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CISA Exam - Testing Concept-Network Physical Media (Fiber Optic/ UTP/STP/Co-axia

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Domain-4

Testing Concept-Network Physical Media (Fiber Optic/ UTP/STP/Co-axial)

Hemang Doshi

CISA, ACA, DISA, FIII

Details about this E-Book:

The objective of this e-book is to ensure that CISA candidate get adequate knowledge on concept of various network physical media such as fiber optic, twisted pair, co-axial etc. Concepts have been simplified for easy reference of CISA candidates.

Questions, Answers and Explanation (QAE) on concept are designed in accordance with CISA exam pattern.

Types of Network Physical Media

CRM covers following types of network physical media specifications:

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Twisted Pairs ( shielded twisted pairs and unshielded twisted pairs)

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Fiber-optics

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Infrared & radio (wireless)

Twisted Pair:

-Twisted pairs are also known as copper circuits.

-Twisted pair can be either shielded twisted pair or unshielded twisted pair.

Shielded Twisted Pair (STP):

-Two insulated wires are twisted around each other, with current flowing through them in opposite direction.

-This reduces the opportunity for cross talk and allows for lower sensitivity for electromagnetic disturbances.

Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP):

-For unshielded twisted pair a disadvantage is that it is not immune to effect of electromagnetic interface (EMI).

-Unshielded twisted pair should be away from potential interference such as fluorescent lights.

-Parallel runs of cable over long distances should be avoided since the signals on one cable can interfere with signals on adjacent cables (i.e. cross talk).

[* (2)Fiber-Optic:*]

-Glass fibers are used to carry binary signals as flashes of light.

-Fiber-optic systems have very low transmission loss.

-Fiber-optics are not affected by electromagnetic interference (EMI).

- Fiber-optic cables have proven to be more secure than the other media.

-Fiber is preferred choice for high volume and long distance calls.

Coaxial Cables

What is alternate routing and diverse routing?

Alternate Routing:

Alternative routing is the method of routing information via an alternative medium, such as copper cable or fiber optics.

Alternate routing can be further bifurcated in two types:

Last mile circuit protection:

Last mile circuit protection provides redundancy for local communication loop.

Long haul network diversity:

Long haul network diversity provides redundancy for long distance availability.

Diverse Routing:

Diverse routing is the method of routing traffic through split-cable facilities or duplicate-cable facilities.

Difference between alternate routing and diverse routing:

Other Important Terms:

[* (1)Attenuation:*]

-Attenuation is the weakening of signals during transmission.

-Attenuation exists in both wired and wireless transmissions.

-Length of wire impacts the severity of attenuation.

[* (2)Electromagnetic Interference (EMI):*]

-EMI is a disturbance generated by an external source that affects an electrical circuit.

-The disturbance may degrade the performance of the circuit or even stop it from functioning. In the case of a data path, these effects can range from an increase in error rate to a total loss of the data.

-EMI is caused by electrical storms or noisy electrical equipments (e.g. motors, fluorescent lighting, radio transmitters etc.)

[* (3)Cross-Talks:*]

Crosstalk is electromagnetic interference from one unshielded twisted pair to another twisted pair, normally running in parallel.

Point to remember for CISA Exam:

(1)In any given situation, fiber-optic cables have proven to be more secure than the other media. They have very low transmission loss, not affected by EMI and preferred choice for high volumes and long distance calls.

(2)When CISA question is about transmission error that can occur in wired as well as wireless communication, our answer should be attenuation.

(3)It is essential to understand the difference between diverse routing and alternate routing. The method of routing traffic through split-cable facilities or duplicate-cable facilities is called diverse routing. Whereas the method of routing information via an alternative medium, such as copper cable or fiber optics is called alternate routing.

(4)Also, CISA aspirant should be able to differentiate between last mile and long haul. Last mile provide redundancy for local loop whereas long haul provide redundancy for long distance availability.

Question, Answer & Explanation:

Below QAE are solely on the concept of various physical media. Candidates are advised to attempt below questions multiple times. More emphasis to be given on explanation part for better understanding.

(1)An organisation is considering type of transmission media which provide best security against unauthorized access. Which of the following provides best security?

A. Unshielded twisted pair

B. Shielded twisted pair

C. Fiber-optic cables

D.Coaxial cables

 

Answer: C. Fiber-optic cables

 

Explanation:

In fiber-optic cables, glass fibers are used to carry binary signals as flashes of light- Fiber-optic cables have proven to be more secure than the other media. They have very low transmission loss, not affected by EMI and preferred choice for high volumes and long distance calls.

(2)Which of the following transmission error can occur in wired as well as wireless communication?

