A Course Book In English for Engineers

A Course Book In English for Engineers

  • Title Page
  • Preface vii
  • P reface
  • Glossary
  • Introduction
  • Part B

A Course Book in

English for Engineers



Dr Pushpa Nagini Sripada

Professor of English

Sathyabama University, Chennai


Dr Mani Ramana Cherukuri

Faculty, Adikavi Nannayya University, Rajahmundry, AP

Sripada Publications


© 2016, Sripada Publications

bq. All rights reserved. No part of this

publication may be reproduced,

stored in a retrieval system, or

transmitted, in any form or by

any means, without the prior

permission in writing of

Sripada Publications

bq. First Published 2016


bq. Published by

Sripada Publications

3/82, Valluvar Salai

Ramapuram, Chennai

Tamil Nadu, India 600089

Chennai , India

ISBN 978-93-83409-17-4

Rs 375 /-












bq. Acknowledgement v

bq. Preface vii









The author is greatly indebted to the Honorable Chancellor of Sathyabama University Col. Dr. Jeppiaar, M.A., B.L., Ph.D., and Madam Chancellor, Smt. Remibai Jeppiaar for all the inspiration, opportunities, and motivation given.

The acknowledges with gratitude, the encouragement and the support provided by the Directors of Sathyabama University, Dr. Marie Johnson B.E., M.B.A., M.Phil., Ph.D. and Dr. Mariazeena Johnson B.E., M.B.A., M.Phil., Ph.D. Special thanks to the Vice Chancellor of Sathyabama University, Dr. B. Sheela Rani, the Registrar Dr. S. S. Rau, and the Controller of Examinations Dr. K.V. Narayanan, Dean of Research and Development Dr. Sasiprabha, and Dr Sundareswari, Dean of Science and Humanities for their valuable inputs.

The author acknowledges the help extended by Department colleagues the HOD of English Dr Shilaja, CL., and others in the process of designing the book.

The author wish to acknowledge the sources of adapted science articles, materials and images within the units. At the time of going to press the author has requested the copyright owners for the permission to use these articles and images in the book for designing materials. The author and publisher await response for these. Should such permission not be granted, these will be replaced in the next edition of the book.

The author wish to thank her family members for continued support. Last but not the least, the knowledge, the strength and the opportunity are none but the blessings of God. I Thank God Almighty for what I am today.








Dedicated to




Our Honorable


Col. Dr. Jeppiaar, M.A. B.L., Ph.D.,

Founder and Chairman of Jeppiaar Educational Trust Chancellor of Sathyabama University


an exemplary leader and educationalist

an epitome of humility and dignity

an inspiration for me and many


who believed








with humble regards

Pushpa Nagini Sripada










The course materials presented in this book are designed based on the new syllabus framed for the first year B.E./B.Tech students of Sathyabama University. The materials are organized around five topic areas that the students come across in their Engineering subjects. The topic areas have been chosen taking into account the needs and interests of the students. Each topic focuses on improving listening, speaking, reading and writing skills of the students, besides their vocabulary and practice tasks on correct usage of English language. The activities are framed based on the type of tasks that students need to do when they take up competitive examinations and tests in the future.

An attempt has been made to follow Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) methodology in teaching English. A range of language functions, that are particular to science, engineering and technology, are exempli- field in the text for reading and listening, and practiced in oral and written work. These materials require the students to work in a communicative way, practicing the use of English for different purposes, with encouragement and guidance from the teacher. The vocabulary includes the words they come across in their other subject besides idioms and phrases related to the topic areas.

The role of the teacher is primarily that of a facilitator, while the learners are expected to read, explain, discuss and express their opinions on various topics. The text also provides scope for the teacher to bring in various other materials and articles relevant to the topic, and thereby develop the habit of extensive reading.



Unexceptionally Exceptional



h4<>. [*
bq. A. Think /Pair /share

Self Introduction

Create a mind map of yourself using the example given below. You can mention information about you like games, songs, TV shows, dream jobs , favorite things of yours etc.


source: http://deathlyscythe.weebly.com/uploads

First Impressions:


p<>. B. Work in pairs, ask your friends questions on the following topics. You can even try introducing your partner to the class by starting with his/her name

What’s your name? I am…

Where are you from? I’m from …

Where are you studying? I am studying in

What are you studying? I’m studying

Can you tell me something about (student’s town or village)

What is the most interesting part of your town / village?


h3<>. [*
bq. Team building activity: Commonality Circles using parts of speech


p<>. .Elements of Writing: Parts of Speech

Every word in the English language belongs to a family, which is called the ‘Parts of speech’. They are NOUN, PRONOUN, VERB, ADJECTIVE, ADVERB, PROPOSTION, CONJUNCTION AND INTERJECTION.

It is necessary to know the function of every word in a sentence.

Noun :Noun is a naming word. It represents persons, places, things, ideas and feelings. Examples: John, Chennai, Chair, Theory of Relativity, Kindness etc.

Five types of nouns-

Proper noun eg. John, Sunita, Mumbai, England etc…

Common noun eg. Table, Village, Boy, Mother, etc…

Collective noun eg. Crowd, Team, People, Cattle, Herd…

Abstract noun eg. Fear, Courage, Honesty, Truth…

Material noun eg. Iron, Gold, Silver, Stone…

PRONOUN: Pronoun is a word used to replace noun.

There are seven basic pronouns referred to as personal pronouns.

The table given below shows all the three types of pronouns.

table<>. <>. |<>.
p=. Person |<>.
p=. Subjective |<>.
p=. Objective |<>.
p=. Possessive | <>. |<>.

|<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. p. | <>. |<>. p<>. First Person |<>. p=. I |<>. p=. me |<>. p=. my, mine | <>. |<>. p. |<>. p=. We |<>. p=. us |<>. p=. our, ours | <>. |<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. p. | <>. |<>. p<>. Second person |<>. p=. You |<>. p=. You |<>. p=. Your, Yours | <>. |<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. p. | <>. |<>. p<>. Third Person |<>. p=. He |<>. p=. Him |<>. p=. His, His | <>. |<>. p. |<>. p=. She |<>. p=. Her |<>. p=. Her, Hers | <>. |<>. p. |<>. p=. It |<>. p=. It |<>. p=. Its, Its | <>. |<>. p.
p=. They
p=. Them
p=. Their, Theirs

Kinds of pronouns

Personal pronoun : I, We, You, He, She, It, They.

Demonstrative pronoun : This, that, these, those…

Indefinite pronoun : One, none, they, all, some, someone…

Distributive pronoun : Each, Either, Neither…

Interrogative pronoun : Who, whom, whose, which, what…

Relative pronoun : Who, what, which, whom, that, as but…

Reflexive pronoun : Himself, herself, themselves, myself…

VERB: Verb expresses an action, a possession or the state of a thing.

All verbs have three forms viz Present, Past and Past participle forms

Auxiliary is a word that helps a verb. They are of two types:

p<>. Those which work both as main verbs and as auxiliaries

e.g. am, is, are, has, have, do, does, was, were, did, had…

p<>. Those which function only as auxiliaries and cannot be used without another verb in the sentence are known as modals.

e.g. can, may, will, shall, should, might, could, would, must, never, dare, need, keep, kept, used to, ought to, going to, be, been, being…

The first type of auxiliaries are to be, to have and to do are given below with all their forms.

table<>. <>. |<>.

p<>. Present
p<>. Past
p<>. Future

Note : (being & been are used in passage structure)

ADJECTIVE: Adjective is a word that describes a noun. It provides information about the noun it qualifies. Adjectives are formed by adding certain suffixes to noun and verbs.

eg. – ‘en’ as in golden, molten

- ‘ful’ as in beautiful, merciful

- ‘ous’ as in luminous, courageous

- ‘al’ as in criminal, technical etc.

