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Aethelflaed and the Missing Trophy (Book for English Learners)

77

PROFESOR NATIVO GRATIS.COM

Thank you for reading this story…

 

There are many storybooks aimed specifically at students of English, but I have noticed most do not use their full potential. They are basically stories adapted in order to be more easily understood, but do not give the reader activities and exercises where they can put the language to use. I have tried to correct this.

 

This book includes:

 

*
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. Conversational English of the type that is used in everyday life.

*
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. Written notes in every section, explaining different words and expressions.

*
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. 21 picture activities in the story, focusing on different aspects of vocabulary, grammar or functions.

*
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. Extra exercises at the end of the story to teach grammatical structures, phrasal verbs and extending vocabulary.

*
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. Extra articles focusing on aspects related to the story.

*
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. A link to an audio file to listen to the whole story.

 

Above all, I have tried to write a story which is entertaining as well as educational. This is my first book and I hope that you enjoy it. If you find it useful, please let others know. If it is successful I will be able to dedicate more time to writing stories like this!

 

The second Aethelflaed book: ‘Aethelflaed & the Rock Star’ is now for sale on Amazon.

Would you like a preview of the next book? Subscribe to the monthly newsletter from profesornativogratis.com, and get the first chapter for free!

 

Finally, if you have any question related to this book, or to English in general, please do not hesitate to write to me on the following web page:

 

Profesor Nativo Gratis – Ask!

Contents

 

 

Would you like to hear the story? For the AUDIOBOOK, go to: profesornativogratis.com/9537-2/

 

To see all the activities IN COLOUR, go to:

profesornativogratis.com/9724-2/

 

For all the ANSWERS to the activities and exercises, go to: profesornativogratis.com/9585-2/

 

 

Aethelflaed and the Missing Trophy

 

*
p<>{color:#000;}. Story & Language Activities

Saturday: The Big Match 6

Sunday: The Missing Trophy 24

Activity 10: Name the nine things that clearly do not belong in a butcher’s. 26

Activity 12: How would you describe the expression of each face? 30

Activity 13: In which position do they find Bob? ANSWERS: profesornativogratis.com/9585-2/ 32

Activity 15: Mark a tick if you are reasonably sure, or a cross if not. 38

Monday: Aethelflaed Sorts It Out 41

Activity 16: Complete this description of Samantha’s house: 41

Activity 17: Read the description and name the object. If you need more help with the names, carry on reading the story: ANSWERS: profesornativogratis.com/9585-2/ 43

Activity 19: What are these people’s jobs? ANSWERS: profesornativogratis.com/9585-2/ 49

Understanding Language (1) 58

Understanding Language 2: In Depth 60

Vocabulary Builder 1: Synonyms 65

Vocabulary Builder 2: Definitions 67

[* The Saxon Kings and Queens: Alfred, Aethelflaed and Athelstan. 70*]

Alfred the Great 72

Aethelflaed 73

Athelstan 74

The Royal National Lifeboat Institution 77

 

 

 

[] Saturday: The Big Match

In Davingstock nothing ever happened, so people were always excited when it did.

On the day of the big match Aethelflaed was having lunch with her brother and father in their cramped^^1^^ little terraced^^2^^ house, and Athelstan was explaining to his father what all the fuss^^3^^ was about. Alfred Jones made a point^^4^^ of ignoring the news, and generally knew much more about events twelve centuries earlier than those of the previous week.

Athelflaed was not usually interested in football either, although now that her friend Samantha’s brother was the local team’s goalkeeper she was happy to make an exception. In fact, she had planned to meet up with^^5^^ her after lunch to get the best seats for the game. If Samantha found Aethelflaed’s sudden interest in football surprising, she made no mention of it.

“I’m off.” Aethelflaed said “I’m picking up Sam and Nat on the way to the stadium. Are you coming Stan?” She asked her brother.

“No, you go ahead. I haven’t finished eating. I’ll see you there.”

Aethelflaed lived only about a five minute walk from the stadium, but her friends Natalia and Samantha lived at different points of Davingstock, so she had to leave early, not that she was bothered^^6^^. Aethelflaed didn’t mind walking.

No sooner had she^^7^^ stepped out of the front door when she bumped into her next-door neighbour, Rodney, who was a tough-looking twenty-year old. Beside him was his friend Gary, as always with his cowboy hat and clothes, cigarette, and a generally dodgy^^8^^ look about him.

Aethelflaed didn’t know so much about Gary, apart from the fact that he was old Scroogey’s son. In a town full of oddballs^^9^^, Scoogey stood out from^^10^^ all the rest, living in a boat on the water, surrounded by piles of junk he fished up from the river. Apart from Gary, nobody had spoken to Scroogey for years.

Activity 1: Which of the following are not in the kitchen? ANSWERS: profesornativogratis.com/9585-2/

<>.
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. Oven
<>.
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. Magnet
<>.
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. Jar
<>.
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. Hob
<>.
<>.
<>.
<>.

As far as she knew, Rodney was Gary’s only friend. People steered clear of^^11^^ Gary. If the father was strange, then his son must be too. Rodney was generally seen as a bit dodgy too, but to be fair, Aethelflaed knew all about being the talk of the town. She was well aware that, due to her own learning problems, she was considered the dunce^^12^^ of the town. Logically, she made a point of ignoring the local gossips.

Activity 2: Which are the best answers? ANSWERS: profesornativogratis.com/9585-2/

table<>. <>. |<>.
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. No problem, Rodney! |<>.
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. Might do! |<>.
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. Not yet – later.

<>.

Aethelflaed walked towards the town centre, past the library where her father worked. Rather than walking into the town square she turned left at the roundabout and carried on to the traffic lights at the end of the road.

She could have hooked right at this point, but instead decided to cross the footbridge over the railway and go around the back of the station turning left to stop in front of Natalia’s house.

Natalia’s parents were at their restaurant, and she was at home alone. They walked together through the back garden and turned right, under the tunnel and carried straight on along the alleys, past the theatre until reaching the square. Here they turned left, and then right at the roundabout. Samantha was waiting for them outside her house. Aethelflaed was never too sure what Samantha’s parents did for a living, but they had one of the best houses in Davingstock, with a garden next to the water, where their boat was moored^^13^^.

Athelflaed considered Natalia and Samantha the worst friends any girl could have, and wasn’t shy to tell them so. She wasn’t the only one to think that she was plain^^14^^ in

Activity 3: Follow the route. What are points 1 – 4? ANSWERS: profesornativogratis.com/9585-2/

Read the rest of the route, and fill in the blanks with the words below:

“… From Sam’s house they walked 1. _______ the river and around a 2. ________ until they 3. ________ to some 4._______ lights. 5.______ the crossroads they went 6._______ on, taking the footpath in front of the church until they 7._______ the stadium…”

<>.
p={color:#000;background:transparent;}. along
<>.
p={color:#000;background:transparent;}. traffic
<>.
p={color:#000;background:transparent;}. bend
<>.
p={color:#000;background:transparent;}. at
<>.
p>{color:#000;background:transparent;}. straight
<>.
p={color:#000;background:transparent;}. reached
<>.
p={color:#000;background:transparent;}. got

comparison. People suspected that they only hung out with Aethelflaed just to lookeven more stunning^^15^^. Samantha’s beauty spot and Natalia’s lovely curls was Nature’s way of rubbing it in^^16^^.

In any case Aethelflaed considered that the opposite was also true, and that after ten minutes’ conversation with Natalia and Samantha any boy would sigh with relief^^17^^ to see Athelflaed’s arrival, knowing she would liven things up immediately. That’s what she liked to think, anyway.

Samantha had wavy blonde hair, but often chose to wear it in a ponytail, braids, or pigtails. Today she had her hair loose back behind a long blue blouse – patterned at the base – and some cream shorts. A casually wrapped neck scarf and belt around the waist were the finishing touches.

Apart from her beauty, Natalia was the opposite to Samantha in almost every sense. With a Spanish mother and Brazilian father, she had dark curly hair and a permanent tan. Athelflaed had known both of them since nursery^^18^^, and the three were inseparable.

When they arrived, the whole area around the stadium had a festival atmosphere, full of food stalls^^19^^, music, flags and the round and cheerful face of the captain in a Che Guevara pose: ‘Yes, we can!’ screamed one giant poster, and another: ‘Now is the time!’. Everyone was talking, no-one was listening, and hardly anyone noticed.

And all for a good reason! For weeks the Davingstock Times had spoken of ‘Davingstock’s Greatest Moment of Sporting Glory’, or in other words, the North Kent Football Cup Final. As Athelstan had breathlessly explained to his father: “Davingstock will be famous for more than 50 miles around!!”

Not that this was a golden generation of footballers, though. In one match the rival team had a perfectly decent goal disallowed by the referee^^20^^. In the next Davingstock Rovers FC spent the full 120 minutes desperately defending before winning on penalties. The last match had only been won when the rival team got two players sent off, but who cared? They were in the final, and against the champions, Maidstone!

The girls had to push their way through the crowd to get in. The stadium was already filling up. Samantha stopped in front of the halfway line, looking for three empty seats.

“Why don’t we sit nearer the goal?” suggested Aethelflaed “So you can support your brother, I mean.”

Activity 4: Which one is Samantha? ANSWERS: profesornativogratis.com/9585-2/

Natalia giggled^^21^^, but Samantha made no sign of surprise. “We’re better off here in the middle.” she replied “Remember the goalkeepers switch sides at half-time.”

“Oh, do they?” Aethelflaed realised she knew nothing about football. She needed to catch on^^22^^ quick.

“Tell us who the players are.” asked Natalia “That’s Bob the captain…..”

“He looks bit old and chunky^^23^^ to be playing football…..” commented Aethelflaed “He must play really well!”

“He’s hopeless.” Samantha laughed “but he gets on well with everybody in the team, and he’s always cheerful, so that’s why he was chosen to be captain – and a captain has to play…….”

“I suppose so, but it’s a strange sort of logic.”

