweets we’ve seen from setting up

various search terms. Someone once Tweeted that their network was infected with a

virus and they needed help. We were able to look at the person’s profile, figure out who

they were and get our appropriate sales person on it. TweetDeck is free, and there’s even

an iPhone version

46. Merredith Branscombe, The Hoffman Agency — @Merredith

Keep your Twitter lists clean. I periodically use TwitCleaner to weed out feeds and

MLMers in disguise, so that I know I have real people.

47. Jenn Riggle, CRT/Tanaka — @Riggrl

62On using Twitter for the first time: Like exercise, walking your dog and drinking water,

it takes time to add anything new to your already busy schedule. That’s why it’s

important to make a concerted effort to tweet at least three times a day during the week.

Add extra value to your tweets by using hashtags (a word preceded by a #). It’s a little

bit like using a zip code because it directs your tweet to people who are interested in a

particular topic.

48. McKenzie Coco, FSC [email protected] — @fscNOLA

Online marketing and social media is real — no frills. Take the budget from a direct mail

piece or TV spot with the media and put it back in your pocket. Or maybe you didn’t

have a budget to begin with — develop a plan and strategy (very important) and try

going “au natural” with a flip cam video posted to You Tube, linking to Facebook, and

then Tweet out the link. Then do it every week for 16 weeks and measure responses,

traffic to the website, and whatever your actionable goal was to be accomplished.

Make noise.

As Barbara Streisand (see Wikipedia re: “The Streisand Effect”), Kim Kardashian, Lindsey Lohan and

Donald Trump have proven: “If it ain’t outrageous, it don’t get traction”

The internet takes a few weeks to “percolate”. Don’t expect overnight results. Let it simmer and

fertilize the soil of the internet every few hours.

Democrat owned Google will hide anything bad about Democrats. Republican owned Fox will hide

anything bad about Republicans. Pravda and RT will hide anything bad about Putin, etc. Know your

work-arounds. Your goal is to have the entire world know about your issue.

[][] How To Be an FBI-Class Special Investigator and hunt down corrupt weasels

You should look into online training classes at such services as http://www.detectivetraining.com/ and similar the basics include the following techniques:

An overview of your case options is presented online by Per Dan Bernstein, the Assistant United States Attorney of Southern District of Florida:



p<>{color:#000;}. Chose extremely important cases

p<>{color:#000;}. Crimes by public officials undercut confidence in government while an acquittal can

p<>{color:#000;}. make a defendant into a hero

p<>{color:#000;}. Often not easy or popular to prosecute

p<>{color:#000;}. Some elected officials have popular support and may claim political targeting

p<>{color:#000;}. Witnesses run personal and financial risks for cooperating and are less likely to come forward if

cases do not result in convictions

p<>{color:#000;}. You need thick skin

p<>{color:#000;}. Defendants may try to put the Plaintiffs on trial


[][] Keys To An Ideal Case Outline:

Identifying potential targets

Developing an investigative theory

Choosing the best investigative techniques

Issues unique to proactive investigations

Special considerations in public corruption investigations



• Law enforcement and government sources, including inspectors general, and contract compliance

and oversight personnel

• Complaining citizens; business competitors or political rivals; disgruntled current or former employees; paid informants and cooperating defendants; individuals involved in the illegal activity who are seeking to limit or eliminate their criminal exposure by blowing the whistle on corrupt conduct

• Print, television, and internet media outlets

• Specific target may be identified ‐ Consider credibility ‐ Does source have a motive to lie? Is there corroboration?

• Transactions may be identified or appear suspect without specific targets

p<>{color:#000;}. Need to identify the entities and individuals involved and make a