Kinds of adjectives

1.Adjectives of Quality :good, honest, old, big etc…

2.Adjectives of Quantity :some, much, little, enough etc …

3. Adjectives of number or Numeral Adjectives: one, two, first, second…

a. Indefinite numeral adjectives:all, no, many, few, some, any, certain,several…

b. Distributive numeral adjectives:this, these, that, those …

4.Interrogative Adjectives: what, which, whose

ADVERB: (add + Verb) Adverb amplifies the action of a verb

eg. She runs fast. I write slowly. The boy speaks clearly

Kinds of Adverbs

Adverbs of manner : quick, hard, fast, well…

Adverbs of time : short, soon, now and later…

Adverbs of frequency : once, frequently, occasionally, sometimes, never…

Adverbs of degree : rather, scarcely, hardly, too, quite …

PREPOSITIO: (Pre-before position) A preposition is a word that is used with a noun or pronoun to explain its relation with some other noun or pronoun.

e.g. The girl is fond of music. There is a cow in the garden

CONJUNCTION: (joint = junction):A conjunction joins words, phrases, clauses and sentences.

e.g a. He and I are good friends. b. He worked hard but did not succeed

c. Pay the fees or you will not be admitted

Kinds of Conjunctions

a. Coordinating conjunctions : and, but, for, or, nor, also, either … or, neither…or, only, still, for.

b. Subordinating conjunctions : (A word introducing a subordinate clause): after, because, if, that, though, although, till, before, unless, until, as, when, where, while, how etc.,

c. Compound conjunctions : in order that, on condition that, even if, so that, provided that, as though, in as much as, as well as, as if etc.,

INTERJECTION: An interjection expresses some sudden or strong feeling.

p<>. Yeah! It is fine.

p<>. Alas! He is no more.

p<>. Oh! What a nice dinner.

Note: The part of speech of a word is decided by the work done by it in a sentence and not by its form. Therefore the same word may belong to different parts of speech.

p<>. The office is above (adverb)

Honour is above money (preposition)

Read the above questions (adjective)

Our blessings come from above (noun)

p<>. Come near and sit by my side (adverb)

My office is near his (preposition).

She is not a near relation of mine (adjective)

A traveler feels happy as he nears his home (verb)

p<>. 4. a. Name the part of speech of every word in the following sentences. State the type wherever necessary.

Savita is nice girl. She never comes late to school. The teacher has a good opinion about her.

p<>. 4. b. State the type of nouns:

Father Milkman

New Delhi Chair

Mohini Town

Truth Mob

Flock Gas

1.4.c. Find out the part of speech of the underlined words.

p<>. We completed writing our assignment.

p<>. The student are writing the examination in Room No.24.

p<>. Writing desks are made smooth.

p<>. Writing-pad is necessary to do the work comfortably.

p<>. Come inside

p<>. The inside room is decorated

p<>. The inside of a box is coated with silver

p<>. They came inside the home.

1.4.d. Fill in the blank spaces given below with the appropriate form of the word by adding suffixes:

table<>. <>. |<>.
p<>. Noun |<>.
p<>. Adjective |<>.
p<>. Verb |<>.
p<>. Person or thing | <>. |<>.

|<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. p.


p=. Read the following passage to answer the questions that follow: The Learning Curve

An attitude is a mental position, a feeling, an emotional response to your environment that makes you value certain experiences, activities and people while devaluating others because they do not get well with your mental positioning. In short, it is the way we view the world. We shape our attitudes through personal experiences and exposures, and we look at and judge the world through the window of our attitude.

Just from this definition, we can see how dangerous a wrong attitude is for our growth and enrichment. If we do not grow and evolve, we might as well be dead. Stagnation stinks. So let us check our attitude.

No Choice:

Are you sitting there because you believe you have to? Do yourself and others a favour and excuse yourself. You are going to be miserable or unbearable to others, depending on where you are on the spectrum of being totally non-involved on one end, or totally belligerent on the other. Teaching is not something that is done to you; neither is it an entertainment. Your educational experience depends on whether you choose to actively engage yourself in the learning process or not. There is an old Chinese saying: Teachers can only open the door, you decide if you want to enter or not. They cannot walk on you behalf. It is your curiosity that has to entice you to go forward, explore and demand to know more. There is no such thing as “victim” of instruction. The guiding principle here is how demanding are you to extract the information you want. Do you ask questions? Pose challenges?

Learning is a personal experience. You are there for selfish reason. “I want to know more.” There is no more room for others, meaning, if you have a doubt or an opinion, you owe it itself to know. Think about it this way, it will make you feel better. When you are talking or exhibiting other distracting behaviour in the classroom, you are hardly thinking of others and how you are distributing their personal journey. This creates more correct attitude that is “I must take responsibility for my own learning”

Testing times:

If you are asking yourself, “Is this going to be part of the test?” what you are actually saying is,” there is no test grades, I am not going to take this seriously enough to learn it.” What a self defeating sentiment! There might not be a test in the traditional sense of the word. But life itself is continuous challenge with no retakes. Instead of adopting a minimalist attitude of “only-do-what-I-have-to-do” to learning, look at it as a preparation for challenges that may come your way; otherwise your mind will discourage exploration, risk-taking, creativity, observations and reflections.

You are not learning for your boss or you company, you are learning for yourself. The helpful attitude you can take towards yourself should be "If I don't invest myself in education, the one who loses is me." As adults the natural inquisitiveness of our childhood disappears under layers of self importance, wrong perceptions and lack of self confidence. We get so busy with earning a living, caring for family and other mundane things from morning till evening that before we know it, the lack of exercising our minds narrows our attitudes and approach about who and where we are, limiting what we should become. Effective learning starts with the attitude that "there are many things I do not know, or I am not aware of" and "what are the new things I learned today? Evolving in life is more than just mechanics; it is the mindset. --- The Hindu

p<>. Answer the following questions:

p<>. Define attitude in your own words.

p<>. How does stagnation in our attitude effect our lives?

p<>. How does wrong attitude in the classroom hinder the acquisition of knowledge?

p<>. Which type of behaviour in the classroom develops positive attitude?

p<>. According to the passage, what is the role of the teacher and the learner in the process of learning?

Write whether the following statements are true or false:

p<>. Attitude is shaped by the type of exposure one has in life.

p<>. Learning only what is necessary at that particular moment would bring success in life.

p<>. The correct mindset is to accept that life is a continuous process of learning.

p<>. Write two noun forms for the following words:

p<>. instruct

p<>. explore


p<>. Tenses : Go through the table showing tense structure:

table<>. <>. |<>.

|<>. p=. Simple |<>. p=. Continuous |<>. p=. Perfect |<>. p=. Perfect Continuous | <>. |<>. p<>. Present |<>. p<>. He works. |<>. p<>. He is working. |<>. p<>. He has worked. |<>. p<>. He has been working. | <>. |<>. p<>. Past |<>. p<>. He worked. |<>. p<>. He was working. |<>. p<>. He had worked |<>. p<>. He had been working. | <>. |<>. p<>. Future |<>. p<>. He will work. |<>. p<>. He will be working. |<>. p<>. He will have worked.
p<>. He will have been working

1.6. a. Identify the tenses of the verbs in the following sentences.


p<>. Sir.C.V.Raman is a great scientist.

p<>. Mother Teresa won the Nobel Prize for Peace.

p<>. India will soon become a superpower in Bio- Technology.

p<>. Our students are preparing for the final examination.

p<>. Rose was sitting under a tree when the bell rang.

p<>. India will be playing against Australia in June.

p<>. We have lost many lives during the Kargil war.

p<>. The train had left long before we reached the station.

p<>. I have been asking you to stop shouting for the past ten minutes.

p<>. We shall have reached London by this time tomorrow.