A. Cross-talk

B. Attenuation

C. Sags, spikes and surges

D. Multipath interference

 

Answer: B. Attenuation

 

Explanation:

Attenuation is the weakening of signals during transmission. Attenuation can occur in both wired and wireless transmissions. Crosstalk can refer to electromagnetic interference from one unshielded twisted pair to another twisted pair, normally running in parallel. Cross-talk occurs only in wired communication. Multipath interference results in a direct signal coming with one or more

reflected radio (wireless) signals.

(3) Which of the following transmission error can be caused by the length of cable if UTP is more than 100 meters long?

A. Electromagnetic interference (EMI)

B. Cross-talk

C. Attenuation

D. Sags, spikes and surges

 

Answer: C. Attenuation

 

Explanation:

Attenuation is the weakening of signals during transmission. Attenuation exists in both wired and wireless transmissions. Length of wire impacts the severity of attenuation. Electromagnetic interference (EMI) is caused by outside disturbance which is not the case here. Sags spikes & surges and cross-talk has nothing to do with the length of the UTP cable.

 

(4)An organisation is routing traffic through split -cable or duplicate-cable facilities. This arrangement is called:

 

A. Diverse routing

B. Alternate routing

C. Gateway

D.Bridge

 

Answer: A. Diverse routing

 

Explanation:

The method of routing traffic through split-cable facilities or duplicate-cable facilities is called diverse routing. Alternative routing is the method of routing information via an alternative medium, such as copper cable or fiber optics. Gateway and Bridge is used for network extension.

 

(5)To minimize the risk of data corruption, which of the following options can be effective?

A. Separate conduits for electrical and data cables.

B. Encryption

C.Check-digits

D. Hashing

Answer: A. Separate conduits for electrical and data cables.

 

Explanation:

Using separate conduits for data cables and electrical cables, minimizes the risk of data

corruption due to an induced magnetic field created by electrical current.

Other options will not prevent data from being corrupted. Data encryption minimizes the risk of data leakage & hashing ensures data integrity however they cannot prevent corruption.

A check-digit will help detect the data corruption during communication, but will not prevent it.

 

(6)Which transmission method would provide best security?

A.Dedicated lines

B.Wireless Network

C.Dial-up

D.Broadband network

 

Answer: A.Dedicated lines

 

Explanation:

In computer networks and telecommunications, a dedicated line is a communications cable or other facility dedicated to a specific application, in contrast with a shared resource such as the telephone network or the Internet. Dedicated lines are most secured amongst the above options. Since there are no sharing of lines, data security can be assured.

 

(7)Use of redundant combinations (local carrier lines, microwaves and/or coaxial cables) to access local communication loop is known as:

A.last-mile circuit protection

B.long-haul network diversity

C.diverse routing

D.alternative routing

 

Answer: A.last-mile circuit protection

 

Explanation:

Use of redundant combinations (local carrier lines, microwaves and/or coaxial cables) to access local communication loop is known as last mile circuit protection. The method of providing telecommunication continuity through the use of redundant combinations to access the local communication loop in the event of a disaster is called last-mile circuit protection.

Long haul network diversity ensures long distance availability.

The method of routing traffic through split-cable facilities or duplicate cable facilities is called diverse routing.

Alternative routing is the method of routing information via an alternative medium such as copper cable or fiber optics.

Mock Test :

 

To attempt mock test on physical network media, please visit below link:

http://cisaexamstudy.com/physical-network-media-mock-test/

[* Other CISA Exam- Study Material *]

 

Domain 1

 

Steps of Risk Assessment

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F2j8xhPaFTg

 

https://www.Shakespir.com/books/view/622303

 

Types of Risk

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FvuvARXcjss

 

 

Compliance & Substantive Testing

https://youtu.be/3-u2mpIZzW8

 

https://www.Shakespir.com/books/view/625599

 

 

Difference between Inherent Risk & Residual Risk

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=72kv6yOpXEI

 

Difference between Vulnerability & Threat

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6KxEbth2Ziw

 

Audit Charter

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rbCJ3ceDuso

https://www.Shakespir.com/books/view/633923

 

COBIT-5

 

https://youtu.be/WfwjpDdBqr4

 

Internal Controls

 

https://youtu.be/RuX2hLnm3vY

 

Control Self Assessment (CSA)

 

https://youtu.be/cGcMmt-03as

 

https://www.Shakespir.com/books/view/658967

 

Sampling

 

https://youtu.be/Ynif7SqvkvM

 

https://www.Shakespir.com/books/view/661847

 

 

Domain 2

 

Outsourcing Functions

 

https://youtu.be/vQsX6ZQSDXk

 