“…In fact, the only players who are any good are Ayaan and my brother. The rest are awful. If it wasn’t for Dean’s saves, we wouldn’t have passed the first round.” Samantha beamed^^24^^. She was incredibly proud of her brother. They got on very well.

“And Ayaan?” exclaimed Natalia “Where’s Ayaan? He scores all the goals…..”

“He’s not playing. He had to go out with the RNLI^^25^^” Samantha replied calmly.

“What??!!!?”

“You knew he was a lifeboat volunteer…..”

“Well, it was nice when it lasted……” sighed Natalia “we can stop dreaming now. If Ayaan’s not playing, forget it!”

Not all of you are keen on^^26^^ football, so I’ll get to the point^^27^^ as quickly as possible. From the starting whistle^^28^^ on practically the only player from Davingstock Rovers to touch the ball was Dean. He made saves in the 3rd, 8th, 9th and 13th minutes, and then again in the 17th, 18th and 20th (with a double save). Maidstone finally scored in 22nd minute, with a goal that left the fans open-mouthed.

“But where on earth have this lot come from!!” shouted Bill the butcher. “They must be Chelsea youth players in disguise!”

When the ball hit the post in the 36th minute it was too much for Bill. He looked like he was going to explode. “Do something you ninnies^^29^^!” He roared, jumping from one foot to another “Don’t just stand there – you’re not in a museum!”

Yet there was no sign of any retaliation from the locals. The Maidstone players had moved back into their half of the pitch, not wanting to take risks, and for the first time the Davingstock players began to touch the ball.

[[Ac
tivity 5:]] Complete the sentences with tag questions. If you need help with tag questions, go to profesornativogratis.com/tag-questions

ANSWERS: profesornativogratis.com/9585-2/

Activity 6: Match the words with the parts of the body: ANSWERS: profesornativogratis.com/9585-2/

<>.
p={color:#000;background:transparent;}. ee
<>.
p={color:#000;background:transparent;}. kl_
<>.
p={color:#000;background:transparent;}. H / ___gh
<>.
p={color:#000;background:transparent;}. ___st
<>.
p={color:#000;background:transparent;}. lly
<>.
p={color:#000;background:transparent;}. Sh
<>.
p={color:#000;background:transparent;}. Hl
<>.
p={color:#000;background:transparent;}. ____w

“Calm down Bill” begged^^30^^ people around him “you’ll have a heart attack at this rate.”

In fact, one player did look like he was paying attention. Fat Bob was playing as if his life depended on it, using his corpulent body to bounce4 rival players off the ball, sweating and yelling^^31^^ at his teammates until the whistle blew to finish the first half.

The mood was quietly gloomy^^32^^. Aethelflaed tried to cheer the fans up. “Well” she said “That wasn’t so bad, was it? I mean, we could be four or five goals down, but we only need to score twice and we’re champions, aren’t we?”

“Such a wise comment from young Ethel, our local genius,” responded Bill bitterly^^33^^ “and as I see you’re such an expert, maybe you can tell everybody how we’re going to score two goals if we don’t have the ball?”

“Steady on^^34^^, Bill” replied Samantha “It’s hardly her fault, is it?” Aethelflaed decided to keep quiet for the rest of the match.

Soon there was a roar from the visiting fans, and the Maidstone players ran out of the tunnel, stretching, jumping and preparing for the final assault. They looked confident, determined. Behind them, heads down, came the Davingstock players.

“Look at the lot of you! Is this your Gran’s funeral?” yelled Bill “Are we going to have another 45 minutes of this? Pull yourselves together^^35^^! This is like boys against men!”

But his worst fears were soon confirmed. The second half started in exactly the same way as the first had. It took just two minutes for Dean to make his first save, and then to make matters worse, a Davingstock player fell down clutching11^^36^^ his ankle.

“He’s pulled a muscle!” scoffed^^37^^ Bill, “Not that it makes much difference though. They’re all a bunch of ninnies.”

“The butcher’s starting to get on my nerves.” whispered Samantha to her friends “Remind me to stay vegetarian next week.”

As the player lay on the ground, surrounded by the medical staff, heads began to look up, and people began to hear the sound of an aircraft. Players, fans, staff – everybody was pointing and waving up at the sky as a helicopter suddenly came into view above the stadium and then slowly lowered itself onto the pitch^^38^^. With the whole stadium watching, the doors opened…and Ayaan appeared from inside the helicopter!

Already dressed in his football kit, Ayaan gave a thumbs up at the helicopter as it took off and disappeared. Undoubtedly enjoying the moment, he waved at the fans, who had started to cheer1.

“The RNLI!” Natalia exclaimed, eyes shining “He must have finished, and now he’s asked the lifeguards to fly him into the match!”

The Maidstone FC players were whispering nervously. Who was this player, who was so good that he had been sent for by helicopter? They quickly formed a circle and were given new instructions by their coach. Then the match started again, with Ayaan replacing the injured player.

“OK” said Bill the butcher to the fans around him “Let’s get down to business!” Everybody sensed a change of mood.

But the truth was that Ayaan could not do everything on his own. If he went past two players, a third would take the ball. If he passed, nobody else in the team was good enough to do anything special. The Maidstone players began to feel confident again.

It was just at this moment when the match changed in the strangest way. Ayaan kicked a high ball into the area for Bob to run on to. Looking up as he ran, and as clumsy as always, Bob tripped over his own feet and fell face down in the area. He hadn’t touched anybody, but it didn’t matter. The referee did not hesitate. He put the whistle to his lips and blew – penalty!

The Maidstone players were enraged, but the referee was adamant. After the protests and complaints had died down Ayaan came forward, took three steps and ….. scored! The fans couldn’t believe it – despite everything, they were level!

With only ten minutes left, Maidstone attacked more ferociously than ever. The Davingstock footballers were playing with all their heart, but the difference in quality was plain to see. Once again, Dean had to make three incredible saves, and the fans once again began to bite their nails and hide their heads in their hands.

Activity 7: Ayaan, Aethelflaed, Samantha, Natalia, Rodney and Gary are wearing something that belongs to someone else. ANSWERS: profesornativogratis.com/9585-2/

Example: Samantha is wearing Gary’s cowboy hat….. (Find 5 more.)

“Get the ball out!” shouted Bob, who was the only player near the Maidstone goalposts “It doesn’t matter where – just kick it!”

But every time the ball was kicked out, Maidstone picked it up and attacked again. Ayaan ran out of the Davingstock half with the ball until, surrounded by opponents, it was kicked out for a throw in.

“Just chuck^^39^^ it in!” yelled Bob “Give it here and I’ll put it in the net.”

No sooner had he finished the sentence than the ball was thrown at Ayaan, who skillfully backheeled the ball at him. Bob had no time to react. The ball bounced off his round belly, wrongfooting the defender, and – with the goalkeeper watching helplessly – landed in the back of the net. Bob had just scored his first goal for Davingstock Rovers!

There was a second of complete silence as the fans registered what they had just seen, and then the stadium trembled with the eruption of sound. Who could have written a better ending? As any football fan knows, nothing is better than winning when you so clearly deserve to lose.

I wish I could tell you everything that happened from that moment on- the medals, the trophy and the celebrations that lasted far into the night; the bus load of white and incredulous faces on the way back to Maidstone; the tears of Bill the butcher (“The quality! These players should be professionals. Did you see that goal? ....Tactical genius, they played like the best Italian teams - world-class!”); and of course, Bob's moment of glory, knowing that he would go down forever in the history of Davingstock.

But of course, the story has not yet finished. Davingstock is about to wake up to some very unpleasant news, and we will have to look into what happened during those mad, wonderful hours of celebration…..

Activity 8: Complete these sentences with the superlative form of these adjectives:

SKILFUL CLUMSY QUICK

#
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. Bob is the _____________ of the three players.

#
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. Ayaan is the _____________ .

#
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. And Dean has the _____________ reactions.

Now complete these sentences with the comparative:

SLIM CHUNKY AGILE

#
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. Bob is ______________ than Ayaan.

#
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. Ayaan is a bit _______________ than Dean.

#
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. Dean is ______________ than Bob.

ANSWERS: profesornativogratis.com/9585-2/

[] Sunday: The Missing Trophy

Activity 9: Match the furniture and the objects. Where is each item?

1. There are some coins and a globe on the desk

2. There is some lipstick on the __________, and a doll leaning against it.

3. There is a __________ on the floor in front of the bed, with a sports bag on it.

4. There is a white ____________ behind the bed.

5. The lamp is on the _______________.

6. The switch is under the _____________.

7a & b. There is a sewing machine on the _________ and a _________ in front of it.

8. There is a towel and two _____________ on the chair.

9. There is a ___________ attached to the ceiling, for when it's hot.

10. The ____________ is between the boxes and the desk. ANSWERS: profesornativogratis.com/9585-2/

“Ethel, Ethel!”

It took Aethelflaed a few seconds to disconnect her brother’s voice from the rest of the dream she was enjoying.

“Ethel! Are you awake?”

“What’s up, Stan? What time is it?”

“It’s past ten. Ethel, the trophy’s missing!”

“What trophy?” Past 10 o’clock? She felt like she had fallen asleep just five minutes ago.

“The trophy, the football trophy! Don’t you remember?”

“Oh, it’ll turn up^^40^^. Leave me alone Stan – I’m knackered^^41^^!”

Aethelflaed tried to go back to sleep, putting her head under the pillow, but fifteen minutes later she had to accept she was fully awake. ‘That twit3 Stan! Who cares about a stupid trophy?’ She thought gloomily, as she got up.

When she got downstairs the animals were waiting for her – their dog Heidi, Squeaky the three-legged cat, and Budgie the parrot. No dad, no brother, just breakfast left on the worktop, ready to be heated in the microwave.

