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Debunked the use of the label coolie in Guyana

 

Ally Publishing House

 

 

Savitri’s Garden Study Guide

Debunked the use of the label coolie in Guyana (Title of present edition)

Debunked the use of the term coolie (in Guyana) (Title of first edition)

© 2015 to 2016 by Fisal Ally

Copyright through the Canadian Intellectual Property on March 17, 2016

Copies of the Study Guides and The Trilogy of Savitri’s Garden are deposited at

Library and Archives Canada in Ottawa, Ontario

First Edition published on March 17, 2016

Second Edition published on March 23, 2016

FIRST EDITION (March 17, 2016) / ISBN (book) 978-1-988288-01-7 / ISBN (eBook) 978-1-988288-05-5

SECOND EDITION (Mar 23, 2016)/ISBN (book) 978-1-988288-07-9 / ISBN (eBook) 978-1-988288-08-6

 

 

A Study Guide

 

References to real persons, places, and private and government organizations are meant to provide a sense of realism. While certain historical occurrences are reflected in the book, all the other characters, dialogues, and fictitious events were created through the author’s imagination.

 

 

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No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any manner without the prior written permission of the author, except in cases of short passages used in reviews. Selling this book is forbidden.

 

 

SECOND EDITION (Revision 1.0)

March 28, 2016 (Easter Monday)

 

 

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ISBN (book) 978-1-988288-09-3

ISBN (eBook) 978-1-988288-10-9

 

Photo images from Depositphotos

Cover designed by Fisal Ally

 

 

Dear Readers,

During my research and writing of the Trilogy of Savitri’s Garden over the past sixteen years, I came across some very important information, which I will share with you in this study guide. This information will change your perception of who the Indians were that entered British Guiana Guyana starting back on May 5, 1838. We often hear that the derogatory label “coolie” being used for Indians is a false label, but we’re not certain why. The label “coolie” in Guyana (British Guiana) stemmed from this first group of Indian laborers that left India through the Port of Kolkata, journeying across the Indian and Atlantic Oceans and into the Americas. The label had taken root in Guyana and seeded throughout the colony. Today this derogatory label is deep rooted in the Guyanese culture, from every branch and leaves throughout this beautiful garden country. This degradation must be uprooted.

In the Trilogy of Savitri’s Garden and in this study guide, I explained how this label had taken wings from India during the request for Indian laborers by the British planters, and as the ships traveled across the oceans. The label became planted in the colony and its history.

I encourage you to study this book and share this information with others, educating them on this topic. Originally, while I was writing this novel, I had just wanted to write a novel, but the novel kept evolving into a Trilogy. I spent more time researching to make the novel more realistic, which I had not initially planned for. Then the real events and real characters entered the novel. I have gained a lot of very important knowledge throughout the years, and I believe that I have debunked the use of the derogatory label “coolie” being used for the Indians in Guyana, presenting important information for readers to learn and reflect on.

The samples provided in this study guide came from the Trilogy of Savitri’s Garden, and may be modified in upcoming revisions. In this study guide, the spellings of Calcutta and Kolkata, Guiana and Guyana, and other names such as Hindustan and India are used interchangeably.

There will be some updates and corrections to this study guide. If you are interested in these updates, please send me an email, and I will place you on our email list and keep you informed. If you have any suggestions, please forward them to me.

I will be expanding my knowledge in this area by writing more on this topic. Furthermore, I will be putting on some enjoyable and knowledgeable online courses on this topic and similar topics. I hope you will join me on our journey and quest for knowledge on this subject by studying this study guide and sharing it with others. Please send me an email if you would like more information on the upcoming online courses. Hopefully you will also have an opportunity to delve into the love story presented in the novels in The Trilogy of Savitri’s Garden…Fisal Ally

 

 

 

 

 

Index…………………………………………………………………..……………….3

 

PART I – DEBUNKED THE USE OF THE LABEL COOLIE IN GUYANA

Diagram……………………………………………………………..….……………… 4

Three definitions to learn….…………………………………………….………….… 5

Upcoming online course on Indian Indentureship…………………………………..…7

Introduction………………………………………………………………………….… 8

How Indian emigration began to British Guiana…………………………..………….. 9

An excerpt from Chapter 8 which provides the three definition with three

categories of Indian laborers.…………..………………………………………… 11

A summary of the three definitions ………………………………………………..….. 16

A brief analysis of the Hesperus ships’ list ….…………………………………….…. 17

A brief analysis of the Whitby ships’ list ………………………………………….…. 18

How everyone on a ships gets labeled as coolies………………………..…………….. 22

Evidence from the sheriff in British Guiana stating who the Indians were …………… 24

Indians arriving in British Guiana, Trinidad and Jamaica in 1845……….…………….

Still shipping an improper class of people to labor in the fields………………………. 28

Indians around the Globe ………………………………………………………………28

Examining more mistaken identities…………………………………………………… 29

The first group of Indians departed for India with their savings in 1843………………. 30

Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………… 31

Recommendations……………………………………………………………………… 33

Appendix

Sample letter from Gladstone’s to the shipping agent and reply…………………34

Excerpts from the Hill-Coolies ……………………………………………….…35

References……………………………………………………………..…………….… 38

Samples from Savitri’s Garden…………..……….…………………………………… 38

 

PART II – OTHER WORKS BY FISAL ALLY ……………………………..……..44

Samples from Signature With Love ………………..………………….……………… 46

Samples from The Adventure of the Cottonfield Kids……….………………….……. 49

Samples from The Cottonfield Kids Mysteries……………………….………………. 54

Some original songs by Fisal Ally .…………………………………………………… 58

 

The Author………………………………………………………………………………

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PART I

DEBUNKED THE USE OF THE LABEL COOLIE IN GUYANA

 

 

THREE DEFINITIONS TO LEARN

Who were the Indians on the two ships leaving from the Port of Kolkata, emigrating to British Guiana Guyana in 1838 to labor on the sugar plantations? Which definition / category below do think the Indians that were on the two ships belongs to?

 

INSTRUCTIONS – Read the definitions below, and write down your answer to the question above.

 

Three Definitions used to assist in explaining the misconceptions of who the Indians were that had entered British Guiana Guyana on May 5, 1838, where they were already given the label coolie / hill-coolie, before entering Guyana. The three definitions will be expanded in the pages to come, bringing more clarifications to this topic.

 

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Coolies – Baggage carriers, doorkeepers, porters, cleaners where many are from the lowest castes, such as the Sudra caste.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Coolies – Agricultural laborers that do agriculture work on the indigo plantations and farms in India.

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Indians of various classes – Indian workers from many classes and not just from the one class known as the coolie class.

 

From the definitions given above, you should be able to come up with an answer to the question above, depending on your understanding of who the Indians were. Write down your answer. If you don’t know, take a guess, and write it down. The wording of the definitions above will vary slightly from the ones in the Trilogy. But they are more or less the same.

 

Good luck on your quest for knowledge. Keep your original answer in a place where you will find it. As you turn the pages, if you realize that you have the wrong answer, then write down your new answer. As you continue reading, if your answer continues to change, write it down. Send us an email telling us about your experience from this study, and any questions or suggestions which you may have. Through this study guide, I will expand on the definitions, bringing more clarifications…Fisal Ally

 

 

THE NEXT SECTION PROVIDES SOME INFORMATION ON

THE TRILOGY OF SAVITRI’S GARDEN

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ON AN UPCOMING ONLINE COURSE ON THIS TOPIC

 

 

 

THE TRILOGY OF

SAVITRI’S GARDEN

 

 

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INTRODUCTION

This study guide makes clarifications on the misconceptions of the term “coolie” used in Guyana. As the love story and events in the novels in the Trilogy of Savitri’s Garden unfolds, knowledge is presented to teach the history of the Indian laborers.

The same clarifications on the misconceptions in this study guide and in the novels can also be applied to Jamaica, Trinidad, and the other islands in the Caribbean where the Indian laborers had entered to work on the sugar plantations. Similar analyses can be applied to clarify the misconceptions of the Indians that entered many other countries in the 1800s and 1900s.

From my research over the years, I have linked many pieces of information from many sources. I’ve come up with three definitions to group and categorized the Indians. Everyone is aware of the first definition. I came up with the two other definitions to assist us in our learning, and for explaining who the Indians were that entered British Guiana in 1838 and where they came from in India.

We must be clear that not everyone in India were labeled as a coolie. Some were grouped into classes such as the coolie class because of the work they did. It’s important to understand who are labeled as coolies and who are not labeled as coolies. It does not mean because a person had ended up on a ship heading to the colonies that that person was a coolie in India. For example, an Indian doctor on the ship treating the Indians was not labeled as a coolie. In making these clarifications, one must carefully examine the labels to see how they were used and who used them. We are all aware that the term, coolie, was generalized to all Indians that had entered British Guiana, but that does not make the use of the term correct. In Guyana, there were people from many backgrounds arriving at the same time with the Indians and working as indentured laborers doing the same field work, such as the Portuguese, new Africans from Africa, Maltese and Chinese, but they were not given the label coolie.

To make these clarifications, I often use the labels “coolie” and “hill-coolie” for explaining and for demonstration purposes only.

This study guide is based on 1838, and since the first group of Indians had emigrated through the Port of Kolkata in 1838, from the northern region of India, I will only discuss Kolkata—and not Madras or Bombay—to make these clarifications. Indians emigrated from Madras to British Guiana had begun in 1845. In an update I will discuss emigration from the Port of Madras.

I recommend that this study guide be used in conjunction with any other historical books, papers, and online articles when studying or learning about the Indians in Guyana, Trinidad, Jamaica and other places across the globe, to get a better understanding of who the Indians were.

The samples provided in this study guide came from the Trilogy of Savitri’s Garden, and may be modified in upcoming revisions. As mentioned earlier, the spellings of Calcutta and Kolkata, Guiana and Guyana, and other names such as Hindustan and India are used interchangeably.

 

 

 

 

HOW INDIAN EMIGRATION BEGAN BRITISH GUIANA

In 1836, John Gladstone of England had requested laborers for his plantations in British Guiana because slavery was coming to an end and there would be a shortage of laborers to upkeep production on his plantations. Below is a sample of the letter from the Kolkata shipping agent, Messrs. Gillanders, Arbuthnot & Co. to John Gladstone:

 

 

“The tribe that is found to suit best in the Mauritius is from the hills to the north o Calcutta, and the men of which are all well-limbed and active…. The Hill tribes, known by the name of Dhangurs…In sending men to such a distance, it would of course be necessary to be more particular in selecting them….

 

 

According to the letter, when it comes to exporting laborers from the Port of Kolkata to work in the British colonies in agriculture, the shipping agent had discussed sending the hardy agricultural laborers known as the Dhangurs that were skilled and experienced in agriculture to get the work done efficiently and timely. The Dhangurs were also in demand by the planters in Mauritius to cultivate their sugar plantations.

 

 

An excerpt from chapter 8 explains the three definitions and categories I had grouped the Indian workers in India into.

 

Indian Ocean—Monday, March 5, 1838

“Mary, let the shippers, their agents and their duffadars figure it out for themselves. You and I cannot save the whole world.”

“If each one of us makes a little bit of a difference, the world shall be saved.”

“And—and why are we talking about that young lady again?”

Learning of the deceptions and kidnappings to supply the British colonies with Indian laborers had made her upset. She regretted boarding the ship and traveling to British Guiana. A few seconds went by and she had a sudden realization; she felt that her calling onboard the British vessel were to assist the females and the children.

“Her name is Savitri and she’s hardly a young lady—she doesn’t look more than fifteen or sixteen. Solomon, can’t you see how she’s dying since the death of her mother? When you look into her big striking dark eyes, you just want to reach out and hug her. I can’t stomach it seeing them in such misery.”

“You know in Kolkata we stick to our own type, and the same goes on this ship.”

“But this is not Kolkata or Britain. We’re on a ship in the wilderness of the oceans, and we should strive together and struggle together, instead of creating divisions because of skin colors, religions and classes. Are we all not God’s children? Were we not all created equally? Does God not see all of his children as one and as working together as one, and expects his children to help one another, and share the resources and wealth, so none of his children suffers? Oh, Solomon, can’t you see how the Indian females are suffering? They are hurting, can’t you see? Do you not have compassion for them, also?”

“Dear, I sympathize with them, but the hill-coolies are in their own class—”

“Solomon, they are human beings, not animals.”

“Didn’t the shipping agency reply to John Gladstone stating that the hill-coolies are ignorant and are akin to the monkey, and not I?”

“Their correct name is Indian laborers.”

“I agree. But they are labeled as hill-coolies?”

“You mean by the British in India? Solomon, would you like to be a label or a number, or neither?” He didn’t answer. She continued, “Solomon, do you even know your definition for the term you are using?”

“Of course I do. Coolies are from the class of unskilled laborers—like porters, baggage carriers, doorkeepers and cleaners in India. Any fool could tell you that.”

Maryanne chuckled. “Are you the fool?”

“Now you’re rubbing it in?”

“That’s the problem, Solomon. You only think you know who are on this ship. You should get your facts right before using the word. It’s the contrary.”

“The contrary?”

“Exactly.”

“Then I guess I’m the fool.”

She chuckled. “Then I guess you are. You said it, not I.”

“You’re putting words in my mouth. What are you saying?”

“I’m saying that you do not know the facts. I agree that there’s a class of laborers in India labeled as coolies—the baggage carriers, porters, cleaners, doorkeepers—that provides unskilled tedious labor, working for the settled European communities in Kolkata, and for others. Some of them come down from the hills of the Chota Nagpur Plateau; others come from the lower land. This is our first definition.”

“What? What do you mean the first definition? You think we’re back in school or something?”

“It sure seems like. Solo, let me make some clarifications to definition one.”

Solomon held his breath as his wife continued, “Let me explain since we were living in Kolkata in West Bengal. The Chota Nagpur Plateau spans Hazareebagh in Jharkhand, including all or most of Jharkhand, which are mainly hills and forests. It also spans the hills and forests of West Bengal, Behar, Chhattisgarh and Orissa. A part of West Bengal is hilly with dense forests, which is a part of the Chota Nagpur Plateau. It’s like a country in itself—the hill country. Some say that the people hidden away in these hills and forests are the real natives of India. Many Englishmen lives in the hills and hunt wild animal—a paradise for some. The lower land of West Bengal is very different from the hills and forests of West Bengal.” She held her breath for a moment and then breathed. She continued, “Solo, when I was living in Kolkata with my family, groups of the hill people would come down to the lower land to serve us: cleaning, carrying our baggage, and undertaking all kinds of tedious unskilled labor. They were also called hill-coolies or simply coolies. Groups also came from the lower land to serve us with menial labor. They were called coolies and not hill-coolies because they were form the lower land. Instead of calling the ones from the hills as hill-coolies, and the ones from the lower land as lower land coolies, simply call them coolies, since they do they same menial unskilled labor.” We must understand the distinction between the hills and the lower land. We’ve just made some clarifications for the first definition.

“That makes sense.”

“Solo, but when it comes to exporting laborers through the Port of Kolkata to the colonies to cultivate the sugar plantations, we are only speaking of the skilled agricultural laborers, and not the unskilled laborers that do menial work as in the first definition. We must also understand the distinction between skilled labor and unskilled labor. There’s a difference between skilled and unskilled labor.”

“You’re saying that the planters do not want the unskilled laborers?”

“Correct. The contrary, Solo. The Contrary. When it comes to exporting laborers for the planters to cultivate their sugar plantations, we are only speaking of the skilled agricultural laborers from the hills, known as the Dhangurs, to be exported to British Guiana. This is our second definition, placing the Indian laborers into a second category.”

“You’re beginning to confuse me!”

“Then I will make some clarifications to the second definition.”

“Please no more.”

“Solo, as I have stated before, the hill country and the lower country are like two different worlds. So we must make this distinction. The Dhangurs are hidden away in the hills and forests, and have a different appearance from the people in the lower lands and from the north. The British have them trained well to work in the British indigo farms, factories and plantations, and of course pay they cheaply. They are labeled as hill-coolies, because they are from the hills, or you could just simply say coolies, but you must remember that they are from the hills and not from the lower lands. They are known as the hardy agricultural laborers.”

“I could see why people are confused.”

