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CISA Exam-Testing Concept-PERT/CPM/Gantt Chart/FPA/EVA/Timebox (Chapter-3)

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Chapter-3

Testing Concept-PERT-CPM-Gantt Chart-FPA-EVA-Timebox

Hemang Doshi

CISA, ACA, DISA, FIII

Details about this E-Book:

The objective of this e-book is to ensure that CISA candidate get adequate knowledge of concepts on ‘PERT-CPM-Gantt Chart-FPA-EVA & Timebox ’. Concepts have been simplified for easy reference of CISA candidates.

Question Answer and Explanation (QAE) on concepts are designed in accordance with CISA exam pattern.

 

Critical Path Methodology (CPM)

 

(1) CPM is a technique for estimating project duration .All projects has atleast one critical path.

 

(2)Critical path is sequence of activities where duration is longest as compared other path.

 

(3)Thus, CPM represents the shortest possible time required for completing the project.

 

(4)Activities on Critical Path have zero slack time.

 

(5)Alternatively, it can be said that activities with zero slack time are on a critical path.

 

(6) Slack time can be defined as the amount of time an activity can be delayed without impacting the completion date of the project. Thus zero slack time makes an activity critical and concentration on such activities will help to reduce overall project completion time.

 

 

Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT)

 

(1)PERT is a CPM type technique. PERT is a technique for estimating project duration.

 

 

(2)Advantage of PERT over CPM is that in CPM only single duration is considered while PERT considers three different scenarios i.e optimistic (best), pessimistic (worst) and normal (most likely) and on the basis of three scenarios, a single critical path is arrived.

 

(3)PERT is more reliable than CPM for estimating project duration.

 

Gantt Chart

 

(1)Progress of the entire project can be read from Gantt Chart to determine whether the project is behind, ahead or on schedule compared to baseline project plan.

 

(2)Gantt Chart can also be used to track the achievement of milestone.

 

 

 

Function Point Analysis (FPA)

 

(1)Indirect method of software size estimation.

 

(2)Function points are a unit measure for software size much like an hour is to measuring time, miles are to measuring distance or Celsius is to measuring temperature.

 

(3)FPA is arrived on the basis of number and complexity of inputs, outputs, files, interfaces and queries.

 

(4)FPA is more reliable than SLOC.

 

Counting source lines of code (SLOC)

 

(1)SLOC is a direct method of software size estimation.

 

(2)FPA is more reliable as compared to SLOC specially for complex projects.

 

Earned Value Analysis (EVA)

 

(1)EVA compares following metrics at regular interval:

 

-Budget to date

-Actual spending to date

-Estimate to complete

-Estimate at completion

 

(2)It compares the planned amount of work with what has actually been completed to determine if the cost, schedule and work accomplished are progressing in accordance with the plan.

 

(3) EVA is based on the premise that if a project task is assigned 24 hours for completion, it can be reasonably completed during that time frame. For example, a development team has spent eight hours of activity on the first day against a budget of 24 hours (over three days). The projected time to complete the remainder of the activity is 20 hours, then according to EVA following is the analysis:

 

 

Thus value of actual work completed indicates delay of 4 hours from schedule.

Time- box Management

 

(1)The major advantage of this approach is that it prevents project cost overruns and delays from scheduled delivery.

 

(2)It is used for prototyping or rapid application development where project need to be completed within timeframe.

(3)It integrates system and user acceptance testing, but does not eliminate the need for a quality process.

 

 

 

Point to remember for CISA Exam:

 

In any given scenario, when objective is to estimate project duration or timeless, answer should be PERT or CPM. However first preference to be given to PERT.

 

In any given scenario, when objective is to monitor the project or track any milestone, answer should be Gantt Chart.

 

(3) In any given scenario, when objective is to consider earned value by calculating any of the following, answer should be Earned Value Analysis (EVA).

 

-Budget to date

-Actual spending to date

-Estimate to complete

-Estimate at completion

 

(4) In any given scenario, when objective is to estimate software size, answer should be FPA or SLOC. However first preference to be given to FPA.

 

(5) In any given scenario, when objective is to prevent project cost overruns and delays from scheduled delivery, answer should be Timebox Management.