So she wandered into the lounge^^42^^ and heard some voices from outside. After putting on a vinyl record of her beloved Aretha Franklin, she drew the curtains to one side. Her dad and brother were in front of the house, together with their neighbour and Davingstock’s police officer. PC7 Blake seemed to be asking Rodney some questions. Breakfast can wait! She went out in her pyjama, to see what was going on.

PC Blake divided the town into two bands – those who liked her ‘softly, softly’ approach^^43^^, and others who would have preferred a stricter policing method. One of these, Bill the Butcher, held her personally responsible for all the town’s problems. In front of his customers, he liked to deliver sermons on the decline of civil responsibilities, and the standards of the police service.

“Do you remember last year, the case of the garden gnomes^^44^^? People used to wake up every day to find their gnome had been changed with their neighbours’ one, night after night for weeks and weeks! Who was caught? Nobody! How can people feel safe in this town?”

“And then last Christmas. Mrs Hollingworth and that newcomer, Wendy what’s-her-

  • * Activity 10: Name the nine things that clearly do not belong in a butcher’s.

Example: ‘Pumpkin’ (Find eight more). ANSWERS: profesornativogratis.com/9585-2/

____________________________________________________________________

name, fighting over the last turkey at the supermarket. Disgraceful! Mrs Hollingworth ended up with ketchup in her hair. That Wendy should have been sent back to London, but what did PC Blake do? Nothing! No wonder3 this town is going to the dogs!”

With speeches like this, the older generation started to murmur about whether PC Blake was ‘up to it.‘1 “….Crime waves……Things aren’t like they used to be……No respect……..Young people nowadays…..Do you remember PC Brown? He used to fine^^45^^ you just for looking at him in a way he didn’t like – They don’t make police officers like that anymore!”

The fact was that Davingstock had the smiliest, happiest police officer in the county^^46^^. Aethelflaed’s father was an admirer of her approach43. “She makes it her job to speak to everybody.” he explained “Someone hasn’t returned their book to the library? I phone her and she goes and talks to them. If you park where you mustn’t, shout when you can’t, or do what you shouldn’t, she’ll be there on your doorstep with a smile, and it’ll be sorted out^^47^^.”

After finishing her questions, PC Blake left with a smile, and they went back home.

“Hey Ethel. Why don’t we go and see Ayaan and Bob, to see what they say about it?” suggested Athelstan.

“Hang on^^48^^ Stan. Let me have breakfast. I haven’t had any time yet.”

While Aethelflaed was eating her porridge^^49^^ her brother explained what had happened. For once her father also seemed mildly interested in the events of the previous night.

“From what I gather^^50^^ Rodney left The Davingstock Arms and was walking back into town when he hears somebody shouting. It’s Bob, who’s in the water. So Rodney jumps in….”

“You’ve got to be careful with that creek. It’s not very deep, but there’s a strong current.” interrupted Alfred.

“So Rodney jumps in, and then Ayaan turns up from somewhere, and they both get him out.”

“And the trophy?”

“That’s the thing. This morning Bob phoned PC Blake to tell her he’d been robbed.”

“Stolen? The trophy’s been stolen?”

“That seems to be the case. Someone pushed him into the water”

Aethelflaed was now spooning three sugars into an enormous mug of tea. “People are not going to be too happy about that. Just imagine, for once in a lifetime a town wins something, and then within a few hours the trophy gets stolen!”

“A Maidstone player? Maybe they were really angry…”

“A suggestion” Alfred advised his son. “I think you should start with the facts before you go onto the theories. Otherwise anyone can say anything, but nobody will work out^^51^^ what happened”

ANSWERS: profesornativogratis.com/9585-2/

“Spot on^^52^^, dad” said Aethelflaed “Let’s go and find Bob and Ayaan.”

“Dad’s got a point, you know” she told her brother as they strolled^^53^^ towards the centre “Don’t jump to conclusions before you know exactly what happened.”

“You’re right. That doesn’t make sense. Ayaan was there – maybe it was Ayaan who pushed him in and then hid behind a tree or something…..”

Aethelflaed rolled her eyes. “Stan…It can’t have been Ayaan.”

“…and then he comes out again like nothing’s happened and gets the trophy while he’s in the water helping Rodney….”

“Stan” repeated Aethelflaed “everything’s possible, but you need something more if you want to start accusing people, and especially Ayaan.”

“But Rodney said that he wasn’t in the pub, so what was he doing by the creek? He could have been waiting…”

“And why would he……Look – Speak of the devil^^54^^. Ayaan!” called out Aethelflaed “We were coming to see you.” Ayaan crossed the road to greet^^55^^ them.

“Are you coming to see me? You’ll want to know what happened last night.” Ayaan laughed “I’ll tell you quickly ‘cos I’ve explained everything about ten times already, and the day’s hardly started yet.”

“What happened?”

“Easy! I was down by The Davingstock Arms and I hear someone yell. I see Rodney in the creek with Bob, I jump in and we both get him out. He had had a pint too many.”

“And did he say anything about who pushed him in?”

“No, he didn’t say anything about that. When we were taking him home he started murmuring ‘The trophy, the trophy….’ but we were too knackered to pay him much attention.”

“Hmm… you didn’t see anyone around, then?”

Before Ayaan could answer, Athelstan broke into the conversation “And what were you doing around there? You weren’t seen at the pub.”

Ayaan’s smile disappeared and was replaced by a frown^^56^^. “Do you mind? That’s none of your business!” he snapped and stormed away^^57^^.

  • * Activity 12: How would you describe the expression of each face?

<>.
p={color:#000;background:transparent;}. Overjoyed
<>.
p={color:#000;background:transparent;}. Exhausted
<>.
p={color:#000;background:transparent;}. Amused
<>.
<>.
<>.
<>.
<>.

“That was a bit rude, Stan. You’ve upset him.”

“My question’s upset him” exclaimed Athelstan triumphantly. “He’s hiding something.”

“Steady on with your opinions. Bob might not have had the trophy when he left the pub.” answered his sister “When we get to Bob’s place, let me do the talking.”

“Hang on” said Athelstan “Isn’t that Bob over there, on the other bank^^58^^?”

“It is! What’s he up to?^^59^^”

Bob was some 20 metres from The Davingstock Arms, walking along the bank, and then looking up and down the creek.

“He doesn’t want to be seen.” whispered Athelstan.

“Let’s go around to the other side quickly. We won’t be able to see much from here.”

But when they got to the other side, Bob was sitting on the riverbank, looking sadly at the water. His head was resting on his left hand, the elbow on his knee, while his right arm supported his weight on the ground.

“Hi Bob. Is this where you lost the trophy?”

He looked up, surprised. “Oh! Hi Ethel, hi Stan.” He looked down again. “I didn’t lose it. It was stolen. I was pushed in.” he added.

“Did you see who it was?”

“No, there was no time. I just felt someone push me, that’s all.”

“Bob – did the trophy fall into the water with you, or did the thief grab^^60^^ it?”

Bob looked nervous “That’s what PC Blake asked me. I don’t remember. I mean, I might have let go of it before I fell into the water.” He looked dejected.

“But do you think they wanted to steal the trophy? Is that why you were pushed in?”

“Can you think of any other reason? The trophy’s not here, is it? You could get quite a bit of money if you sold that. It’s gold-plated^^61^^, you know. That’s worth something!”

Athelstan hadn’t spoken until then, but now he asked “You didn’t tell Ayaan or Rodney anything about being robbed yesterday – how come^^62^^ you remembered this morning?”

  • * Activity 13: In which position do they find Bob? ANSWERS: profesornativogratis.com/9585-2/

For an instant Bob’s face changed, but it was so quick that Aethelflaed did not catch the expression. “I had been celebrating a bit too much, young Stanley. You’re too young to understand that, fortunately.” And having said that, he stood up and walked away.

“Stan! That’s two people you’ve offended today! You’re getting rude.”

“But did you see that? Something smells fishy.” Athelstan was excited “Apart from that, someone should tell him that my name is not Stanley.”

“Let’s have a coke here in The Davingstock Arms. We need to think about this, because something weird is going on.”

It was a beautiful day. From the terrace in front of the pub there was a clear view along the creek, over the marsh^^63^^ and out to sea. This was Scroogey’s territory. From a distance Aethelflaed saw Gary come out of his father’s boat, half-hidden by the reeds^^64^^, take a bike and cycle slowly towards them, into town.

Summer was just about to start, and as soon as her friends had finished their exams, they would take their bikes and ride along the water out to the beach some miles away. Aethelflaed had dropped out^^65^^ of education at the first opportunity, and now she had nothing better to do than wait for others to finish.

She had never liked going to class, right from infants’ school^^66^^. It wasn’t just that she was dyslexic. She hadn’t been interested in any of the subjects, except music, PE and art. Practically all the teachers treated her as if she was stupid, and she was never too bothered to change their opinion.

Activity 14: There are 10 different things on the waiters tray. Find a word to match each one: Example: The plate is ………… hard

<>.
p={color:#000;background:transparent;}. Slice
<>.
p={color:#000;background:transparent;}. Fattening
<>.
p={color:#000;background:transparent;}. Raw
<>.
p={color:#000;background:transparent;}. Fried
<>.

“Excuse me” asked Athelstan when the barman came out “Did Bob have the trophy when he left here last night?”

“Sure did” was the reply “no doubt about it – PC Blake asked me the same question less than an hour ago.”

“We’re wasting our time, Stan.” Aethelflaed told her brother “We’re not going to do anything the police can’t do, and anyway – you should be studying for your exams.”

“Let me make a list first” begged Athelstan “These are the questions I don’t understand:”

  • * Activity 15: Mark a tick if you are reasonably sure, or a cross if not. [][


**]

“And does that help?” asked Aethelflaed. She was having a milky coffee, with three sugar cubes.

“When I look at this, it could have been Rodney. Just suppose he followed him out of the pub and pushed him into the water.”

“You know? I don’t think there’s anything else we need to know” declared Aethelflaed “I think the answer is staring^^67^^ us in the face, but we just can’t see it. In any case, I can’t be bothered anymore. PC Blake will sort it out.”