“Solomon, I will explain why the Dhangurs in a moment. But don’t even mention porters and baggage carriers when it comes to the planters requesting laborers, leaving through the Port of Kolkata to do agricultural work in the colonies and to match the labor of the Creole Negroes.” The Creole Negroes were the enslaved Africans that were born in British Guiana or in the other colonies and were accustomed to the harsh fieldwork, toiling in the fields for decades and could handle the harsh fieldwork, they also work in the factory and understands the processes.

“What? Creole Negroes? What the hell does that have to do with anything? I’m confused.”

“I know you are confused. So is everyone else. I just gave you a second definition to think about.”

“Mary, isn’t one definition good enough? I don’t get it.”

“I know you don’t get it. I have a third definition.”

“Are you joking? A third definition? You’re about to blow my mind.”

“I know,” his wife responded, as she walked over to a pile of papers covering up some books. “Solomon, you need to fully understand who the planters are requesting. You will appreciate me explaining all this, once you’ve digested it. At first it sounds confusing, but it’s really very simple, if you are provide with the right information.”

“Okay dear, you’re a historian. Let’s hear it. I know you’ve pondered on all of this. Let’s hear it.”

“We must make another distinction. The Dhangurs are the ones that are in demand by the planters in the colony because they are a hardy race of agricultural laborers and works out very well in the British indigo plantations, factories and farms in India. They can get the job done. But, many say that the agricultural laborers from the lower land can never match the skills of the robust Dhangurs. Get it.”

“No.”

“Solomon, I heard that the agricultural laborers from the lower land in Bengal are a bunch of lazy Bengalees.”

Solomon laughed. “Is this a joke or something?”

“No. And the planters prefer the Dhangurs from the hills over the agricultural Bengalees from the lower land.”

“Mary, so you are saying that the Dhangurs in the hills—the hill-coolies—in the hill country are better workers than the agricultural coolies from the lower lands.”

“Correct.” Maryanne pulled out a book and opened it to a creased page. “Dear, just so you have some proof and understanding that this is not a joke and nor is it my imagination, let me read you a passage that will clarify the word coolie, bringing to light the class of Indian laborers that are in demand to work in the sugar plantations in the colonies, like the Mauritius and now in British Guiana.”

“Okay dear, educate me.”

Maryanne sipped on her tea and then read a quote from the book:

 

It had been long known to many of them that there was a tract of country in India to the north-west of Calcutta between the 23rd and 25th degree of north latitude, inhabited by a race of hardy agriculturists called “hill coolies,” Dhangons or Boonahs. These “culi,” as they are termed by Dr. Prichard, “are found in the hill countries of Guzerat,” and accustomed to agricultural pursuits, had not sufficient scope for their exertions, and it was supposed that they would willingly travel to the richer and more prosperous shores of Guiana.

 

“Solomon, did you hear the word coolie culi? Did you hear the word hills? Did you hear the words, a race of hardy agriculturists?”

“I did. Mary, you’re on to something.”

“You remember that letter from the Kolkata shipping agent, Messrs. Gillanders, Arbuthnot & Co. to John Gladstone, that mentioned the hill tribes and the Dhangurs?”

“Of course.”

“That is confirmation that when the term coolie is used concerning the emigration of Indians from the Port of Kolkata to British Guiana, we are only speaking of the Dhangurs and no one else. So when we hear the labels coolie, hill-coolie, agricultural laborers, the hardy agriculturists, that means the Dhangurs and no one else—forget the baggage carriers.

“I get it. I get it.”

The couple took a moment to reflect on the word ‘culi’ coolie and how the term was used for the hardy agricultural laborers from the hills northwest of Kolkata. Maryanne picked up a map that was lying next to her papers. She opened it and placed it on the table. She traced out the 23rd and 25th degree of north latitude with her finger and stopped at the area northwest of Kolkata.

An astonished expression spread across Solomon’s face. “Mary, you are right. That area is just northwest of Kolkata.”

“It’s the hills. That’s the region, which Dr. Prichard is referring to. That region is hilly and mainly forests. The wider area is called the Chota Nagpur Plateau. Dear, if you examine the information from Dr. Prichard, it’s states that the culies coolies that are required to cultivate the farms and sugarcane fields are the hill-coolies—the Dhangurs and Boonahs. From what I heard, the Boonahs make good shepherds, but the Dhangurs are the robust hardy agricultural laborers that are in demand by the planters to cultivate their sugarcane fields in the colonies, and they are hand picked. When we are speaking about the laborers for John Gladstone and the other plantation owners for their sugar plantations in British Guiana, we are only speaking of these skilled agricultural laborers from the hills—the Dhangurs, and not the agricultural laborers from the lower land, and not the ones that do unskilled tedious labor, such as cleaning and carrying baggage for the settled European communities in Kolkata and other places.”

“I get it. We are speaking of the hill-coolies—the Dhangurs.”

“Yes. So the label hill-coolies and coolies are used interchangeably, but still only meaning the hardy agricultural laborers from the hills of the Chota Nagpur Plateau. We must be able to make this distinction in our understanding.”

“Now I understand that according to Dr. Prichard the Dhangurs are assumed to be willing to travel to the richer and more prosperous shores of Guiana to work in agriculture because there’s not enough work in India for them, and their skills are in demand by the planters, and they are from the hills, and not the lower land. And the shipping company, Messrs. Gillanders, Arbuthnot & Company of Kolkata had replied to Gladstone, stating that the Dhangurs would be best suited for the sugar plantations in Guiana. So the Guiana planters are expecting only the Dhangurs to be cultivating their plantations, and whenever the word coolie is used, they are referring to the Dhangurs—the hill-coolies.”

Maryanne clapped. “You got it, Solo. You got it. It would be better for the Dhangurs to work in the colonies than to starve in the hills. The pay in the colonies is not the best, but it’s better than the pay in India. And if the Dhangurs save their earnings made in the colonies, they will have a good amount of savings, since they will have no expenses. They will make more in Guiana than working on the indigo farms. The Guiana planters are expecting these experienced and skilled agricultural laborers to cultivate their sugar plantations, and no one else. So when it comes to exporting laborers from the Port of Kolkata to work on the sugar plantations in the colonies, the label “coolie” is identical to the label “hill-coolies” and is used interchangeably, and is synonymous to the term “agriculturist” referring only to the Dhangurs. Thousands of this hardy race have already been exported to cultivate the sugar plantations in the Mauritius, Reunion and Bourbon, and have been proven to be successful, and this is why the shipping agent, Mr. Arbuthnot, from the shipping company, Messrs. Gillanders, Arbuthnot & Company of Kolkata, had informed John Gladstone about these same hand picked hardy agricultural laborers to cultivate his and his good friend, John Moss’, sugar plantations in Guiana, so the work gets done in an effective and timely manner.”

“I understand.”

“I will give you the third definition.”

“No more! Please dear, no more definitions.” He placed his palms on his forehead and scratched his head. “A third definition will confuse me more.”

“I know it will. Your head will only hurt a little and ache for a while, but you need to get all the facts right. It will soak in.”

“Okay. I need some rum.”

“Tea is better.” She poured him some tea and handed it to him. “Solo, the planters are also not requesting clerks, priests, merchants, tailors, teachers and other professions that have their own skills.”

“Comprehendo. I get it. They would be useless in the sugar plantation fields and factories, just like the porters and baggage carriers. I get it. I get it.”

“Clerks, priests, merchants, tailors, musicians and teachers have their own skills. They’re not labeled as coolies. They are also not the baggage carriers and porters that are labeled as coolies, nor are they the skilled agricultural laborers labeled as hill-coolies or simply coolies. Clerks, priests, merchants, tailors, musicians and teachers are ‘Indians of various classes.’ This group or category will also include coolies, beggars and others, but many in this category could be from a skilled profession such as clerks, priests and tailors. This is our third definition. I will make a few more clarifications on this. Even beggars could be a big part of this group if there are no jobs and nothing to eat. In general beggars do not work, but begs, therefore beggars are not coolies that does menial unskilled labor for pay, because in beggars begs instead of working for their daily bread. We are not dealing with one class of people in this category, but many classes, religions and backgrounds, and this is why this definition is called “Indian of various classes. The planters in the Mauritius would quickly refuse clerks, tailors, teachers, musicians, beggars, ex-sepoys, baggage carriers and doorkeepers that wants to work in the fields, sending them straight back to India, knowing that sooner or later, they will run away from the fields. In other words the laborers in the third category would be useless in the sugarcane fields. And the planters in the Mauritius will not put up with them because they will take twice, three times or four times longer to get the work done, that’s if they survive. Priests and clerks are too comfortable in their own skilled profession to muddy their hands and feet—they will hate the work and sooner or later escape.”

“So then the people in this third group will never be shipped to Guiana, since the shipping agents promised Gladstone the Dhangurs as in your second definition. Dear, you know, I always thought that all the Indians labeled as coolies did unskilled labor for the settled communities, like working as servants, cleaning and carrying baggage. And I assumed they were the ones also working in the colonies. Now I understand that the label coolies also apply to the skilled agricultural laborers. It takes a brilliant mind like yours to clarify this for me. So when speaking of laborers for the colonies to carry out agricultural work in the colonies, only the hardy agricultural laborers from the hills, labeled as coolies or hill-coolies, meaning the same, will survive the fields, and they are the ones the planters in colonies are demanding, and no one else. I understand the three definitions.”

“Solomon, could you imagine porters, cleaners, doorkeepers, baggage carriers, tailors, musicians, ex-sepoys, priests and clerks cultivating the harsh sugarcane fields in the Mauritius and now in Demerara, and trying to match the skills of the Creole Negroes who have been doing that kind of work for decades and throughout their entire lives?”

He laughed. “I cannot even fathom it. They would surely have a difficult time even getting half of the work done and surviving the long workday in the tropical heat, six days a week, from six to six or longer. You are right. Why would the planters request unskilled laborers such as baggage carriers, doorkeepers and porters, and people of other skilled professions such as lazy priests that prefers to beg for their rupees, and fat lazy clerks from the north, and stone masons and tailors. I’m beginning to understand. Agriculture is a skilled profession that requires the skilled agricultural laborers that could survive the heat and the harsh working conditions.”

“And the skilled agricultural laborers are also experienced in the factory—both the field and the factory. Maryanne smiled and acknowledged her husband as she perused more documents. She picked up the Whitby ship’s list and browsed through it as she walked over to the door and opened it.

“Where are you going?”

“I need some fresh air. Let’s go for a walk.”

He followed her and closed the cabin door. They walked along the railing as the ocean breeze frisked their hair and clothes. Two Irish crewmen were playing their guitar and banjo in the gallery, drinking a bottle of rum, while Richard was lying in the hammock reading a book, enjoying the music, azure sky and the ocean breeze. Anunto Ram and a group of Indian laborers were out on deck carrying out their ship duties. Some of the supervisors were chatting. The European crew and the three Indian mates were busy with their ship duties. Lawrence saluted Solomon as he and his wife walked by and stopped next to a long bench near the railing and sat down. Nertha Khan was busy translating for an Indian man who was complaining about headaches, vomiting and high fever.

“I see groups of names with the label ‘Dhanga,’” Maryanne said, examining the Whitby ship’s list. “But here is someone with the name Bucktowar from Lucknow.” She paused and continued, “But, Lucknow is farther north, not even close to the hills northwest of Kolkata.” She skimmed through the list and said, “Here’s another person named Buckus from Meerut, which is even farther north of Delhi. There’s another person named Jowhighin Sing from Lucknow, and the list goes on. Solomon, oh my God—”

“What?”

“Look at the ship’s list. Many of the emigrants on this ship are not even from the hills northwest of Kolkata where the Dhangurs live. Solomon, many are not the ones that Dr. Prichard was referring to that would travel to Guiana to extend their agriculture pursuits. Many are from places much farther north.” She shook her head and then said, “This means that many on this ship are not the Dhangurs which the planters in Guiana are expecting to cultivate their sugarcane fields.”

“What? The coolies on this ship are not the laborers the planters in Demerara are expecting?”

“Indian laborers, Solomon,” she corrected him. “And that’s exactly what I’m saying.” She pointed to the passage where Dr. Prichard stated that the people labeled as coolies are the tribe’s people in the hills northwest of Kolkata.” She examined the list closer and then said, “Many of the names are also misspelled. I am certain that Jowhighin Sing is the Indian cook, Janhair Sing.”

“Janhair Sing is a good chap,” Solomon said. “I like his manners. He’s a respectable young man, but I cannot picture him doing fieldwork. I heard he’ll also be working as a cook in Demerara.”

 

 

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KNOW THE DIFFERENCES

*
p<>{color:#000;}. The hills and forest of Chota Napur vs. the lower land

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Clerks, priests and tailors are from skilled professions vs. baggage carriers and porters that do unskilled work.

*
p<>{color:#000;}. The hardy agricultural laborers from the hills vs. the agricultural laborers from the lower land

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Skilled laborers vs. unskilled laborers

 

 

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A SUMMARY OF THE THREE DEFINITIONS

Let’s take a closer look at the three definitions used for grouping the Indian laborers into categories, and for making clarifications on the misconceptions of who the Indians were.

 

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Coolies – Baggage carriers and porters that does unskilled menial labor.

Many worked for the settled communities in India and for others. These workers were from the hills and from the lower lands. If they were from the hills, then they were labeled as “hill-coolies” identifying them as being from the hills or simply as “coolies.” If they were from the lower lands, then they shouldn’t be called hill-coolies since they were not from the hills, but they should simply be called coolies. It’s important to understand this distinction between the hills and lower land. It’s easier to just say “coolies.” The people that fall under this category are not the laborers, which Gladstone and the other planters have requested to work in their sugar plantations in British Guiana.

 

Note: In many books and digital write-ups on the internet, many writers are assuming that the Indian laborers that entered British Guiana were people that carried out menial unskilled labor such as baggage carriers, doorkeepers, cleaners and porters in India. That’s far from the truth. They will never match the skills of a Creole Negro. They may not survive the fields.

 

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Coolies – The hardy agricultural laborers from the hills, known as the Dhangurs, and the Boonahs, were agricultural laborers. The Boonahs make good shepherds, whereas the Dhangurs were the hardy agricultural laborers which the planters were demanding. They were from the Chota Nagpur Plateau that spans a wide area of hills and forests. The shipping agent, Messrs. Gillanders, Arbuthnot & Company of Kolkata, had wrote back to Gladstone and stated that the laborers best suited for their sugar plantations were the Dhangurs, known as hill-coolies, or simply coolies. It’s important to realize that whether you use the word Dhangurs, hardy agricultural laborers, agriculturists, hill-coolies or coolies, these words and terms all refers to the Dhangurs and no one else, since only the Dhangurs were in demand to work on the sugar plantations. In this case, the word hill-coolies and coolies were used interchangeably for this group and meant the same.

Note: As far as the planters and members of the British Parliament were concerned, the hill-coolies (the Dhangurs) were emigrating from the Port of Kolkata in 1838 to labor on the sugar plantations in British Guiana because of their agricultural skills. This is why many of the correspondences in the House of Commons contains the label “Hill-Coolies,” where the label hill-coolies and coolies were used interchangeably and meant exactly the same thing, meaning the Dhangurs, and not baggage carriers or clerks.

 

#
p<>{color:#000;}. Indians of various classes – This category includes Indians from all classes and all walks of life. Many of these Indian laborers were skilled in their professions, such as clerks, teachers, preachers, tailors, stonemasons, merchants and musicians. Many of them had their own business or work as individuals, and did not work in large groups for the British in their settled communities or on the indigo farms or factories in India in the way the coolies did. Because this category includes all classes, there could be ex-sepoys, beggars, coolies, and others amongst this group. “Indian laborers of various classes” or simply “Indian laborers” came from various backgrounds, classes and religions. The ones under this group were not the shipload of laborers, which the shipping agent, Messrs. Gillanders, Arbuthnot & Company, had informed Gladstone about for cultivating his, and his friends sugar plantations in British Guiana.

 

 

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WHO WERE THE LABORERS

THAT HAD ENTERED BRITISH GUIANA ON MAY 5, 1838?

 

 

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A BRIEF ANALYSIS OF THE HESPERUS SHIPSLIST

An examination of the two ships’ lists at embarkation will give us an idea of who the Indians were that had landed in British Guiana on May 5, 1838.