Uses of Tense

I. Simple Present Tense

The simple present tense is used.

1.For actions in the present which happen usually, habitually or generally

He walks to college every day.

2.For stating general truths. – Water boils at 100°C.

3.For describing processes in a general way.

A scientist observes phenomena carefully.

p<>. Present continuous tense

The present continuous tense is used


p<>. To express an action going on at the time of speaking. For example,

I am lighting the Bunsen burner.

p<>. Present Perfect Tense is used to denote an action that has just been completed.

I have completed the experiment.

p<>. Present Perfect Continuous Tense is used for repeated actions from past that have connection to the present

p<>. I have been trying to solve the problem.

1.6.b. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of the verbs in the present tense.

1. A successful scientist ____________ (be) full of curiosity. He ____________ (want) to find out how and why the universe ____________ (work). He usually ____________ (direct) his attention towards problems, which he ____________ (notice) have no satisfactory explanation and his curiosity ____________ (make) him look for underlying relationships even if the data available ____________ (seem) to be unconnected.

2. Today science ____________ (play) a major role in the creation of the global village. International agencies ____________ (pool) their resources and ____________ (incorporate) themselves into greater bodies. Universities _______________ (develop) joint research projects. On the whole the world ____________ (move) towards greater unity.

3. The most striking characteristic of modern science ____________ (be) the trend towards international cooperation. The widening scope of present day research ____________ (result) in extending many items of research beyond national boundaries. The increasing interdependence of nations ____________ (have) an impact on scientific investigation. The last twenty years ____________ (witness) the intensification of international cooperation. The magnitude of the problems to be solved ____________ (keep) on increasing.

II. Past Tense

The past simple is used

1. To denote an action or event which happened in the past. For example,

Marie was born in Poland.

2. To express a habitual action in the past. For example,

She worked for several hours everyday.

The past continuous is used

1. To denote an action in progress at a point of time in the past. For example,

Newton was sitting under an apple tree.

2. To express an action going on in the past when another action took place. For example,

Archimedes was taking his bath when a new scientific truth flashed on his mind.

The past perfect is used to denote an action completed at some point in the past before another action took place. For example,

When he had obtained the data, he summed it up.

1.6.3. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of the verb in brackets.

1.It (be) nine O`clock on a night in the year 1900. Marie (put) her daughter Irene to sleep just then. She (come) down, to her husband. She (be) restless. Her radium (beckon) her to take a look. She (say) suddenly, suppose we go down there for a moment? They (go) on foot, arm in arm, exchanging few words. Pierre (put) the key in the lock. The door (squeak and (admit) them to the realm of their dream. ‘‘Look ... Look!’’ the young woman ____________ (murmur). Their two faces (turn) towards the pale, glimmering, mysterious source of radiation, towards radium, their clock.

III. Future Tense

The simple future denotes an action that is yet to take place. For example,

India will launch a spaceship soon.

The future continuous denotes an action that will be going on at some point of time in the future. For example,

The Indians will be playing against the Australian next week.

The future perfect expresses an action that will have been completed at some point in future time. For example,

We shall have reached Nagpur by this time tomorrow.

1.6.4. Fill in the blanks with appropriate forms of the verbs in brackets.

1. India (merge) as the super power in Information Technology in a few years.

2. Students from different parts of the world (flock) to Indian universities.

3. Our Indian spaceship (land) on the moon by 2010.

4. Indian scientists (be) in great demand everywhere.

5. Our scientific know-how (increase) by leaps and bounds in the near future.

1.7. Language Focus: Agreement of the verb with the subject – Concord

The verb agrees with the subject in number and person. That is, if the subject is singular, the verb must also be singular; if the subject is plural, the verb must be plural. If the subject is in the third person (he, she, it, one, they) the verb must also be in the third person.

table<>. <>. |<>.
p<>. * General rule |<>.
p<>. - |<>.
p<>. Singular subject verb; plural subject takes plural verb

For example,

The mouse is chased by the cat.

The mice are chased by the car. | <>. |<>.
p<>. * Other rules |<>.
p<>. - |<>.
p<>. When two or more singular subjects are connected by and the verb is. Both … and, several, many, few always have a plural verb For example,

Hari and Ram are here.

Both oxygen and hydrogen combine to produce water.

Several objects were stolen from my house.

Many are going to Mysore today. | <>. |<>.
p<>. * Exception |<>.
p<>. - |<>.
p<>. If a subject consisting of two singular nouns connected by and refers to the same person or thing, a singular verb is used. For example.

Cornflakes and milk is our Sunday breakfast.

My friend and colleague has come.

The poet and dramatist is dead. |

  • To find out whether the two words refer to the same person or two different persons, look at the article or possessive adjective. If there are two articles or possessives, there are two different persons. In that case the verb must be plural. For example,

My friend and my colleague have come.

The poet and the dramatist always come up with difference of opinions.

  • If two singular subjects express one idea then the verb may be singular (plural verb is also permitted). For example,

Slow and steady wins the race.

The horse and carriage is waiting.

  • If we get the word each or every before singular subjects, the verb is singular. For example,

Each student must bring his books.

Every man, woman and child is to be looked after.

Every shirt, tie and coat is marked for reduction sale.

  • If the subject consists of two singular words connected by or, nor, neither … nor, or either … or, the subject is singular and requires a singular verb. For example,

His father or he is expected here.

Neither he nor I was present.

Either he or his brother has done this.

  • If the subject is made up of both singular and plural words connected by or, nor, either …. or, neither … nor, not only…. but also, the verb agrees with the nearest word of the subject.

Not only her master but also her mistress was proud of her.

Not only her mistress but also the literary circles were amazed by her talent.

Neither the students nor the teacher is in favour of the system.

Neither the teacher nor the students are in favour of the system.

  • Collective Nouns: A collective noun is a word that represents a group of persons, animals or things. For example,

Committee, army, audience, cabinet, council, company, society, police, jury, board, department, herd, Bunch

  • A collective noun takes a singular verb when it is treated as a whole; a plural verb when the individuals it is composed of is thought of as many. For example,

The Board of Directors meets once in a month.

The majority has made its decision.

The audience were cheering and laughing – even crying.

The Committee were not in agreement on the action to be taken.

  • Certain collective nouns, though singular inform, are always used in the plural sense and take a plural verb. For example,

The cattle are grazing near the canal.

There are twenty-six letters of the alphabet in English.

The people of this country are very hospitable.

  • Certain nouns are always used in singular and followed by singular verbs. These are not used in plural sense and do not take plural verbs. For example,

The news is good.

My luggage is lying at the station.

Alms is given to poor people.

  • Words joined to a subject – by with, along with, as well as, accompanied by, together with, in addition to, as much as, rather, among – take on singular verb. For example,

My friend along with his wife and children has come to my house.

British as well as French colonization was responsible for the spread of English and French languages.

Paste with brush costs fifteen rupees.

  • Words like body ; thing (anything, nothing, something); one (anyone, no one, everyone, some one); are always singular and require a singular verb. For example,

Fifty rupees seems too much for this item.

