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Design and Electromagnetic Modeling of E-Plane Sectoral Horn Antenna For Ultra W

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International Journal of Engineering Science Invention

ISSN (Online): 2319 – 6734, ISSN (Print): 2319 – 6726

www.ijesi.org Volume 3 Issue 7ǁ July 2014 ǁ PP.11-17

 

Design and Electromagnetic Modeling of E-Plane Sectoral Horn

Antenna For Ultra Wide Band Applications On WR-137 & WR-

62 Waveguides

 

S.Srinath

(Final Year Student,ECE, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, India)

 

ABSTRACT [*:*] The Design and EM modeling of a E-Plane Sectoral Horn Antenna for Ultra Wide Band

Application on WR-137 and WR-62 standard waveguides are presented in this paper. In E-plane sectoral

antenna, the E-Plane is much narrower as the flaring and dimensions of the horn are much greater in that

direction. The horn flare angle, horn size, wall thickness, etc of the E-plane sectored horn antenna are

examined. The return loss, input impedance, total gain and field pattern of the E-plane sectored horn antenna

are observed. The antenna is simulated using ANSOFT HFSS 14.0.

 

KEYWORDS : Ansoft HFSS Simulator, Beam width, Directivity, E-Plane Horn Antenna, Electromagnetic

modeling, Radiation Pattern, Return Loss

 

I. INTRODUCTION

An antenna is an electrical device which converts electric currents into radio waves, and vice versa. To

transmit the signal a transmitter applies an oscillating radio frequency electric signal to the antenna’s terminals,

and the antenna radiates the energy in the form of electromagnetic waves. Horn antennas are used as antennas

at UHF and microwave frequencies, above 300 MHz. They are used as feeders for larger antenna structures such

as parabolic antennas. Over the hundred years, horn antennas have given the best directive and high power

operation for Microwave Frequencies. Design Simplicity and large gain with best matching properties are added

advantage of Horn antenna. Applications include Radar, Satellite tracking, Radio astronomy and

Communication dish antennas. Other applications are Reflector feeds, Gain standards for antenna

measurements, EMC/EMI tests, Communication systems, Direction finding (DF), mm-wave systems.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig 1 : A Practical Horn Antenna

A E-plane sectoral horn is one in which the opening is flared in the direction of the E-field.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig 2 : E-Sectored Horn Antenna

The E-Plane sectored horn antennas are chosen because of their directional radiation pattern, ability to achieve

high gain and directivity, and their ease of fabrication. The horn antenna which is designed was subject to the

following constraints:

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Design and Electromagnetic Modeling…

 

 Operating frequency around 8 GHz (C Band) for first case and 16 GHz (Ku Band) for second case.

 Maintain a gain of 10 dB over the entire operating frequency range

 

II. ANTENNA DESIGN

The C and Ku frequency bands were selected as the operating frequency. These bands are selected as

they pertain to the communication frequency bands. The design was performed to accomplish an ultra-wide

bandwidth. (i) For the first case of 8Ghz (C Band) the operating frequency was chosen to be 8Ghz. The

waveguide dimensions are a = 34.85mm, b = 15.8mm, waveguide length = 31.75mm. These indicate the

standard WR-137 waveguide. Horn size dimensions are b=44.45mm, horn flare length = 95.25mm, wall

thickness = 1.626mm. (ii) For the second case of 16Ghz (Ku Band) the operating frequency was chosen to be

16Ghz. The waveguide dimensions are a = 15.8mm, b = 7.9mm, waveguide length = 15.88mm. These indicate

the standard WR-62 waveguide. Horn size dimensions are b=22.23mm, horn flare length = 47.63mm, wall

thickness = 1.016mm. For both the cases the outer boundary condition is Radiation Boundary Condition. The

Radiation Boundary Condition are as follows :

 Absorption achieved via 2nd order radiation boundary

 Place at least λ/4 from strongly radiating structure

 Place at least λ/10 from weakly radiating structure

 The radiation boundary will reflect varying amounts of energy depending on the incidence angle. The best

performance is achieved at normal incidence. Avoid angles greater then ~30degrees. In addition, the

radiation boundary must remain convex relative to the wave

 

In HFSS to properly model the far field behavior of an antenna, an appropriate volume of air must be

included in the simulation. Truncation of the solution space is performed by including a radiation boundary

condition on the faces of this air volume that mimics free space. The appropriate distance between strongly

radiating structures and the nearest face of the air volume depends upon whether a radiation boundary condition

is used. HFSS also uses Finite Element Method (FEM) as analysis & solution to Electromagnetic problems by

developing technologies such as tangential vector finite elements, adaptive meshing, and Adaptive Lanczos-

Pade Sweep (ALPS).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig 3 : Structure of the proposed E-Plane Horn Antenna

 

III. PROPOSED MODEL IN ANSOFT HFSS 14.0 FOR CASE 1

The 3D view of the designed E-Plane Horn Antenna in HFSS for a solution frequency of 8Ghz (C-

Band ) is shown below. The boundaries for the air-box are set as an ideal propagation space and and the ground

plane as perfect electric conductor.