“Well, I’m not giving up!” responded Athelstan “I’m going to find out what happened. I’m off home to think about it.”

Sitting on her own, in the sun, Aethelflaed could see Samantha’s boat opposite, moored up in front of the house. Her family often went to France, Belgium or Holland for the weekend, and had promised to take Natalia and Ethel that summer. Aethelflaed had never been abroad.

As she was looking, she noticed Natalia with Samantha in the garden. They were carrying beach towels and textbooks, ready to study for their end-of-year exams. ‘I’ll pop around^^68^^’ she thought ‘and forget about playing the amateur detective.’

A few minutes later she found herself with an iced tea and cucumber sandwich on the deck^^69^^ of the boat. Her two friends were sunbathing, but Aethelflaed got burnt too easily, and so she was sitting in the shade^^70^^. In the end, inevitably, she was telling them what had happened that morning.

“I don’t understand” she concluded “They’re acting weird. I mean Ayaan – do you think Ayaan could have taken the trophy?”

“No way!” answered Natalia.

“ Ayaan volunteers for the RNLI, and then goes and steals a trophy?” added Samantha “He’s Dean’s best friend, and I know he wouldn’t do that.”

“So what was he doing on his own at that time of night?”

“Maybe he wasn’t on his own – who knows? Have you asked him?” murmured Natalia.

“But in that case, who was he with, and why didn’t he….. – Natalia?”

Samantha sat up on her towel. Aethelflaed looked around at Natalia, who was turning red.

“Natalia!!”

“What’s up? We didn’t do anything. We were just talking!”

Samantha and Aetheflaed started shrieking71 with laughter “And what were you talking about – football?”

“Oh, you’re always going on^^72^^ about the same thing. Why don’t you both get a life, and mind your own business!” Natalia snapped^^73^^. It made no difference. Aethelflaed and Samantha were rolling on the deck of the boat, crying with laughter.

Ayaan and Natalia! How on earth hadn’t she seen it coming. Enjoying Natalia’s discomfort, she started singing Marvin Gaye’s What’s Going On in her best soul voice.

Across the water Aethelflaed saw Bob walking along the bank again. She stopped singing and sat up to look. She felt a sudden stab^^74^^ of curiosity. What was Bob doing? Had he hidden the trophy? Who was telling the truth?

[][][][][] Monday: Aethelflaed Sorts It Out

  • * Activity 16: Complete this description of Samantha’s house:

<>.
p={color:#000;}. boasts
<>.
p={color:#000;}. basement
<>.
p={color:#000;}. overlook
<>.
p={color:#000;}. beyond
<>.
p={color:#000;}. stone’s
<>.
p={color:#000;}. oak
<>.
p={color:#000;}. plot

Samantha and Dean live in probably the most beautiful house in Davingstock. It's just a (1)______ throw from the town centre, and yet it backs onto the creek, so it's lovely and peaceful. You get the best of both worlds!

It's an spacious detached five bedroom home standing on a large (2)______ , with private (3)______ for a boat, and superb views over Davingstock Creek. It (4)______ an outdoor swimming pool, a games room and an indoor swimming pool – with jacuzzi – in the (5)______ .

On the first floor there is a huge ‘L’ shaped living room with (6)______ floors, and French doors which (7)______ the creek and open onto a lovely wide balcony.

Also on this floor there is a luxurious room which can be used as a study or guest bedroom with panoramic views across the creek and the farmland (8)______ .

“I’ve got it! I woke up all of a sudden in the middle of the night, and it came to me” exclaimed Aethelflaed when she saw her friends. She did not even bother to greet them. They were getting out of Samantha’s car.

“What came to you?”

Samantha had just driven back from Canterbury, where she was studying dentistry, and Natalia was with her. Natalia was taking a degree in Modern Languages at the university there.

“The answer – I’ve worked it out! It’s easy, it’s logical, and I’ve been waiting for you two all day. I need your boat.”

“My what?” Samantha frowned56.

“Your boat. We’re going to get the trophy back.”

“I suppose you mean my parents’ boat. And I’m going to study. I’ve got my last exam this Thursday.”

“That means you’ve got another two days to study.”

“And do you know how much I’ve got to revise?”

“Well, you shouldn’t have left it all to the last minute. You have to revise all year round, and not just in the last week. Even I know that!” Aethelflaed laughed “That’s not my fault, is it?”

“And you tell me that I’m a bad friend?”

“Stop moaning^^75^^ and get the boat ready, before your mum and dad get back. If they catch you, you’ll be grounded^^76^^ for a year, and I’m not taking the blame!” Aethelflaed stuck her tongue out at Samantha.

The air was still hot, even though it was early evening. As the boat sailed silently along the creek you could hear the sound of birds in the reeds and the ‘plop’ of fish jumping out of the water.

“If we walk, Scroogey will see us.” Aethelflaed told them as she explained her theory “You see, it’s simple – the trophy falls into the water, gets swept away in the current, and Scroogey picks it up in his nets.”

“Scroogey puts nets into the creek? That’s illegal!” exclaimed Natalia.

“Go and tell him off^^77^^ then! He knows that perfectly well, and that’s why he only does it at night.”

  • * Activity 17: Read the description and name the object. If you need more help with the names, carry on reading the story: ANSWERS: profesornativogratis.com/9585-2/

1. This is used to turn the car when you are driving.

2 & 3. Two of these objects are used to cut wood.

4. This word is plural, although it’s only one object. They are used to weigh objects.

5. If you want to know the length or width of something, you’ll need this.

6. This would usually be found in a bathroom, below a mirror.

7. Are you trying to join pieces of paper? Every office and teacher has one.

8. As old as human civilisation, now they are regarded as decorative ornaments.

9. A dressmaker or tailor has one of these, maybe a bit more modern, though.

10. A carpenter or DIY enthusiast should have some nails and one of these.

11. If you don’t have nails, you can also use this to do the same job.

12. How are you going to get onto the roof of your house?

13. This is useful when you get tired wandering around the park.

14. When you go to the counter to pay, the cashier gets your receipt from this.

15. The people who use this never get to see it.

“Wait a second,” interrupted Samantha “There’s something here I don’t get^^78^^. Who pushed Bob into the river? Was it Rodney?”

“You see, that was my mistake. I was trying to work that out too. I reckon^^79^^ that nobody pushed him in – he must have been too ashamed to admit that he had drunk too much, so he invented that story.”

“No way! He’s not that dim-witted^^80^^, is he?”

Nobody answered. Natalia giggled.

As they glided^^81^^ up the creek, Scroogey’s boat came into view. It was like a mini Noah’s ark, Aethelflaed thought, and surrounded by objects of all shapes and sizes: A washing machine, screwdrivers, ladders, TV or computer screens, pots, saws, scales, benches, briefcases, sewing machines, tape measures, pots, sacks, signs, parasols, a till and even a tombstone. The boat itself was loaded with more. The girls could see a fire extinguisher, hammers, hammocks, axes and a sink. On the roof there was a vase and a traffic cone.

“OK, so now the most important question,” said Samantha “What are we going to do now?”

“Jump onto Scroogey’s boat and get the trophy.” answered Aethelflaed calmly “You don’t think he’ll give it to us just like that, do you?”

“You’re mad! I’m not going anywhere!” shrieked Natalia.

Samantha was horrified: “You brought me out here with the boat and you tell me this now? I can’t turn around here!”

“Exactly” Aethelflaed smiled “You didn’t think I was going to tell you at your place, did you? I’m not that stupid, you know.”

“If Scroogey doesn’t kill you, I’ll do it myself, I swear^^82^^.” Samantha murmured.

“Ethel” pleaded Natalia “Don’t do this for a stupid trophy. We know you’re smarter than we are. You don’t have to prove anything to anyone.”

“Just as well^^83^^ there’s nobody on deck. Keep quiet, or he’ll hear you.”

“And Gary? Gary might be around somewhere….”

“Gary is with Rodney, and if that changes Stan will tell me. Does anyone want to join me?”

As Samantha and Natalia looked on^^84^^ terrified, Aethelflaed leapt^^85^^ down onto Scroogey’s boat, and whispered to the girls: “When you get out of the creek, turn around and come back. I’ll have seen all I need to see, and I’ll jump back onto your boat as you sail past.”

As the boat swept by, the two faces disappeared from view. ‘They’ve gone paler^^86^^ than I am!’ thought Aethelflaed with a smile.

Aethelflaed looked around the deck. The most important thing was to hide, in case Scroogey came up to check, ant it would give her time to look for the trophy. She looked around at the bicycles, bottles, cages, and junk. It took her no more then five seconds to see a good place – and quickly headed towards a pile of nets at the back of the boat.

She had not gone more than two paces when she heard a door open behind her, and a voice that snapped: “Who’s there? What are you up to?”

Aethelflaed felt her heart leap out of chest. After freezing, she gradually regained her composure and turned to face Scroogey.

For as long as she had remembered, she had been told stories about the madman who lived out on a boat in the marshes and ate frog soup and naughty children. Her father had always told her off for repeating these stories at home, but had offered none in reply.

Scroogey was Davingstock’s greatest mystery. He was not so much old as ageless, and in the young people’s imagination seemed to have been around before Davingstock existed. For everything that was known about him, five stories were invented, and over the years it was impossible to say which was which.

Where Gary had come from and who his mother had been was also an enigma. Gary himself did not know, or refused to tell. If he spoke to anybody, it would be to Rodney, because the rest of Davingstock treated him with mistrust^^87^^. Since he was a child people had steered clear of Gary, having been raised in the marshes, and being his father’s son.

And here stood Aethelflaed, in front of the very same Scroogey. His face was covered by a long discoloured moustache. He was wrinkled^^88^^, but his eyes were lively and his posture was firm.

Activity 18: Name the 19 types of animal in this picture. ANSWERS: profesornativogratis.com/9585-2/

“Can’t you hear me girl? What are you doing on my boat?” He was staring at her. Aethelflaed had to think fast.