 

Approximately 21 Indians on the Hesperus, the second ship to leave from Kolkata, were recorded as being Dhangurs When examined the Hesperus embarkation ship’s list that was recorded at the Port of Kolkata during embarkation, out of the 170 recruits on the ship, approximately 21 were listed as Dhanga (Dhangurs). That’s a major problem, because John Gladstone and his friends John and Henry Moss were expecting a shipload of the robust agricultural laborers known as the Dhangurs to cultivate their sugar plantations, and not only 21 Dhangurs.

Groups of laborers on the Hesperus were dropped off on two of Gladstone’s plantations—Plantation Vreed-en-hoop and Plantation Vriedestein—in West Demerara, and also on John and Henry Moss’s plantation in Anna Regina in Essequibo.

 

Note: I’m using the word “approximately” because there were many discrepancies and duplications in the records, therefore, I do not believe that we know for certain the exact counts of how many were on the ships, although close enough.

 

 

Who were the other (approximately) 159 Indians aboard the Hesperus if they were not the Dhangurs, which Gladstone was expecting?

In the Trilogy of Savitri’s Garden, as the love story unfolded, I discussed the devastating famine that was hitting the North-Western Provinces of India in the summer of 1837, and which continued throughout 1838, later to be known as the Agra famine, Agra being the region in northern India that was hit the hardest. Many lives were lost to diseases such as cholera. Many lost everything. Many were starving. Many were migrating to Kolkata and other places looking for work. There was an abundant of desperate unemployed people.

Many of the emigrants on the Hesperus embarkation ship’s list came from the North-Western Provinces and other places in northern India, such as the Kingdom of Awadh (Oudh). They came from Allahabad, Agra, Lucknow, Meerut, Delhi, Beneras, Behar and other places north of Kolkata and north of the Chota Nagpur Plateau. But the famine had ruined them, completely devastating hundreds of thousands. They were desperate for work. Many had traveled to Kolkata hoping to find work with the government (the East India Company) building roads and working in the gardens etc… They came from different religions and castes, and had skilled professions. Many had skilled professions, such as clerks, tailors, musicians, Brahmin priests. Many were also merchants and had their own businesses. They cannot be labeled at ‘coolies’ as in the first definition, which refers to people that does menial unskilled labor such as porters, baggage carriers and doorkeepers, nor did they fall under the second definition and category of laborers such as the robust agricultural laborers labeled as the hill-coolies that were skilled and experienced in agriculture and were promised to Gladstone. These people could only fall under the category of “Indians of various classes.”

 

 

A BRIEF ANALYSIS OF THE WHITBY SHIPSLISTS

On the Whitby, out of the 267 laborers, approximately 121 were listed as Dhangurs, but the planters were expecting a shipload of the Dhangurs to cultivate the sugar plantations in British Guiana and not only 121 out of 267. The other (approximately) 146 were ‘Indians of various classes.’ They were from different religions, castes and classes. Many had skilled professions. There would be beggars, ex-sepoys and others amongst them. Many were from the north. Many were migrating and looking for work due the devastating famine that was hitting the Northwestern Provinces.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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GLADSTONE AND THE OTHER PLATERS

WERE IN FOR A BIG SURPRISE!

 

THEY WERE ALSO DECEIVED BY THE DUFFADARS!

 

THE SHIPPING COMPANY, MESSRS. GILLANDERS, ARBUTHNOT & COMPANY OF KOLKATA DID NOT STICK TO THEIR GUNS! THEY SHIPPED THE WRONG CLASS OF LABORERS ON THE WHITBY AND HESPERUS IN 1838 TO BRITISH GUIANA (GUYANA) TO CULTIVATE THE SUGAR PLANTATIONS AND TO WORK AS AGRICULTURAL LABORERS. COULD THE PEOPLE THAT WERE SHIPPED HANDLE THE WORK, WHICH MANY OF THEM WERE NOT EXPERIENCED IN?

 

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HOW EVERYONE ON A SHIP GETS LABELED AS COOLIES

Below is an excerpt from Savitri’s Garden to show how everyone get’s labeled as coolies.

“Solomon, it looks like they are just average folks escaping the destruction of the famine, and looking for work. Dear, many of these people are not from the coolie class that are known for their skills in agriculture, nor are they from the coolie class that does unskilled labor such as the baggage carriers, porters and cleaners. Many of these people have skills, but the wrong set of skills for the sugarcane fields. Many are Hindus, Muslims, and people from other religions, whereas people say the Dhangurs have no religion, or if they do, then their practice is different from Hinduism and Islam. I also heard that the Dhangurs do not mix with the Hindus and Muslims. They prefer to keep to themselves.” She flipped through some pages and continued, “Solomon, listen to this. Most of the time, the Government of India refers to the emigrants on these ships as native of India or Indian laborers and not by the name hill-coolie or coolie, knowing that amongst the ones labeled as coolies or the hill-coolies, there are also emigrants from various classes, castes and religions.” She reached into another pile of papers and flipped through them. She pulled out a document. “Here are the Regulations for shipping the laborers called Act No. XXXII of 1837 where the laborers are referred to as natives of India and not as hill-coolies or coolies. Let me read a part.”

 

And it is herby enacted that from the said day no native of India, except as hereinafter, who makes a contract of service to be performed without the territories of the East India Company, shall embark in pursuance of such contract, on board of any vessel—

 

“Here is a correspondence from the 23 August 1837, written by H.T Prinsep, Secretary to the Government of India:”

 

To Captain F. W. Birch, Superintendent of Indian Labourers.

Sir, I am directed to acknowledge the receipt of your letter dated the 22^nd^ instant, relative to an application from Messrs. Willis & Earle for permission to ship 60 Indian labourers on board the Peter Proctor consigned to Sydney—

 

Maryanne paused and then said, “Solomon, speaking of Sydney, forty two Indians and a six-year-old child were shipped to Sydney on a five-year contract, where the laborers make five rupees per month and the sardar gets seven. They are all Dhangurs from the hills, except for two.” The group of Indians that were shipped to Australia had arrived in Sydney on December 23, 1837.

“So forty are labeled as hill-coolies?” Solomon asked.

Maryanne hesitated. “Yes. Forty are the skilled agricultural laborers that are in demand by the planters, and two are not Dhangurs. The report classified these laborers as Indian laborers.” She paused and then said, “But here is another document from a supervisor stating that the laborers that went to Australia are all hill-coolies.”

“I guess we’re all confused by the label coolies or hill-coolies and who are actually being shipped off to the colonies.”

“It is misleading because two are not coolies. They tend to generalize, putting everyone under the same umbrella. That’s like saying if you and I are the only two British on a ship with forty Italians that makes us Italians. You get the picture?”

“I get the picture. They’d be calling us Italians, and we don’t even have a drop of Italian blood, nor speak a work of Italian. And we know that we’re not Italians. So we end up with a false label, and the documents will reflect this false label, stating that we’re Italians, and everyone will believe we’re Italians.”

“The forty-two Indian laborers in Australia were hired for gardening, digging up roots, brewery, cultivating tobacco and tending sheep. It’s only now I’m learning that Indian laborers are already working in Australia. And now the Indian laborers of various classes on this ship will be making history in the Americas—”

“Looks like the Indians are spreading their wings across the planet.”

“You mean the way we did? Solomon, I read the name ‘Indian laborers’ most of the times while going through these documents, in the same way the German, Irish, Scottish and Portuguese immigrants in Guiana are referred to by their correct names and not by any derogatory labels.”

Solomon made a hissing sound with his mouth. “And you said Gladstone and the other Guiana planters were told that they are receiving the hill-coolies similar to the forty shipped to Sydney and the thousands already laboring in the sugarcane fields in the Mauritius?”

“Yes. They are expecting the hardy agricultural laborers from the hills.”

“Then Gladstone is in for a big surprise.”

“A big shock when he learns that the duffadars didn’t only deceive many of the Indians into boarding this ship by leaving their wives, children and aging parents behind, but they have also deceived Gladstone, the Court of Directors of the East India Company, and the whole British Parliament—”

“Gladstone and the other plantation owners are expecting the skilled hardy agricultural laborers from the hills to match the labor of the Creole Negroes that are already experienced in agriculture, and to get production up quickly. They are definitely not expecting musicians, clerks, priests, beggars, merchants, ex-sepoys, artists and weavers from the North-Western Provinces of India and its surroundings. Many on this ship most likely possess none or very little agriculture skills.”

“The duffadars could have told the shipping agency anything they wanted to, lying through their rotten teeth.”

“You mean their gold teeth?”

“They’ve found El Dorado without having to travel to El Dorado. They could have lied about who boarded this ship. Solomon, I remembered the Indians couldn’t care less about what they were answering to for their names, when they were boarding the ship. And the contracts could have been falsified by the duffadars. Who would even know or care as to where the Indians came from in India, or which classes they are from. The duffadars’ only goal is to meet the quota, so they could get their dirty little paws on the laborer’s six month wage-advance, making a ton of money from the wealthy plantation owners residing in London, by stealing most of the wage-advance that were meant for the emigrants to leave behind for their families, while they work abroad.”

“They’ve found El Dorado alright. Gold in their pockets.”

“Solomon, have you noticed the word hill-coolie is being used for all of the Indian emigrants on the ship, and in a derogatory manner, even if they are not from the hills, and were never known as coolies or as agricultural laborers before. Solomon, do you remember the definitions I gave you?”

“I do. And yes, I’ve noticed.”

“Mary, I agree that we should abide by the examples set by the Government of India and use the correct name ‘Indian laborers’ like the titles, Portuguese laborers or German or Irish laborers. But—”

“But—”

“But ignorance prevails.” Solomon glanced around. “Dear, even if a maharaja had embarked on this ship traveling as a merchant and wearing his golden crown, he would now be branded with the name hill-coolie.”

 

 

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THIS QUESTION STILL REMAINS TO BE ANSWERED

 

WHO WERE THE INDIANS ABOARD THE WHITBY AND HESPERUS

 

HEADING FOR THE AMERICAS

 

TO WORK ON THE SUGAR PLANTATIONS IN BRITISH GUIANA

 

 

 

 

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EVIDENCE FROM THE SHERIFF IN BRITISH GUIANA STATING WHO THE INDIANS WERE

The Sheriff in Guiana had met most or all of the Indians in the colony during the inquiries on the treatment of the Indians and the court hearings. Below is an excerpt from Chapter 21 from The Trilogy of Savitri’s Garden.

 

IT WAS TEN O’CLOCK SATURDAY MORNING WHEN THEY left the house and headed into town. They wanted to see what life was like away from the plantation.

A sheriff stopped them. Kalil pulled out the passes and handed them to him. After witnessing Frederick Smith and Mr. Russell’s signature on the passes, the sheriff gestured with a nod and returned the passes.

“Someting wrang offica?” Kalil asked feeling tensed. The Indians exchanged nervous glances.

“We’re hunting down some escapees from the plantations,” the sheriff replied in Hindustani. He was Sheriff Whinfield from Berbice, attending some court hearings in Georgetown for the next two weeks. They felt at ease after hearing the sheriff speak their language perfectly well. “What plantation are you working on?”

“Bellevue,” Kalil answered.

“You’re all from Bellevue?”

Kalil nodded. “Yes. We’re all working on Bellevue.”

“Where in India are you from?”

“I’m from Lucknow,” Kalil replied.

Two British sergeants walked up to them, and the Indians became terrified. The sheriff glanced at the sergeants and back to Kalil. “Were you an agricultural laborer in India from the hills northwest of Kolkata? A hill-coolie like Gladstone was expecting?”

“No. I’m not from the hills and I’m not a coolie. I’m from Lucknow. My Ma is from the Kingdom of Punjab. My Pa was a skilled carpenter, and I was also a carpenter back home. My Ma sold her bakery at the market, along with other items.”

The sheriff turned to Savitri and said, “You certainly do not look like you’re a Dhangur girl from the hills where the coolies are from.”

A chuckle escaped Savitri. “Sahib, I’m from Benares, farther north from Bengal.”

“What did you do in Benares since you were not an agricultural laborer from the hills?”

“Sahib, it’s a long story. I was working at the Maya bazaar with my Ma and bhai.”

The sheriff pondered for a moment. He held his breath and released. “The Maya bazaar? What did you do at the bazaar?”

“We knit and sell our handiwork. I was also hired by a duffadar to assist him in recruiting laborers for the British colonies.”

“Duffadar? What’s your name?”

“Savitri Ramdas.”

The sheriff held his breath. He was already familiar with her name, but he wanted to be certain that she was the girl of interest.

He breathed out slowly. “Your name sounds familiar.”

“My name. Sahib, am I in trouble? Did, did—”

“No, no, you are not in any trouble. Let me clarify. We’ve heard of the kidnappings and deceptions in Kolkata. I’ve received news from England that there’s an investigation going on in India for some missing people. There’s also a major investigation on the Indian recruits returning to India from the Mauritius, where they are being interviewed by asking them specific questions on their treatments in the Mauritius and how they ended up on the ships. Also, an inquiry is about to be instituted right here in this colony on the treatment of the Indian laborers like yourselves.”

 

 

The above shows that many that landed in British Guiana in 1838 from the first two ships were not Dhangurs, nor were they labeled as coolies back in India; they were from many different classes and not from the one class known as the coolie class.

 

 

To make further clarifications on the misconceptions as to who had entered British Guiana on May 5, 1838, in The Trilogy of Savitri’s Garden, the sample below was taken from Chapter 21 to express what the sheriff had stated about who the Indians were in British Guiana.

 

New Amsterdam, Berbice—Tuesday, March 24, 1840

SHERIFF WHINFIELD WAS REVIEWING HIS REPORTS collected over the last year and a half on the Indian laborers. He had met many of them and had questioned them on their religion and the village they had come from, and whether they were deceived, kidnapped or lured into boarding the two ships. It was nine o’clock in the morning and he was at his desk writing a report to Governor Light. He opened a book and read a quote from it:

 

It had been long known to many of them that there was a tract of country in India to the north-west of Calcutta between the 23rd and 25th degree of north latitude, inhabited by a race of hardy agriculturists called “hill coolies,” Dhangons or Boonahs. These “culi,” as they are termed by Dr. Prichard, “are found in the hill countries of Guzerat,” and accustomed to agricultural pursuits, had not sufficient scope for their exertions, and it was supposed that they would willingly travel to the richer and more prosperous shores of Guiana.

 

For a moment, the sheriff gazed at the word ‘culi coolie’ and began to reflect back on his encounters with the hardy agricultural laborers from the hills northwest of Kolkata that were in demand by the planters in Mauritius and Demerara. He continued writing his report, and addressed it to Governor Light, dated March 29, 1840. In a section of the report, he stated:

 

“I desire to avail myself of the present opportunity to set right the general misconceived opinion that these East India laborers are hill coolies. It is quite a mistake, for there is not a hill coolie in British Guiana; these people are chiefly from the following places: Agra, Allahabad, Benares, Dacca, Delhi, Ingormauth, Lucknow, Naypoor, Ptna.”

 

The sheriff then perused some documents, his eyes stilled on the name, Soonoolah, who had arrived on the Hesperus and had worked on Plantation Anna Regina in Essequibo, and died from old age. Old age? he wondered. How is that even possible when the Hesperus embarkation ship’s list had recorded each and every recruit as being thirty and under? If they were all thirty and under then how could she have died from old age? The sheriff then recalled that many of the immigrants that disembarked from the Hesperus in British Guiana were not only in their teens and twenties, but many were also recorded as being in their thirties, forties and fifties. He shrugged his shoulders. This one incident alone stating that Soonoolah had died from old age proves that the duffadars in Kolkata had lied about who had actually boarded the Whitby and Hesperus at the Port of Kolkata in January 1838. The embarkation ship’s list that recorded a younger age group would obviously give the impression that the Kolkata shipping agent was sending young and strong laborers to work in the sugarcane fields in this colony. But that’s a lie. This could also mean that not only did they lie about the ages, but based on the fact that I did not even meet one hill-coolie in the colony, they must have also lied about the ones labeled as Dhangas on the ships’ lists. There’s not even one hill-coolie in this colony—not even a Dhanga. No coolies in this colony. Another mistaken identity!

