CLOAKING: AN ESSAY
Edward E. Rochon
Edward E. Rochon on Shakespir
Cloaking: An Essay
Copyright © 2016 by Edward E. Rochon
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Some Other Works by the Author
[Dirigiplane: An Essay
General Advice: An Essay
SDI: An Essay
Inexpensive Subs: An Essay
Plan RD: An Essay
Space Plane: An Essay
The New Vauban: An Essay
Tolerating High G: An Essay
War & Warfare: An Essay
Table of Contents
The Klingon Cloaking Device, stealth technology, quiet submarines, it is all the stuff of science fiction and current technology. But our planes and subs have more to do with muffling than true cloaking. This anechoic materials on planes and sound suppression on subs are a bit of a nuisance, especially with planes as they cause up time trouble, not enough up time, sensitive to weather, etc. The real cloaking technology makes the radiation transmissions go away, whether sound or EMF.
An adjunct to this is camouflage consisting of diversion and disguise or a combination of the two. Diversion is hiding the movements of assets by creating false echos in other areas. The enemy sees all the echos, but which echo(s) are real. The other is disguise: camouflage. Camouflage in the future can be very similar to eliminating EMF or sound. These two matters make the substance of the essay.
Chapter 1: Submarines
The primary problem is sound. Magnetic signature is another problem. Heat is a third problem. Visual detection is a fourth but minor problem as submarines tend to stay under much more than in the past. However, antennas and periscopes can be disguised in new ways. With simple camouflage, these can be very hard to find today when the sub is moving at a slow speed or stationary. I will first deal with sound.
Bolt, Beranek, Newman Technologies (BBN) is noted for military contracts. It is also known for creating sound suppression technologies for offices. The underlying concept carried to a more sophisticated level is the ultimate stealth technology for submarines, and may very well be a part of US and other military powers’ sound suppression technology right now. I am unaware of this if so. Here is the basic concept.
Sound waves travel in bands of rarefaction and compression. Put on an oscilloscope, making one action electrically positive and one negative, you will see sine waves of a sort that rise and fall above an axis. We see this in our science textbooks. The length of the waves depends on the frequency of the waves, and their appearance on the oscilloscope depends on the period set for the scope. Then we have the concept of interference.
When you have a wave of the same frequency 180 degrees out of synchronization and of an equal amplitude (force), these waves cancel out. The rarefaction areas are filled in, and the compression areas are attenuated. So what do we do? We continue to dampen sound through muffling and precision turning of parts and slow cavitation of propellers. We set up shop in the sub with a technician who listens to the sounds emitted by his own craft in conjunction with a library of how his craft typically sounds in the distance. This includes sound seeping through the hull and from the propeller. The electric signals carrying the sound to his equipment is almost instantaneous. Sound speakers in the hull and outside the hull mimic a spectrum of sounds, testing for frequency and strength. His computer creates a symphony of sounds that are 180 degrees out of sync with the sounds of his craft. These cancel each other out. Because of a slight time delay, there is a window of discrepancy. This could be eliminated by prediction. The computer samples current sounds against a library of typical sounds for various parameters (speed, depth, water temperature). It makes an educated guess for the sound output in the next millisecond. It sends out a ‘sound eliminating sequence’ ahead of time and exactly 180 degrees out of sync with predicted emissions. The technician listens to his own emissions, in some cases with a trailing receiver detached from the sub on a wire/cable. This tells him if he is on target with sound elimination.
This is a complicated setup since many sounds leave the vessel, but would be very quiet if working as intended. This is a true sound cloaking device.
As for magnetic detection, you have degaussing, building with non-magnetic materials. Keeping the submarine at great depths for most of its journey is excellent. The average depth of the seas is over two miles. With cloaking of sound, subs could travel more securely in areas that do not have inversion areas, areas where the temperature and water characteristics distort the distance and location of sound sources. Deep water is of constant temperature and not conducive to this, but deeper is better to evade magnetic detection. Submarines have weapons that can fire at stand off distances. Improved sound cloaking will help operations in shallower water. The best way to allow subs to operate deeper is to make them larger, allowing thicker hulls. Great depth will hide magnetic signature, infrared and other surface effects in compensation for the larger size.
Larger subs have more anti-aircraft options, anti-torpedo options, more projected firepower. The future belongs to high seas superiority submarine fleets. These deep diving craft are also more conducive to utilization of seabed resources to enhance prosperity of the building nations.
Now as for surface cloaking, if you have cameras that can see what the sea looks like below, the sky above, the background, etc., you can use contoured television screens to mimic these. So a camouflaged radio antenna or periscope is also coated with pixels or other 3D holographic type material that can change the color to match the background just as chameleons and octopi do. This is one way of visual cloaking. There is another way of visual and infrared cloaking that I will discuss in the next chapter for aircraft cloaking.