She opened her mouth: “I was looking for Gary – is he here?”

There was no reaction at first, and then the man laughed, a loud, body-shaking laugh. To Aethelflaed’s surprise, his teeth were white and strong like a teenager’s. He was wearing a torn^^89^^ blue top, ragged89 brown courdroy^^90^^ trousers with knee patches; sandals, tied with string5. He was scruffy^^91^^ but clean, she noticed.

“You jump onto my boat when you think nobody’s looking, and now you ask for my son!” His smile disappeared suddenly, as if it had been switched off. “You’ve come to steal something. Tell me what you are looking for.”

For a couple of seconds Aethelflaed said nothing, and then, as Scroogey watched, eyes narrowed, she answered: “The trophy. I’ve come for the trophy.”

The man’s expression changed. He looked curious. “What trophy?”

“The football trophy the town won. It fell in the river, and I was sure you caught it. It’s not mine. I’ve come to take it back to town.”

“The vase, the golden vase? That was the football trophy?” Scroogey smiled “I put flowers in it. You’ll find it around here.” He turned away from Aethelflaed, waving his hand.

“And the next time you need something, just call like a normal human being.” He shouted before disappearing into the boat.

Aethelflaed sighed with relief, and leaned^^92^^ onto the side of the boat, head in hands. Then quickly she stood up and looked around her, moving bottles, cages, rope and piles of junk^^93^^.

Next to some boxes she found some wild daisies^^94^^ crushed^^95^^ and dried, but no trophy. ‘I give up’, she thought. She went to the side to wait. Her friends found her ten minutes later, sailing back up the creek.

“Ethel!” they whispered, as she leapt onto the deck behind them “You’re alive!”

“The trophy wasn’t here – Gary’s got it.” Aethelflaed had calmed down, but her friends noticed her change of mood.

“In that case, let’s go home and forget it.” said Samantha “We won’t get that back now.”

“What can you do?” added Natalia “If you tell PC Blake, Gary’s just going to deny^^96^^ everything! You can’t prove he took it. It’s game over, Ethel”

“You’re right” replied Aethelflaed “But you have to promise to come with me to The Davingstock Arms. Let’s have a drink!”

By the time the boat is back and moored they are smiling and laughing once again. Aethelflaed has told them about Scroogey, her Scroogey – scarier and more sinister than the original – and enjoying her friends’ shrieks of fear and open eyes.

Natalia and Aethelflaed sit by Samantha’s swimming pool, waiting for her to change. Her parents turn up, earlier than expected, and the girls greet them nervously. “That was close!” whispers Natalia.

Luckily, Samantha comes in and the girls make their excuses (“We need a break – we’ve been studying all evening.”) they cross the bridge and head for the pub.

It’s late Monday evening, but The Davingstock Arms always has an army of regulars, drinking pints of Davingstock’s own dark ale^^97^^: Farmers, fishermen, London commuters^^98^^ and workers from Davingstock’s own brewery^^99^^. Those at the tables are talking and laughing; those at the bar are staring silently at their beers. This is the scene when the three girls stroll in.

As soon as Aethelflaed enters the bar she calls out for silence. The noise stops and everyone turns to look. “The trophy’s been found!” declares Aethelflaed triumphantly. Behind her, her friends suddenly have the same expression of terror as before.

“She’s lost her mind. She’s gone completely mad!” Natalia whispers.

The regulars look at her carefully. Is this a joke? No, It’s young Ethel, the librarian’s dim-witted daughter. “Where is it? Have you got it?” one asks.

“Scroogey fished it out of the creek. Gary’s got it. He wanted to keep it a secret – he wants to give Bob a surprise, I mean.”

Natalia leans against the door. She makes a sound, like a cat crying.

The pub erupts. Everybody is talking at the same time. “Someone call Gary! Has anyone got his number? Phone that Rodney fellow then. He’ll have his number. Tell him to bring it over here!” People yell.

A hand grabs Aethelflaed’s shoulder. It’s Natalia. “What have you done? What if he hasn’t got it? What if he’s sold it? We’ll end up being chucked into the creek, the three of us!”

Samantha has turned red. “That's it, Aethelflaed!” she whispers furiously “I need a friend that acts like a normal human being. If we get out of here alive, you'll have to find yourself another friend- and this time I mean it!!”

A yell is heard from inside the pub “The girl’s right! He’s got the trophy – he’s coming this way!”

Aethelflaed smiles, Natalia sighs with relief, and Samantha covers her face with her hands. “Great – now we don’t have to worry about the rest. We know it’s Gary who’s going to kill us. Wonderful!”

“Get some drinks for the girls!” someone shouts. They are asked questions. Aethelflaed answers, Samantha frowns and keeps quiet, Natalia murmurs something, but nobody minds.

  • * Activity 19: What are these people’s jobs? ANSWERS: profesornativogratis.com/9585-2/

A) These people used to have to wear a wig, but it’s not so common now. Although here it’s a man, over half of the under-forties are women in the UK.

B) The qualities needed for this job are: loyalty, sense of duty, companionship. He or she must be reliable, disciplined and – of course – brave.

C) Keeping control of adults or children in a highly competitive situation requires what is called ‘people management’. We’ve already seen this job in the story.

D) She’s just finished her shift in the medical surgery. She’s like a family doctor, but there’s a different name for it – just two letters (It’s an abbreviation).

E) This job could be civil, but I think this young man works for the military because he’s wearing a type of uniform which a fisherman, for example, wouldn’t.

F) This smart young man has one of Davingstock’s sharpest minds. He has just graduated and is due to work for NASA, putting science into practice.

G) He could be a lawyer or a businessman because he’s wearing a suit, but in fact he helps out in an office, organising the paperwork, making coffee and other admin.

H) This is Brian. He looks like a teacher, doesn’t he? Well, he is, in a way, but as he teaches at a university, he’s called something different.

I) Do you remember the waiter from earlier in the story? Well, this is his sister, Jane. Most jobs have unisex titles now, so you could say ‘waiting staff’ or ‘server’.

J) If you’ve got a problem with a boiler or a leak in your radiator, this is the man you should call. He’ll give you an ‘estimate’ or a ‘quote’ of how much it will cost to fix.

K) Chopping, slicing, braising, roasting, simmering and baking are all part of this person’s job. I need both names – the world-class and the everyday.

L) He works in Davingstock’s poshest hotel. He takes your suitcases. There are a few names – give me the one which can also be used in a hospital, airport or station.

ANSWERS: profesornativogratis.com/9585-2/

A while later the door opens and Gary walks in. He’s carrying the trophy in his arms. Rodney is behind him. They are both white, and they have the same scared expression as Sam and Natalia. Gary tries to smile, but it makes him look like he’s crying.

Everybody cheers. “He’s got the trophy! He’s found the trophy!” The barman yells at everyone to be quiet. “I’m phoning Bob. He’s got to come over. I’ll tell him he left something here the other night.” The phone call is over in twenty seconds. Then people pass the trophy around the room, one by one. People are shaking Gary’s hand, clapping him on the back, buying him drinks.

Aethelflaed sees Gary’s face. He’s beaming24 with happiness. He feels – at last! – appreciated, part of the community. When he starts talking, he doesn’t stop. He tells one story about how he found the trophy, then he tells another. They are completely different – the second story has nothing to do with the first. Nobody minds – they like both.

Bob comes into the pub. The first thing he sees is the trophy, and he freezes, mouth open. People tell him that Gary found it, and he shakes his hand, almost tearful. “I won’t forget this, Gary” he keeps saying “I owe you one.” Gary insists that it was nothing, and that any decent person would have done the same.

By now nobody remembers Dean’s acrobatic saves during the final, or Ayaan’s dramatic entrance, or Bob’s last-minute goal. Davingstock has found a new hero!

It’s time for us to drink up^^100^^ and say goodbye. There are still a lot of people left in the bar, joking and laughing, but we have to work tomorrow!

The girls have already left. Can you hear their shrieks of laughter across the creek? The air is cooler – you should have brought your jacket.

Stepping outside, it feels as though we are in a new world. The creek is as dark and thick as oil, its surface twinkling4 with diamonds. The sun has almost disappeared. The sky has been painted with brushstrokes of crimson^^101^^, turquoise, and ruby. Out on the marshes the old man’s boat now seems to sail in a sea of gold….

Have you enjoyed this book?

Yes, I have!

If you have, please help me to carry on publishing. If this is a success I will be able to dedicate more time and energy to writing more. Rate the book on Amazon and explain why you have liked it, share with your friends, nd subscribe to my newsletter on profesornativogratis.com for more news and material to learn English.

No, I haven’t. It could be better…

If you have not enjoyed the book, or have any ideas on how I could improve, I would love to hear from you. Please write to me at: [email protected]

The second Aethelflaed book: ‘Aethelflaed & the Rock Star’ is now for sale on Amazon: Longer & Better!

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Activity 21: Choose the right person.

Who……?

#
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. ….. is completely bald?

#
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. …. influences Aethelflaed’s behaviour?

#
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. ….. gets people’s backs up^^102^^?

#
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. ….. doesn’t feel part of the community?

#
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. ….. is very opinionated?

#
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. …. is not up-to-date with current affairs?

#
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. …. is popular, but perhaps not very bright?

#
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. …. does not have a very good academic record?

#
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. …. puts himself at risk to help others?

10. …is studying to enter a field of medicine?

Whose…..?

11 ….work is not appreciated in the same way by everybody?

12. …reputation is not an accurate reflection of his personality?

13. …parents were born abroad?

All the answers to the activities and exercises, go to: profesornativogratis.com/9585-2/

[][][][][] Understanding Language (1)

1) In the first paragraph (‘In Davingstock nothing ever happened, so people were always excited when it did.’), with what word could you replace ‘it’?

a) something

b) nothing

c) anything

d) everything Answers: profesornativogratis.com/9585-2/

2) There is a difference between ‘rob’ and ‘steal’. Look at these examples at the start of chapter 2:

“……Bob phoned PC Blake to tell her he’d been robbed.”