preliminary assessment of the roles played by these individuals, such

as decision makers, knowledgeable actors, unwitting participants, and

knowledgeable but uninvolved potential witnesses

• Always follow the money ‐ Determine who profited from the

transaction and how ‐ Corruption cases are always about the money



• Theory gives direction to the investigation, but be flexible

• First step is making an initial assessment of whether the

alleged corrupt conduct appears to be criminal, or

whether it is civil or administrative in nature

• Second step is identifying elements needed to prove the


• Third step is to try to anticipate possible factual and legal

issues and defenses and build your case to rebut or avoid




y Historical cases ‐ based on document analysis and

witness interviews

y Proactive/undercover cases ‐ running gamut from one

day and one deal to elaborate and long‐running

multi‐transaction and multi‐target operations




• Determining which investigative tools to use depends

on a variety of factors, including the nature of the

alleged violations, the type of investigation you are

conducting, and the resources you have available

• Normal progression from simple to complex, with

information from initial steps leading to more

advanced steps, such as search warrants and wiretaps

• Mix and match your methods as appropriate



• Public Source Information

• Internet and media sources

• Court filings, including criminal histories, divorces and other

lawsuits, bankruptcy filings, and administrative proceedings

before agencies such as the SEC, FTC, and insurance and

banking regulators

• Choicepoint, Autotrack, property records

• Financial disclosure forms; Campaign contribution records;

Lobbyist registrations and disclosures

• Information from Parallel Proceedings

• Corruption cases are often set in backdrop of contract

disputes and fraud cases. There may be ongoing civil

litigation or administrative proceedings generating

valuable information, and you should obtain relevant

depositions, pleadings, transcripts and court orders.

• Despite common interests, do not work in tandem or

actively use the civil litigant to further your investigation,

such as by giving them questions to ask at depositions

or having them seek documents for you.

• Mail Covers

• Very useful in identifying target’s banks, investment

firms, et al

• Trash Pulls ‐ “Dumpster Diving”

• Can be very useful if target has recently become aware

that they are under suspicion ‐ panic can cause

carelessness in disposing of valuable records

• Grand Jury Subpoenas ‐ Documents

• Used to gather foundational materials. Consider

whether the entity being served can be relied on to

not disclose the subpoena, or whether the records

sought are worth the risk

• Issue as early as possible ‐ document production can

be slow, particularly with voluminous requests, older

records, and/or smaller producing institutions

• Grand Jury Subpoenas ‐ Documents to Obtain

• Bank, brokerage, and other investment account records

• Credit reports & credit card records

• Loan and mortgage records

• Telephone records

• Corporate records

• Grand Jury Subpoenas ‐ Documents

• Do quick initial review to determine subpoena

compliance. Do not assume full compliance since many

institutions see subpoena compliance as a nuisance and

distraction from their “real” business.

• Documents must reviewed and cataloged for use during

the investigation and for discovery and trial evidence


• Document review is time and labor intensive, but is

usually the heart of any meaningful historical corruption


• Witness Interviews

• Essential investigative steps which require serious

thought, planning, and preparation. When possible,

conduct interviews after you have obtained and reviewed

the documents related to the witness.

• General rule ‐ your way up the chain of involvement and


• Remember to consider interviewing the current and

former confidants

• Grand Jury Subpoenas ‐ Testimony

• General rule ‐ do not use the grand jury as your interviewing

forum. Usually far better to get voluntary interviews first.

• Two main situations to use grand jury testimony as an

investigative tool

• Witnesses who may have useful information but will not agree

to a voluntary interview

• Possible defense witnesses ‐ find out what they will say and lock

them into that story.

• Immunity

• A double‐edged sword. Gets you needed testimony but can cast

doubt since people tend to dislike and distrust immunized


• Weigh the costs and benefits carefully. Jurors will understand

immunizing lower‐level witnesses to build a case against the

main targets.

• Attempt to secure testimony through cooperation plea

agreements Jurors are more likely to believe a witness who has

accepted responsibility for their actions by pleading guilty than

one who has received a “free pass.”

• Laboratory Analysis

• Handwriting and fingerprint analysis can be very useful in cases

with key documents and knowledge, intent, and/or

participation questions. Fingerprints can often be found on

documents even after an extended period of time.

• Before requesting handwriting analysis, speak to your examiner

to find out if the questioned documents can be analyzed with

any degree of certainty. If there is little chance of success, you

may not want to do the analysis, particularly if fact witnesses

can identify the handwriting or signature.

• Make the analysis request as early as possible

• Tax Return Disclosure Requests ‐ 26 USC Section 6103

• Very useful since targets often understate income on tax

returns and overstate it on loan applications, corporate

filings, and financial statements.

• Disclosure requests take a significant showing and a court

order, and normally come after the investigation has

substantiated some level of wrongdoing.