IT Strategy Committee & IT Steering Committee

 

https://youtu.be/Za9VMrSe094

 

IT Alignment with Business Objectives

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FEsP2LXSF9U

 

https://www.Shakespir.com/books/view/633047

 

IT Balanced Score Card

 

https://youtu.be/tvNAvAL9ZIg

 

https://www.Shakespir.com/books/view/639816

 

Roles of various functions of IT

 

https://youtu.be/UMDZrfp1W2Q

 

https://www.Shakespir.com/books/view/645822

 

 

 

Domain 3

 

Online Auditing Techniques

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HmGFIJlLu-4

 

https://www.Shakespir.com/books/view/637926

 

[* Parity-Checksum-CRC*]

 

https://youtu.be/Y14jVvOKqaU

 

https://www.Shakespir.com/books/view/656262

 

Check Digit

 

https://youtu.be/VH2yd3A6bMc

 

https://www.Shakespir.com/books/view/656262

 

PERT-CPM-Gantt Chart-FPA-EVA-Timebox

 

https://youtu.be/zYZYvcr_-3M

 

https://www.Shakespir.com/books/view/666753

 

Testing in SDLC

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=43nFUFzTbBU

 

https://www.Shakespir.com/books/view/687052

 

Software Development Methodology

 

https://www.Shakespir.com/books/view/733679

 

[+ http://cisaexamstudy.com/agile-system-development-methodology-video-tutorial/+]

 

 

 

 

 

Domain 4

 

Recovery Time Objective (RTO) and Recovery Point Objective (RPO)

 

https://youtu.be/2rDusGnW9qw

 

https://www.Shakespir.com/books/view/646456

 

 

Alternate Recovery Site

 

https://youtu.be/jCpcqaazkY4

 

https://www.Shakespir.com/books/view/647476

 

Domain 5

 

Digital Signature

 

https://youtu.be/_N3jisd1Vis

 

https://www.Shakespir.com/books/view/648923

 

Wireless (Wi-Fi)Security

 

https://youtu.be/csbd_V9PknI

 

https://www.Shakespir.com/books/view/651918

 

Firewall Types

 

https://youtu.be/x650kcv6Mfk

 

https://www.Shakespir.com/books/view/654726

 

Firewall Implementation

 

https://youtu.be/lltKNTdjg4Y

 

https://www.Shakespir.com/books/view/654726

 

Logical Access

 

https://www.Shakespir.com/books/view/630325

 

Classification of Information Assets

 

https://youtu.be/z7MwD8_ayCs

 

https://www.Shakespir.com/books/view/669437

 

 

Asymmetric Encryption

 

https://www.Shakespir.com/books/view/674900

 

https://youtu.be/mCM6dyQ_KmQ

 

 

Elements of Public Key Infrastructure

 

https://www.Shakespir.com/books/view/679445

 

https://youtu.be/ZqVciCzS3ng

 

Biometrics

 

https://www.Shakespir.com/books/view/685250

 

https://youtu.be/EmTOytQv4yM

 

 

IDS & IPS

 

https://youtu.be/0J49Ij_l8VU

 

https://www.Shakespir.com/books/view/692601

 

OSI Architecture

 

https://youtu.be/vkjBo2_9aDE

 

https://www.Shakespir.com/books/view/703536

 

Single Sign On

 

https://youtu.be/ITIFz5pyAls

 

https://www.Shakespir.com/books/view/707248

 

 

 


CISA Exam - Testing Concept-Network Physical Media (Fiber Optic/ UTP/STP/Co-axia

Point to remember for CISA Exam: (1)In any given situation, fiber-optic cables have proven to be more secure than the other media. They have very low transmission loss, not affected by EMI and preferred choice for high volumes and long distance calls. (2)When CISA question is about transmission error that can occur in wired as well as wireless communication, our answer should be attenuation. (3)It is essential to understand the difference between diverse routing and alternate routing. The method of routing traffic through split-cable facilities or duplicate-cable facilities is called diverse routing. Whereas the method of routing information via an alternative medium, such as copper cable or fiber optics is called alternate routing. (4)Also, CISA aspirant should be able to differentiate between last mile and long haul. Last mile provide redundancy for local loop whereas long haul provide redundancy for long distance availability.

  • ISBN: 9781370830626
  • Author: Hemang Doshi
  • Published: 2017-07-17 12:20:10
  • Words: 1502
CISA Exam - Testing Concept-Network Physical Media (Fiber Optic/ UTP/STP/Co-axia CISA Exam - Testing Concept-Network Physical Media (Fiber Optic/ UTP/STP/Co-axia