The sheriff got up from his desk and poured himself a cup of tea. He walked out on his verandah overlooking the Atlantic Ocean. His eyes steadied on a ship at the horizon. He was convinced that the Kolkata shipping agency and their under agent, John Hughes, had shipped the wrong class of laborers to cultivate the sugarcane fields of British Guiana. He thought to himself, I’ve lived in India and I’ve met most of the Indian laborers in this colony. Dr. Prichard clearly states that the coolies that were to be shipped to this colony are the Dhangurs from the hills, because of their agricultural skills. John Gladstone, the other planters in Britain, along with the Court of Directors, and the Members of the British Parliament actually believes that the hill-coolies had arrived in this colony, and are presently cultivating the sugarcane fields. And this explains why so many documents in the House of Commons include the labeled Hill-Coolie as part of the title, concerning the Indians that had arrived in British Guiana in 1838. That is misleading and incorrect. He shook his head. History is written wrong. There’s not even one hill-coolie in this South American colony, not even one coolie, meaning that most likely not even one skilled and experienced agricultural laborer was sent to this colony from India to labor in the sugar plantation. That explains why so many Indians in the colony are escaping from the plantations. They hate the work. They cannot endure the harsh conditions. They are not the skilled agricultural laborers.

The sheriff was lost in his thoughts. The Indians in this colony are from various classes, and not from that one specific class known as the coolie class. They are from different backgrounds. Some are clerks, merchants, priests, cooks, musicians, carpenters, tailors, beggars, ex-sepoys, all skilled in their own craft, but are useless in the sugarcane fields. If there are some hill-coolies from the hills amongst the various classes of Indians, I have not even met one. Even the planters in the Mauritius do not want clerks, teachers, tailors and preachers doing their agricultural work, because they would be useless in the fields, and are shipping them back to India. Clerks, preachers, cooks and musicians should be doing bookwork, preaching, cooking, and playing music. That’s what they are skilled in. They do not possess the skills to do the hard, strenuous and demanding fieldwork that the robust agricultural laborers labeled as the hill-coolies in India would survive. It will take them time to adapt—not days, but months, even years, that’s if they survive the harsh conditions. They are toiling in the sugarcane fields for ten to twelve hours a day against their wishes. Many had never done this kind of fieldwork in India before, therefore, how could they possibly survive the work in this colony. Many were deceived and kidnapped from Indian, and sentenced to fieldwork in the Americas. Many died. Many were sick with sores and ulcers.

The sheriff took a deep breath and exhaled slowly, his mind was restless. The only name these laborers from India in this colony could be identified as is ‘Indian laborers of various classes,’ he thought. The terms hill-coolie and coolie are wrongfully being used in Britain and in this colony because everyone thinks that the robust hand picked hill-coolies were shipped to this colony to conquer the sugarcane fields—and that’s far from the truth. The Indian laborers of various classes that I’ve met in this colony are no different from the Portuguese, Germans, Maltese, English, Irish and Scottish laborers. They are just ordinary people from all walks of life, and are from many classes, and have a hard time adapting to fieldwork.

He breathed in deeply and yawned. But the work in the sugarcane fields has to be done. Poor creatures! What do the planters care? They couldn’t care less if these Indian laborers of various classes suffer in the sugarcane fields, doing the labor that were meant for the Dhangurs, as long as the work gets done. Poor creatures! Deceived, kidnaped and sentenced to toil in the sugarcane fields in the Americas for five long gruesome years, or longer. Too many have already died.

The sheriff’s eyes were still fixed on the horizon. No wonder the Gladstone Experiment—the first group of Indian laborers to the Americas—has failed, resulting in a ban in emigration from India.

 

 

 

INDIANS ARRIVIVING IN BRITISH GUIANA, TRINIDAD AND JAMAICA IN 1845

Due to the mistreatments of the Indian laborers in the colonies, on July 11, 1838, Indian emigration to British Guiana was banned. And overseas ban from India had also taken place in May 1839, banning Indian emigrating to Mauritius and the other colonies that were highly depending on Indian laborers for the survival of the sugar plantations and farms. The ban was lifted in Mauritius a few years later. In 1845, emigration restarted to British Guiana, and also Jamaica and Trinidad for the first time.

 

 

 

STILL SHIPPING AN IMPROPER CLASS OF PEOPLE TO LABOR IN THE FIELDS

As a reminder as to who the Indians were that were emigrating to British Guiana, let’s review the passage from the book ‘The History of British Guiana: Comprising a General Description of….Volume 2 by Henry G. Dalton) states: “But, unfortunately, the error was again committed of shipping an improper class of persons. The agents glad to execute their business as summarily as possible, did not take the trouble of securing the services of really effective labourers, but, indifferent to the interests of all but themselves, collected the first people that presented themselves. Many were not “hill coolies” at all…Of about 9000 or 10000 who formerly arrived here, scarcely a tenth part was of the right class of persons.”

 

Note: It’s important to remember that the planters in the colonies were only requesting the experienced agricultural laborers to cultivate their sugar plantations because of their skills and experiences. If leaving through the Port of Kolkata, it was the hardy agricultural laborers—the Dhangurs—that were in demand.

 

 

 

INDIANS AROUND THE GLOBE

The Trilogy of Savitri’s Garden and this study guide have made many clarifications as to who the Indians were that had arrived in British Guiana on the first two ships in 1838, and made clarifications on why the class of laborers known as hill coolies or simply coolies did not arrived in Guiana. In other words the “coolies” did not arrive in British Guiana.

This same reasoning would also apply to Jamaica, Trinidad and all the other islands in the Caribbean where Indians had arrived to work in the sugar plantations, because it would only make sense that the planters would be requesting skilled agricultural laborers and not anybody from the many classes that existed in India.

The same reasoning could be applied to the other countries in South America (French Guiana and Dutch Guiana), along with Fiji, South Africa, East Africa and other places, as to who the Indians were, since I have concluded that “Indians of various classes” were being exported, even if the planters had requested a particular class, such as the skilled agricultural laborers known as the Dhangars. It was easier for the duffadars to grab anybody that wanted to emigrate that was looking for work, and these people were from all classes.

There’s no doubt that initially Mauritius had received many “hill-coolies” because the planters were keeping an eye on the laborers that were shipped. Mauritius was close enough to India, that the planters would complain about the Indians that couldn’t do the job. And as soon as the planters had learned that they were sent the wrong classes, such as priests and clerks, to labor in their sugar plantations, they would ship them straight back to India, claiming that clerks and priests were useless in the fields. Mauritius had also drained the hills of their hardy agricultural laborers, so the duffadars had to turn elsewhere to recruit laborers, and quite often they would recruit or trick about anybody from any class to meet their quota. In other words, the people being exported from India to the other countries were from many backgrounds and not from one specific class known as the coolie class.

 

 

 

EXAMINING MORE MISTAKEN IDENTITIES

More mistaken identities are demonstrated below to show how false labels are quickly applied to people.

 

Fula / Fulaman

In the Trilogy of Savitri’s Garden, the false label, fula, for Muslims came to life. Here is a sample dialogue, which is not from the Trilogy.

 

A person from Nigeria was visiting Guyana and walked up to a Muslim of Indian background and said, “So wuh part of Nigeria yuh ancestors from.”

“Meh ancestors are from India and not Nigeria,” Ahmad replied.

“Den why da Hindus and Africans in Guyana call y’all Fula? Obviously da Hindu would know dat yuh is from India, so why dey call y’all Fula?”

“Mi have no clue, bhai. Could it be because of da fullmoon? Full—fula? Fulaman, fulamoon?”

The African man laughed and said, “Yuh know, me like di spirit in Guyana. Y’all have huma humor. Yuh know, Fulas are Nigerian Muslims.”

Ahmad nodded his head and said, “Ahhhhh. I see. Dat make sense, because me is no fulaman.”

When the African Muslims arrived in Guiana during slavery, or during the apprenticeship period between 1834 and 1838, or during indentureship while the Indians and Portuguese were also arriving in the colony, the Christian missionaries had converted many of the Muslim Africans from Islam to Christianity. As the Indian Muslims arrived in the colony, the Africans had recognized the prayer form the Indian Muslims were engaged in, which was the same as the African Fulani Muslims, and thus the Indian Muslims were given the label, Fula, which later became a derogatory label for the Indian Muslims, in the way coolie, portugee or buck are derogatory labels.

The Nigerian man laughed. “Den yuh is no fula—fulaman.”

Ahmad smiled. “Yea. Dat make sense, bhai. Mi is no fulaman, bhai.”

Another mistaken identity and false label given to the Muslim Indians.

 

Coolie

I often hear Indians of Guyanese background saying, “I’m proud to be a coolie!” or “I’m a coolie!” But when you ask them where their ancestors are from in India, many will say from Uttar Pradesh, which today is mainly the North-Western Provinces combined with the surrounding areas such as Awadh (Oudh) to create Uttar Pradesh. The hardy agricultural laborers (hill-coolies or simply coolies) that were promised to Gladstone were not from Uttar Pradesh, they were from the Chota Nagpur Plateau which is located southeast of Uttar Pradesh, and according to this study guide and other sources, no hill-coolies or very little had arrived in Guyana. And according to Dr. Prichard, the coolies are the Dhangurs. This is why I had grouped the Indians into three categories to help make clarifications to the misconceptions, so readers could get a clear picture on who the Dhagurs were, and where the term “coolie” came from and how it was used in India. The Indians in Guyana often heard that they were coolies, and many started to believe the lie to be their truth, so some or many say “I’m proud to be a coolie!” having no idea what they are talking about.

A mistaken identity and false label.

 

Native Americans

The Natives across the Americas were labeled as Indians when Columbus discovered the Americas, thinking that he had landed in India. In Guyana the Natives are called Amerindians, and the Indians from India are called East Indians, to differentiate them. Let’s look at our dialogues.

Raj just arrived in Canada from India. He walks up to a Native man and said, “What part of India are you from?”

The Native person named, Joe, turned to him with a puzzled expression and said, “Are you mad. I’m from Canada.”

“Then why did that man over there called you an Indian?” Raj asked.

“You mean Tom over there? Because I’m Indian,” Joe replied. “All my people and ancestors are Indians, from this land.”

“But I’m Indian,” Raj said.

The Native person said, “You don’t look like one of us.”

“And you don’t look and dress like one of us,” Raj replied.

Joe then blurted out, “Well if you’re an Indian, how is it that Tom over there called me an Indian and you a Pakistani.”

Raj held his breath. “I’m not a Pakistani, I’m Indian. The Pakistanis used to be Indians.”

“What?” Joe said.

Tom passed by and said, “Indian Joe, how is life?”

“Why did you call him Indian,” Raj asked Tom.

“Because he’s Indian, you are Pakistani, and I’m Aryan.”

Raj’s face started to blaze. “What? I’m Indian and Aryan.”

Tom looked at Raj as if Raj was crazy. “You must be mistaken about all of this,” Tom said. “You should learn some history about the Indians and Aryans.”

“You should learn some history,” Raj said and walked away.

The dialogues above presented some mistaken identities.

 

 

 

THE FIRST GROUP OF INDIANS DEPARTED FOR INDIA WITH THEIR SAVINGS IN 1843

For the Indians that had saved their earnings, they had returned to India as a group with a substantial amount of savings.

 

“Several of the coolies who have retired from these shores carried away from 150 to 200 dollars each—a large sum, considering the short time they had been working in British Guiana. In 1843, 169 coolies, exclusive of 10 women and 14 children, embarked in the Lousa Baille for Calcutta, and entrusted their money, which amounted to 17, 802 dollars to Captain Rimington. (Dalton)

 

 

 

CONCLUSION

To summarize, this study guide presents three definitions, placing the laborers into three categories to assist in making clarifications to the label “coolie.”

The planters in Britain were told by the shipping agent, Messrs. Gillanders, Arbuthnot & Company of Kolkata, that they would ship the hand picked robust agricultural laborers from the hills known as the Dhangurs, and were labeled as “hill-coolies” meaning the coolies from the hills or simply “coolies.” The laborers labeled as “coolies” in general, often worked for the British indigo farms and factories, and for the settled communities, and for others. The Dhangurs were skilled and experienced in agriculture. They could get the job done; they rarely ever complained about anything. The planters were not promised baggage carriers and porters that do unskilled labor in India for the settled communities, and were labeled as coolies, or even hill-coolies if they came down from the hills; from a business point of view it made no sense. Nor were they promised priests, clerks, teachers, tailors and stonemasons that have their own professions and skills; again this made no sense. Nor were the planters promised beggars and ex-sepoys to cultivate their sugar plantations; there’s no business logic here, and it makes no sense.

An analysis of the two ships’ lists from 1838 confirmed that many on the ships were not the ones that were promised to the planters. The sheriff in Guiana clearly stated that there was not even one hill-coolie in Guiana, meaning that the shipping agent did not deliver Dhangurs to Gladstone and the other planters. Instead, the laborers that arrived in British Guiana falls under the third definition and category, which is “Indian of various classes” or simply, “Indian laborers.” At the time the Northwestern Provinces were being devastated by the famine, leaving many people unemployed and desperate for work.

Because the planters in Britain and the British Parliament were already told that the Dhagurs, known as the hill-coolies, would be shipped to Guiana, the majority of the papers in the House of Commons referred to all of the Indians emigrating as hill-coolies, where the label “coolie” is equivalent to the label “hill-coolies” meaning the Dhangurs.

The information presented in this study guide and in the Trilogy of Savitri’s Garden have no doubt debunked the use of the label coolies that’s being used for the Indians in Guyana, since the “coolies” did not arrive in Guiana in 1838. The label coolie stemmed from this first shipment of Indian laborers. The label became deep rooted in the colony, as a false name, like many false labels or derogatory labels such as fulaman, portugee and buckman. The label is still used in the colony as a way of identifying the Indians in a derogatory manner, like the other derogatory labels for the other groups.

Throughout the years, the papers and books that are being written contains this false label, giving the impression that the people that arrived from India were ‘coolies’, and thus, quite often the Indians are referred to as the descendants of baggage carriers and are from the Sudra Caste which is the lowest caste. This is far from the truth.

When the two ships’ lists were examined there were many Muslims on the two ships, and Muslims do not belong to the Hindu castes, such as Sudras. Like the Portuguese and other European laborers, the Indians were no different, they were from all classes.

Based on the information I have provided in this study guide and in the Trilogy of Savitri’s Garden, the same clarifications can apply to the Indian laborers that were shipped to Trinidad, Jamaica and the other islands in the Caribbean to work in the sugar plantations. Thus the Indians that arrived in these countries should also fall under “Indians of various classes” or simply as “Indian laborers” and not the derogatory label, coolie. The same reasoning can be applied to the Indians that later entered the other colonies in the Caribbean and South America, and other places like Fiji, South Africa and East Africa.

From ‘The History of British Guiana: Comprising a General Description of….Volume 2 by Henry G. Dalton), it states: “But, unfortunately, the error was again committed of shipping an improper class of persons. The agents glad to execute their business as summarily as possible, did not take the trouble of securing the services of really effective labourers, but, indifferent to the interests of all but themselves, collected the first people that presented themselves. Many were not “hill coolies” at all…Of about 9000 or 10000 who formerly arrived here, scarcely a tenth part was of the right class of persons.”

Even if 10% were coolies, the other 90% were not, therefore you cannot label the other 90% as coolies, thus completely debunking the use of the term coolie for the Indian laborers that had arrived in Guyana. The appendix contains a reply to John Gladstone, and some excerpts from the papers from the House of Commons labeled as Hill-Coolies to show how the term coolie was used.

 

 

RECOMMENDATION

I recommend that this study guide or any of the new upcoming editions or the Trilogy of Savitri’s Garden be used as a supplemental source when studying the history of the Indians to British Guiana (Guyana), Jamaica, Trinidad and the other colonies, and also for the Indians that later arrived in Fiji, South Africa, East Africa and others to show that the Indians were of various classes, and were not from the one class called coolies.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

APPENDIX:

 

Sample letter from Gladstone’s to the shipping agent and reply

 

In 1836, Gladstone had requested laborers from India, due to the upcoming abolishment on slavery, fearing that his plantations would lose many of the African workers once complete emancipation takes place, which would end up being August 1,838, instead of 1840. Below is a sample from John Gladstone’s letter written on January 4, 1836, addressed to the shipping agent, Messrs. Gillanders, Arbuthnot & Company of Kolkata:

 

You will probably be aware that we are very particularly situated with our Negro apprentices in the West Indies, and that it is a matter of doubt and uncertainty how far they may be induced to continue their services on the plantations after their apprenticeship expires in 1840.