 

Following table summarize the above provisions:

 

 

 

Question, Answer & Explanation on ‘PERT-CPM-Gantt Chart-FPA-Timebox’ Concept:

Below QAE are solely on the above mentioned concept. Questions have been designed as per CISA Exam pattern. Candidates are advised to attempt below questions multiple times. More emphasis to be given on explanation part for better understanding.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(1) An IS auditor evaluating how the project manager has monitored the progress of the project. Which of the following is MOST relevant in this context?

 

A. Critical Path Methodologies

B. PERT

C. Gantt Chart

D. Function Point Analysis (FPA)

 

Answer: C. Gantt Chart

 

Explanation:

Progress of the entire project can be read from Gantt Chart to determine whether the project is behind, ahead or on schedule compared to baseline project plan. Gantt Chart can also be used to track the achievement of milestone. Gantt charts help to identify activities that have been completed early or late through comparison to a baseline. Following table shows objective of each of the above mentioned options:

 

 

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Which of the following should an IS auditor review to understand project progress in terms of time, budget and deliverables and for projecting estimates at completion (EACs) ?

A. Earned Value Analysis (EVA)

B. PERT

C. Gantt Chart

D. Function Point Analysis (FPA)

 

Answer: A. Earned Value Analysis (EVA)

 

Explanation:

EVA compares following metrics at regular interval:

 

-Budget to date

-Actual spending to date

-Estimate to complete

-Estimate at completion

 

It compares the planned amount of work with what has actually been completed to determine if the cost, schedule and work accomplished are progressing in accordance with the plan. Following table shows objective of each of the above mentioned options:

 

 

 

The purpose of Function Point Analysis (FPA) is :

 

A.to define functionalities of a software

B.to identify risk in software development program

C.to estimate efforts required to develop software

D.to monitor the progress the software development

 

Answer: C.To estimate efforts required to develop software

 

Explanation:

FPA is an indirect method of software size estimation. Function points are a unit measure for software size much like an hour is to measuring time, miles are to measuring distance or Celsius is to measuring temperature. FPA is arrived on the basis of number and complexity of inputs, outputs, files, interfaces and queries.

 

Which of the following is a advantage of the program evaluation review technique (PERT) over other techniques? PERT:

 

A. considers single scenario for planning and control projects

B. considers different scenarios for planning and control projects

C.defines functionalities of the software under development

D.allows the user to define program and system parameters

 

Answer: A. considers different scenarios for planning and control projects.

 

Explanation:

Advantage of PERT over CPM is that in CPM only single duration is considered while PERT considers three different scenarios i.e. optimistic (best), pessimistic (worst) and normal (most likely) and on the basis of three scenarios, a single critical path is arrived.

PERT considers different scenarios for planning and controlling projects. Three time estimates—optimistic, pessimistic and most likely—are used to create a level of uncertainty in the estimation of the time for individual activities.

 

 

A system under development has multiple linked modules which will handle several million queries and transactions a year. Which of these techniques could the IS auditor use to estimate the size of the development effort?

 

A. Critical Path Methodology (CPM)

B. Counting source lines of code (SLOC)

C. Function point analysis

D. Program evaluation review technique (PERT)

 

Answer: C. Function point analysis

 

Explanation:

FPA is an indirect method of software size estimation. FPA is arrived on the basis of number and complexity of inputs, outputs, files, interfaces and queries. It is useful for evaluating complex applications. SLOC gives a direct measure of program size, but does not allow for the complexity that may be caused by having multiple, linked modules and a variety of inputs and outputs.

 

 

(6) Which of the following techniques would provide the GREATEST assistance in developing an estimate of project duration?

 

A. Function point analysis

B. PERT

C. Critical Path Methodology (CPM)

D. Object-oriented system development

 

Answer: B. PERT

 

Explanation:

A PERT chart will help determine project duration once all the activities and the work involved in the activities are known. PERT is more reliable than CPM for estimating project duration. Advantage of PERT over CPM is that in CPM only single duration is considered while PERT considers three different scenarios i.e optimistic (best), pessimistic (worst) and normal (most likely) and on the basis of three scenarios, a single critical path is arrived.

 

 

When identifying an earlier project completion time, the activities that should be selected for early completion and more concentration are those:

 

A. activities with shortest completion time

B. activities with zero slack time

C. activities with longest completion time including slack time

D. activities with highest slack time

 

Answer: B. activities with zero slack time

 

Explanation:

Activities on Critical Path have zero slack time. Alternatively, it can be said that activities with zero slack time are on a critical path. Slack time can be defined as the amount of time an activity can be delayed without impacting the completion date of the project. Thus zero slack time makes an activity critical and concentration on such activities will help to reduce overall project completion time. This path is important because if everything goes as scheduled, its length gives the shortest possible completion time for the overall project. Activities on the critical path become candidates for crashing, i.e., for reduction in their time by payment of a premium for early completion.