Ten months is too long a time to wait.

That rupees two lakhs was an inheritance from my father.

  • Subjects which precede relative pronouns such as who, that etc. will take up singular or plural verb accordingly. For example,

He, who is my friend, is a reliable fellow.

Those, who are my friends, are reliable fellows.


p<>. Choose the correct verb forms


1. Every one of you (know / knows) your subject well.

2. Mary, as well as Jones (is/are) coming along.

3. A colour of many hues (is/re) most interesting.

4. There (is/are) many pictures on the wall.

5. I’m sure that neither the lawyer nor the accountant (is/are) to blame.

6. Ann or Rita (know / knows) the direction.

7. Neither the cat nor the dogs (is/are) eating today.

8. Neither the clouds nor the sun (cheer / cheers) me today.

9. Montage’s essays (have / has) always been one of my favourite books.

10. Aerobics (remain / remains) a best-seller month after month.

1.8. Letter Writing:

Letter to the Editor:

Read the following hints and write a letter to the editor of The Hindu on ‘Maintaining Ellitos Beach’ in Chennai. Choose three problem areas and make suggestions.

table<>. <>. |<>.
bq. Many feel that no special beautification scheme is required, as the beach is beau tiful by itself. What is required is that the beach should be maintained really clean.


p<>. Beautification scheme: No beautifi cation – money sanctions/ publicity given in papers

p<>. Hawkers: they contribute consider- ably to the unclean conditions – occu pying considerable space – should be barred forthwith.

Stray dogs – survive on waste eatables strewn by the hawkers and their customers appoint contractors for beach maintenance.

Pathway: The broken pathway, rarely cleaned, give water wash every-day in the morning and in the evening.

Need for tree planting: Planting the saplings -can be allowed to name the trees as they wish

Fish stalls: The fish stalls maintained in unclean- foul smell

Beautification scheme: Many feel that no special beautification scheme is required, as the beach is beautiful by itself. What is required is that the beach should be maintained really clean.

No beautification – money sanctions/ publicity given in papers


p<>. Hawkers: They contribute consider- ably to the unclean conditions – occupying considerable space – should be barred forthwith.

Stray dogs – survive on waste eatables strewn by the hawkers and their customers appoint contractors for beach maintenance.

Pathway: The broken pathway, rarely cleaned, give water wash every-day in the morning and in the evening.



p<>. 8. Letter on Requisition for Practical Training

bq. As students you write letters asking for permission to do project. Go through the ‘Letter on Requisition for Practical Training’ and note the following points in the letter.

1. Self Introduction 2. The purpose of doing the project 3. Area of the Project 4. Period of doing the project 5. Assurance to obey the rules

6. Enclosures



III B.E. Electronics & Communication Engineering Government College of Engineering


5 August 20

The Public Relations Officer

Indian Space Research Organisation Sri Harikota

Andhra Pradesh


Sub: Requisition for Practical Training – Reg.

I am a third year student of Electronics and Communication Engineering. I have proposed to do my project on ‘Weather Satellite Interface’ so as to enhance my knowledge about satellite communication. As I wish to have exposure on the practical aspects of it, I have opted to undergo practical training in your esteemed and reputed organization for a period of one month i.e. 15 November to 15 December 20 .

I would be greatly obliged if you could let me know about your acceptance of my request at the earliest. In this context, I promise that during the period of my training I will conduct myself to the satisfaction of the superiors. I have enclosed the bonafide certificate from the Principal of my college.

Thank you yours faithfully Madhavan


h4<>. [*
bq. Write a letter to the HR of Infosys, requesting him to permit you to undergo practical training in their esteemed organization. Write the letter covering all necessary points.

Acknowledgement letters: Nagini, P S et al, Excellence Through communication, Shri Jai Publications, Chennai, 2005.

p<>. 9. Application for a Job and Resumé preparation

Most letters of application have two parts:

p<>. The Covering Letter 2. The Curriculum Vitae (CV).


h4<>. [*
bq. Read the advertisement given below and write a letter of application for the post of Web Designer

Web Design Engineers wanted: For designing and managing a large information network. Applications are invited from Engineers who has a Bachelor’s degree in Engineering, skilled in computer language with excellent communication abilities. Applications should be addressed to The General Manager, TVS Whirpool Ltd., Chennai – 20

bq. Covering Letter

Suresh Kumar

27, Karhtik Street,

Chennai – 600 064 27.02.20

The General Manager, TVS Whirlpool Ltd., Chennai – 600020

Sir / Madam,

Sub: Application for the post of Web Designer.

Ref: Your advertisement in “The Hindu” dated 24.02.20 .

With reference t the above mentioned advertisement, I wish to apply for the post of Web Designer in your prestigious organisation. I completed B.E. in Electrical and Electronics Engineering from Bharathiar University in the year 20___, and I also completed computer courses in C, C++ and Java. During the course of my studies, I used to be take part in many extra-curricular activities and was an active participant in the English Association activities and cultural programmes.

I request you to consider my application favourably, and call me for an inter- view at your convenience. Herewith I enclose my resume for your perusal.

Thank you Yours truly Suresh Kumar


Suresh Kumar

27, Karthik Street,

Chennai – 64.

Ph: 42052904


To achieve a challenging job to exhibit my technical and soft skills with utmost dedication and commitment.

Educational Qualifications:

table<>. <>. |<>.
bq. S. No.

|<>. bq. Degree |<>. bq. School / University |<>. bq. Year of Passing |<>. bq. Percentage | <>. |<>. bq. 1. |<>. bq. B.E. Electrical Engineering |<>. bq. Bharathiar University |<>. bq. 20 |<>. bq. 89% | <>. |<>. bq. 2. |<>. bq. Higher Secondary School |<>. bq. DAV Public School |<>. bq. 20 |<>. bq. 94% | <>. |<>. bq. 3. |<>. bq. ~10~^^th^^ |<>. bq. DAV Public School |<>. bq. 20 |<>. bq. 92.3% |

Computer Knowledge:

p<>. A two-month course in C, C++ at NIIT during May 20 .

p<>. A one-month certificate course in Java, Turbo.

Professional Affiliation:

A member of IEEE and the British Council

Co-curricular activities:

Publications: ‘Digital Image Processing – A New approach’.

A paper presented at REC Calicut in September 20 .

Seminars: Attended a three-day ‘All India Seminar on Techniques in Programming’ in February 20 .

Extra – curricular activities:

p<>. Conducted blood donation camps in the university.

p<>. Active participant in the English Literary Club.

Project Profile

Designed Burglary alarm for banks in the year 20 and presented at the Inter Collegiate Symposium held at Coimbatore.

Personal Details

Name: A. Suresh Kumar Age and Date of Birth: 21 years; 05.08.19 Nationality: Indian

E-mail ID: [email protected].


p<>. Dr. E. M. Santhosh

Head, Department of Electrical Engineering Regional Engineering College


p<>. Mrs. Sheela Ravindran Principal, DAV Public School Chennai


p<>. Role play: Mock interview :

table<>. <>. |<>.
bq. ROLE CARD – Interviewee

|<>. bq. ROLE CARD 2: INTERVIEWER | <>. |<>. bq. Name: XYZ

Mobile: 9876543210

email: XYZ@gmail.com

|<>. bq. 1. Tell me something about yourself? | <>. |<>. bq. Career Objective

Self-motivated and hardworking fresher seeking for an opportunity to work in a challenging environment to prove my skills and utilize my knowledge & intelligence in the growth of organization.

|<>. bq. 2. Where did you study? | <>. |<>. bq. Key Skills:

Language: C, C++, Core JAVA, Adv JAVA,

C# and ASP.NET.