 

 

Below is the reply from the shipping agent in India, Messrs. Gillanders, Arbuthnot & Co., to John Gladstone, Esq.

Calcutta, 6 June 1836, promising Gladstone the hardy agricultural laborers from the hills northwest of Calcutta who were give the label ‘coolie’ or hill-coolie, meaning the coolies from the hills.

 

Dear Sir,

The tribe that is found to suit best in the Mauritius is from the hills to the north of Calcutta, and the men of which are all well-limbed and active, without prejudices of any kind, and hardly any ideas beyond those of supplying the wants of nature, arising it would appear, however, more from want of opportunity intelligence. They are also very docile and easily managed, and appear to have no local ties, nor are objection to leave their country…We are not aware that we can say any more on this subject, unless we add, that in inducing these men to leave their country, we firmly believe we are breaking no ties of kindred, or in any way acting a cruel part.

The Hill tribes, known by the name of Dhangurs, are looked down upon by the more cunning natives of the plains, and they are always spoken of as more akin to the monkey that the men. They have no religion, no education, and, in their present state, no wants beyond eating, drinking, and sleeping; and to procure which the are willing to labour. In sending men to such a distance, it would of course be necessary to be more particular in selecting them, and some little expense would be incurred, as also some trouble; but to aid any object of interest to you, we should willingly give our best exertions in any manner likely to be of service.”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EXCERPTS FROM THE HILL COOLIES

 

On page 4 of the Correspondence between the Government of India and court of Direction the Hill Coolies, it sates the following before the reports:

 

REPORT of the Committee appointed by the Supreme Government of India to inquire into the Abuses alleged to exist in exporting from Bengal Hill coolies and Indian Labourers, of various Classes, to other countries; together with an Appendix, containing the oral and written Evidence taken by Committee and official Documents land before them: --Calcutta, 1839

 

His Excellency the Governor has had before him your letter of the soliciting to be allowed to send to India for Indian labourers.

 

His Excellency desires me at the same time to point out to you the importance of the utmost attention being observed in the selection of the persons who may be engaged to work on your estate. The disappointments and inconveniences which attended the first attempts to introduce free labour into this colony are mainly attributable to that want of selection which is so essential to the success of the undertaking; and his Excellency cannot too strongly recommend that especial care be now taken to ensure that the persons who may be engaged shall have been known as really agricultural labourers in their own country (of the class called Hill Coolies), when coming from Calcutta; and that they , and the chief or sirdar who accompanies them hither, shall have mutually known to each other before being engaged.

 

Comment: The term “Bengal Hill-Coolie” should not have been used. The more correct term would be Hill-Coolies from the Chota Nagpur Plateau, since the Hill-Coolies could be from places like West Bengal, Hazareebagh, Chota Nagpur etc…

 

 

#417…I brought back five Coolies and three domestic servants.

This statement indicates that different terms are being used for different groups.

 

 

#539…In my return from the Mauritius this same voyage, I brought back to Calcutta four native doctors and 11 or 12 coolies, all men.

This statement indicates that doctors and coolies are two different classes, and not all Indians can be labeled as coolies in India.

 

 

#10….that if the natives in the interior, Hill Coolies or others

This statement indicates that the Indians are from various classes such as coolies and others.

 

#695…Next morning I attended a meeting of the Agricultural Society, and I believe mentioned to one or two of my friends what I had see the day before…

This statement indicates that they are dealing with agriculture

#871…Bengal being very populous, to what cause do you attribute it that thee Dhangas who are emigrants from the hills, find such ready employment at good wages? The natives of Bengal are naturally an idle set of people…the Dhangas or Hill Coolies, being much better workmen are preferred by indigo planters and others who employs many Labourers.

This statement indicates that the planters are only interested in the hardy agricultural laborers to cultivate their farms and fields because of their experiences and skills, and that they could do the job efficiently and timely.

 

#370…Abdoolah Khan, A doctor on the ship was interviewed…Did they seem to understand where they were going and for what purpose they had been engaged?—Yes, they did understand that they were going to the Isle of France, and as Coolies.

This statement indicates that doctors and agricultural laborers are from two various classes, and not all Indians can be labeled as coolies in India or in the colonies.

 

 

#657…I was employed as a sepoy in the service of a rajah in the Deccan; I resigned my service, and was coming to Calcutta in search of employment, where I was met by a man of the name Jowaher, at Seersa, about five days journey form this.

This statement indicated that even though the planters are requesting the Dhangurs (or the coolies / hill-coolies) that the recruiters are shipping just about anybody.

 

#659…I was to be employed as sardar of Coolies

 

#44…That all contracts with individual Coolies proceeding as agricultural labourers to Mauritius or the West Indies, the Cape or Australia…

This statement indicates that the laborers that are being shipped are the coolies that do agricultural labor.

 

#13…and in like manner it should do its best to protect the Indian labourers, but to say that they shall…this kind of cheating beyond advising the Coolies.

This statement refers to the recruits as Indian laborers, being aware that amongst the Dhangurs (coolies) that the recruiters are also shipping laborers of other classes, even if the planters are only requesting the Dhangurs.

 

#711…Were these Coolies Hill Coolies?—The majority of them were Hill Coolies

The word coolie becomes synonymous with the word agricultural laborers, even if the laborer is not qualified to be an agricultural laborer, he/she could end up being one, even though he/she may not be fit to work as an agricultural laborer.

 

#806…Have you ever taken Indian Coolies to the Mauritius?

This statement shows how all kinds of names and terms are introduced and don’t really make sense when you take a closer look.

 

#695…They appeared to me not to be Calcutta men; most of them looked like Hill Coolies; one man was a Madrassee, and on asking him how he came there he told me that he had been on a pilgrimage to Juggernauth and was kidnapped on the way and brought to Calcutta.

This statement shows that the recruiters are grabbing anybody they could to meet their quota, and lies about who they are shipping to work as agricultural laborers.

 

#789…but the man who last jumped overboard assigned as his reason for doing so, that one of the other Coolies (one of the sirdars, I believe) had struck him.

This statement shows that when some finds out the truth about where they are being taken and that they were lied to, they tries to escape.

 

#1085…I can speak to that of a woman on board the Earl Grey. This woman was a Brahminy woman from the upper provinces, who was on her way to Juggernauth, with many other men, who were also proceeding on a pilgrimage. She told me the name of the place where she had been kidnapped, but I do not remember. She was brought down to Calcutta, and the day after brought on board the ship. She was dressed in man’s clothes, and was shipped as a man; and the further stated to me, that she hand never received a single pice in the ship of advance.

This statement shows that the recruiters are grabbing anybody they could to meet their quota, and lies about who they are shipping to work as agricultural laborers.

 

“A fine-looking young woman went out of the morning of the 14th to earn her usual daily wages by grinding corn for a Bunyah. It appeared, however, that the Bunyah had no corn for grinding that morning , and she was consequently returning home, when a man accosted her, and offered her a job in the corn-grinding at six pice for the day. She followed him to the serai at Khurdabad in the city, where another man made his appearance and demanded her name. She began to suspect something was wrong and tried to escape, but was hustled into a romm in the serai, where a number of other women and a few children were huddled up together guarded by a third peon. Her entreaties for release were answered by blows and cuffs. She was told not to be a fool – that she would be sent to Jamaica, where she would get twelve rupees a month, besides clothes, &c. She replied that she had an infant at home, and di not want to go away…”

This statement shows that the recruiters are grabbing anybody they could to meet their quota, and lies about who they are shipping to work as agricultural laborers.

 

For field labour the Dhanga or Hill Coolie is equal to the negro…

This statement shows that the reason the planters are requesting the Dhangurs, is because they are skilled and experienced in agricultural work and that they could get the work done timely and efficiently.

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES AND OTHER READING MATERIALS:

 

Papers from the House of Commons – Hill Coolies

The History of British Guiana: Comprising a General Description of….Volume 2 by Henry G. Dalton):

The Trilogy of Savitri’s Garden by Fisal Ally

Khaman, Bibi H. and Chickrie, Raymond S (2009) ‘170 th Anniversary of the Arrival of the First Hindustani Muslims from India to British Guiana’, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 29.2, 195 – 222

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SAMPLES FROM THE TRILOGY OF SAVITRI’S GARDEN

 

Sample from Chapter 1 – Maya bazaar

Awadh, India—September 14, 1837

THE SUN’S RAYS CASCADED OVER THE NORTH INDIAN trading route, bathing the Maya bazaar in the brilliant colors of the rainbow. It was Saturday midmorning and vendors were busy getting ready for a bustling day. Exotic items and scarce goods from near and far decorated the stalls; even books from as far as Ethiopia and the Americas entertained the eyes. A few stalls flaunted the best silk, porcelain and pearl, the envy of many. Other stalls laden with inexpensive fabrics: cotton, linen, low-grade cloths, affordable to many. By noon, the trading post was lively. Vendors and buyers haggled over merchandise. The intense heat was everywhere, only a burst of dry air brushed through the impoverished land. Relief came, when patches of grey clouds drifted high up above the bazaar, but only for an hour.

Crowds of scantily dressed bystanders captivated by a play became distracted when a voice from a bullock cart burst into the air. “Bazaar day! Bazaar day!” The driver’s hands gripped the rope and his voice rose, “Yaaaaa! Yaaaaa! Bazaar day! Bazaar day!” His grip tightened and the wheels screeched. The cart jerked to a stop and a passenger was thrown from the back of the cart, landing on his feet. He lost his balance and fell in front of a donkey caravan, where the raw stench of garbage stifled the donkey and tainted the sweet aroma of exotic perfumes, which lingered in the air. The donkey frolicked, kicking up dust in the teenager’s face. He coughed and scrambled to his feet, escaping a kick from the animal. He began to sway as if he was intoxicated and stumbled into a crowd, spellbound by the play. The spectators scattered. Some stared at the seventeen-year-old as he landed on the ground, unscathed. Abashed by the incident, the teenager forced a fake smile and grinned for his audience. Another passenger jumped from the cart, gripping two backpacks. The bags fell from his hands as he jerked forward and into the crowd holding onto his turban with his left hand. The onlookers scattered as he bumped into them with his right arm outstretched.

Kalil reached up from the ground. Vishnu gripped his hand and pulled him to his feet.

“Bhai brother, you all right?” Vishnu asked. He was one year older than Kalil. “You took a hard fall.”

“I’m okay—just a little bump,” Kalil’s voice slurred, brushing the dust from his pajama pants, feeling light-headed. His eyes became fixed on the bullock cart driver, who was sitting sprawled out on his cart laughing at him. The driver’s cheekiness angered him. He let out a shriek and reeled up to the cart, raising a tight fist at the driver’s face. The lanky twenty-two-year-old driver lifted his hand to strike back, but Vishnu stepped in between them and placed a grip on Kalil’s hand.

“Let’s go!”

“Not until I teach that rascal a good lesson!” Kalil was ready for a match, ready for the audience to place their bets on him, ready to pound his antagonist into the ground, ready to take his bows. The driver and the teenager exchanged antagonizing words, as Vishnu pulled Kalil away.

“Last call!” the driver yelled contemptuously and spat at the teenager. Kalil dodged. He broke loose from Vishnu’s grip and grabbed onto the cart with one hand. The driver’s whip landed on one of the oxen as Kalil hoisted his right leg onto the cart. The crowd clapped as the performers in the play began another scene in the epic love story of Majnun and Layla. The driver kicked the other ox with his calloused foot bottom. “Yaaaaa! Yaaaaa!” his high-pitched voice screeched, disrupting the audience. The oxen kicked up, stirring up a thick dusty fog, smothering Kalil’s face in dust, while his left side jutti curved-tip shoe dragged on the ground. “I will teach you a lesson!” the driver bellowed, lashing out at the teenager. Kalil’s grip broke and he fell from the cart. Vishnu rushed up to Kalil and pulled him up, as the driver laughed at them.

“My bag!” Kalil shrieked and started to run after the cart, but the cart sped up.

“Over there! Our bags are over there!”

Kalil stopped. He turned around breathing heavily, veiled in a thin dusty fog. His white clothes were now dusty brown. He staggered back towards Vishnu, clenching his stomach. Dizziness assailed him and he fell to the ground, doubled over, coughing. He rolled onto his back, sprawling out. Vishnu reached down, clutched Kalil’s hand and pulled him to his feet again.

“I grabbed our backpacks and jumped after you fell from the cart.”

“Fell!” Kalil started to cough, trying to catch his breath. “I—I jumped!” He looked annoyed. “I lost my balance and jumped when that rickety cart jerked.”

Vishnu cackled. “Well pardon me, but I’m sure you were thrown.” He reached into his backpack and pulled out a canister. He twisted off the cork and handed it to Kalil. “Drink like a donkey.” He brayed, jokingly. “You need this more than me.”

Kalil brayed back mocking Vishnu. “I jumped!” He untied the knot from the yellow bandana wrapped around his forehead and wiped away the dust smeared all over his face. He then untied the yellow scarf from his waist and opened the buttons on his kurta shirt, airing out his body from the intense heat. He grabbed the canister from Vishnu and took a gulp. “I jumped.”

“Okay, so you jumped.”

Kalil frowned. “Okay, okay, so I was thrown—are you happy now?”

“Bhai, I’m never happy if my best friend is upset. If you say you jumped, then you jumped!”

Kalil tilted his head back and poured more water into his mouth. He gargled. His head came forward and he spat out a thick grainy lump of dust.

Vishnu jumped out of the way. “Watch it! Is this revenge? I already said you jumped! I’ll keep it quiet! I won’t tell a living soul—only the dead.”

“Don’t rub it in! How would you like to be cremated right now?” Kalil asked.

“Then I won’t be alive to tell—”

“You got it! Start digging your grave.”

“I thought you said cremated.

“Whatever!” Kalil took another mouthful. He gargled and spat.

“Watch it!”

“Why you getting in the way?”

“I’m not a mind reader—if I were I’d be wealthy.”

Kalil took a deep breath, feeling disoriented. “Bhai, don’t talk about wealth. I’m tired of traveling all the way to the Assam tea plantation.” He drank, gargled and spat, repeatedly, almost in perfect tempo. Vishnu looked like a barefooted dancer, dancing to the rhythm of Kalil’s spitting. “Keep dancing,” he encouraged gesturing with his hands.

Vishnu rolled up his white sleeves and his arms rose into the air, pointing his index finger as if he was dancing. He laughed and started to jump around, holding onto his turban with his left hand. His right hand rose into the air and he started to twirl his hand and fingers. Kalil joined in the laughter. He raised the canister in the air and it looked like both of them were dancing. Clapping flooded the air as the play drew more attention; some came to the bazaar just to catch the love story. Kalil tossed the container at Vishnu, as an orphan in tattered garment scooted by with a monkey. Vishnu caught the canister and took a mouthful. The monkey stopped and grinned at them, flashing his discolored teeth, teasing them. The boy also grinned, exposing a missing front tooth as he clowned around.

The two teenagers exchanged laughter and grinned back at the boy and the monkey. The monkey reached out with his hands to hug them, but the boy grabbed his monkey and pulled him along. Vishnu extended his hand back to Kalil. “Have more.”

“I’m good. Bhai, if I ever see that good-for-nothing rascal again, he will not live to see the next sunrise.”

“Or sunset.” Vishnu cackled. “He’s long gone. Forget that weasel! I promise you will never see his ugly face again.” He corked the container and slipped it back into his backpack.

The two teenagers were on their way home from work. Vishnu worked as an assistant supervisor at an indigo factory in Tirhoot that belonged to a British family, and Kalil worked as a junior carpenter on an experimental tea plantation in Assam, also British owned.

When Kalil was nine years old, he started to work on his uncle’s farm in Lucknow, until the taxes imposed on the farmers had crippled his uncle’s business back in 1835. A few months later, his uncle had found work in Assam on the tea plantation and had relocated with his family, and knowing how keen Kalil was about carpentry, he had gotten Kalil a job as a junior carpenter.