• After tax information is obtained under a disclosure order,

there are important restrictions on their use and handling.

• E‐Mail Account Information from Internet Service Providers (“ISP”)

• Two main types of information you will want: identification of the

account holder; and, the stored content of the e‐mails maintained on

the system.

• Can be very valuable since people use e‐mail freely and do not realize

or care that hitting erase or delete does not remove the content from

the system.

• Court orders and search warrants are needed to get this information.

Since ISPs frequently delete content from their systems, use

preservation letters asking ISPs to save the content while you obtain

the necessary court orders and search warrants for disclosure.

• Search Warrants

• One of the most powerful investigative tools in corruption

cases. Obtains evidence on a surprise basis, before it can

be redacted, destroyed, or withheld even when production

is required by a grand jury subpoena.

• Provides an opportunity to identify and interview those

present at search site.

• Serve contemporaneous grand jury subpoena for the same


• Search Warrants ‐ Timing is Key Issue

• Need to be far enough along in investigation to develop

probable cause and to know what you are actually looking


• The search exposes the investigation, so it generally

should not be done until you have exhausted any covert


• But, if you wait too long and your target becomes

suspicious or aware of the investigation, valuable evidence

may be destroyed or moved.

• Search Warrants ‐ They are Not Cost Free

• First and foremost, must commit to promptly and thoroughly review

everything seized. This can be an extremely time and labor intensive.

If you are not ready, willing, and able to do this review, don’t do the


• Second, be aware of the public impact of a search on a high‐profile

target or location. It may bring attention to your investigation,

increase public scrutiny on you and the target, and raise expectations

that charges are imminent.

• Third, need to plan to best execute the warrant while limiting

disruption of important functions when searching a government

office. public building

• Search Warrants ‐ Computers and Computerized Data

• Any business or office search warrant is going to include

computers and computerized data, and you must be able to

seize and use this information.

• Have computer specialists involved in planning and executing

the search so that computers and system data can be copied on

the scene. It is not desirable or feasible to take away the

computers and deal with it later.

• Before searching, try to determine if review the seized data will

require specialized assistance and equipment, and how you will

make this information available for discovery and later trial use




• Physical Surveillance

• Surveillance is valuable to corroborate information which has been received,

to link targets, and identify people associated with the known targets

• Trackers (“Bumper Beepers”)

• A slap‐on tracker put on in a public place does not require a court order. An

order is required to hard‐wire a longer‐lasting tracker onto a vehicle.

• Beware that under federal law, you are now required to disclose a tracker

warrant to the person whose vehicle was tracked at the conclusion of its use.

Delays of this notification are at the discretion of the court.

• Pen Register and Trap and Trace Orders

• Allows real‐time capture of the incoming and

outgoing phone numbers for a particular phone

number, and can also order phone company to

provide subscriber information for each captured


• Requires a court order which can be based on a

showing that the information sought is likely to be

relevant to the criminal investigation.

• Consensual Recordings

• Audio or video recordings where one party to the call

or meeting (normally an undercover agent or

cooperating witness) has agreed to record the

conversation. These are authorized without any court

order so long as the consenting party is on the line or

in the room.

• Consensual recordings are the “bread and butter” of

proactive investigations.

• Title III Wiretaps and Recording Devices

• Extremely effective tools to investigate ongoing criminal activity, since

they allow recording of phone calls and conversations without the

presence or participation of an undercover agent or cooperating


• Requires court order based on probable cause and satisfaction of other

requirements, including exhaustion of other investigative options.

The internal review process for a federal Title III is very demanding.

• Title III’s are labor intensive, requiring real‐time monitoring and

minimization, and regular progress reports to the authorizing judge

• Undercover Operations ‐ Development and Planning

Stage Is Key

• First step is determining what you are trying to achieve

(i.e. proving a completed crime, infiltrating ongoing

criminal activity, developing new cases on suspected

corrupt officials, identifying criminals).

• Second step is creating and implementing a scenario

designed to effectively and efficiently achieve those goals.

Scenario must be realistic in light of targets, resources,

and objectives

• Undercover Operations ‐ Avoiding the Usual Defenses

• Any undercover scenario needs to squarely present

the criminal opportunity to the targets. Do not give

the target a lack of knowledge or intent defense.

