Twenty-three titles have been published in this series, designed as handbooks for intermediate level agricultural education and training. They may be purchased as a set or as individual documents.
1. The way to work. The living plant
2. The plant – the root
3. The plant – the stem
4. The plant – the leaf
5. The plant – the flower
6. The soil – man and the soil
7. The soil – how the soil is made up
8. The soil – the living soil – working the soil
9. The soil – working the soil (continued)
10. The soil – conserving the soil – improving the soil
11. Animal husbandry – introduction
12. Animal husbandry – feeding animals
13. Animal husbandry – looking after animals – how cattle reproduce
14. Animal husbandry – what cattle produce
15. Keeping chickens
16. Food crops
17. Market gardening
18. The oil palm
20. Upland rice
21. Wet paddy or swamp rice
Published by arrangement with the Institut africain pour le développement économique et social
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
© French edition, lnstitut africain pour le développement économique et social (INADES) 1967
© English edition, FAO 1970
This manual is a translation and adaptation of “L’élevage – la nourriture des animaux,” published by the Agri-Service-Afrique of the Institut africain pour le développement économique et social (INADES), and forms part of a series of 23 booklets. Grateful acknowledgement is made to the publishers for making available this text, which it is hoped will find widespread use at the intermediate level of agricultural education and training in English-speaking countries.
It should be noted that the original texts were prepared for an African environment and this is naturally reflected in the English version. However, it is expected that many of the manuals of the series — a list of which will be found on the inside front cover — will also be of value for training in many other parts of the world. Adaptations can be made to the text where necessary owing to different climatic and ecological conditions.
Applications for permission to issue this manual in other languages are welcomed. Such applications should be addressed to: Director, Publications Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Via delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy.
The cover illustrations were prepared by Asun Balzola.
• Why animals need to be well fed
• How food is used in the body of animals
Food is digested
Not all animals digest food in the same way
The digestive system of cattle
The first stomach
The cow ruminates
• How to feed calves
At the beginning, with the mother’s milk
Later, with grass
Feed supplements at weaning
What is a mineral supplement?
• How to feed cattle
All the year round
The traditional system: transhumance and bush fires
The modern system
Making new pastures
Growing fodder crops
Laying up stores of green fodder: silage, hay
Giving the animals water to drink
To feed cattle well the animals must be watched
• Suggested question paper
Read pages 4 to 11.
Food is digested: how?
It is important to understand that ruminants do not digest like other animals. They have a very complicated stomach which enables them to digest even poor food.
Watch a cow at pasture.
Watch a cow when it rests and ruminates.
Look at the mouth of a cow, its teeth and tongue.
Read pages 12 to 15.
Watch a calf drinking milk.
When the calf gets bigger, it begins to eat grass.
Why a young calf cannot eat grass.
Why it is important to give calves a feed supplement.
Reread pages 4 to 15.
Read pages 16 to 31.
It is important that cattle should be given
all the year round
Take up again the question paper of Booklet No. 11 and see how animals were fed in the past:
how animals can be fed nowadays:
Answer the suggested question paper, when you have studied the text and thoroughly understand it.
1. A child that is not well fed does not grow well and has little resistance to diseases.
A man who is not well fed cannot do much work, he is not strong and has little resistance to diseases.
2. It is the same for animals.
If a cow is not well fed, she does not produce big calves, and she cannot feed them properly.
A calf that is not well fed does not grow well; it has little resistance to diseases and often enough it dies.
An ox that is not well fed cannot work much, he is not strong enough to pull the plough or the cart, he does not yield much meat and is not worth much money.
3. Even if a man eats a lot, he will be undernourished if he does not eat the right food.
Even if an animal eats a lot, it will be undernourished if it does not get the right feed.
Animals must be given a lot of feed, and rich feed.
4. When the animal feeds, the feed goes into the digestive tract. In the tract the feed is transformed and digested. The digested part of the feed enters the bloodstream for use inside the body. The undigested part is rejected as excrement.
When the greater part of the feed enters the bloodstream the feed is said to be rich.
When the greater part of the feed is rejected, the feed is said to be poor.
There are rich feeds and poor feeds.
Millet is rich feed for certain animals. They can use it well; the greater part of it enters the body. 1 kilogramme of crushed millet can give an animal’s body as much strength as 10 kilogrammes of grass.