“Stolen? The trophy’s been stolen?”

Which would you use in the sentence below?

*
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. You ______ something (money, a wallet, jewels....) .

*
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. You _______ the victim (a bank, a person, a jeweller's...)

3) On activity 17 (question 8), I have used the word ‘regard’. Then in the story you can read the word ‘face’:

“(Vases) are regarded as decorative ornaments.”

“(Aethelflaed) turned to face Scroogey.”

What’s the difference between these words and others like ‘look’, ‘watch’ and ‘see’?

*
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. Regard =

*
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. Face =

4) You have seen an example of an inversion early in the story (footnote 7): “No sooner had she stepped out of the front door when she bumped into her next-door neighbour.”

Inversions are a stylistic device used for formal writing. You don’t often hear it in spoken English (except a politician reading a speech, for example). Basically, after certain expressions (let’s call them ‘negative’ or ‘limiting’ expressions) the structure of the sentences resembles a question. Technically speaking, the verb/auxiliar and subject are ‘inverted’):

*
p<>{color:#350611;background:transparent;}. SPOKEN: I’m not often as surprised as today.

*
p<>{color:#000;background:transparent;}. WRITTENRarely am I as surprised as today.

Another example?


*
p<>{color:#350611;background:transparent;}. SPOKEN: We didn’t only* learn a lot, but we had a great time too! (*or ‘just’ = more common in spoken English)

*
p<>{color:#000;background:transparent;}. WRITTENNot only did the attendants learn a lot, but they also enjoyed the event greatly.

Here’s the list of the most common inversion expressions:

*
p<>{color:#000;background:transparent;}. [*Rarely *]do we understand the pain of the economic immigrant.

*
p<>{color:#000;background:transparent;}. Never (before) had they seen such beauty.

*
p<>{color:#000;background:transparent;}. No longer will the Government tolerate dissent or sedition.

*
p<>{color:#000;background:transparent;}. No sooner had he arrived when he was offered a glass of wine.

*
p<>{color:#000;background:transparent;}. Only when we arrived did we realise the extent of the damage.

*
p<>{color:#000;background:transparent;}. In no way am I prepared to carry out this task.

*
p<>{color:#000;background:transparent;}. Not only does he paint, but he also plays the piano wonderfully!

*
p<>{color:#000;background:transparent;}. Seldom can I describe my feelings to strangers.

*
p<>{color:#000;background:transparent;}. Never again would he see his parents.

Look for another example in the following article: ‘Saxon Kings and Queens: Aethelflaed.’ Can you find it?

5) In the story there are examples of ‘sort out’, ‘find out’ and ‘work out’. All three phrasal verbs are very common. What is the difference between them?

*
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. (between footnotes 67 & 68) Sort out =

“In any case, I can’t be bothered anymore. PC Blake will sort it out.”

*
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. (between footnotes 67 & 68) Find out =

“I’m going to find out what happened.”

*
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. (between footnotes 74 & 75) Work out =

“The answer – I’ve worked it out!”

6) Find the word ‘bitter’ (p.13) and ‘sour’ (p.29). Which of these foods are bitter, and which are sour?

*
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. Coffee, beer…

*
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. Lemon, lime… Answers: profesornativogratis.com/9585-2/

[][][][][] Understanding Language 2: In Depth

*
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. Might vs. Could

There is often some confusion between ‘could’ and ‘might’, because there are many situations where you can use either, but they are not the same. Let’s look at the present first:

Footnotes 83-84: “Gary might be around somewhere….”

*
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. You can replace ‘might’ with ‘could’ in this sentence, and the meaning doesn’t change.

32-33: “We could be four or five goals down…”

*
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. Here you cannot change ‘could’ with ‘might’. Why not? Because ‘might’ always expresses possibility. It means ‘perhaps…’ and we know that they are not losing by or four or five goals. ‘Could’ refers to ability – it was possible, but it didn’t happen.

Now it’s your turn. Look at these modals in the past:

12-13: “She could have hooked right at this point”

*
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. Can you change ‘could’ for ‘might’?

53-54: “He could have been waiting…”

*
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. Can you change ‘could’ for ‘might’?

58-59: “Bob might not have had the trophy when he left the pub.”

*
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. Can you change ‘might’ for ‘could’?

*
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. Should have vs. Must have

We all know the difference between ‘should’ and ‘must’ in the present tense – the first is advice or opinion, the second an order. In the past, though, there is a difference.

74-75: “You shouldn’t have left it all to the last minute.”

*
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. This is a piece of advice when it is too late.

79-80: “He must have been too ashamed …..”

*
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. This is not the same. When you use ‘must have…’ you are making a supposition. Aethelflaed doesn’t know, but she is sure because of the evidence.

53-54: “It can’t have been Ayaan.”

*
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. This is the same as ‘must have..’ but in negative. Aethelflaed is saying she is sure it wasn’t Ayaan, but she is supposing.

Now it’s your turn. In the context of the story, which word would you use in these sentences?

“Ayaan ________ have pushed Bob because he was with Natalia.”

*
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. ‘Should’, ‘must’ or ‘can’t’?

“Bob _______ have told people that he had fallen in, and not pushed.”

*
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. ‘Should’, ‘must’ or ‘can’t’?

“Rodney _________ have known that Gary had the trophy. He was as nervous as Gary when he walked into the pub.”

*
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. ‘Should’, ‘must’ or ‘can’t’? Answers: profesornativogratis.com/9585-2/

*
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. Passive

There is a tendency to believe that passive is used mostly in formal English, and that it is not so common in everyday conversation. This is not correct. Look at this example from the story:

59-60: “(The trophy) was stolen. I was pushed in.”

These are passive sentences. It is not logical to use a normal active question here, such as ‘Ayaan stole the trophy.’ or ‘Rodney pushed me in.’ simply because this might not be true.

In other languages there are different techniques for this. In French, for example, the impersonal ‘on’ is used: ‘On a volé…’. In Spanish it is more common to see an impersonal ‘ellos’ or ‘se’: ‘Robaron’ or ‘Se robó’.

Now it’s your turn. Which sentence would be more logical? Answer Active (A), Passive (P) or Both (B).

1a) Davingstock Town FC won the final.

1b) The final was won by Davingstock Town FC.

2a) People think that somebody stole the trophy.

2b) It is thought that the trophy was stolen.

3a) People think that Rodney stole the trophy.

3b) It is thought that the trophy was stolen by Rodney.

4a) Samantha took the boat out onto the creek.

4b) The boat was taken out onto the creek by Samantha.

5a) Gary had taken the trophy from his dad’s boat.

5b) The trophy was taken from Gary’s dad’s boat.

6a) People offered the girls a drink.

6b) The girls were offered a drink.

6c) A drink was offered to the girls.

7a) Bob took a photo with Gary.

7b) A photo was taken of Bob and Gary. Answers: profesornativogratis.com/9585-2/

*
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. Now let’s look at another aspect of the passive:

Footnotes 19-20: “In one match the rival team had a perfectly decent goal disallowed by the referee.…. the rival team got two players sent off.”

This type of passive is normally used when a third person does the action in benefit (or detriment) of the subject. In this case the referee sent off a rival player in favour of Davingstock FC. In other cases you pay somebody to do something.

You use: get/have + object + participle. Typical examples are:

‘I’m getting my hair cut tomorrow.’ (The hairdresser)

‘Sarah’s had her car mended.’ (The mechanic)

Now it’s your turn. Of the seven passive questions above, only one is suitable for this type of structure. Which one is it, and how would you structure the sentence?

*
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. Past Perfect

Generally speaking, it is not hard to understand the Past Perfect, but non-native speakers do not tend to use this as much as they should. Let’s look at the story. When Ayaan tells Aethelflaed and Athelstan about helping Bob out of the creek he says:

(footnotes 55-56) “He had had a pint too many.”

Imagine if he had said: ‘He had a pint too many.” It could cause some confusion. Did they go back to the pub after falling in the river? The use of the Past Perfect is to eliminate that doubt – we are talking about before.

Let’s use a different example:

1. When Aethelflaed arrived home, Athelstan was feeding Squeaky.

*
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. No problem! When Aethelflaed opened the door, one of the first things she saw was her brother opening the tin of cat food.

2. When Aethelflaed arrived home, Athelstan had feed Squeaky.

3. When Aethelflaed arrived home, Athelstan fed Squeaky.

*
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. This is more complicated. What’s the difference? In situation number 2 we can guess that Athelstan had already fed the cat ten minutes before his sister arrived, but number 3?

*
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. Number 3 means that Squeaky began to eat five minutes after Aethelflaed arrived. If you use the present simple the listener supposes that you are talking about an order of events: You get up, you have breakfast, you go to work….

Your turn. Which of these sentences would you change to Past Perfect?

#
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. At the beginning of the story, Aethelflaed planned to meet up with her friends.

#
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. Aethelflaed knew Natalia and Samantha since nursery.

#
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. When Bob scored, there was a moment of silence as the fans registered what they saw.

#
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. When Aethelflaed woke up, it felt as if she fell asleep five minutes before.

#
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. As Aethelflaed was having breakfast, her brother told her what happened.

*
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. As and Like

When Davingstock Town FC won the final, Bill the butcher emotionally declared that they had played ‘like the best Italian teams’. Would it be grammatically incorrect to say ‘as the best Italian teams’?

It would be correct, but the meaning would change. When the Italians won the 2006 World Cup Final, they won as one of the best Italian sides.

‘Like’ means ‘similar to’. I work like a donkey.

‘As’ is the role you play. I work as a teacher. That is my job. Sometimes it’s like working in a zoo, but I’m a teacher.

Put ‘as’ or ‘like’ in the examples taken from the story:

(19-20) “_____ Athelstan had breathlessly explained to his father....”

(35-36) “This is ______ boys against men!”

(39-40) “She felt ______ she had fallen asleep five minutes before.”