• Plan to avoid entrapment claims. Don’t push too

hard, offer too much money, or make it too easy, and

offer opportunities for the target to back out.

• Undercover Operations ‐ Time, Labor, and Resource


• Must be patient ‐ will take time to develop trust and


• Money will have to be spent for payoffs and to set up an

undercover business, create appearances, wine and dine

targets, etc

• Manpower will be needed ‐ UCAs, case agents,

surveillance, et al

• Undercover Operations ‐ Undercover Agents are


• Should make every effort to introduce a UCA into the


UCA is essentially unimpeachable in contrast to either

a cooperating defendant who is attempting to avoid

charges or get a sentence reduction, or a paid

informant, both of whom may have motives to lie

• Undercover Operations ‐ Lights, Camera, Action!

• With or without UCA, to the extent possible, you

should have consensual or Title III recordings of every

meeting and call.

• Tapes are unimpeachable and jurors expect them.




• Predication

• A reasonable basis to suspect the target is or has engaged

in criminal activity. Much lower than probable cause


• Criminal investigations should not be fishing expeditions

or integrity testing operations, and predication helps

prevent overreaching

• Predication helps overcome entrapment defense, claims of

selective or vindictive prosecution, and Hyde Amendment

(attorney’s fees) claims

• Handling the Cooperating Witness (“CW”)

• Give specific directions to the CW and make sure that the CW is

told that no “freelancing” is permitted. Enforce this from the

beginning, and do not let the CW seize control, even if he or she

appears to be producing results.

• Corroborate the CW as much as possible, even on small points,

and make sure all contacts between the CW and the targets

are recorded. Jurors tend to disbelief the uncorroborated,

unrecorded word of a paid witness.

• Plan for impact of CW’s plea agreement, immunity, or payments

on the jury.

• Flipping a Corrupt Insider ‐ Law Enforcement’s “Silver Bullet”

• Leaving a flipped insider in place can be an extremely effective

tool in an ongoing public corruption case because of the

knowledge and access they can bring to the investigation.

• Can be used to strengthen or build cases against existing targets

and to identify, predicate, investigate, and prosecute other


• In setting with institutional or high‐level corruption, a flipped

target in place may be the key to gaining entry to a “closed‐

shop” of corruption.

• Flipping a Corrupt Insider ‐ Inherent Risks

• Beware of: being double‐crossed by a flipped insider

who warns other targets and/or helps them generate

exculpatory recordings; inadvertent leaks; the insider

committing other crimes or wrongdoing while “on our


• Must also make sure that you keep the insider safe.

• The Flip Attempt

• Determine the right target to pitch. Normally neither the top

nor the bottom target. Assess which target may be most

effective as a continuing cooperator

• Use the element of surprise and make strongest presentation


• If target wants to cooperate, start by getting a confession.

• If target wants to consult an attorney, they need to do it on the





• Impact of charges is enormous on elected officials or high‐level

appointees. Mere existence of an investigation can destroy a

career or a life.

• Proceed carefully ‐ you do not want to be used by someone

looking to settle a political score or strike back at a business


• Conduct the investigation and prosecution “by the book.”

Expect the defense to attack not only the charges, but also the

conduct of the investigation.

• Be prepared for heightened public and press scrutiny.

Remember that in any big corruption case, the “world is


[][] Interview Techniques for Private Investigators That Quickly Build Rapport

p<>{color:#000;}. by Scott Fulmer

One of the most useful skills a private investigator can possess is the ability to quickly build rapport with individuals from all walks of life. Whether you are interviewing a witness or a source or whether the interview is confrontational or not, your ability to gather information rests on the degree to which you can build rapport. To do so you must quickly find something that you and the subject have in common. Such commonalities between you and your subject create a connection or bond of understanding. All of us want to be liked and appreciated. We all want to be helpful. When building rapport, it is wise to remember author and motivational speaker John C. Maxwells famous quote: “People dont care how much you know until they know how much you care.”

It certainly goes without saying that you must be absolutely genuine in your approach. If you attempt to build rapport in a fake or phony manner most individuals will see right through you. They will reject your attempts at building rapport. Among some people, private investigators already have a general reputation as seedy, snake oil salesmen. There’s no need to foster that image.