Database: MySQL, PL/SQL, Oracle 9i.

Operating Systems: MS DOS, Windows 98/2000/xp.

|<>. bq. 3. What activities did you undertake? | <>. |<>. bq. Strengths:

Excellent communication skill. Ability to grasp the new skills quickly. Hard–working

Excellent knowledge of Core subjects.

|<>. bq. 4. What are your strengths? | <>. |<>. bq. Academic Qualification:

B.Tech (IT) from “XYZ University” with 79% in 20. HSC from xyz school, CBSE board with 76% in 20.

|<>. bq. 5. What was your project in BE? | <>. |<>. bq. Academic Projects Undertaken:

Project: Enterprise Reporting System

|<>. bq. 6. Have you done any mini- projects? | <>. |<>. bq. Achievements:

Secured first position in HSC Board exams at School.

Won prizes in singing and dancing competitions.

|<>. bq. 7. Could you tell me some of your achievements? | <>. |<>. bq. Extra-Curricular Activities

Participated in various sports events. Participated in Annual Sports Day at school.

Participated in various cultural events in School and Colleges.

|<>. bq. 8. Have you faced any stressful situation? How did you handle it? | <>. |<>. bq. Hobbies: Table Tennis. Carom.

Blog writing on internet. Web Searching

|<>. bq. 9. If you are given an opportunity to work in our organization how much salary you are expecting? | <>. |<>. bq. Personal Details:

Date of Birth: 19 May 19. Languages known: Hindi and English. Address: XYZ.

|<>. bq. 10. Which sports do you like best? Why? |


h3<>. [*
bq. Affixes:

table<>. <>. |<>.
p=. Suffix |<>.
p=. used to make |<>.
p=. meaning |<>.
p=. example | <>. |<>.
p<>. -able - ible, -ble |<>.
p<>. adjectives |<>.
p<>. possible to |<>.
p<>. acceptable, noticeable, convertible, divisible irresistible | <>. |<>.
p<>. -age |<>.
p<>. nouns |<>.
p<>. a process or state |<>.
p<>. shortage, storage | <>. |<>.
p<>. -al |<>.
p<>. adjectives |<>.
p<>. connected with |<>.
p<>. experimental, accidental, environmental | <>. |<>.
p<>. -ance – ancy, |<>.
p<>. nouns |<>.
p<>. an action, process or state |<>.
p<>. appearance, performance, pregnancy, constancy | <>. |<>.
p<>. -ant, -ent |<>.
p<>. nouns |<>.
p<>. a person who does it |<>.
p<>. assistant, immigrant, student | <>. |<>.
p<>. -ation |<>.
p<>. nouns |<>.
p<>. a state or action |<>.
p<>. examination, imagination organization | <>. |<>.
p<>. -ee |<>.
p<>. nouns |<>.
p<>. a person to whom something is done |<>.
p<>. employee, trainee | <>. |<>.
p<>. -en |<>.
p<>. verbs |<>.
p<>. to give something a particular quality, to make something more |<>.
p<>. to strengthen | <>. |<>.
p<>. -ence, – ency |<>.
p<>. nouns |<>.
p<>. an action, process or state |<>.
p<>. coincidence, patience, potency, presidency | <>. |<>.
p<>. -er |<>.
p<>. nouns |<>.
p<>. a person who does something |<>.
p<>. rider, painter, baker, builder teacher | <>. |<>.
p<>. -ese |<>.
p<>. adjectives |<>.
p<>. from a place |<>.
p<>. Japanese, Chinese, Viennese | <>. |<>.
p<>. -ess |<>.
p<>. nouns |<>.
p<>. a women who does something as a job |<>.
p<>. waitress, actress | <>. |<>.
p<>. -ful |<>.
p<>. adjectives |<>.
p<>. having a particular quality |<>.
p<>. beautiful, helpful, useful, thankful | <>. |<>.
p<>. -hood |<>.
p<>. nouns |<>.
p<>. a state, often during a particular period of time |<>.
p<>. childhood, motherhood | <>. |<>.
p<>. -ian |<>.
p<>. nouns |<>.
p<>. a person who does something as a job or hobby.

|<>. p<>. historian, comedian, politician | <>. |<>. p<>. -ical |<>. p<>. adjectives from nouns ending -y-or-ics |<>. p<>. connected with |<>. p<>. economical, mathematical, physical | <>. |<>. p<>. -ify |<>. p<>. verbs |<>. p<>. to produce a state or quality `1. |<>. p<>. beautify, simplify, purify, | <>. |<>. p<>. ish |<>. p. |<>. p.

p<>. describing nationality or language. 2. Like something 3. rather, quite

p<>. English, Swedish, Polish

childish, foolish, longish, youngish, brownish.

| <>. |<>. p<>. -ist |<>. p<>. nouns |<>. p.

p<>. a person who has studied something or does something as a job.

p<>. a person who believes in something or belongs to a particular group

p<>. scientist, typist

capitalist, pacifist, feminist



table<>. <>. |<>.
p<>. Kilo- |<>\2.
p<>. thousand |<>.
p<>. kilogram, kilowatt | <>. |<>.
p<>. Maxi- |<>\2.
p<>. most, very large |<>.
p<>. maximum | <>. |<>.
p<>. Mega- |<>\2.
p<>. million, very large |<>.
p<>. megabyte, megastar | <>. |<>.
p<>. Micro- |<>\2.
p<>. one millionth, very small |<>.
p<>. microgram, microorganism | <>. |<>.
p<>. mid- |<>\2.
p<>. in the middle of |<>.
p<>. mid-afternoon, mid-air | <>. |<>.
p<>. milli- |<>\2.
p<>. thousandth |<>.
p<>. milligram, milliliter | <>. |<>.
p<>. mini- |<>\2.
p<>. small |<>.
p<>. miniskirt, minibus, miniseries | <>. |<>.
p<>. mis- |<>\2.
p<>. bad or wrong, not |<>.
p<>. to misunderstand, to misbehave, to miscalculate | <>. |<>.
p<>. mono- |<>\2.
p<>. one, single |<>.
p<>. monolingual, monorail | <>. |<>.
p<>. multi- |<>\2.
p<>. many |<>.
p<>. multilingual | <>. |<>.
p<>. non- |<>\2.
p<>. not |<>.
p<>. nonsense, non-resident, non-smoker | <>. |<>.
p<>. out- |<>\2.
p<>. more, to a greater degree |<>.
p<>. to outdo, to outrun | <>. |<>.
p<>. over |<>\2.
p<>. more than normal too much |<>.
p<>. to overeat, to oversleep, to overestimate | <>. |<>.
p<>. post- |<>\2.
p<>. after |<>.
p<>. postwar | <>. |<>.
p<>. pre- |<>\2.
p<>. before |<>.
p<>. prepaid, preview | <>. |<>.
p<>. pro- |<>\2.
p<>. for, in favour of |<>.
p<>. pre-European, pro-democracy | <>. |<>.
p<>. quad- |<>\2.
p<>. four |<>.
p<>. quadruple, quadruplet | <>. |<>.
p<>. re- |<>\2.
p<>. again |<>.
p<>. to rewrite, to rebuild | <>. |<>.
p<>. sub |<>\2.