Chapter 2: Aircraft
Following through on the visual cloaking method in the first chapter, we have TV cloaking and also 3D cloaking. You see the image of the eagle coming and going on your credit card as you move the card. Instead of this, you have the layers change to meet the viewing perspective. You could have divisions of several layers to meet the typical characteristics of flight. From the ground you see blues, grays, dusk purple, red sky, etc. There are layers for these. There are divided pixel sets to portray mottled blobs of blue and white partly cloudy sky, and so on. On top, you have various water surface colors, greens, desert beige colors, grays, etc. This is controlled by aircraft cameras that look about to order the right blend to merge into the background from any perspective.
But overlapping perspectives might see different things if the craft is not over a monotonous landscape or seascape. What then? You could scan for potential observers and pick the one in line of sight of that observer. You could try a neutralization blend to minimize profile. You could try a modulated on/off between the options to keep a ready ‘turned off color view’ on for only a moment. Often the eye plays tricks on the observer when looking at a color transference line in the distance. There is flicker, twinkle in telescopes. A computer might get confused and the operators override to suppress many false targets, making the computer ineffective in detecting such anomalies.
But there is another way to cloak visual and infrared that is significant in determining the true nature of EMF. This is the next topic.
Some people have used light bending techniques to cloak things on a very controlled and limited basis. This has nothing to do with cloaking discussed here.
You recall how sound waves are described above for submarine cloaking. Radio waves have similar properties but with polarization properties comparable to water waves. The other thing about EMF is that it has characteristics similar to particle emissions, and characteristics similar to waves traveling through a medium. These problems have certainly not been worked out by relativity/quantum mechanics.
As for Einstein’s Special Relativity (E=mc2), he did not create the substance of this, as Poincaré, a Frenchman, beat him to it. Poincaré advised that this and the notion of treating light as a particle should be taken only as an algorithm to explain anomalies. (The Frenchman was a strange man. He called infinity in mathematics a disease, yet was a booster of Georg Cantor, the guru of infinity math. His own words on what may be called relativity were that its absurdities were of no account as long as the method could explain inconsistencies in current physics (circa. 1900) but was a booster of Einstein, who almost certainly plagiarized. Herr One Stone claimed he did not know of Poincaré, a likely lie told by a womanizer, types famous for lying to ply their fixation. This is a possible explanation of why no Nobel Prize for Albert and his famous crap, so called theories of relativity. People in the know knew where it came from.) But this was before people went back ‘big time’ to Newton’s particle notion of light in spite of problems with reconciling this with EMF equations of Maxwell. Poincaré readily admitted the absurdities. Special Relativity is demonstratively false, was never proved in 1919, cannot be proved by any interferometer experimentation. The Michelson-Morley Experiment is of no matter, since everyone goes over to the particle notion of light, where the results of Michelson-Morley are entirely in accordance what you would expect. Quantum Mechanics is a tissue of absurdities. I do not wish to prove any of this or go over it in detail, but merely note how the problem of light as a wave and light as a particle, still not completely reconciled by any convincing algorithm or theory, plays a part on how EMF cloaking may proceed.
Taking the sound wave paradigm to radar cloaking, Isaac Newton knew nothing of radio waves. These long wavelengths are extremely difficult to reconcile with particle theories of EMF, unless taking them as some kind of amplitude modulation of a beam of particles taken as a mass. The other option is to see a dynamic ether of photons being modulated by radio waves. The dynamic ether takes the place of the traditional static ether, and composed of photons or similar small particles. They correspond to water molecules but much more dynamic and probably somewhat more tenuous.
If the aircraft detects a bleep, it creates a counterbalanced frequency 180 degrees out of sync and of equal force. It will have to use predictive transmission to account for the very short return time. Assuming a wave analogy, and assuming correct polarization of the return cloaking, the waves cancel each other out, making the aircraft cloaked, regardless of what it is made of. (Just how polarization takes place in a 3-dimensional dispersion medium similar to sound is a mystery, but then the particle created theory of light is in the works along with wave interference.) The onboard computer has a library from Raytheon or whoever does the work, telling it its radar profile from any angle. It adjusts the return cloak to conform to the library. Where does the library come from? That plane flies at every conceivable angle for any possible radar frequency and pulse before detectors until a total picture is arrived at. Modern electronics can store immense quantities of data.