 

 

(8) A project has budget of 16 hours (over 2 days). While reviewing, the IS auditor notes that the development team has spent eight hours of activity at the end of first day. The projected time to complete the remainder of the activity is 12 hours. The IS auditor should report that the project:

 

A. is ahead schedule

B. is behind of schedule

C. is on schedule

D. to be evaluated only after activity is completed.

 

Answer: B. is behind schedule

 

Explanation:

 

 

In the given scenario, work should have completed at the end of day 1 is 8 hours (i.e total 16 hours for 2 days and 8 hours per day). However actual work completed is only 4 hours i.e. 16 (total hours required) – 12 (work hours still pending). Hence it can be said against 8 hours of work required to be completed only 4 hours of work has been completed. So project is behind schedule.

Earned value analysis (EVA) is based on the premise that if a project task is assigned 24 hours for completion, it can be reasonably completed during that time frame. According to EVA, the project is behind schedule because the value of the eight hours spent on the task should be only four hours, considering that 12 hours of effort remain to be completed.

 

 

An IS auditor is reviewing a project controlled through timebox management. Which of the following is a characteristic of timebox management?

 

A. Not suitable for prototyping or rapid application development where project need to be completed within timeframe

B. It prevents project cost overruns and delays from scheduled delivery

C. It requires separate system testing & user accepting testing

D. Performance can be evaluated only after activity is completed

 

Answer: B. It prevents project cost overruns and delays from scheduled delivery

 

Explanation:

The major advantage of timebox management approach is that it prevents project cost overruns and delays from scheduled delivery .It is used for prototyping or rapid application development where project need to be completed within timeframe. It integrates system and user acceptance testing, but does not eliminate the need for a quality process

 

.

An organization is planning to add personnel to activities imposing time constraints on the duration of a project, which of the following should be revalidated FIRST?

 

A. budget of the project

B. critical path of the project

C. duration for remaining task

D. resources availability for the project

 

Answer: B. critical path of the project

Explanation:

Critical path must be re-evaluated to ensure that additional resources will in fact shorten the project duration. Given that there may be slack time available on some of the other tasks not on the critical path, factors such as the project budget, the length of other tasks and the personnel assigned to them may or may not be affected.

 

(11) Which of the following would BEST help to determine the timeline for a project and prioritize project activities ?

 

A.CPM

B. PERT

C. Gantt Chart

D. FPA (Function Point Analysis)

 

Answer: B. PERT

 

Explanation:

Both CPM & PERT is a technique for estimating project duration and timeline. However, PERT is more reliable than CPM for estimating project duration. Advantage of PERT over CPM is that in CPM only single duration is considered while PERT considers three different scenarios i.e optimistic (best), pessimistic (worst) and normal (most likely) and on the basis of three scenarios, a single critical path is arrived.

Following table shows objective of each of the above mentioned options:

 

 

 

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CISA Exam-Testing Concept-PERT/CPM/Gantt Chart/FPA/EVA/Timebox (Chapter-3)

Point to remember for CISA Exam: (1)In any given scenario, when objective is to estimate project duration or timeless, answer should be PERT or CPM. However first preference to be given to PERT. (2)In any given scenario, when objective is to monitor the project or track any milestone, answer should be Gantt Chart. (3) In any given scenario, when objective is to consider earned value by calculating any of the following, answer should be Earned Value Analysis (EVA). -Budget to date -Actual spending to date -Estimate to complete -Estimate at completion (4) In any given scenario, when objective is to estimate software size, answer should be FPA or SLOC. However first preference to be given to FPA. (5) In any given scenario, when objective is to prevent project cost overruns and delays from scheduled delivery, answer should be Timebox Management.

  • ISBN: 9781370307715
  • Author: Hemang Doshi
  • Published: 2016-09-19 20:20:09
  • Words: 2210
CISA Exam-Testing Concept-PERT/CPM/Gantt Chart/FPA/EVA/Timebox (Chapter-3) CISA Exam-Testing Concept-PERT/CPM/Gantt Chart/FPA/EVA/Timebox (Chapter-3)