p<>. below, less than, under

p<>. subzero, subsonic subway, subtitles | <>. |<>.
p<>. Super |<>\2.
p<>. extremely, more than |<>.
p<>. superhuman, super sonic | <>. |<>.
p<>. tele- |<>\2.
p<>. far, over a long distance |<>.
p<>. telecommunications, television, telephone lens | <>. |<>.
p<>. trans- |<>\2.
p<>. across, through |<>.
p<>. transatlantic, transcontinental | <>. |<>.
p<>. tri |<>\2.
p<>. three |<>.
p<>. triangle, tricolour | <>. |<>.
p<>. ultra- |<>\2.
p<>. extremely, beyond a certain limit |<>.
p<>. ultra-modern, ultraviolet | <>. |<>.
p<>. un- |<>\2.
p<>. not, opposite, taking something away |<>.
p<>. uncertain, uncomfortable unsure, to undo, to undress | <>. |<>.
p<>. uni |<>\2.
p<>. one, single |<>.
p<>. uniform | <>. |<>.
p<>. a- |<>.
p<>. not |<>\2.
p<>. atypical | <>. |<>.
p<>. Anglo- |<>.
p<>. English |<>\2.
p<>. Anglo-German relations | <>. |<>.
p<>. ante- |<>.
p<>. before |<>\2.
p<>. antenatal (before birth) | <>. |<>.
p<>. anti- |<>.
p<>. against |<>\2.
p<>. anti-European, antisocial | <>. |<>.
p<>. auto- |<>.
p<>. self |<>\2.
p<>. autobiography | <>. |<>.
p<>. bi- |<>.
p<>. two |<>\2.
p<>. bicycle, bilingual, bimonthly | <>. |<>.
p<>. cent-, centi- |<>.
p<>. hundred |<>\2.
p<>. centenary, centimeter | <>. |<>.
p<>. circum- |<>.
p<>. around |<>\2.
p<>. to circumnavigate (to sail around) | <>. |<>.
p<>. co- |<>.
p<>. together |<>\2.
p<>. copilot, to coexist, cooperation | <>. |<>.
p<>. con- |<>.
p<>. with, together |<>\2.
p<>. context | <>. |<>.
p<>. contra- |<>.
p<>. against, opposite |<>\2.
p<>. to contradict, to contra flow | <>. |<>.
p<>. counter |<>.
p<>. against, opposite |<>\2.
p<>. counterrevolution, counterproductive | <>. |<>.
p<>. de- |<>.
p<>. taking something away, the opposite |<>\2.
p<>. to defrost, to decentralize | <>. |<>.
p<>. deci- |<>.
p<>. one tenth |<>\2.
p<>. deciliter | <>. |<>.
p<>. dis- |<>.
p<>. reverse, opposite |<>\2.
p<>. to displease, to disembark | <>. |<>.
p<>. Euro- |<>.
p<>. European |<>\2.
p<>. Euro MP (member of the European Parliament) | <>. |<>.
p<>. ex- |<>.
p<>. former |<>\2.
p<>. ex-wife, ex-president | <>. |<>.
p<>. extra |<>.
p<>. very, more than usual

outside, beyond |<>\2.
p<>. extra-thin, extra-special

extraordinary, extraterrestrial | <>. |<>.
p<>. fore |<>.
p<>. before, in advance

front |<>\2.
p<>. to foretell, forward

foreground, forehead



p<>. [* Active& Passive Voice and Impersonal Passive Voice: *]

Active voice is the form of verb in which the subject does the work. In passive voice, the subject is passive; it simply receives the action. Impersonal passive voice is a type of sentence in which the person who does the work is not mentioned at all. Only the action is given importance. In technical writing impersonal passive voice is generally used.

table<>. <>. |<>.
p<>. Simple Present |<>.

| <>. |<>. p<>. I/we report an event. |<>. p<>. (Active voice) | <>. |<>. p<>. An event is reported by me/us. |<>. p<>. (Passive voice) | <>. |<>. p<>. You report an event. |<>. p<>. (Active voice) | <>. |<>. p<>. An event is reported by you. |<>. p<>. (Passive voice) | <>. |<>. p<>. He/she/it reports an event. |<>. p<>. (Active voice) | <>. |<>. p<>. An event is reported by him/her/it. |<>. p<>. (Passive voice) | <>. |<>. p. |<>. p. | <>. |<>. p<>. Present continuous |<>. p. | <>. |<>. p<>. I am reporting an event. |<>. p<>. (Active voice) | <>. |<>. p<>. An event is being reported by me. |<>. p<>. (Passive voice) | <>. |<>. p<>. We are attending a course. |<>. p<>. (Active voice) | <>. |<>. p<>. A course is being attended by us. |<>. p<>. (Passive voice) | <>. |<>. p<>. He/she/it is catching a ball. |<>. p<>. (Active voice) | <>. |<>. p<>. A ball is being caught by him/her/it. |<>. p<>. (Passive voice) | <>. |<>. p<>. You are reading a novel. |<>. p<>. (Active voice) | <>. |<>. p<>. A novel is being read by you. |<>. p<>. (Passive voice) | <>. |<>. p<>. They are writing letters. |<>. p<>. (Active voice) | <>. |<>. p<>. Letters are being written by them. |<>. p<>. (Passive voice) | <>. |<>. p. |<>. p. | <>. |<>. p<>. Simple past |<>. p. | <>. |<>. p<>. I/we straightened the wire. |<>. p<>. (Active voice) | <>. |<>. p<>. The wire was straightened by me/us |<>. p<>. (Passive voice) | <>. |<>. p<>. You copied the matter. |<>. p<>. (Active voice) | <>. |<>. p<>. The matter was copied by you. |<>. p<>. (Passive voice) | <>. |<>. p<>. He/she/it took down notes. |<>. p<>. (Active voice) | <>. |<>. p<>. Notes was taken down by him/her/it. |<>. p<>. (Passive voice) | <>. |<>. p<>. They designed the machines. |<>. p<>. (Active voice) | <>. |<>. p<>. The machines were designed by them. |<>. p<>. (Passive voice) | <>. |<>. p. |<>. p. | <>. |<>. p<>. Past continuous |<>. p. | <>. |<>. p<>. I was preparing the agenda for the meeting. |<>. p<>. (Active voice) | <>. |<>. p<>. The agenda for the meeting was being prepared by me. |<>. p<>. (Passive voice) | <>. |<>. p<>. We were preparing a recipe. |<>. p<>. (Active voice) | <>. |<>. p<>. A recipe was being prepared by us. |<>. p<>. (Passive voice) | <>. |<>. p<>. You were marking lines. |<>. p<>. (Active voice) | <>. |<>. p<>. Lines were being marked by you. |<>. p<>. (Passive voice) | <>. |<>. p<>. He/she/it was using scientific method. |<>. p<>. (Active voice) | <>. |<>. p<>. Scientific method was being used by him/her/it. |<>. p<>. (Passive voice) | <>. |<>. p<>. They were isolating the bacillus. |<>. p<>. (Active voice) | <>. |<>. p<>. The bacillus was being isolated by them. |<>. p<>. (Passive voice) | <>. |<>. p. |<>. p. | <>. |<>. p<>. Present perfect |<>. p. | <>. |<>. p<>. I/we have believed you. |<>. p<>. (Active voice) | <>. |<>. p<>. You have been believed by me/us. |<>. p<>. (Passive voice) | <>. |<>. p<>. You have taken blue prints of building plans. |<>. p<>. (Active voice) | <>. |<>. p<>. Blue prints of building plans have been taken by you. |<>. p<>. (Passive voice) | <>. |<>. p<>. He/she/it has made much progress. |<>. p<>. (Active voice) | <>. |<>. p<>. Much progress has been made by him/her/it/. |<>. p<>. (Passive voice) | <>. |<>. p<>. They have manufactured modern machines. |<>. p<>. (Active voice) | <>. |<>. p<>. Modern machines have been manufactured by them. |<>. p<>. (Passive voice) | <>. |<>. p. |<>. p. | <>. |<>. p<>. Past perfect |<>. p. | <>. |<>. p<>. I/we had borrowed money. |<>. p<>. (Active voice) | <>. |<>. p<>. Money had been borrowed by me/him. |<>. p<>. (Passive voice) | <>. |<>. p<>. You had provided data. |<>. p<>. (Active voice) | <>. |<>. p<>. Data had been provided by you. |<>. p<>. (Passive voice) | <>. |<>. p<>. He/she/it had obtained opportunity. |<>. p<>. (Active voice) | <>. |<>. p<>. Opportunity had been obtained by him/her/it.
p<>. (Passive voice)

Examples of change of active into Impersonal Passive (I.P.):

1. Scientists developed satellite technology in the late seventies. (Active)

Satellite technology was developed in the late seventies (I.P.)