 

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Design and Electromagnetic Modeling…

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig 4 : 3D View of the E-Plane Horn antenna in HFSS for a solution frequency of 8Ghz

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig 5 : Figure showing the direction of excitation for a solution frequency of 8Ghz

 

 

 

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Design and Electromagnetic Modeling…

 

IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION FOR CASE 1

The parameters which verify the success of antenna design are beam width, impedance matching , etc.

These are analysed here. The gain of the antenna versus frequency with return loss is -44dB at 8Ghz is shown

below.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig 6 : Return loss in db over frequency range for a solution frequency of 8Ghz

 

The Radiation pattern for the antenna design in 3D is shown in below.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig 7 : 3D Radiation pattern of the antenna in HFSS for a solution frequency of 8Ghz

 

The 2D plot is total gain for phi = ‘0 deg’ and phi = ’90 deg’ is shown below.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig 8 : 2D Plot for total gain versus theta (deg) with phi for a solution frequency of 8Ghz

 

 

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Design and Electromagnetic Modeling…

 

V. PROPOSED MODEL IN ANSOFT HFSS 14.0 FOR CASE 2

The 3D view of the designed E-Plane Horn Antenna in HFSS for a solution frequency of 16Ghz (Ku-Band ) is

shown below.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig 9 : 3D View of the E-Plane Horn antenna in HFSS for a solution frequency of 16Ghz

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig 10 : Figure showing the direction of excitation for a solution frequency of 16Ghz

 

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Design and Electromagnetic Modeling…

 

VI. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION FOR CASE 2

The parameters which verify the success of antenna design are beam width, impedance matching , etc.

These are analysed here. The gain of the antenna versus frequency with return loss is -49dB at around 16 Ghz

is shown below.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig 11 : Return loss in db over frequency range for a solution frequency of 16Ghz

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig 12 : The range of input impedance is shown below for a solution frequency of 16Ghz

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig 13 : 3D Radiation pattern of the antenna in HFSS for a solution frequency of 16Ghz

 

 

 

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Design and Electromagnetic Modeling…

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig 14 : 2D Plot for total gain versus theta (deg) with phi for a solution frequency of 16Ghz

 

VII. CONCLUSION

An Ultra Wide Band E-Plane sectored Horn Antenna operating at solution frequencies of 8Ghz and

16Ghz frequency range was designed. The horn antenna which was designed satisfied the following constraints:

(i)Operating frequency around 8 GHz (C Band) for first case and 16 GHz (Ku Band) for second case;

(ii)Maintain a gain of 10 dB over the entire operating frequency range. The return loss for both the cases was

found to be greater than -40db.Thus the desired results are achieved and the simulated structures are suitable for

various applications.

 

VIII. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

At the outset, I would like to express my gratitude for my institute – Vellore Institute of Technology

(V.I.T.) for providing me with the opportunity to undergo my undergraduate training, and assimilate knowledge

and experience hitherto unknown to me.

 

REFERENCES

 

 

 

 

 

S.SRINATH passed 10th C.B.S.E. Board with a mark of 475/500(95%) and 12th C.B.S.E. Board from D.A.V.

Boys Senior Secondary School, Gopalpuram, Chennai ,India with a mark of 458/500(91.6%).Currently he is

studying final year B.Tech, ECE, School of Electronics Engineering in Vellore Institute of Technology ,

Vellore, India.

 

 

 

 

 

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Design and Electromagnetic Modeling of E-Plane Sectoral Horn Antenna For Ultra W

The Design and EM modeling of a E-Plane Sectoral Horn Antenna for Ultra Wide Band Application on WR-137 and WR-62 standard waveguides are presented in this book. In E-plane sectoral antenna, the E-Plane is much narrower as the flaring and dimensions of the horn are much greater in that direction. The horn flare angle, horn size, wall thickness, etc of the E-plane sectored horn antenna are examined. The return loss, input impedance, total gain and field pattern of the E-plane sectored horn antenna are observed. The antenna is simulated using ANSOFT HFSS 14.0.

  • Author: Srinath S
  • Published: 2016-02-27 16:20:12
  • Words: 1569
Design and Electromagnetic Modeling of E-Plane Sectoral Horn Antenna For Ultra W Design and Electromagnetic Modeling of E-Plane Sectoral Horn Antenna For Ultra W