Fibrous grasses in the dry season are a poor feed for animals.
The greater part of dry grass is not digested but is excreted.
6. The stomach of the goat is not the same as the stomach of the pig.
These animals do not have the same digestive system, they do not digest in the same way. This is why they do not eat the same sort of feed.
7. The digestive system of the cow is not the same as that of humans.
They do not eat the same sort of feed.
8. In one and the same herd of cattle, there are often animals that eat the same feed but do not grow equally fast.
They have the same feed and the same digestive tract, but some can use the digested feed they get better than others.
9. Let us study the digestive system of a cow, to understand how it uses grass.
10. In the back of the mouth you can see large teeth with which the cow chews up the grass.
These are called molars. The upper jaw has no front teeth.
11. The lower jaw has 8 front teeth. The older the animal is, the more these teeth are worn. You can tell the age of a cow by looking at its front teeth.
12. Let us watch a cow feeding.
When a cow wants to feed, it gathers up a little grass . with its tongue. It grips the grass between the upper jaw and the teeth of the lower jaw. It jerks its head to pull off the grass.
It does not chew the grass, but swallows it at once.
The grass goes into the first stomach (or rumen).
A cow can eat a lot of grass; there is room for up to 15 kilogrammes of grass in its first stomach, depending on the size of the breed.
But it needs a lot of time to feed, to fill up its first stomach.
So you have to give the cow a lot of time to feed off pasture: at least 8 hours every day.
13. When the cow has finished filling its first stomach, it often lies down. But it goes on moving its jaws: it is ruminating.
The cow brings up a little grass from its first stomach into its mouth. It chews the grass for a time with its molars.
When the grass is well chewed and broken down, the cow swallows it again; this time the grass does not go into the first stomach, but into the second one.
A cow needs several hours to ruminate.
14. A cow can ruminate well when it is quiet, and above all when it is lying down.
If you make a shelter, the cow will be protected from rain, wind and sun; it will be quiet; it will rest; it can ruminate well.
15. The cow ruminates because its digestive system is made to digest and transform fibrous grass. The digestive system consists of the mouth which takes in the grass, of the first stomach which stores it, of the molars which chew it, and of the other parts of the stomach and the intestine which digest and absorb the grass.
The intestine is long, more than 20 metres.
16. Animals that ruminate are called ruminants.
Goats, cows, sheep and camels are ruminants.
Calves do not ruminate, because their first stomach is not yet developed.
They must therefore be given other food.
17. The stomach of a young calf is not fully developed. It cannot ruminate. If it is fed grass, it cannot digest it properly.
But milk is digested in the first stomach without ruminating. Therefore, the best food for a young calf is its mother’s milk.
But often the cows do not have enough milk, and so the calves cannot drink enough of it.
When cows have so little milk, never feed two calves with the milk of only one cow.
18. During the first two months after calving, leave all the mother’s milk for the young calf. During that time take no milk from the cow, do not milk it. Keep the whole of the cow’s milk for its calf.
It pays better to do that. If you sell milk during these first two months, you will earn a little money. But your calf will not be well fed, it will not grow well, and it might even die.
So in the end you will lose more money than you save.
19. For two months, the calf drinks its mother’s milk.
Start giving it a little green grass as soon as it will eat it. Its stomach system develops and the calf begins to ruminate. As it gets older the calf digests grass better until it can digest fodder as well as an adult cow. The calf is weaned when its mother’s milk dries up or it is six months old. It no longer needs its mother’s milk. You can now milk the cow.
After weaning, the calf no longer drinks its mother’s milk and feeds on grass and other fodder.
20. Soon after weaning is also the moment when calves often die. It is hard for the calves to change over from one food to another. There may also be too little feed, or it may be too old and fibrous.
To help a calf at and soon after weaning, give it a feed supplement in addition to grass and fodder.
You may give the calf any of the following:
21. Cereals: millet, sorghum, maize, rice. Some people like to feed them crushed.
These feedstuffs may be expensive, because they are also human food; but you can give your animals broken grains, or grains spoiled by insects, or the parts of the grains that people do not eat — bran of rice, maize and millet.
22. Oil cake. Oil cake is the name for what is left over after the oil has been taken from groundnuts, copra, palm kernels or cottonseed. Oil cake is a good feed for animals as it is usually rich in proteins.