2. The Special judge has granted exemption from personal appearance in the court. (Active)

Exemption from personal appearance in the court has been granted. (I.P.)

3. The Tamil Nadu government plans a massive afforestation scheme. (Active)

A massive afforestation scheme is planned. (I.P.)

1.13.1. Change the following into impersonal passive where ever required:


p<>. The water absorbed three fourth of the heat.

p<>. They stop the machine.

p<>. They welded the plate

p<>. She has fixed the tube on the stand

p<>. They alter the characteristics of steel in various ways

p<>. The leader is delivering a lecture.

p<>. They have to document the sources.

p<>. The railways provide major transport facilities in India.

p<>. Photo electric devices convert light energy into electrical energy.

p<>. An experimenter is describing an apparatus which he uses.

p<>. An inventor gives a physical description of a device he invented.

p<>. A researcher chooses a topic and consults relevant books.

p<>. Readers need to see the context.

p<>. He attributed all his losses to his manager.

p<>. Do not tell a lie.

p<>. They have performed the operation successfully.

p<>. The new Manager has called for quotations.

p<>. They dissolve the gold in acqua region.

p<>. The mechanics use thin grease as a lubricant in ball bearings.

p<>. The students must take care not to damage the spanner.

p<>. We weld two metal plates together.

p<>. He calls this shiny metal mercury.

p<>. Take the temperature.

p<>. Browse the net for details

p<>. The student pipettes out 20 concentrated sulphuric acid.

1.14. Kinds of Sentences:

A group of words that makes complete sense is called a sentence.)There are four kinds of sentences:
1. Assertive or declarative sentence (a statement)
2. Imperative sentence (a command)
3. Interrogative sentence (a question)
4. Exclamatory sentence (an exclamation)

1.An assertive sentence is a sentence that states a fact. Such sentences are simple statements. They state, assert, or declare something.

Example: Sathish is my student. he comes from Rajahmundry.

2. Imperative sentence is a sentence which gives a command, makes a request, or express a wish.
Go to your room. (an order)
Please give me your book. (a request)
Have a good time at the picnic. (a wish)

3. Exclamatory sentence is a sentence that expresses sudden and strong feelings, such as surprise, wonder, pity, sympathy, happiness, or gratitude.

Example: What a shame! Boy, am I tired!

4. Interrogative sentence: A sentence that asks a question is called an interrogative sentence.

Examples: What is your name? Where do you live?

Activity : Board rush


2.1. Warm up: Brainstorming: Make a list of the words that are related to ‘ environment’

2.2. Activity: Drama

Read the following poem to hold a drama on cutting a tree in the class.

Half the students stand to hold the scene while the other half ask them questions

2.3. On Killing a Tree – Gieve Patel

It takes much time to kill a tree,

Not a simple jab of the knife

Will do it. It has grown

Slowly consuming the earth,

Rising out of it, feeding

Upon its crust, absorbing

Years of sunlight, air, water,

And out of its leprous hide

Sprouting leaves.

So hack and chop

But this alone won’t do it.

Not so much pain will do it.

The bleeding bark will heal

And from close to the ground

Will rise curled green twigs,

Miniature boughs

Which if unchecked will expand again

To former size.



The root is to be pulled out -

Out of the anchoring earth;

It is to be roped, tied,

And pulled out – snapped out

Or pulled out entirely,

Out from the earth-cave,

And the strength of the tree exposed,

The source, white and wet,

The most sensitive, hidden

For years inside the earth.


Then the matter

Of scorching and choking

In sun and air,


Browning, hardening,

Twisting, withering,


And then it is done.

(From Poems, Bombay)

Glossary : Leprous : Affected with leprosy.

2.4.. A. Underline the answers in the poem.

1. Which words and phrases in the poem are related to the act of killing?

2. Which is the shortest verse and the shortest line in the poem?

3. Who is cutting the tree?

4. Why the poet used stanzas of different size?

B. Detailed and Intensive Reading: Answer the following in a sentence.

1. Does it take long to kill a tree? Which words/lines in the poem tell you this?

2. What, according to the poet, is the ‘‘effective’’ way of killing a tree?

3. ‘‘And then it is done.’’ This line stands alone in the poem. Why?

4. Do you think the poet advises us to kill trees? Why?

C. Vocabulary Focus

1. Look at the following words. Separate words which are high sounding from ordinary words:

ameliorate, eliminate, fuzz, awful, dispose of, abysmal, eradication, dubious, upliftment, monumental.


p<>. Use the words which are given above in the following texts:

a. Mahatma Gandhi fought all his life for the ………. of untouchability. There were people then who gave slogans for the ………. of these poorer sections of the society but actually did nothing to the hardships of these people. Therefore their role was a very ………. one on the movement for social transformation, whereas Gandhiji’s role was ………..

b. I think you should ………. your sports jacket. It has horrid green strips which have gone ………. I don’t think you have washed this jacket for a very long time; it has an ………. smell.

p<>. Pick out all the verbs from the poem which convey some action.

2.6. Cloze Reading:

a Save our tree!

Read the text below. Use the word given within the brackets to form a word that fits in the space in the same line.

Construction workers in Surrey have found themselves in an argument (argue) over a cherry tree. The _______ (build), who have been working for several weeks on a new ______ (industry) centre, have been given instructions to chop down the tree to provide __________ (addition) car park. However, the ______ (reside) argue that it would only provide space for one more car. They say that it's a _________ (beauty) tree, it's over thirty years old, and it's _________ (reason) to chop it down for the sake of one car.

However, the company ________ (responsible) for the project argues that the plans for the centre have been ________(care) drawn up. The Director, Paul Ross, says: 'The _______ (important) of providing sufficient car parking spaces means that there is no ________(possible) of saving this tree'. He added that twenty-eight new trees would eventually be planted in the area.


Nowadays, skyscrapers can be found in most (0) B cities of the world. A building which has many (1) C was first called a skyscraper in the United States at the end of the 19th century, and New York has perhaps the (2) … skyscraper of them all, the Empire State Building. The (3) … beneath the streets of New York is rock, (4) … enough to take the heaviest load without sinking, and is therefore well-suited to bearing the (5) … of tall buildings. In London, on the other hand, people (6) … the problem of the land being too soft to build skyscrapers on. However, improved (7) … of making foundations later (8) … many skyscrapers to be built there, (9) … none are as high as those in the USA.