Vishnu and Kalil had met two years ago while traveling home from work. Since then they had become good friends, and often made plans to travel to work together, and to meet up on their way back home. They had been away from home for the past four months. On their way home, they stopped off at the Maya bazaar in Faizabad, looking for the best bargains.

They walked amongst the stalls, as soothing music filled the air with a light tabla beat in the background. Two bare chested men in short white dhotis loincloth and heads wrapped neatly in white turbans were sitting on the ground cross-legged, playing their tablas.

“Check this out,” Kalil said, entranced by two snakes gliding up from a basket as the snake charmer played his flute. A voice caught his attention.

“And if you think Mumbai Bombay is paradise, wait until you get to—” the voice rose above the continuous bartering and then drowned out. Kalil squinted observing the man; he had seen him before. Except for the man’s dark complexion, he had the striking appearance of an Englishman sporting a white cotton shirt tucked into his beige pants, and snuggly held around his waist with a brown belt; a grey hat with a wide brim lowered over his forehead, shielding him from the torrid north Indian sun. “The riches of—” the voice rose again and was then blanked out as the crowd cheered for the actors in the play.

 

 

 

 

Sample from Chapter 3 – The Road from Awadh to the Port of Kolkata

Mustapha made a circle with his thumb and index finger. He placed the two fingers in his mouth and blew again, sending out another whistle, this time with a strong vibrant melody. The tone of the whistle was a sign of Mustapha’s strength. It was the victory whistle. Kalil acknowledged the message from his eleven-year-old brother, and at that very moment, Kalil was convinced that Mustapha was ready to take his place as the man of the house, in the same way he had taken his father’s place after his father’s death. And in the same way Mustapha had to be strong to take care of their family, Kalil also had to be strong during his journey so his family will not worry about him.

He reached for the chain around his neck and he felt comforted. He raised his right hand and made a circle with his thumb and index finger. He placed the two fingers in his mouth and returned the victory whistle. Mustapha lifted his right hand higher in the air, waving. Kalil raised his left hand and waved, making a mirror image of Mustapha’s hand. A flood of renewed hope filled Kalil as he regained his confidence. A few seconds went by and Kalil turned towards the rising sun to continue his journey, while Mustapha stood gazing at him from the distance. Kalil was now on his own, a traveler in his bandana, vest, earrings and instrument strung across his back, ready to travel to a new land. Mustapha stood next to Moti watching as his older brother disappeared from their sight. Kalil continued on foot for another three miles at a brisk pace, as the sun slowly and gracefully rose above the horizon. The road was dusty and the air was hot. By the time Kalil arrived at the main junction in Lucknow, his legs were tired with patches of sweat soaking through his bandana and kurta shirt. He boarded a bullock cart.

During the long hot muggy daylight hours, he was in a daze contemplating his future. The countryside painted India as an uninhabited country—abundant in land—even though the motherland was over populated. By the solitude of the dry nighttime air, Kalil gazed into the starry sky. And when the new day arrived, it peered forth with blank eyes, as if blinded by poverty, which could not escape him. The journey continued on narrow dusty roads skirting the uncultivated land, dotted with dried up trees, dried up water wells, malnourished children and animals, and the poor.

 

 

 

Sample from Chapter 17 – The Suspension

“No! How dare you! We is free! Out mi way! Mi seh, wi is free! Out mi way!” the lady’s voice rose.

“You cannot speak to Mr. Smith in such a derogatory manner!” Richard warned. He turned to Tallulah. “And you’ve only been in this colony for a few years and not two hundred years like some of the other Negroes. You were never enslaved. You arrived as an indentured laborer. Now, get back to work!”

“Yuh enslaved mi people—so yuh enslave mi!” Tallulah retorted. “Mi people still not free, until today!” she shouted and spat on the earth.

“You just came from Africa a few years ago!” Richard shot back. He turned looking at some other Africans. “So have you,” he said pointing to a girl. Stay on this plantation, work and save your earnings.”

Tallulah spat on the ground again. “No! Not afta da way yuh treat mi people! Yes, yuh tief two hundred years of labor from of mi people! Mi know mi is a new African to dis colony like di Portuguese and di Indians. Mi was kidnapped from Africa even though the slave trade was abolished in 1807, because of y’all demands fuh laborers!” She glanced around and shouted, “Freedom is gold!”

“Your labor is gold!” Derek shouted back.

“Freedom in gold!” a chorus of voices rose in the air.

“Back to work before I unleash the cat!” Derek warned.

“Freedom is gold! a boy yelled.

“Sugar is gold!” Derek shouted back. “Sugar is God! Sugar is God!”

More galloping filled the air as Mr. Young and Mr. Sharlieb arrived. The clash between the plantation supervisors and the Africans grew as Savitri, Kalil and the other laborers watched from the tall sugarcanes. The other laborers also stopped to observe, but were driven towards their workpost by Kwesi and Joseph.

“Gwan! Gwan!” Kwesi yelled.

“We wash we hands of yuh slavery! We is free, we is free,” another African lady sang proudly. “Mi was kidnapped in 1820 from Africa. Now put down yuh whip before mi use it on yuh backside!”

Kwesi and Joseph ran over and pushed the woman away.

Savitri waved at Tallulah. Tallulah waved back and her voice rose, “We is free, gal! We is now free!”

 

 

 

Sample from Chapter 21 – Inquiries

The Governor gave off a youthful laugh and said, “I picture this land as a jewel. A garden of the Caribbean and of the whole South American continent.” He considered for a moment and then said, “A garden of gold.”

“So you believe Raleigh was right about this land being El Dorado?”

“I was referring to Savitri’s marigolds blossoming across the colony with its freshness. You know, Charles, at first I had my doubts about El Dorado, but, I’m now a true believer, a believer in El Dorado. The marigolds are the image of not only the golden sunlight, but also of gold.” He laughed. “Yes, yes. I believe we’re in the city of Manoa. Yes, yes. After witnessing the marigolds in Savitri’s garden, I believe her garden is a sign—a sign of what’s to come in this colony. As we know, most of history is buried.”

They stopped walking.

“Buried?”

Both of them looked down at the earth they were standing on.

“History is preserved in the earth. Preserved right beneath our feet. I believe we’re standing in Manoa, or should I say on top of Manoa. If not Manoa, then, we are standing in a land of buried treasures and resources. Gold and diamonds.”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

OTHER BOOKS

by

FISAL ALLY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SIGNATURE WITH LOVE

A true story by Fisal Ally

 

(A book on cats - meet the cats: Daoud, Suleiman, Raouf, Sneeze, Tom, Whitey and more...meet their owners, Mustapha and Salima... meet the slick black New York cat, he has an eye for Whitey, he slinks up to the roof top on a hot summer day, his big bright eyes beams from the sky roof checking out Whitey, and she knows slick black is checking her out! Mustapha looked at Whitely and laughed…  (Copyright 2007 – 2016)

Published in December 2012 on www.smashword.com

 

 

 

THE COTTONFIELD KIDS

ADVENTURES & MYSTERIES

The 9 books were written between 1996 and 2002

 

Do you believe in ghosts, then lets visit that Old Wooden House. Let me take you to the Al Scrego Horror House for a thrill. When it comes to solving mysteries and catching the criminals, there will be no exception to the rules. The kids can run! But they can fight back! Ready! Never undermine the kids! The are ready to rock and roll. Meet the adventurous kids and their friends.

 

The Adventures of the Cottonfields Kids (5 books)

1) Laura Flew the Coop; 2) The Kite Flying Competition; 3) The Old Wooden House; 4) The Red Jacket; 5) The Wastebasket Hoop;

 

The Cottonfield Kids Mysteries (4 books)

1) The Copyright Scam; 2) No Exception To The Rules; 3) The Al Scrego Horror House; 4) Mystery on Cocoa Beach

The Cottonfield Comics

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Signature With Love

 

 

 

Sample from Chapter 1 – Cats

Hillside Avenue, N.Y June 2000

It was June 20, 2000 when Salima heard short bursts of whimpering. She and Mustapha were having lunch in their rental suite on Hillside Avenue and Hollis. The whimpering faded. They exchanged glances as they finished up their lunch and then started to clean up. Moments later, the whimpering returned.

“Hon, did you hear that?” Salima asked.

“Hear what?”

“A strange noise.”

“Ya, I thought I heard something – some crying – but I don’t know…”

Salima stopped what she was doing and straightened up her body, listening carefully. She put down the cloth and walked over to the doorway listening carefully as the whimpering continued. She flicked a hesitant glance at Mustapha. The whimpering grew. She swallowed deeply. She turned and started to walk up the stairs as the whimpering grew. She stopped and listened. The whimpering stopped for a brief moment and then started again. She hurried up the stairs and quickly opened the backdoor and her gaze lowered to her feet as if she already knew what to look for. The sounds were familiar to her. Much to her surprise, a small black kitten was at the door whimpering. The site of the kitten took her breath away. She was deeply surprised to see the small kitten and stooped down as his big dark eyes came into view, a big smile on her face. He was the size of a two months old kitten. Their eyes had met for the very first time. She hesitated and sudden panic filled her eyes. She gasped in horror and her body tightened. Startled by the kitten’s appearance, her face morphed into bitterness. Her body froze, witnessing the blood dripping from the kitten’s mouth with mucus running down the sides of his mouth. The kitten glanced at her in bewilderment.

She proclaimed. “My god, what happened to you!” She crunched over and her hands dropped and stroked his head, gazing at his teddy bear face and into his bright green eyes. As she stroked him, the whimpering died down and a few seconds later stopped as his bright eyes peered back at her. He purred.

“Oh my God,” she cried and instinctively, her palms reached under him and scooped him into her arms.

She carefully straightened up her body, lifting him. “Poor baby,” she cried softly. Oh, what happened?” She paused, shaking her head. “Oh, dear little one? Oh, what happened?” She cried witnessing the state of the beautiful black kitten. He looked like black satin. His hind paws and lower front paws were white. A streak of white trickled down his forehead to his nose, and down his chin and chest. She cloaked him in her arms as she closed the backdoor and carried him down the stairs.

“Hon, come see,” Salima called. “Hon!”

Mustapha hurried out from the kitchen holding a cloth in one hand and a pan in the other hand. He was busy wiping the dishes and packing them away. He squinted. He knew Salima had something in her hand, but he couldn’t make out what it was. And as he got a few feet away from her. He stopped. “A kittten?” he said, surprised. “A kitten!” he exclaimed, astonished to see the small black cat. “Where did he come from?” A smile emerged on his face. “A cat?” he said, gleaming at the small kitten, having flashbacks of the cats they had back in Nandy Park, a small village in Guyana, hidden in the northern tip of South America, north of Brazil, as though non existent, yet once referred to as El Dorado.

He instantaneously felt a bond between him and the kitten, but suddenly his smile disappeared and his jaw was left opened. He became startled. “What?” he hesitated. He swallowed, his face reddened. He held his breath as his eyes lifted from the kitten. “What happened?” he asked. “What’s wrong with him?”

“He was at the door, and, and…”

“Blood?” he questioned. He swallowed. “What’s all this stuff on his face?” He lifted his head from the kitten. “What happened to him?” Mustapha walked up closer, returning his attention to the kitten, leaning towards him, now getting a full close up view of him.

“I don’t know. He was at the backdoor whimpering when I heard him.”

Mustapha gave the kitten his full attention. “Blood? It’s a shame.” He furrowed his brows. He became uptight. “But, he’s such a beautiful kitten. I just can’t imagine this happening to such a beautiful kitten or to any animals. How can anybody do such a terrible terrible thing?”

The kitten purred as Salima shifted her gaze back to her husband. “And when I opened the door, there he was bleeding with mucus all over his mouth.”

 

 

Sample from Chapter 10 – Tom didn’t return

Nandy Park, Georgetown, Guyana 2003

The past had suddenly gripped Mustapha as though every action were taking place in the present. Old memories were awakened with vivid colors, lively scents, tastes and smells. Even old conversations were suddenly real. It was over twenty years ago. Daoud was one of the cats Mustapha and Salima had loved and cared for back in Nandy Park.

It was the year 1989 when Daoud didn’t return home. It was a hot and muggy evening, with a slight breeze coming off the Atlantic Ocean. By seven o’clock darkness had completely erased the sun from what was earlier a bright sunny Demerara sky.

For most of the day, Daoud was outside on the verandah. A year ago, in 1988, Daoud had appeared in their yard and had made their residence his new home. During the day, he was in and out of the yard, but he had always returned. Nightfall had taken over and he was nowhere to be seen.

Mustapha stood out on the verandah in shorts and a white shirt; Salima was in a dress. The cool breeze rushed in and the branches from the trees swayed. The verandah sat on fifteen foot high posts. Most of the houses were on wooden stilts or concrete posts. Many homes were two levels, a ground level and a second level, with a verandah, and surrounded by a fence with a gate that was kept locked most of the time.

Mustapha shrugged. “I still don’t see him.”

“Sometimes Daoud could be stubborn,” Salima responded with irritation creeping into her voice.

“But he is always obedient,” Mustpha replied firmly.

“Sure enough, but…”

“Give it a bit more time,” Mustpha said.

“Maybe he’s inside somewhere,” Salima said.

“We checked everywhere.”

“Give me a minute.”

“Where you going?”

“I’m going to do one more check inside,” Salima said turning towards the door. “Maybe he’s stuck in the cupboard.”

“Daoud? Not him. He would kick in the cupboard door until jump out.”

Salima started to panic. She opened the door and entered the house looking around. She checked the cupboards, under the bed again, and behind the chairs. He was nowhere in sight.

By eight o’clock, darkness had completely drowned out the deep blue sky over Georgetown. Not even the color of the flowers can be seen under such darkness, but the scents were a reminder that life also flourished in darkness. And within a short time, the sky over Georgetown was pitch-black.

There were times when Daoud had stayed out for the night or returned home very late, but he had always returned. Even when the gates were locked, Daoud knew the ins and outs. He knew of openings in the wooden fence that Mustapha and Salima never knew existed. And his legs were like a spring board; he could have climbed over the fence or jumped up on the fence and dived into the yard. He was street smart, and could have outsmarted a person, anytime. He had an everlasting effect on people, and Mustapha and Salima had felt great compassion for him.

They stood on the verandah. They were on the look out for Daoud as neighbors were settling in for the night; some sat out on their verandah, others socialized in the yard, and others hung out with friends outside the fence.

It was getting close to eleven o’clock, passed their bedtime, and soon they would have to lock the doors and turn off the lights. In Guyana thieves were a major problem and leaving a door or window opened was rarely heard off. They had left the lights on in the living room and periodically checked to see if Daoud had returned. Being out that late, he’d be hungry and his food was waiting for him. Mustapha returned out on the Veranda. His eyes scanned the area, but still no signs of Daoud. It was pitch black. Salima came out and brought out the food, and placed it on the verandah.

“It’s not like him to be out so late. He must be hungry,” Salima said.

Although worried, a chuckle escaped Mustapha. “Yuh see that cat,” referring to Daoud. “Somebody will toss him some food. He has a way with people. He will be okay.”

“I’m still worry,” Salima replied. “What if someone kicked him and hurt him.”

“He will fend for himself.”

But in the back of their minds, they were still very concerned about his well being and whereabouts. They were speculating as to what could have happened, whether he was hurt or found a female companion and decided to go away with her. Mustapha had to get up early for work and soon the lights were off. A few days had gone by and Daoud had not returned. They asked around the neighborhood, but nobody had seen him. The weeks and months went by and Daoud had not returned home.

 

The Adventures of the Cottonfield Kids

 

 

Book 1 – Laura Flew the Coop

 

Chapter 1

Once upon a time in a quiet and peaceful town called Cottonfield, there lived a family with five children. There were two girls and three boys. They were not just your ordinary neighborhood children. They were adventurous and had a lot of enthusiasm. The boys and girls have had their share of sibling rivalries and adventures, but overall they got along well. They had a parrot, named Laura, who was very dear to them and kept them entertained.

The boys and girls raced home after school.

“I won! I won!” Ronald called out, throwing his arms in the air, charging up the stairs to the verandah.

A few seconds later, Brian darted up the twelve steps of stairs breathing heavy. He complained wiping the perspiration from his face. “How come I never win.”

“And I am third,” said Otto, the youngest of the boys and girls, raising his voice. He quickly climbed the twelve steps, one at a time, being careful, holding on to the banister. “At least I’m not last one home today.”