23. Meal. Some dealers sell meal for animals. This is a mixture of crushed grains and oil cake.
For example: To make 100 kg of meal, the following mixture can be made:
table((<. <. |<. 62 kg |<. of crushed sorghum | <. |<. 35 kg |<. of groundnut cake | <. |<. 3 kg |<. of mineral supplement. |
The 3 kg of mineral supplement can contain:
table((<. <. |<. 0.6 kg |<. lime | <. |<. 0.3 kg |<. salt | <. |<. 2.5 kg |<. bone ash |
24. A mineral supplement gives the animal mineral salts.
If animals do not get enough mineral salts, their bones do not grow well.
For example: the calf shown here does not grow well, it often limps, and its legs are not strong. It lacks mineral matter.
25. You can also give your animals salt by putting it into their water or sprinkling it on their feed, or by giving them native soda or a mineral lick.
A lick weighing 1 kg contains: salt (400 g), lime (150 g), phosphorus (80 g), and other mineral salts.
The animals must be given enough food of the correct quality all the year round.
26. If the animal does not find enough food, it cannot grow or produce milk.
In the dry season there is often not enough food for cattle, and they lose weight.
Cattle feed on grass. Young grass gives them what they need to build up their body and grow strong. When the grass becomes old, you should feed them certain feedstuffs and feed supplements. Then they will have more than one nutrient.
An animal raised for meat production should grow quickly, so that it can be sold as soon as possible. This means earning money sooner. An animal grows faster if it is well fed.
An ox raised for work must be strong, and have good muscles and bones. It will be strong only if it is well fed.
A cow or a heifer which is producing a calf must be well fed.
Then it will be able to give plenty of nutrients to the calf in its womb. The calf will later drink its mother’s milk. If the cow has a lot of milk, the calf grows better and faster.
27. During the rainy season, it is easy to feed animals well.
Grass grows quickly, there is a lot of it, it is young and nourishing.
During the dry season, it is often difficult to feed animals well. The grass is dry and hard, and there is little of it; the stems are tall, the leaves dry, and the animals do not like eating this grass as it is not good feed. They lack nutrients, they lose weight and sometimes they die.
So there are some months in the year when cattle are well fed, and they grow fat and are in good health. There are other months of the year when cattle are not well fed and they lose weight. They lose all the extra kilogrammes they have put on during the rainy season.
This is why people have to wait several years before they have any animals to sell — often 4 or 5 years, or even 6 to 8 years.
If the same animals had been better fed, especially during the dry season, they would reach the same weight in a shorter time, and they could be sold younger.
The farmer would have earned money sooner; the meat would be of better quality.
In order to give their animals enough food all the year round, people used to move the herd from place to place. They practised transhumance.
People also made bush fires during the dry season, to get a regrowth of young grass.
When there is no more water and grass in a region, people take the herd to another area where there still is water and grass. This is called transhumance. When moving, good herdsmen do not pass through places where there is tsetse fly. Tsetse flies carry and spread sickness.
29. Bush fires
During the dry season, grasses are hard, dry and very tall. The cattle find it difficult to walk through them, and do not like to eat them.
So people burn off these grasses.
After the fire the grasses often grow again and the young grass is better for the animals to eat.
But bush fires may be bad for the soil, and they may destroy useful plants which cannot stand burning so well.
30. In order to give their animals enough good feed all the year, farmers are learning to:
improve their pastures,
make new pastures and grow fodder crops,
store green fodders as silage and hay,
give their animals feed supplements,
give their animals enough water,
keep the herd under proper guard.
31. A pasture is the field where cattle graze.
In every pasture there are good grasses and poorer ones.
A pasture can be improved by encouraging the good grasses to grow and multiply.
To this end:
32. Any grass left over by the animals must be cut.
The animals have left some of the weeds uneaten. These weeds must be cut so that they do not multiply. To prevent them multiplying, they must be cut (mown) before they make seeds. The cut weeds rot on the soil and produce humus.
33. Animals must not be allowed on the whole of the pasture.
During the rainy season, grass grows fast. There is a lot of grass. The animals have enough to eat on only one part of the area, and they should eat all the grass on that part.