The whole point of building rapport with an individual is to get information from them that they would normally not volunteer. To that end, the following 10 techniques can be utilized to build rapport with just about anyone:

1. Be Prepared: It’s the motto of the Boy Scouts but it will serve you well in all endeavors; especially in building rapport. I cannot stress this enough: Do your homework! Just as a good lawyer never asks a question in court that he doesn’t already know the answer to, likewise, a good investigator is prepared ahead of time. This is especially important if the interview becomes confrontational. Gather as much information as you can before the interview. The more information you have about the subject the easier it will be to build rapport.

2. Take your seat (in the position of power): To build rapport and preserve the upper hand in an interview you will want to sit in the position of power. You should arrive early to all interviews. If you are conducting the interview at someones home or in a conference room, make sure to position yourself so that you sit at the head of the table (the position usually reserved for the head of the household or head of the company). Point to the chair to your right and suggest that the person you are interviewing sit there. They will then view you as an authority figure and see themselves as your assistant. If they invite you to their office for the interview, suggest the conference or break room. If you absolutely have to interview someone in their office, ask politely if you can sit at their desk. This is a bold move. I usually make the excuse that it would be a lot easier for me to take notes sitting at their desk then on my knee. The subject almost always obliges and suddenly you are sitting at their desk in the position of power. Being seated in the position of power will aid you in building rapport.

3. Body Mirroring: One of the most powerful, non-verbal methods of building rapport is by mirroring someones body language. To the uninitiated this sounds ridiculous. Trust me. It is an excellent way to build rapport. When you mirror the subjects body movements, as well as the speed and timbre of their speech patterns, you become like them. But dont be too obvious. Your movements must be fluid and natural. You are showing that you’re just like them. How do you do it? Copy their gestures, hand motions, facial expressions, how they sit and how they speak. Yes, even how they speak. People in the country speak slower than people in large metropolitan areas. For example, folks in West Texas speak slower than folks from New York City. If you were to conduct an interview out in West Texas (or a similar rural area) and speak quickly and deliberately as they do in New York City, you will come across to the subject as slick and untrustworthy. You’ll sound more like a used-car salesman than someone who is genuine. Remember: We are most comfortable around people who are like us.

4. Whats in a Name? As Juliet stated in Shakespeare’s immortal play Romeo and Juliet, That which we call a rose, by any other name would smell as sweet. Basically Juliet is stating that a name is an artificial contrivance. She would love Romeo regardless of what his name was. That may have worked for the Bard, but in real life a persons name is very important. We all like to hear the sound of our name. When conducting an interview use the persons name at least a couple of times. This builds trust and encourages them to listen to you. But do not use their name more than a couple of times during an interview. While using their name creates rapport, overuse of their name has the opposite effect. Overuse of their name will make you sound like a slick huckster and the subject will feel like they are being taken advantage of.

5. Psychological Pause: When questioning a subject throw in a psychological pause. This is simply a two- or three-second pause (or longer) taken during questioning. It is used for effect and should be inserted in areas of the interview where you normally wouldn't pause. For example: I want you to know that I've spoken with everyone about the incident and I feel that (insert psychological pause here) maybe you're not telling me everything you know?

This unnatural pause creates a mild level of tension in the interview. It throws the subject off and at the same time makes them want to listen. The actor Christopher Walken is a master at this. The timing and phraseology of his voice forces you to hang on his every word. The natural meter and pace of your voice is interrupted by the psychological pause. This builds rapport by directing the subjects attention to every word you say.

6. Re-Direct the Question (Put touchy subjects on the backburner): Rapport must be built up at the beginning of the interview. Do not make the mistake of tackling serious or confrontational issues before you have had a chance to build rapport. For example if you suspect a witness of knowing something about missing inventory or embezzlement in the workplace, build the rapport before asking direct questions. If you broach a subject and the subject clams up, gently back off. Show you understand how difficult this interview must be for them. Simply state, I can see that question made you uncomfortable. That’s not my intention. I can’t imagine how difficult this must be for you. I’ll tell you what: lets not worry about this right now. Why don’t you tell me how you started working at ABC Packaging?