(52-53) “and then he comes out again ______ nothing's happened.”

(Activity 16) “There is a luxurious room which can be used _____ a study..”

(Activity 17) “Vases are regarded ______ ornaments.”

In many cases, ‘as if..’ or ‘like..’ are interchangeable. Which two of the sentences above could both be used?

All the answers to the activities and exercises, go to: profesornativogratis.com/9585-2/

[][][][][] Vocabulary Builder 1: Synonyms

Find synonyms (or near-synonyms) in the story for these words.

Example: (Between Activities 14 & 15) Look = STARE

#
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. (Between activities 4 -5) Smile =

#
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. (Act. 4 – 5) Laugh =

#
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. (Act. 16 – 17) Jump =

#
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. (Act. 7 – 8) Throw =

#
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. (Act. 15 – 16) Complain =

#
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. (Act. 16 – 17) Ask (as a favour) =

(Act. 6 -7) Ask (as a favour) =

7. (Act. 6 -7) Answer =

(Act. 6 -7) Answer =

8. (Act. 9 – 10) Walk =

(Act. 10 – 11) Walk =

(Act. 9 – 10) Walk (Move) =

9. (Act. 6 -7) Shout =

(Act. 6 -7) Shout =

(Act. 7 -8) Shout =

(Act. 10 – 11) Shout =

(Act. 14 -15) Shout =

10. (Act. 1 – 2) Say/Tell =

(Act. 4 – 5) Say/Tell =

(Act. 10 – 11) Say/Tell =

(Act. 11 – 12) Say/Tell =

(Act. 14 – 15) Say/Tell =

[][][] Vocabulary Builder 2: Definitions

Read these definitions and find the words in the story:

Example: (Between activities. 1 – 2)

When there isn’t much space to move = CRAMPED

(Act. 3 – 4) So beautiful it leaves you breathless.

(Act. 4 – 5) A nicer way of saying ‘fat’.

(Act. 6 – 7) Hold something firmly.

(Act. 7 – 8) A person without a good physical coordination.

(Activity 9) When you support your weight against something.

(Act. 9 – 10) A colloquial expression – extremely tired.

(9 – 10) The flat surface in the kitchen next to the sink, hob…

(Act. 10 -11) Speak to yourself so it's difficult for others to hear.

(Act. 10 – 11) When you see people and say hello.

(Act. 12 – 13) Another way of saying depressed.

(Act. 12 -13) An area which is half-land, half-water.

(Act. 17 -18) When somebody has lots of lines on their face.

(Act. 17 -18) A type of textile used for trousers, often brown.

(Act. 17 -18) When somebody gets dressed very carelessly.

(Act. 17 -18) People who work in a big city but live outside it.

(Act. 18 -19) Take something very abruptly, with force.

Vocabulary Builder 3: Expressions and Phrasal Verbs

Alfred m______ a p______ of not keeping up-to-date.

Aethelflaed had planned to m_____ u_______ with Samantha.

Aethelflaed wasn't b__________ about leaving early.

In a small town, oddballs s_______ o_______ from the rest.

People wanted to s________ c_______ of Gary.

Aethelflaed likes to h______ o______ with Sam and Natalia.

Samantha and Dean g_____ o_____ really well.

Aethelflaed didn't use to be k_____ o______ football.

She tried to c_______ the fans u_______ at half-time.

The fans told Bill the Butcher to calm down: 'S_____ o_____!'

At first, she thought the trophy would just t_______ u______ .

Although she didn't hear everything, she g______ the g_____ .

H____ c____ Bob told everyone that he had been pushed?

Aethelflaed decided to p_______ a________ to visit Samantha's.

By Monday, she had w______ed o_______ what had happened.

Scroogey t_______ Aethelflaed o______ because she hadn't called.

When Scroogey left, Aethelflaed gave a s______ of r______ .

When Bob saw Gary he c______ him on the b______.

If it's time to leave, and you've still got a full glass, you should d___ u___

[][][] The Saxon Kings and Queens: Alfred, Aethelflaed and Athelstan.

Reading the story, the names of Aethelflaed and Athelstan would have stood out. I am quite sure that you have not heard of them before. They are not at all common – practically non-existent- in modern Britain.

Alfred is a librarian, and a keen amateur historian. After being told that he was expecting a daughter, what better name could there be, than the daughter of the Saxon king, Alfred the Great; Aethelflaed, ‘Lady of the Mercians’?

And, a few years later, it was logical to call her brother Athelstan, after the first king of England. Here is a short article about the story of these three monarchs – Alfred, Aethelflaed and Athelstan – who between them fought off the Vikings and formed the nation that would be England.

The Romans had invaded and conquered England in 43AD and were present for almost 400 years. They left behind a network of roads, towns, a new religion, and some degree of literacy. This legacy never truly disappeared, although with their departure the country faced a period once known as the ‘Dark Ages’.

With the departure of the Romans, the native tribes of England (‘Britons’) were invaded by others from Scotland. It is thought that the Britons asked Germanic tribes for help – the Anglo-Saxons – and these later stayed and formed kingdoms in the south-east of England. The kingdom of Kent was one of these.

It was in Canterbury (Kent) that St. Augustine arrived to convert the kingdoms of England to Christianity, and it was there that the first Christian Anglo-Saxon king was baptised in 601 – Athelbert of Kent. This was the background to the creation of England under Athelstan, but first we must look at two of his predecessors, Alfred and Aethelflaed.

S

tatue of Alfred the Great

[] Alfred the Great

Every English schoolchild knows the story of how King Alfred burnt the cakes.

Alfred the Great was the youngest of five brothers, all of who died during a period of unending war with Viking invaders. In this way he became King of Wessex, a kingdom which covered the south of England.

Danish Vikings attacked Alfred’s castle in January 878, and killed almost everybody inside. Alfred was able to escape to the marshes in the county of Somerset. According to the legend a peasant woman, unaware of his identity, took him in. It was here that she told him to watch over the cakes while they were being baked, but Alfred was too worried about the situation of his kingdom to concentrate. When the woman returned and saw her cakes burnt black, she told him off!

At this point it seemed as if the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms would be defeated by the Vikings. However that same Easter, after sending out messengers, Alfred was able to gather support from across the land and defeat the Danish Vikings. The threat was not completely over, and there were more attacks, particularly in the county of Kent, but the tide had changed. Alfred had built the foundation of a stable and independent country, becoming the most important monarch of the British Isles.

So if someday you visit the old English capital Winchester, be sure to stop and take a photo of the statue of Alfred the Great!

[] Aethelflaed

S
tatue of Aethelflaed in Tamworth

Any person expecting their first child has to start thinking of names – Joanne? Sarah? Elisabeth? Mary?

But you have to remember that Alfred (Alfred in the story, not Alfred the Great) was a keen historian. What better name could he give to his daughter than Aethelflaed? She was the first child of Alfred the Great, the ‘Lady of the Mercians’, and one of the England’s very few female monarchs before the sixteenth century.

It is not known when she was born, but almost certainly it was in the period of instability, when her father was fighting the Vikings for the survival of his kingdom. At an early age Aethelflaed married Aethelred, Lord of the Mercians. Mercia was a kingdom that extended from modern-day Manchester/Liverpool to London.

There are many reasons to suppose that she was much more than a quiet and obedient wife. Historians believe that it was her decision to repair the walls of the city of Chester (near Manchester), and to build more fortresses.

When King Aethelred died in battle in 911, the council named Aethelflaed ‘Lady of the Mercians’, and she remained their leader. Her reign was short, due to her death a few years later, but she was an important military leader during that time. She continued to build a number of fortresses, and it is thought that only with her help was her brother Edward the Elder able to defeat the remaining Vikings in the south of England.

She died in 918, just as the city of York was preparing to give the city to her in return for protection against Vikings from Ireland.

During her reign, her brother Edward’s son – Athelstan – was brought up in her court. In Tamworth, where she was buried, there is a statue of Aethelflaed where she is protecting ner nephew, who was to be the first King of England.

[] Athelstan

A
portrait of King Athelstan.

When Alfred (Alfred of Davingstock, not Alfred the Great) had a son, it would have been more logical to call him Edward. Edward was Alfred the Great’s son, and Aethelflaed’s brother. It would have also been a more normal name in modern England.

But Athelstan was the first king of a united England, and although he has not been given ‘the Great’ as a suffix, probably deserves it. He is a more important historical figure than Edward.

As heir to both his aunt and father, Athelstan was ruler of the kingdoms of Mercia and Wessex, and King of the Anglo-Saxons from 924. He was then able to complete Aethelflaed’s work, conquering the Viking-held York in 927 and ruling the whole of England, and so became King of the English until his death in 939.

An alliance between the Vikings and the Scottish was the greatest threat to Athelstan’s rule, but he defeated them in a final battle, where we are told that five kings were killed, as well as the son of King Constantine II of Scotland.

According to texts, Athelstan was the first ruler to set up national assemblies, which many historians have seen as a form of primitive parliament. Athelstan also set up churches and encouraged learning.

A legal code was established in the town of Faversham, in Kent, which reflected his concern for religious matters, and his worries about robberies and lawlessness inside his kingdom.

He never married and had no children. When he died the crown passed to his half-brother, Edmund. From this period on the Scottish began to gain more power and influence. Finally, in 1066, England was invaded by the Normans, and the time of the Anglo-Saxon kings was over.

Comprehension Questions.

#
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. The original inhabitants of England are called B________

#
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. The Anglo-Saxons came from an area we now know as G______

#
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. Although King Alfred existed, the story of the burnt cakes is a l____

#
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. Although Alfred defeated the Vikings, his kingdom was still t_____ by them.

#
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. Aethelflaed became ruler as the wife, and when he died, the w_____ of Athelred, Lord of the Mercians.