The other part of the pasture is left to rest: the grasses grow well, they multiply and this part of the pasture will be better the following year. It can be cut for hay or silage.
34. No more cattle should be kept on a pasture than can feed on it in the dry season.
Some farmers put too many animals on a pasture. Some farmers do not put enough animals on a pasture. The right number of animals to put on a pasture is the number which can use it without spoiling it.
During the rainy season, a lot of cattle can graze a pasture, and all will find enough feed. But during the dry season there will not be enough grass for them and they will not be well fed.
So there must be no more cattle than can be fed well during the dry season.
But on the other hand a pasture should have as many animals as it can feed. So more animals can be kept there in the rainy season, or the extra grass can be stored as hay or silage for the dry season. A pasture not used enough is a wasted wealth.
35. A new pasture is made by sowing or planting legume and grass crops.
Then one must wait for the crop to grow and be tall enough, before letting in any animals. When the animals have eaten this pasturage, they are taken to another field so that the crop grows again on the first one. Then one must wait for the crop to have grown enough before taking the animals back to the first pasture. Sown or planted pastures can produce a great deal of green food for animals.
36. Two kinds of plants are used in making these new pastures:
legumes such as Pueraria, Centrosema, Stylo-santhes, Crotalaria
grasses: Melinis, elephant grass or Cenchrus.
It is best to ask the agricultural assistant which plants to use and where to buy them or their seed.
37. Several of these plants go on growing during the dry season. So the farmer has a reserve of pasture and the animals are well fed all the year round.
38. These plants protect the soil and make it richer. When the pasture is ploughed up, the crops grown on it yield good harvests.
So the pasture becomes part of the crop rotation.
An example of the use of new pastures.
39. The farmer divides his field into four parts. Every week, he puts his herd on one part. Meanwhile the pasture crop grows on the other parts. After about four weeks, the herd comes back to the first part.
40. You can sow millet, maize, or selected grasses like elephant grass, Guatemala grass or Digitaria, as fodder crops for animals.
Do not wait until the seeds form. Cut the plants when they are still green and give them to the animals to eat.
41. The plants have to be cut at the right moment. If you cut them too soon, they are not big enough and do not provide so much feed.
If you cut them too late, they have become hard and are not easy to digest.
42. Many farmers are not used to growing millet or maize for animal feed.
But if they feed their animals well, they earn more money. Only a few kilogrammes of that kind of feed enable cattle to do better during the dry season.
This maize or millet is not sown for eating or selling the grain, but in order to feed the green plants to cattle. The animals transform that maize or millet into milk, meat and work.
During the rainy season, grass grows a lot. The cattle do not eat up all of it. This grass can be stored in the form of silage or hay.
Dig a pit 1.50 to 2 metres deep and 1.50 to 2 metres wide.
This pit is called a silo. It has to be made big enough to put all the cut grass into it. Tread the grass well down by trampling on it. On top of the full silo, over the well-trodden grass, put earth.
The silo must be closed completely, so that air and rain cannot get in. Then the grass will not rot. Grass so kept stays good for a long time. The animals eat it readily. But if the grass is to stay good, you must not take more than 2 days to fill, tread down and close the silo.
You can also dry grass. Cut the grass when it is green and let it dry. When dry, it is called hay. For example, many farmers keep the dried stalks and leaves of groundnuts in order to feed them to animals. This is groundnut hay.
Hay is a good feed for cattle but not as good as green grass.
If hay is to be nourishing, you have to cut the grass when it is still green, before it starts going to seed and before it becomes too hard. Cut the grass when it is young, and you’ll get good hay. If you wait too long before cutting the grass, you will get not hay but dried stems. Animals do eat the stems but they are not easy to digest. Straw is used for making manure.
The grass can be cut with a machete. But you will get the work done more quickly if you cut the grass with a scythe.
45. How to make hay
When the grass is cut, let it dry in the sun. Then turn it over and expose to the sun the parts that are not yet dry.
This work is done with a fork. When all the grass is quite dry, make it into a big heap next to the animal shed.
Then you can give the animals fodder during the dry season.
It needs sun to dry grass. So you must wait for the end of the rainy season before you make hay.
46. When there is not enough fodder, when the grasses are hard, cattle need to be given feed supplements. When oxen work, when cows are about to calve, when cows give milk, they need feed supplements.