The boys dressed in their school uniform, standing on the stairs outside the verandah that overlooked the green pasture. They waved at the cows and horses running around on the pasture and booed the girls as they skipped along, laughing and talking about their day at school.

The girls names were Famie, and Rafena. Famie, Rafena, Brian and Otto were brothers and sisters and Ronald was their first cousin who came to live with them after losing his father when he was three months old. The boys and girls grew up as brothers and sisters.

Famie and Ronald were ten years old, Ronald being two months younger, followed by Rafena who was one year younger, followed by Brian and Otto who were eight and six, respectively.

“One day I will win,” said Brian.

“Ron always win because his legs are longer than ours,” Otto reasoned.

“And I’m taller too,” Ron teased. “And much faster, too.”

 

 

Chapter 2 – An Empty Cage

Puzzled, their mother answered, glancing at the boys. “But Laura was in her cage. I just put her outside in her cage, ten minutes ago, so she could get some sunshine and fresh air.”

“Her cage door is opened,” cried Otto in his high pitched boyish voice. “Where’s Laura?”

Naz knows how playful the boys and girls could be. But today, their little faces were too serious.

The mother rushed out to the verandah, only to confirm what the boys had just said. She was stunned. “Oh, my, where could she be?” Naz said worried, placing her palms on her forehead. “And she’s not inside the house.”

Everybody looked down from the verandah into the yard. The bird was not insight. They gazed at the green pasture under the big open blue sky wondering where Laura could be.

Without hesitation, Ronald darted down the stairs and into the yard, followed by Brian and Otto.

 

 

 

 

Book 2 – The Kite Flying Competition

 

Chapter 1 – A Grand Prize

Once upon a time, in Cottonfield, there were colorful kites sailing through the sky. The boys and girls stood on the verandah, watching the colorful kites. Even the birds and animals on the pasture were dazzled by the colorful kites.

“What’s going on today?” Famie asked. She was in her colorful T-shirt, beach shorts and sandals.

“I don’t know, but people are coming out like ants,” answered Otto, fascinated by the crowd and colorful kites.

“Why is kite flying so popular in Cottonfield during the Easter weekend,” Rafena asked.

Ron eyes followed a kite rising up to the sky. “Kite flying symbolizes the resurrection of Jesus Christ,” he said.

The boys and girls stood on the verandah that over looked the green pasture. They were drinking lemonade-aid while being entertained by the colorful kites sailing through the opened blue sky.

Curiosity sank in.

What was going on? Why all the kites?

Otto really wanted to know what was going on. People like ants and kites like birds caught his attention. He was six years old and hardly remembered the kite competition from a couple years ago, which Famie and Ron had entered when they were eight years old.

“Let’s go have a look,” Ron said gleefully, putting on his running shoes.

 

 

 

 

Book 3 – The Old Wooden House

 

Once upon a time there was an old wooden house standing on the other side of the pasture in Cottonfield. The girls and boys have heard fascinating stories about the house. Some were intriguing and some were frightening. The adventurous Cottonfield kids were curious. They were anxious to visit the old wooden house.

It was a long weekend and the Cottonfield kids convinced their parents to camp out at the vacant wooden house which belongs to old man Mr. Jackson. They packed their sleeping bags, pajamas, food and camping gears and by noon they were at the old wooden house settling in for the long weekend.

After unpacking, the boys and girls looked around the field and then sat outside on the porch.

“This house fascinates me,” said Famie.

Ron shook the rails on the porch. “It’s quite sturdy for an old house.”

“Don’t shake too hard,” said Otto. “You’ll pull this old house down.”

Famie grinned. “With you renegades around here, this house will definately be flat on the ground before the long weekend is over.”

“This house gives me the creeps,” said Rafena.

Brian spoke in a mysterious tone, checking out the cracks in the walls. “There’s really something mysterious about this house.”

“Yeah, there is,” said Otto. “My friend said there’s a ghost that lives here.”

Ron immediately jumped of his chair and started to run.

“Ghost! Here comes the ghost,” Ron shouted. “Run every body, run for your life. Here comes the ghost.”

Everybody panicked. They jumped off their chair and ran towards the pasture, away from the house.

OOOOOOooooo!”

Here comes the ghost,” Ron shouted.

Laura, their parrot started to squawk which made it even more terrifying. “Brawk! Brawk!”

“Where’s the ghost?” Otto panicked.

Ron started to laugh. “Don’t be silly! There’s no such thing as a ghost.”

 

 

 

 

Book 4 – The Red Jacket

 

Chapter 1 – At the Market

Once upon a time as comic book fever grew, so did the interest of the boys in search of their favorite comics. It was a bright sunny day and the boys and their parrot were out at the market looking for bargains.

As the boys walked around in their running shoes, shorts and T-shirts, the six year old boy, Otto, spotted a comic book stand. He hurried towards the stand, pointing. “Wow, I see comic books!” Otto exclaimed.

Ronald and Brian who were ten and eight years old followed Otto to their favorite books.

Brian became distracted when he saw smoke coming from a hot dog grill. He inhaled deeply. “Oh, that sure smells good.” He licked his lips and suddenly had a craving for hot dogs.

Brian’s stomach growled. He rubbed his tummy. His eyes were on the hot dog stand.

“Hey check out these comic books,” Otto said as their parrot, Laura, sat on his shoulder.

Ronald hurried over. “Wow! Comic book galore.”

“It’s like heaven,” Otto replied, his eyes gleaming. “Wow! I found a 1956 Spiderman comic,” the boy exclaimed as Brian walked towards the hot dog stand.

The hot dog smelled good and Brian had to have one right away.

“I’ll be back in a second,” said Brian as he headed for the hot dog stand. He had missed breakfast this morning and his stomach is begging for food.

“Hurry back,” said Ronald. “We’ll wait right here for you.”

Ronald and Otto’s full attention were on the comic books at the comic book stand. Brian’s full attention was on the smell of the hot dog as he walked over to the hot dog stand.

“I’ll have one of those,” Brian said to the man cooking hot dogs. “And put some cheese on it.”

The vendor who wore wearing an apron and a white cap quickly placed another hot dog on the grill for Brian.

While Brian waited for his hot dog, Ronald and Otto flipped through the pages of the 1956 Spiderman comic. “I must have this,” said Ronald. He reached into his pocket and pulled out some change.

The comic book vendor glanced at the boys shaking his head. “That won’t do, young man. This is a classic—it’s not one of those cheap comic book.”

Ronald looked at the price. “Yikes!!!”

Brian was on his way back to meet Ronald and Otto. He was eating his hot dog and holding his favorite red sports jacket in his hand when a small dog came trotting along. His eyes tracked the dog as he dodged in and out and around the shoppers.

 

 

 

 

Book 5 – The Wastebasket Hoop

 

Chapter 1 – Rehearsing for the show

Once upon a time, it was rare not seeing the boys and girls out on the green pasture playing under the big open blue sky. Well, the rainy season was here and the boys and girls were in the house carrying on with their activities.

“Ouch!” Rafena shrieked. The loud thundering had startled her.

It was raining heavy and thundering loud. The pastures were deserted except for when the birds and animals came out to play in the rain.

“How can anybody concentrate with all that noise,” Rafena complained, feeling miserable.

Rafena was not miserable because of the rain and thunder. She was miserable because she had volunteered to do the lead role of the school play and she only had one week to get prepared. The lead role was not as easy as she expected.

Her sister, Famie, had made a suggestion. “Tune out and tune in. Let your mind sail away from all interference. Let your inner self take control and take you into your new character. This will bring you peace of mind.”

Furious, Rafena grumbled. “And what are you? A yogi or something?” She shook her head desperately.

Famie closed the book, which she borrowed from her school library. “I was just trying to be helpful, that’s all. You don’t have to take it personal, you know.”

“Well you’re not being helpful! Rafena exclaimed. “That book is for psychos,” Rafena told her sister who was one year older than her. “I’m really nervous about doing the lead role in front of an audience.”

Rafena threw herself on the sofa, feeling helpless.

“You need to relax,” said Famie, who had borrowed library books on Yoga and breathing techniques.

“How could I relax. It’s not that easy doing the lead role for the first time. This is harder than I thought,” Rafena complained, “and I only have one week and it’s wrecking my nerves—boy is it ever recking my nerves.”

“You wanted the lead role, didn’t you?” Famie reminded her.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE COTTONFIELD KIDS MYSTERIES

 

 

 

BOOK 1 – The Copyright Scam

 

Chapter 1 – Toronto

TICKETS TO the Spring Break Teen Concert are all sold out,” Otto snapped as Ron entered the study room.

Ron had just fetched his bicycle up the stairs to the second floor of the house, now returning home from running some errands. He couldn’t believe what he just heard. He was breathing heavy. He took a couple deep breath swiping his hand across his forehead, wiping away some perspiration. “Already! But, tickets just went on sale. Is this a joke or something?”

Otto flinched. “You see me laughing. Let me rephrase what I just said—tickets were sold out in an hour.”

“An hour!”

Otto shook his head, bitterly. “We should have camped out overnight to get our tickets like everyone else.”

Ron’s palms landed on his head. His eyes froze on the ceiling of the second floor of the house the family was renting in Toronto. “But that’s so unreal. The biggest thing to hit Toronto in a decade and the Cottonfield kids will be sitting at home, twiddling their thumbs, while everybody take in the action at the Sky Dome. I can’t accept that. The adventurous Cottonfield kids who solves mysteries will be at home twiddling their thumbs.”

Otto sulked, still in his pajamas, sitting in front on the computer having breakfast. “Well, maybe we’ll find a mystery to solve on that night.”

Ron shuddered as he wiped his face with a damp towel. “Who wants to be solving mysteries on the night of the Spring break teen concert. I want to be there enjoying the concert. Man, we’ve solved enough mysteries already.”

The boys and girls had recently moved to Toronto due to their father’s transfer to work on a new project. They like the big city and was quite excited to be there. Since their early days in Cottonfield, they had moved to different cities which adds more flavor to their adventures and mysteries.

Otto’s eyes were glued to the computer screen. He had a bowl of cereals while scanning through the computer. “The phone lines were tied up all morning and I just couldn’t get through to the ticket master.”

Ron sat down on the sofa, cruched over as though he was in shock. “You’re right, we should have camped out all night in our sleeping bags,” Ron grumbled. “Well. what about getting tickets from an on-line auction house?” Ron asked. “Did you try the Internet while you were trying to get through on the phone?”

“You’re forgetting something,” Otto said. “We only have one phone line. How could I be on the Internet and the phone at the same time.”

Ron shook his head. “We need a cable modem or two phone lines or something.”

 

 

 

Book 2 – No Exception to the Rules

 

Chapter 1 – The New Kid in Town

WOW! A WINDOW SEAT,” Rafena whispered as she entered the classroom. She headed towards the empty desk near the window, glancing at her new classmates. A tinge of nervousness ran through her body, attending a new school in a new city.

Just recently, Rafena and her family had moved to the city of New Amsterdam from Cottonfield due to their father’s transfer to manage a new project.

Although Rafena was a bit apprehensive, her face had a glow of enthusiam. She looked forward to making new friends and anticipated an enjoyable and challenging school term. She was the new kid in town.

A girl got up from her seat and walked over where Rafena sat. “You’re in my seat,” the girl said in an unfriendly manner.

Rafena was taken by surprise. This was no way to greet someone.

“I saw you sitting over there,” Rafena innocently said, pointing at the desk the girl was sitting at.

The girl shrugged her shoulders. “To be frank, I sat here last year. I was just visiting somebody over there.” The girl hoisted her chin, a snobbish look grew on her face. “I’d like to have my desk back, if you don’t mind,” she said, bluntly.

Rafena was caught off guard by the rudeness of the girl and didn’t quite know how to react. A tremor ran through her body. She was just about to give up her window seat when a voice from across the room said, “Yes, she does mind, Sandra.” A girl walked up to Sandra and peered in her face. “You were sitting over there,” the girl said, pointing at the desk Rafena saw Sandra sitting at a minute ago.

“Well, this is where I sat last year,” Sandra declared.

The girl turned her attention to Rafena. “Don’t let her bother you.” The girl smiled and introduced herself. “Hi, I’m Sharon.”

“And I’m Rafena. Please to meet you.”

Sandra stood there with her arms folded across her chest giving Rafena the cold shoulders.

A lady walked into the classroom glancing at the students while Sandra looked dumbfounded standing in the aisle.

“Good morning class,” the lady said.

“Morning Miss Black,” the class chanted.

 

 

 

 

Book 3 – The Al Scrego Horror House

 

Chapter 1 – Welcome to Your Nightmare

The dark mysterious room came to life with graveyard music screeching, eerily, in the background. Cobwebs and skeletons hung from the ceiling while white mist hovered across the floor, rising, filling the air as spurts of colored mists of red, purple and black squirted from dark secret areas tainting the white misty air. The room, had suddenly turned into a ghastly spook.

A hand tapped Famie on her shoulder. She spontaneously sprung forward, procuring a loud scream.

Famie, scared stiff spun around, her hair frizzed. A grotesque figure sprung from the ceiling. The teenage girl darted forward bumping into her sister, Rafena.

Rafena jumped. She darted forward, awkwardly, stepping on Otto’s shoe.

“Ouch! Watch where you’re going,” Otto bellowed, goose bumps on his skin. He propelled forward smashing into Ron’s back.

“Ouch!” Ron exclaimed, darting forward with great momentum, almost knocking Brian off his feet.

Terrified, Brian shouted. “Watch it! I didn’t volunteer to be at the front you know.”

Brian led the group into an unknown world of terror occupied by monsters, eerie music and corpses. He did not volunteer to lead the group through the Al Scrego horror house. He was pushed to the front of the line, and did not put up a fuss the way the others did. He had experienced horror houses before.

“It’s even more scary at the back of the line,” Brian grinned, “especially when the monsters sneak up from behind. Goodluck to the guys at the back,” Brian grinned, teasingly.

The excitement was now brewing as the daring Cottonfield kids take their next step through the Orlando Al Scrego horror house – Welcome to your nightmare.

 

 

 

Book 4 – Mystery on Cocoa Beach

 

Chapter 1 – Blazing Eyes

THE COTTON TREES whistled as the restless breeze gushed into the slightly opened window, cooling off the room. The youngster lay in bed observing the shadows from the cotton trees as it played and danced freely on the silky white curtain while the wind blew heavy on the outside. He meditated on the upcoming summer vacation, as his eyes grew heavy. He closed his eyes and silently fell asleep as faint wisps of the dream world took control of his soul.

Suddenly, gasping for air, his heartbeat grew loud and heavy as he broke out in a cold sweat. He felt a hand on his shoulder and instantaneously let out a scream while another hand reached for his mouth, muffling the sound. Magically, a man, with fire in his eyes and anger in his voice, appeared in front of the youth.

You should have stayed out of my way. You should have turned your back and walked away,” the man scowled with blazing eyes.

The boy recognized the man’s face. It was the man from Cocoa Beach, who he had seen carrying out the body bag, gazing deeply into his big brown eyes. The man’s muscular body and long blond hair gave him the appearance of a rugged wrestler. This was obviously a mismatch. The boy was up against a man ten times his size. So he made an attempt to escape, and immediately the man tightened his grip, locking his biceps around the boy’s skinny frame. The boy’s body was almost suspended in mid air, hanging from the man’s arm.

“Please don’t body slam me,” the boy cried, forcing a couple words from his mouth as the man growled with anger.

The boy’s adrenaline kicked in. He kicked and punched. He bit and scratched, but nothing gave. He made a wish and his wish was granted as he wiggled his way out of the man’s arms of steel, falling to the ground. He rolled forward and sprung to his legs. He ran as fast as he possibly could, but didn’t move an inch as though he was running on a treadmill. He screamed as loud as he possibly could, but not even a sound was ushered from his wide opened mouth as though he was suffocating under water. And in a split second, the man’s left arm was, once again, wrapped around the boy’s body like the trunk of an elephant hugging his master.

Once again, the boy struggled to be free as beads of sweat slithered down his forehead. He pulled and pushed and amazingly a scream emerged from his mouth, like thunder, propagating for miles and miles. Even the crickets in the pastures would have felt the vibrations. Yet, nobody came to his rescue. Nobody heard his cry for help.