#
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. Due to her unexpected death, Aethelflaed's r_______ was short.

#
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. Athelstan was Alfred’s g_________.

#
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. Athelstan defeated an a________of five kings.

#
p<{color:#000;background:transparent;}. Athelstan died c_______.

10. Athelstan h______ his brother named successor after his death.

All the answers to the activities and exercises: profesornativogratis.com/9585-2/

[][][][][] The Royal National Lifeboat Institution

It’s no wonder that when Aethelstan suspected Ayaan of stealing the trophy, neither Aethelflaed nor Samantha or Natalia could believe that he would do such a thing.

Ayaan’s volunteer work for the Royal National Lifeboat Institution has automatically gained him a place as one of Davingstock’s most respected young citizens. More than 600 RNLI lifeguards have lost their lives out to sea, and Ayaan puts his life at risk every time he answers the call to the lifeboat or helicopter. What’s more, as the RNLI is a charity Ayaan does not get paid for his work.

It is estimated that 140,000 lives have been saved since the RNLI was founded in 1860. In 2015, to cite one example, 22 people were rescued per day. The RNLI also played an important role in both world wars, including the evacuation of the British army from Dunkirk in France.

It is not just a case going out to sea and saving lives – volunteers need to be willing to dedicate hours of their free time in training and preparation. This is after going through a nine-month training process and 12-month trial period.

Luckily, there are a lot more men and women like Ayaan – 31,500 in fact, manning the boats and helicopters, managing the lifeboat stations, organising fundraising events and teaching young people how to stay safe in the water.

1Cramped = Without much space to move

2Terraced = One of a line (‘a terrace’) of houses

3’Fuss’ has a lot of meanings. Here: Excitement, scandal, expectation…

4Make a point (of ….ing) = Make sure people notice

5’Meet up (with someone)’ is used specifically for social situations (not business)

6’She can’t be bothered’ means she doesn’t want to, but her, ‘She’s not bothered’ means she doesn’t mind.

7This is an inversion. See ‘Understanding Language’. You can also visit profesornativogratis.com and search ‘inversions’

8Dodgy = Suspicious-looking, not trustworthy

9Oddball = Strange, eccentric person

10To stand out from = To be more noticeable than what is around

11To steer clear of = To avoid

12Dunce = A traditional term for the least intelligent person of the class

13To moor = Tie up a boat so it doesn’t move

14Plain = Not especially attractive. Boring in a physical sense

15Stunning = Spectacular, breathtaking

16To rub (something) in = Emphasise or draw attention to something to make you feel bad

17Sigh of relief = Breathe out because something bad you had expected hasn’t happened

18A place where children aged 1-5 are looked after

19Stalls = The temporary ‘shops’ that can be found in markets and fairs

20Referee = The person who controls and supervises a football match

21Giggle = Imagine at the back of the class, trying not to laugh

22To catch on = To understand

23Chunky = Bigger than normal

24Beam = Beautiful, wide, white smile

25RNLI = Royal National Lifeboat Institution, a charity dedicated to saving lives at sea. See back of book.

26To be keen on something = To be very interested in, passionate about

27Get to the point = Be very direct with your opinion, request or explanation

28A whistle = Small object that a referee uses to make a noise during the match. Whistle (noun) is to make the sound

29A ninny = A silly or weak person. This is not a strong insult.

30To beg (or to plead) = is to ask somebody desperately as a big favour.

31Yell = Shout

32Depressed, pessimistic

33’Bitter’ (adjective) is the taste of coffee, also used to describe resentment or bad feeling. ‘Bitterly’ is the adverb.

34Steady on = Calm down, take it easy

35Pull yourself together! = Control your emotions! Used when somebody is hysterical, depressed, upset….

36Clutch = To hold something firmly

37Scoff = Make fun of somebody, laugh at them in a disrespectful way

38Pitch = A football, hockey or rugby field (grass only)

39Chuck = Throw (semi-colloquial)

40Turn up = Appear

41Knackered = Very tired (semi-colloquial)

42Lounge = Very common equivalent of ‘Living room’

43Approach = (verb) To go near something (noun) Your method or way of doing something.

44Gnomes = Small ceramic figures you put in the garden with hats and beards.

45Fine (verb/noun) = When the police or the authorities make you pay as a punishment for speeding, bad parking…

46The UK is divided into ‘counties’. The fictional town Davingstock is in the county of Kent.

47Sort out = Solve, find a solution

48Hang on (or ‘Hold on’) = Wait a bit.

49Mixture of oats cooked in milk, served with sugar (and optional: honey)

50Gather = Literally, to bring things toogether (a family gathers for Christmas). Here, what you have heard (gather information)

51Work out = Discover something by analysis or calculation (‘Find out’ is simply to discover something)

52Spot on = Exactly

53Stroll (noun/verb) or Wander (noun/verb) = Walk casually, without a fixed destination

54’Speak of the devil’ = Set expression, when you are speaking about somebody and you see them

55To greet = To say ‘hello’ (Noun = Greeting)

56Frown (noun/verb) = Facial expression expressing confusion or disapproval. Lines appear between your eyes.

57To storm away = Walk away angrily (To storm in = Walk in angrily)

58Banks = The sides of the river are called riverbanks or banks.

59What (are you) up to? = ‘What (are you) doing?’, but in a suspicious tone. Also: ‘He’s up to something’.

60To grab = Take something in a forceful or aggressive way.

61Gold-plated = Not solid gold – covered gold.

62How come…….? = How….? or Why……? Do not use the structure of a question. For example: How come you know Juan? (Not: How come DO you know Juan?) or How come you are living in Madrid? (Not: How come are you living….)

63Marsh = Wetlands, a flat area of land and water

64Reeds = Long grass-like plants that typically grow in marshland

65Drop out = To stop studying before completing

665-7 year old children = Infants’ school 7-11 year-olds = Junior school 11-16/18 = Secondary (or High – USA) School

67Stare (noun/verb) = Look directly at something. If somebody stares at you it can make you feel uncomfortable

68To pop around = To visit somebody without warning (To pop in = to enter without having planned)

69Deck = In the same way a building is divided into floors or storeys, a boat is divided into decks.

70Shade is like ‘shadow’, but it is specifically when you want it because it’s too hot

71Shriek (noun/verb) = A loud shout at high tone

72’Go on’ generally means to carry on or continue. Here: ‘not stop talking’

73To snap = To answer quickly and angrily

74Stab (noun/verb) = Literally, to put a knife into somebody. Metaphorically, (and here) a sudden emotion: ‘A stab of fear.’

75Moan (noun/verb) = Complain. The difference is if you use ‘moan’ you are annoyed by the person’s attitude.

76Grounded = Punished. Your parents don’t let you go out with friends.

77Tell (somebody) off = A verbal correction, for example when a parent sees a child doing something bad.

78here, it means ‘understand’. For a full article on ‘get’, go to profesornativogratis.com/uses-of-get/.

79’reckon’ and ‘bet’ are synonyms for ‘suppose’

80Dim-witted = Silly

81Glide = literally, to fly without motor, or birds using air currents. It can be used for any smooth motion.

82Swear = To give a solemn promise (in court, as a president..). It also means ‘to use bad language’.

83Good job / Just as well = ‘It’s lucky that…’ For example: Good job we left early, because there’s a lot of traffic.

84With ‘on’, look means ‘as a spectator’, not participating.

85Leap (Leapt/Leapt) = Jump. Neil Armstrong: ‘A small step for man, a giant leap for mankind.’

86Pale = White-skinned

87When you don’t think somebody is reliable you view them with distrust (from personal experience) or mistrust (general feeling)

88Wrinkled = When you have lines on your face from age or stress.

89’Tear’ (rhymes with ‘hair’) Tore – Torn = Break paper or material like clothes. ‘Ragged’ is an adjective to describe a person’s appearance when they are wearing torn clothes.

90A type of trousers made from a material similar to rope. These trousers are usually brown (‘pana’)

91’Scruffy’ is the opposite to ‘smart’ when talking about appearance.

92To lean = Put your weight against a wall or table while you are standing.

93Junk = Useless things, rubbish, stuff….

94Daisy = A very common wild flower: Small, with a yellow centre and white petals.

95To crush = To press something between two surfaces so that it becomes flat.

96To deny = To say that you haven’t done something, or that you have no connection. ‘The politician denied corruption charges’.

97Ale / Bitter = Traditional British brown beer, served at room temperature.

98To commute = Travel every day to a big city to work. ‘Commuters’ are the people who do this.

99Brewery = A beer factory. ‘To brew’ = Make beer.

100’ The preposition ‘up’ in a phrasal verb often implies ‘finish’ or ‘completely’: ‘Eat up your vegetables’ or ‘‘Lock up the shop’

101Crimson = A type of deep red.

102 ‘To get (somebody’s) back up’ = To annoy somebody. Think of a cat when it raises its back.

 


Aethelflaed and the Missing Trophy (Book for English Learners)

There are many storybooks aimed specifically at students of English, but I have noticed most do not use their full potential. They are basically stories adapted in order to be more easily understood, but do not give the reader activities and exercises where they can put the language to use. I have tried to correct this. This book includes: Conversational English and everyday expressions. More than 100 explanatory footnotes. Activities and puzzles focusing on aspects of vocabulary and grammar. Everyday Objects / Food / Directions / Tag Questions / Household Vocab / Professions.... Extra exercises at the end of the story to teach grammatical structures, phrasal verbs and extending vocabulary: Might vs. Could / Should have vs. Must have / Past Perfect / Like vs. As / Phrasal Verbs & Common Expressions / Vocabulary Builder.... Extra articles focusing on aspects related to the story: 1. Alfred, Aethelflaed and Athelstan: The Saxon Monarchs 2. The RNLI: Britain's volunteer heroes. A link to an audio file. Listen to the whole tale! Most people think that Aethelflaed is a bit dim, but when the town trophy disappears, her stubbornness is the key...

  • Author: Jonathan Olliffe
  • Published: 2017-06-04 14:05:20
  • Words: 14160
Aethelflaed and the Missing Trophy (Book for English Learners) Aethelflaed and the Missing Trophy (Book for English Learners)