47. You can give them oil cake from groundnuts, copra or cottonseed, or else crushed grains.
You can also buy cattle meal.
Some manufacturers make a feed in which every 100 kilogrammes contains:
table((<. <. |<. 50 |<. kg maize meal | <. |<. 10 |<. kg copra oil cake | <. |<. 38 |<. kg groundnut oil cake | <. |<. 2 |<. kg mineral salts (dicalcium phosphate and salt). |
To give your animals mineral salts, you can also, as with calves (see paragraph 25), give them licks or native soda, or else put salt into the animals’ water or with the hay.
48. Animals need water
Animals lose weight in the dry season because they are not well fed, but also because they do not drink enough.
An ox can drink 30 to 40 litres of water a day, or even more in the dry season, when it is very hot and the grass is very dry. He does not need to drink as much when it is not so hot, and when his food contains a lot of water, like green fodder, or silage.
49. Animals drink:
at the stables, from a trough made of a hollow tree trunk, or from a barrel cut in half, or a concrete basin, all of which must always be kept very clean.
at the river or stream. But that water is often dirty and may give the animals some disease.
at the well. Wells are sometimes very deep and it takes a lot of work to draw water from them. It is quicker with a hand pump or a motor pump, or at least with a rope and wheel.
50. You can use an animal to pull the rope.
51. So, remember it is important:
to give every animal every day all the water it needs. It is best to make the animals drink two or three times a day.
to give them water that is as clean as possible. Many diseases come from dirty water.
not to leave the animals standing in the water after they have drunk; they make the water dirty.
It is good to add a little salt to the water. We have seen that mineral salts are good for animals.
52. A farmer who leaves his animals to roam freely, who does not have them watched, has not much work to do.
But his cattle
• do not make good use of the grass. They eat the good grasses first and leave the poor ones. Then good grasses are grazed before they make seeds, and so they cannot multiply. On the other hand, the poor grasses which are not grazed grow well and make many seeds. So they multiply and the pasture becomes poor.
• may have accidents or get diseases. They may go near streams and get bitten by tsetse flies and so may catch sleeping sickness. If an animal gets bitten by a snake or has some accident, nobody knows about it and no one looks after the animal. Cattle can also be stolen more easily.
• may ruin the crops. To prevent animals ruining crops, the fields should be surrounded by fences, or else one has to cultivate fields very far from the village. Then the farmer loses a lot of time going to his fields.
How to have animals watched
• In a paddock.
53. To make a paddock, a fence is put up around the pasture, so that the animals cannot get out. The fence is made with wire and posts. But wire is expensive.
There are cheaper ways of making a fence. You can plant a row of small trees very close one to another, or two rows of sisal or thorns. You can also use millet stalks. It takes a lot of time and work to make fences and keep them in good repair.
In the paddock, it is easier to keep the animals under watch, they can’t get out and ruin the crops, and they make better use of all the grass of the pasture.
To make fences needs money and work. It is useless to spend money unless at the same time you improve the feed of the animals, house and look after them better.
• With a herdsman
54. It is best for the farmer himself to watch his animals. He can also ask some member of his family to do it.
Or several farmers who know one another well may put their cattle together and jointly pay a herdsman.
In any event the farmer must keep an eye on the herdsman to make sure he is doing his job well.
55. To work well, a herdsman must know about animals, look after them, and lead them to good pastures.
A good herdsman does not cheat the farmers; for example, he does not sell the milk which the calves are supposed to drink.
56. A herdsman can be helped by a dog trained to lead the animals on the right way, prevent them straying from the herd and bring them back when they do so.
A well-trained dog is very useful to the herdsman.
Food is __________ by the stomach.
The teeth for chewing grass are called __________
Young calves do not __________ as yet.
An ox is strong if it is well __________
The __________ is a field where cattle graze.
To store up green fodder one can make __________ or hay.
What does a good herdsman do?
How should the animals be given drinking water?
What is a feed supplement?
What is a mineral supplement?
What mineral supplements do you know?
Why does a cow which has a calf need to be well fed?
What is weaning?
What is a ruminant?
What ruminants do you know?
How is hay made?
How can pastures be improved?
How are fodder crops grown?
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Pakistan, West Mirza Book Agency, 65 The Mall, Lahore 3.