The boy became more terrified when a third hand grabbed his shoulder. He saw his life flashed before his eyes. He screamed and this time it was real.

“Wake up, Wake up,” his younger brother, Otto, who was nine years old at the time, said tugging on his shoulder. “Snap out of it, come on-wake up.”

Finally, the eleven year old boy escaped from his nightmare as beads of sweat made its way from his forehead, down to his soaking pillow. He quickly sprung up in a sitting position as his eyes peered through the dark room trying to make out his brother’s face.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Story of my life_Selected songs written by Fisal Ally_1990-2015

 

Keep the Peace

Music and Lyrics by Fisal Ally, Copyright 1990s

When I think of those better days, Holding hands and singing a song

When we listened to each other, Reaching out across the sky

Make this Earth a better home, For all lives under the sun


On the land or in the sea
And up above the earth

 

You say you’re white black, whatever color,
 It should never be about the color of a person’s skin, Lend a hand and you will understand
, The meanings of Love

And if you’re rich poor or in-between,
You shouldn’t judge anyone by what you see

If you look deep down inside
You will find peace of mind

 

Peace Let’s keep the peace Keep the peace for everyone

Every country across the seas Sharing love in the world

 

Put an end to all the wars, Yesterday today and for tomorrow

If you search for the answers
You will find peace of mind

 

It shouldn’t matter what you are,
Your religion class color or your race

Walk together and not against each other, Let’s live in harmony

 

Peace, let’s keep the peace, Keep the peace for everyone

Every nation across the land Sharing life on this earth

 

Let’s forgive and learn to compromise, Ease the pain sorrows and no more hunger

And the children will have some peace, In this land we call free

Can you imagine a world that is one, There’s no limit to what we can do

Reach out for another
And have a change in heart

 

Peace, Let’s keep the peace, Keep the peace for every one

Every country across the seas, Sharing love in the world

 

Peace Let’s keep the peace, Keep the peace for everyone

Every nation across the land Sharing life on this Earth

 

Peace Let’s the peace
Let’s Keep the peace
Keep the peace for everyone

 

 

 

 

 

New Clear Society

Music and Lyrics by Fisal Ally, Copyright 1990s

The destruction of the world was foretold, 
Greed and evil will lead us to Armageddon, the last battleground

The aids epidemic is plaguing the world, 
Nostradamus predicted worldwide disasters

Get you act together now, Get you act together now, Get you act together now, Let’s act together now

D-day – 1944, Two atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945,

On Dooms day the sky will be on fire

 

Is this our fate, To live in this destructive age, 
It’s what man has create, Fantasizing he’s so great

People likes to imitate, Some likes to dictate, 
Making a mess with nuclear waste, Destroy the world and causing hate

Polluted seas, polluted skies, drug abuse is on the rise, Open the gates it’s getting late, join hands everybody

Sit relax and meditate, sip you tea let’s communicate


The sky is red, I’m feeling blue, smog clouding up my head

 

We want a New Clear Society
, New Clear Society, New Clear Society, Don’t want a nuclear society

We’re living in a destructive world, 
Do we really know what we’re heading for

Some preaching, drop the nuclear bombs The people says to get rid of the bombs

 

Children are dying from hunger and disease, People doing what ever they please
,

Drug abuse and aids are out of control
You better watch out before you lose your soul

 

Get your act together now, get your act together now Get your act together now,

let’s act together now

 

Sit relax and meditate, sip you tea and communicate
The sky is red, I’m feeling blue, smog clouding up my head

 

We want a New Clear Society
New Clear Society, New Clear Society,

Don’t want a nuclear society

New clear society, new clear society
New clear society, not a nuclear society (repeat)

 

 

 

The Birds Won’t Come My Way

Music and Lyrics by Fisal Ally, Copyright 1990s

I wanna walk on this earth every single day of my life

I wanna breathe the air that keeps me alive


I wanna taste the rain that’s falling up above my head

Don’t wanna look up cause the sky’s turning red

 

Cause every time I look at the sky and I see it turning grey

I keep wondering why the birds won’t come my way


I wanna feel the earth every single day beneath my feet

Don’t think it’s worth the pain and all the heat

 

Wanna travel this road, feel the wind blowing in my face


I was wondering if I should cause there’s too much polluted waste

I wanna feel free to breathe the air any day or night


Someone stole the keys and I’m losing all my rights

 

Cause every time I look at the sky and I see it turning grey

I keep wondering why the birds won’t come my way


I wanna feel the earth every single day beneath my feet

Don’t think it’s worth the pain and all the heat

 

It’s us we’re doing all the damage


Cause you, you say we’re gonna manage

And us, we’re all gonna have to pay

Because the birds won’t come my way

Cause every time I look at the sky and I see it turning grey

I keep wondering why the birds won’t come my way


I wanna feel the earth every single day beneath my feet

Don’t think it’s worth the pain and all the heat

 

Wanna travel this road feel the wind blowing in my face


I was wondering if I should cause there’s too much polluted waste

I wanna feel free to breathe the air any day or night


Someone stole the keys and I’m losing all my rights

Cause every time I look at the sky and I see it turning grey

I keep wondering why the birds won’t come my way


I wanna feel the earth every single day beneath my feet

Don’t think it’s worth the pain and all the heat

It’s us we’re doing all the damage


Cause you, you say we’re gonna manage

And us, we’re all gonna have to pay

Because the birds won’t come my way

(Repeat once more)

A Kiss Goodnight

Music and Lyrics by Fisal Ally, Copyright 1990s

Everyone wants someone to hold them tight and make things right Everyone wants some one to kiss goodnight

Everyone needs a friend, they can count on to be around

Everyone wants someone to kiss goodnight

 

A kiss goodbye in the morning, to hold you tight in the evening

Everyone wants someone to kiss goodnight

 

With some tender love and tenderness, a hug and a kiss goodnight

 

When the night gets too cold, it’s good to know that someone cares

Everyone wants some one to say goodnight

 

With some tender love and tenderness, a hug and a kiss goodnight

Everyone needs someone to lean on, when life gets them down

Everyone wants someone to show they care

 

Everyone needs a friend they can count on to be a round

Everyone wants someone to be their valentines

 

A kiss goodbye in the morning, to hold you tight in the evening

Everyone wants someone to say goodnight

With a kiss goodnight, a kiss goodnight, a kiss goodnight

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Estos Sentimientos (These Feelings)

Music and Lyrics by Fisal Ally, Copyright 1990s

These feelings inside, I just can’t hide, And if you go, my heart will fall apart

My love for you, could never die
, And if you go, my heart will fall apart

 

I need you so, never ever let me go I need your love, never let me go

 

Mi amor porti, nunca podra morir
, Pero se tu tevas, mi corazon se destruida

 

Amor eterno, amor eterno
Amor por siempre, amor por siempre

 

Oh these feelings, these feelings in side,


These feelings, these feelings, these feelings inside

Oh these feelings, these feelings in side,


These feelings, these feelings, these feelings inside

 

Te necisito nunca nuca me dejes, Necisito tu amour, nunca me dejes

 

I need you more, never ever let me go, oh oh no, I need your love, never let me go

 

Never ending love, never ending love, Ever lasting love, ever lasting love

 

Estos sentimientos que jeuve adentro, No los puedo escondir

Pedro se tu tevas Mi corizon se destruida

 

Oh these feelings, these feelings in side
Yes, these feelings, these feelings, these feelings inside, Oh these feelings, whoa, these feelings in side These feelings, these feelings, these feelings inside, Oh these feelings, these feelings in side
Yes, these feelings, these feelings, these feelings inside, Oh these feelings, these feelings in side

Yes, these feelings, these feelings, these feelings inside

Reaching Out

Music and Lyrics by Fisal Ally, Copyright 1990s

Don’t give up the fight, don’t give up your rights, to fight

Don’t live in fear, don’t live with hate, be happy

 

You are the champ, you’ll take the world by surprise


Dedication’s on your mind, you are the champ, you are the champ

 

Don’t live in the past, don’t drown yourself in sorrows

Live in the present, don’t know what tomorrow will bring

 

You are the one, you hold the keys to success, take sometime to check your heart Reaching out, Reaching out

Reach out and touch you, 
When you need someone to hold you
, You can count on me

I’ll be there, anytime indeed

Reach out and touch you, 
When you need someone to hold you
, You can count on me, I’ll be there, anytime indeed

Don’t give up the fight, 
Don’t give up your rights, to fight

Fight for your rights! Fight for your rights! Raise your hand and raise some hell

Fight for your rights! Fight for your rights! Raise your hand and raise some hell

 

You are in control, take charge of your life
, Make today a better day

Share your strength with everyone

You are the one, you hold the keys in your heart
, Dedication’s on your mind

You are the champ, you are the champ

 

I’ll reach out and touch you
, When you need someone to hold you


You can count on me, I’ll be there, anytime indeed

Reach out and touch someone
, When you need someone to hold you

You can count on me, I’ll be there, anytime indeed

 

Reach out and touch you, 
When you need someone to hold you
, You can count on me

I’ll be there, anytime indeed

Reaching out, Reaching, Reach out, oh
When you need someone to hold you


You can count on me, I’ll be there, anytime indeed

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

True Love

Music and Lyrics by Fisal Ally, Copyright 1990s

True love, true love could never die

I’ll send you all my love in a letter sealed with kisses

Girl you know my love is genuine

 

I’ll send you all my love whenever I’m far away

Girl you know it’s true, you’re the one

 

I’ll be missing you everyday, I close my eyes and I think of you

Girl you know its true, you’re the one

 

True love could never die, true love could never part

It’s like magic in the air, like magic in the air

I’ll write you everyday
Our love grow strong in every way


Girl you know it’s true, you’re the one and only one

True love could never die, true love could never part

It’s like magic in the air, like magic in the air

I’ll write you everyday
, Our love grow strong in every way


Girl you know it’s true, you’re the one and only one

I’ll treasure all your love, Deep inside of my heart

Yes you know it’s true you’re the one
, Oooo you’re the one, my true love

True love, True love could never die!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wide Eyed Innocent

Music and Lyrics by Fisal Ally, Copyright 1990s – 2015

You’ve seen her pictures in the magazines, A teenage beauty queen


Now in her sweet twenties, 
Wants to be on the silver screen

 

She’s going to New Your City, Looking good she’s looking pretty

She’ll set their hearts on fire
, She’s a victim of desires

 

Oooo does she know what’s out there, Where will she go from here

 

She wants to ride in limousines, Live in luxury


Nothing out there is free, 
Nor does it come too easy

 

She never played cards or made a bet, She never had a cigarette


How lucky will she get
She hasn’t seen anything yet

 

Oooo does she know what’s out there Where will she be in next year

 

Wide Eyed Innocent, Wide Eyed Innocent, Wide Eyed Innocent girl!

 

 

Insensitive

Music and Lyrics by Fisal Ally, Copyright 1990s

Living my life just one day at a time, Days so long, nights so cold

Yesterday gone and I need you more now, Nights are cold, time slips away

You don’t know what you’ve got until it’s gone, The grass is always greener on the other side, Today I love you more than I did before, 
And tomorrow I won’t be insensitive

Time go by and the rain starts to fall, I close my eyes and I slip away

Insensitive, I’m sorry, I was, 
I was insensitive I’m sorry, I was

And tomorrow I won’t be insensitive

If you come back to me, things will be differently, I promise you my heart and I give you my soul

If you come back to me, I will be differently, I’ll give you all my love and we’ll never part

You don’t know what you’ve got until it’s gone, The grass is always greener on the other side, Today I love you more than I did before, 
And tomorrow I won’t be insensitive

And tomorrow I won’t be insensitive

Insensitive, I’m sorry, I was, 
I was insensitive I’m sorry, I was

And tomorrow I won’t be insensitive

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SoCrazy4u

Music and Lyrics by Fisal Ally, Copyright 1990s (Minor changes in 2015)

I can’t help the way that I feel for you
, From the very first time I smell your perfume When I saw you in the room, I fell head over heals

I’m so tired, so tired of waiting, 
When I see your face my heart goes wailing,

I get so restless inside, I’m just crazy for you

By now you know how I feel
My love, my love for you is real


Oh well my heart is aching, my legs keeps shaking, I’m so crazy for you you

Lead

By now you know how I feel
, My love, my love for you is real


Oh well my heart is aching, my legs keeps shaking, I’m so crazy for you

I’m so crazy for you, so crazy for you, so crazy for you So crazy for you

Story of My Life

Music and Lyrics by Fisal Ally, Copyright 2010

I didn’t know until I reached the end of the road, The journey took me back to where I began, I’ve learned so much, now I understand
, I’ll never to judge anyone again

I’ll tell you the Story of my life, 
I’ve followed my heart, I’ve chased my dreams, I’ve done everything I possibly could, 
Man I’ve struggled and I’m still empty and broke

On the road I’ve seen so much, hardships, sorrows and emptiness, It wasn’t easy, I’m telling you man
, But I’ve tried, so I know I’m a winner inside

Happiness will come our way, 
We gotta reach deep down inside, It’s all in our hearts,


And it’s really really really up to you

 

Nobody knows when the road will turn on them, It’s like waking from a dream, but it’s reality, My world collide with all my hopes, 
I used to dream bout leaving this place behind

Now I’m back walking around the same old lake ,The birds, they still flock around
, They whistle their tunes, while I sing my song, Now I appreciate those little things in life

Found a job and settled down
, The world never stops, it turns and turns, Then one day, I got a lucky break
, Then they took it, they took it all away

That’s the story of my life, 
I’m satisfied to be who and what I am, I’ve done my best, I’m telling you man, Cause at the end another journey beings

Now I know cause I’ve reached the end of the road, Nowhere to go but from where I began
, Now I reach deep in my heart, 
I’ll never judge anyone again, I’ll never judge anyone again

And it’s really really really up to you
, And it’s really really really up to me , That’s the story of my life, Story of my life

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Debunked the use of the label coolie in Guyana

During my research and writing of the Trilogy of Savitri’s Garden over the past sixteen years, I came across some very important information, which I will share with you in this study guide. This information will change your perception of who the Indians were that entered British Guiana Guyana starting back on May 5, 1838. We often hear that the derogatory label “coolie” being used for Indians is a false label, but we’re not certain why. The label “coolie” in Guyana (British Guiana) stemmed from this first group of Indian laborers that left India through the Port of Kolkata, journeying across the Indian and Atlantic Oceans and into the Americas. The label had taken root in Guyana and seeded throughout the colony. Today this derogatory label is deep rooted in the Guyanese culture, from every branch and leaves throughout this beautiful garden country. This degradation must be uprooted. In the Trilogy of Savitri’s Garden and in this study guide, I explained how this label had taken wings from India during the request for Indian laborers by the British planters, and as the ships traveled across the oceans. The label became planted in the colony and its history. I encourage you to study this book and share this information with others, educating them on this topic. Originally, while I was writing this novel, I had just wanted to write a novel, but the novel kept evolving into a Trilogy. I spent more time researching to make the novel more realistic, which I had not initially planned for. Then the real events and real characters entered the novel. I have gained a lot of very important knowledge throughout the years, and I believe that I have debunked the use of the derogatory label “coolie” being used for the Indians in Guyana, presenting important information for readers to learn and reflect on. The samples provided in this study guide came from the Trilogy of Savitri’s Garden, and may be modified in upcoming revisions. In this study guide, the spellings of Calcutta and Kolkata, Guiana and Guyana, and other names such as Hindustan and India are used interchangeably. There will be some updates and corrections to this study guide. If you are interested in these updates, please send me an email, and I will place you on our email list and keep you informed. If you have any suggestions, please forward them to me. I will be expanding my knowledge in this area by writing more on this topic. Furthermore, I will be putting on some enjoyable and knowledgeable online courses on this topic and similar topics. I hope you will join me on our journey and quest for knowledge on this subject by studying this study guide and sharing it with others. Please send me an email if you would like more information on the upcoming online courses. Hopefully you will also have an opportunity to delve into the love story presented in the novels in The Trilogy of Savitri’s Garden...Fisal Ally

  • Author: Fisal Ally
  • Published: 2016-07-03 07:51:53
  • Words: 25493
Debunked the use of the label coolie in Guyana Debunked the use of the label coolie in Guyana