The USAF claims the F-22 radar cannot be detected by the enemy. This is top secret and we do not know how they do it. We and the enemies must guess. The Russians and Chinese can also spy and steal. As a loyal citizen I merely guess. A typical radar pulse goes out as a timed bleep at one frequency and an incremental frequency. That is there is a frequency for the EMF and a frequency or period for the pulse. Fuzz busters can pick up on this fairly easily. Now if an F-22 can send out a varied waveform that looks much different than the typical spike or sawtooth of a pulsed transmission, a fuzz buster could confuse it with background radiation. The F-22 receiver knows what this very varied waveform looks like and can lock on to it, because it knows what it is looking for. Moreover, the varied waveform can change over time. If a Russian ECM plane does not know what to look for, it cannot take countermeasures or even know the plane is there. Another way to do this is with a wide array of pulses at many different frequencies. Keeping each pulse very short and randomly generated, the F-22 receiver knows what frequencies and periods to look for. It builds a constant profile from these pinpricks through the sky. There are problems changing frequencies and detecting them, but high tech may have much improved the techniques. If the pulses are very short and erratic, a fuzz buster will ignore them, read them as noise or otherwise be uncertain. If a Russian ECM plane does not know the random sequence or the incredible range of frequencies brilliant US technology can use, it will not be able to find the source or even know it is there.
So if these tricks to hide radar transmission work, this type of cloaking is problematic.
As for visual or infrared, suppose we have a blue background in the sky. Micro-transmitters on the aircraft send a transposed aircraft color out at the same time as light reflects off of it. It disappears with respect to that color. You cannot have a hole in the sky and expect to be cloaked. Captain Kirk knows that when stars that should be there are not visible, the Klingon ship is blocking them. But we just have a blue sky background. Cloaking the aircraft color makes it easier to send out a sky blue light signature. There must be light generators on the craft to cloak and disguise it.
But what if blue light is a series of particles, and red light as well? If you shift the aircraft color to a very dull red, tending towards the infrared, emitting a correcting frequency that would blend with the dull red to make any combination of blue, grey, dusk red, twilight purple, you would fill in particle increments. We assume the increment between red light is more distant than violet. We mix a color that when blended with red creates the proper blue sky. The plane is cloaked as it blends in with the sky around it.
What about infrared. Infrared will be at a number of frequencies. Like the submarine, whether viewed as waves or particles, you would need to attenuate, shift to background infrared in the sky, or possibly use beat frequencies. Using beat frequencies would take the infrared generated by engine heat and air frame friction, set up an ‘in the air’ beat frequency mixing over a spectrum of infrared, creating frequencies too low to detect or mixed with background, or too high to detect. Also bear in mind that beating frequencies invariably produces a weakening of the energy input to the beating process. A weak output helps fend off detection. How do you beat frequencies effectively in flight? Let me know when you work it out through trial and error and/or brilliant deduction.
Anyone who has read my scientific essays knows that I am keen on any type of technologies that involve beat frequencies, interference, monitoring frequency variations, detection of such variations, beating frequencies on the fly, etc. This is to bring about the golden age of high tech stuff, high standards of living and control of nature. So it does not matter if everybody uses cloaking and balances technology on the battlefield. Better science makes better men. Military technologies should enhance prosperity and control of nature to pay for defense. We must have defense because the world is filled with evil, because men are untrustworthy. So let us all get wealthy, wiser and longer lived, and perhaps peace will come by default. At any rate, I am going to do my duty to myself and God by getting wiser and wiser, and encouraging wiser and wiser people to get wiser and wiser.
We really need to work out this light as particle or wave, and why and how we get signs of both. Spare me your quantum wave-particle crap, please. That is not the answer.
Other Works by the Author
Collected Poems I
Collected Poems II
Elements of Physics: Matter
Elements of Physics: Space
Elements of Physics: Time
Unified Field Theory: An Essay
Space as Infinity II
Golden Age Essays
Golden Age Essays II
Golden Age Essays III
Golden Age Essays IV
Golden Age Essays V
My current biography and contact links are posted at . My writings include essays, poetry and dramatic work. Though I write poetry, my main interest is essays about the panoply of human experience and knowledge. This includes philosophy, science and the liberal arts. Comments, reviews and critiques of my work are welcome. Thank you for reading my book.
A preface states the purpose of the essay. It notes that current stealth techniques muffle rather than truly cloak radiation emissions. Chapter 1 discusses submarines. We use sound noise elimination technology to eliminate submarine noise. A technician records his craft's emissions and generates a symphony of the sounds 180 degrees out of synchronization with those sounds. He can forecast sound a millisecond or so ahead of time to cover any minute discrepancy. I also discuss magnetic signature, other problems such as using hologram imagery and contoured video to hide visual imagery, but mostly in the following chapter. Chapter 2 discusses aircraft, video contouring, cloaking radar signals, blending EMF or cloaking depending on how EMF is viewed: waveform or particle. I briefly mention the F-22 and the claim that its radar cannot be detected by the enemy. Radio waves and short wavelengths may require different techniques. Research into true cloaking of aircraft may shed light on the still unresolved problems of the waveform effects of light and its apparent particle effects. I briefly mention some work of mine on this matter along with my usual dissing of Einstein and Bohr.