By redirecting the questioning you are showing trust and concern for the witness. You are relieving the tension caused by your question. You’re showing the subject you care and, yes, you are building rapport. You have just scored a point with them. Later on in the interview as rapport has been established you can sneak in the question, Everyone knows you had nothing to do with the missing inventory. But you know who is involved. I know you want to do the right thing. You have a family to support. Thats much more important than your relationship with a few people at work.

7. Family and Children First: The very first thing I do before an interview is quickly scan the room for photographs of the subjects family or childrens coloring book drawings. People love to talk about their families. Look for pictures that include babies or recent weddings. You may spend the first 10 minutes of the interview talking to the subject about their children or grandchildren. Ask them an open-ended question such as, What do you like best about being a grandma? But remember the sole reason for all of this is to build rapport with your subject.

8. Wave the flag: Look for military mementos, plaques or pictures of people in uniform. Did both you and the subject serve in the military? If so, any discussion of your service will definitely will build rapport. Be sure to ask them where they served. You may have more in common than you know.

9. Sports! Seize upon any type of sports memorabilia in your subjects office. Look for golf knickknacks or signs of the subjects favorite sports teams. If you happen to be a Cowboys fan and their office is plastered with Steelers memorabilia this still allows you an opening such as: Oh no! You’re one of them! If you do not care for sports at least check the Internet or local newspaper for the latest scores or big events so you can carry on a decent conversation. You must do everything you can to find common ground.

10. Use the Mystique: Finally, use what I like to call the PI mystique. You are a private investigator and most people find that fascinating. You see it every time someone asks you what you do for a living. Their reply: Wow. That must be exciting! Images of Jim Rockford, Thomas Magnum and Sam Spade are conjured up in their minds. The followup question is always: What’s it like? Share some war stories with them. Tell them about some of your most exciting cases or describe some of the gadgets you use. They will hang on every word. Suddenly, youre a rock star!

Building rapport is critical when it comes to getting information out of a subject. Your ability to build rapport rests on the degree to which you can find common ground with your subject. There are numerous ways to build rapport. These suggestions are a great place to start.

Scott Fulmer is a private investigator, speaker and president and CEO of Scott B. Fulmer Investigations, LLC based in San Antonio, Texas. He has been in the security and investigation field for over 20 years. He is a Gulf War veteran, husband and father of three. Mr. Fulmer is a contributor to PInow.com and is available to speak to your group, seminar or conference. You can contact him at [email protected]

[][] List of additional training books:

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Revisited: Cognitive Moral Development, Just World Beliefs

[][] Organizations that can help you in your take-downs:












[][] Anti-Corruption Intergovernmental Organizations

African Development Bank Group

African Parliamentarians Network Against Corruption (APNAC)

African Union

Anti-Corruption Network (ACN) for Eastern Europe and Central Asia

Asian Development Bank (ADB)

ADB/OECD Anti-Corruption Initiative

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

Council of Europe

[+ European Anti- Fraud Office (OLAF) +]

European Commission

European Partners Against Corruption (EPAC)

Global Organization Against Corruption (GOPAC)


International Chamber of Commerce

International Group for Anti-Corruption Coordination (IGAC)

International Monetary Fund


Organisation of American States

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

Resource Center of Regional Anti-Corruption Initiative for South East Europe

Southern African Development Community (SADC)

United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA)

UN Global Compact

World Bank

Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative (STaR) – World Bank and UNODC

World Economic Forum


[+ Back to top+]

[][][] Other International Organizations

International Anti-Corruption Academy (IACA)

International Association of Anti Corruption Authorities (IAACA)

International Business Leaders Forum (IBLF)

Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC)

TRACE International

Transparency International


[+ Back to top+]


[][][] Other Organizations by Country

[][][] Albania

Supervision of the internal audit

[+ Back to top+]

[][][] Argentina

Anticorruption Office, Ministry of Justice and Human Rights

General Audit of the Republic of Argentina

Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia). Available only in Spanish

[+ Back to top+]

[][][] Austria

Federal Bureau for Internal Affairs

[+ Back to top+]

[][][] Australia

Independent Commission against Corruption

[+ Back to top+]

[][][] Brunei

Anti-Corruption Bureau
http://www.iaaca.org/ AntiCorruptionAuthorities/ByCountriesandRegions/B/Bruneijigou/201202/t20120209_801178.shtml
[+ Back to top+]