Panama Agencia Internacional de Publicaciones J. Menéndez, Apartado 2052, Panama.
Paraguay Agencia de Librerías de Salvador Nizza, Calle Pte. Franco No 39-43, Asunción.
Peru Librería Internacional del Perú, S.A., Casilla 1417, Lima; Librería La Universidad, Av. Nicolàs de Piérola 639, Lima; Librería Studium, Amargura 939, Lima; Distribuidora Inca, Emilio Althaus 470, Lince, Lima.
Philippines The Modern Book Company, 928 Rizal Avenue, Manila.
Poland Ars Polona, Krakowskie Przedmiescie 7, Warsaw; Ruch Export-Import Enterprise, UI. Wronia 23, Warsaw.
Portugal Livraria Bertrand, S.A.R.L., Apartado 37, Amadora.
Romania Cartimex, P.O. Box 134-135, Bucharest.
Saudi Arabia Khazindar Establishment, King Faysal Street, Riyadh.
South Africa Van Schaik’s Book Store Ltd., P.O. Box 724, Pretoria.
Spain Librería Mundi-Prensa, Castelló 37, Madrid; Librería Agrícola, Fernando VI 2, Madrid 4; José Bosch, Librero, Ronda Universidad 11, Barcelona; “Adlha,” Av. General Mitre 100, Barcelona; Librería General, S. Miguel 4, Saragossa.
Sweden C.E. Fritze, Fredsgatan 2, Stockholm 16; Universitetsbokhandel, Sveavägen 166, Stockholm Va.; Gumperts A.B., Göteborg.
Switzerland Librairie Payot S.A., Lausanne and Geneva; Hans Raunhardt, Kirchgasse 17, Zurich 1.
Syria Librairie Internationale, B.P. 2456, Damascus.
Taiwan The World Book Company Ltd., 99 Chungking South Road, Section 1, Taipeh.
Tanzania Dar es Salaam Bookshop, P.O. Box 9030, Dar es Salaam.
Thailand FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Far East, Maliwan Mansion, Bangkok; Suksapan Panit, Mansion 9, Rajadamnern Avenue, Bangkok.
Togo Librairie du Bon Pasteur, B.P. 1164, Lomé.
Turkey Librairie Hachette, 469 lstiklal Caddesi, Beyoglu, Istanbul.
Uganda The E.S.A. Bookshop, P.O. Box 2615, Kampala.
United Arab Republic Librairie Hachette, 45 bis rue Champollion, Cairo.; Al Ahram, El Galaa St., Cairo.
United Kingdom Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 49 High Holborn, London, W.C.1; P.O. Box 569, London, S.E.1. (Trade and London area mail orders); 13a Castle Street, Edinburgh EH2 3AR; 109 St. Mary Street, Cardiff CF1 1JW; 7 Linenhall Street, Belfast BT2 8AY; Brazennose Street, Manchester M60 8AS; 258 Broad Street, Birmingham 1; 50 Fairfax Street, Bristol BS1 3DE.
United States of America UNIPUB, Inc., 650 First Avenue, P.O. Box 433, New York, N.Y. 10016.
Uruguay Editorial Losada Uruguaya S.A., Maldonado 1092, Montevideo; Barreiro y Ramos, 25 de Mayo esq. J.C. Gómez, Montevideo; Librería Albe, Soc. Com., Cerrito 566, Montevideo.
Venezuela Suma S.A., Calle Real de Sabana Grande, Caracas; Librería Politécnica, Apartado 50738 Sabana Grande, Caracas; Librería del Este, Pericás S.A., Av. Fco. de Miranda 52, Edificio Galipán, Caracas; Librería Técnica Vega, Plaza Las Tres Gracias, Edificio Odeón, Los Chaguaramos, Caracas.
Yugoslavia Jugoslovenska Knjiga, Terazije 27/11, Belgrade; Prosveta Export-Import Agency, Terazije 16, Belgrade; Cankarjeva Zalozba, P.O. Box 201 – IV, Ljubljana.
Other Countries Requests from countries where sales agents have not yet been appointed may be sent to: Distribution and Sales Section, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Via delle Terme di Caracalla; 00100 Rome, Italy.
FAO publications are priced in U.S. dollars and pounds sterling. Payment to FAO sales agents may be made in local currencies.