[][][] Brazil

Tribunal de Contas da Uniao

Controladoria-Geral da União – CGU

Public Ministry campaign-“O que você tem a ver com a corrupção”

Transparency Portal

UNODC Brazil

[+ Back to top+]

[][][] Bulgaria

Financial Intelligence Agency

Anti-corruption Coordination Commission

Ministry of Foreign Affairs

[+ Back to top+]

[][][] China

Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC)

[+ Back to top+]

[][][] Colombia

Presidential Programme to the Fight Against Corruption (Programa Presidencial de Lucha contra la Corrupción)

Transparency for Colombia (Transparencia por Colombia)

UNODC Colombia

[+ Back to top+]

[][][] Ecuador

Comisión de Control Cívico de la Corrupción

[+ Back to top+]

[][][] El Salvador


[+ Back to top+]

[][][] Hong Kong

Hong Kong’s Independent Commission against Corruption (ICAC)

[+ Back to top+]

[][][] India

Central Vigilance Commission

Department of Public Enterprises

Election Commission

Ministry of Law & Justice

Central Bureau of Investigation

List of Agencies in the Government of India Fighting Corruption

[+ Back to top+]

[][][] Indonesia

Indonesian Corruption Eradication Commission (CEC), Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi (KPK)

[+ Back to top+]

[][][] Italy

Per una Cultura dell’Integrità nella Pubblica Amministrazione”, Scuola Superiore della Pubblica Amministrazione (SSPA)

[+ Back to top+]

[][] Korea

Anti-Corruption and Civil Rights Commission(ACRC)

[+ Back to top+]

[][][] Liberia

Center for Transparency and Accountability in Liberia (CENTAL)

Taking the fight against corruption to communities

Repository of corruption stories reported in the Liberian media

[+ Back to top+]

[][][] Malaysia

Anti-corruption Agency in Malaysia

[+ Back to top+]

[][][] Mexico

Comisión Intersecretarial para la Transparencia y el Combate de la Corrupción (CITCC)

[+ Back to top+]

[][] The Republic of Montenegro Agency for Anti-Corruption Initiative

Information in English and Crnogorski

[+ Back to top+]


[][][] New Zealand

State and Service Commission, Integrity and Conduct

E-government in New Zealand

[+ Back to top+]

[][][] Paraguay

Integrity National Plan (Plan Nacional de Integridad). Available only in Spanish

Contraloría del Paraguay

[+ Back to top+]

[][][] Peru

Anti-corruption National Commission (Comisión Nacional Anticorrupción)

[+ Back to top+]

[][][] Philippines

Office of the Ombusdman

Transparent Accountable Governance

[+ Back to top+]

[][][] Portugal

Portuguese Council for the Prevention of Corruption (CPC)

Images against Corruption film and painting contest winners

[+ Back to top+]

[][][] Sierra Leone

Anti-Corruption Commission of Sierra Leone

[+ Back to top+]

[][][] Singapore

Corruption Practices Investigation Bureau

[+ Back to top+]

[][][] South Africa

Public Service Commission

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[][][] Thailand

Office of the National Counter Corruption Commission

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[][][] UK

Turks and Caicos Islands (British Overseas Territory) Integrity Commission 

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[][][] U.S.A

U.S.A. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations (Combating Corruption in the Multilateral Development Banks)

Interagency Ethics Council: Standards of conduct for federal employees

IGnet – Federal Inspectors General

Office of Government Ethics

The Brookings Institution

United States Department of Commerce Office of General Counsel


You have now had your entry-level introduction to corruption interdiction. There is much more to

learn. We encourage you to hire private investigators to teach you additional techniques, read more

lessons online, attend community and online classes in forensic and criminal investigation and join

journalism groups on Facebook, MEETUP and other social sites.


Do-It-Yourself Anti-Corruption: How To Shut Down Dirty Politicians and Corrupt C

  • ISBN: 9781311016904
  • Author: Public Wiki
  • Published: 2016-06-25 19:40:17
  • Words: 31656
Do-It-Yourself Anti-Corruption: How To Shut Down Dirty Politicians and Corrupt C Do-It-Yourself Anti-Corruption: How To Shut Down Dirty Politicians and Corrupt C