These tall buildings are (10) … so that millions of people can live and work in a very small (11) … This is important where land is expensive, for example, in a city centre, so it is more (12) … to build upwards rather than outwards. Also, many large companies find it more (13)… to have all their staff in one building (14) … easy reach of each other. People also imagine that the higher the skyscraper, the more successful the company (15) … Whether or not this is true, skyscrapers still remain popular today.

p<>. A stages
p<>. B steps
p<>. C storeys
p<>. D levels


p<>. Discourse Markers:

Adverbs are used as sentence connectors along with conjunctions. They are referred to as discourse markers-adverbs of time references

p<>. Discourse markers are not part of the sentences.

p<>. They are used at the beginning of utterances.

p<>. They do not have meanings of their own to function independently.

Markers for various contents

1. Addition: moreover, also, what is more, too, either, neither, nor

2. Enumerations: (listing/naming one by one) at first, secondly, furthermore, next, then, last, first and foremost, more importantly, to start with, and to with, and to conclude.

3. Contrast

Instead, on the other hand, on the one hand.

4. Concession

Besides, else, however, still, yet, nevertheless

5. Transition

And, now, by the by, in the meantime

6. Attitude / viewpoint

Indeed, in fact, actually

7. Result

Hence, so, therefore, as a result

8. Inference

Else, otherwise, in other words, then

9. For example, for instance, that is, that is to say, namely.

2.8. a. Introduce discourse markers in the following texts and rewrite them to make them more readable:

1. The Olympic Games have become a part of our lives. We are no longer curious about their beginnings. We talk of the legendary sportsmen and their exploits at games. Few of us know the legends behind the games.

2. It happened during the Second World War. Sergeant Nick Alkenada’s plane was hit by enemy shells over Germany. He reached for his parachute. He found that it was burning. He could not stay in the plane. He could burn to death. He could not hope to survive the 5,500 metre drop. He decided to jump. He lost consciousness. He re-covered his senses. He was lying in snow. Fir tress had broken his fall. They had saved his life!

3. Polly Maddison, the wife of the American president Maddison, had party. The custard was served. On eating it many guests fainted. The hosts questioned the cooks. The cooks confessed that they had kept some custard in the icebox. They were dismissed. Polly Maddison tasted it. Nothing happened to her. She simply adored its taste. The cooks were reinstated.

b. Conjunctions and Connectives

Conjunctions or linking words are used to connect clauses or sentences.


1. Conjunctions of time as, when, while are used to refer to an action taking place at the same time as another.

p<>. When my mother wakes me at 5’o clock, I get up.

p<>. As I was looking out of the window, I saw him coming.

p<>. While you were sleeping, you friend called.

2. After, as soon as, before, when are used to refer to one action taking place immediately after another.

p<>. After I left my school, I went to work in Chennai.

p<>. As soon as I saw him on T.V. I changed the channel.

p<>. He left the room before I could ask his permission.

p<>. When I heard him calling you, I informed you.

3. Until / till is used to refer to the length of time a situation continues.

p<>. I can’t go out until I receive a call from my mother.

p<>. I can’t give you the book till I finished reading it.

Conjunctions of Contrast


1. Although, even though, though are used to refer to opposing or contrasting statements before a subject and a verb.

p<>. Although he is a student, he has never received a merit certificate.

p<>. Even though there is a time limit, he always takes extra time.

p<>. Though he studied hard, he didn’t manage to pass the exam.

2. In spite or despite are used to refer to opposing or contrasting statements before a noun, pronoun or gerund.

p<>. In spite of the traffic, I managed to go there on time.

p<>. Despite of his anger, he listened to me patiently.

3. While, whereas are used to refer to a contrast between two statements.

p<>. I work hard but my brother hardly works.

p<>. I went there on time whereas my friends were late.

4. However is used to a contradiction between two statements.

p<>. The agent was asked to meet the contractor at 8’o clock. However, when he arrived, the contractor wasn’t there.


bq. Conjunctions of cause and effect


1. Because, because of, as, since are used to refer to reasons for doing something.

p<>. The machine stopped because of the technical fault.

p<>. The machine was rejected because it was not the one they have ordered for.

p<>. As the machine was not working, we had to close the shop early.

p<>. Since our fax machine is not working, we rented the fax from an outsider.

2. So, therefore are used to refer to the result of something.

p<>. Suja’s calculator is not working so she bought another

p<>. Suja has to attend the workshop at Salem tomorrow. Therefore she is leaving this evening.

bq. Conjunctions of purpose

to, in order to, so as to, for, so that, in order that are used to convey the purpose of action

p<>. He stopped the engine so as to oil it properly.

p<>. I joined the course in order to improve my skills.

p<>. He stood up to greet the teacher.

2.9. A. Fill in the blanks with indications of purpose

p<>. Thermometer is used _______________ measure the temperature.

2. Pendulum clock is used _______________ measuring time.

3. People watch T.V. _____________ they may relax after tedious work.

4. Students concentrate more on practical classes ____________ they may gain practical knowledge.

5. Graphics are used ____________ collecting data.



B. Rewrite the following statements by using indicators of purpose.


1. Cooling becomes essential in IC Engines. Air cooling or water cooling is used.

2. Lubricant is used. It reduces the temperature of the working parts.

3. A good network of transport system is maintained. It enables economic, industrial and cultural growth of a country.

4. Many suggestions have been made. They reform the election process.

5. Steam turbines are used. They run generators in thermal power plants.

2.10. Join the sentences using conjunctions / connectives.

1. There are many sites which have mechanical attitude. They are bothered only about the mechanical information.

2. It is one thing to keep ourselves updated with medical information. It should not be strictly followed on doctor’s prescription.

3. Doctors agree Internet has potential use. They are also worried about possible damages.

4. The thought of hospital frighten many of us. Doctors sometimes do wrong diagnosis.

5. Medical advice should be unbiased. They should be no profit motivation behind it.

6. Mini computers are very cheap. They are smaller and slower than the main frames.

7. Glass breaks easily. Glass has so many properties.

8. Calculators are now very much used. They make calculations easy.

9. There were frequent interruptions during his speech. He continued to speak.

2.11. [* Transco ding- Representing information in Graphs, Charts, Diagrams etc *]

Increase and decrease useful expressions: Line graph and Bar Diagram

The following are some useful expressions for describing increase and decrease in line graph and bar diagram:

table<>. <>. |<>.
p<>. rapid |<>.
p<>. slow | <>. |<>.
p<>. sharp |<>.
p<>. slight | <>. |<>.
p<>. steep |<>.
p<>. gradual | <>. |<>.
p<>. dramatic |<>.
p<>. Barely noticeable | <>. |<>.
p<>. marked |<>.

| <>. |<>. p<>. A rise |<>. p<>. A fall | <>. |<>. p<>. An increase |<>. p<>. A decrease | <>. |<>. p<>. To increase |<>. p<>. A reduction | <>. |<>. p<>. To shoot up |<>. p<>. To decline

to shoot up |

1: The line graph shows figures for unemployment in the UK workforce between May 2003 and July 2006. It is clear from the chart that the rate of unemployment fluctuated a great deal during this time. At the beginning of the period, unemployment stood at 5.1 per cent. A few months later the figure had risen slightly to 5.2 per cent. Unemployment then remained stable until September 2003. From this point on there was a steady downward trend and by January 2004 the rate had fallen to 4.9 per cent. It stayed at this level until May the same year, but from May to July there was another small drop of 1 per cent. There were no further changes in the level of unemployment until March the following year. From March to May 2005, there was a small increase of 1 per cent, but this did not last long and the figure had fallen back to 4.8 per cent by July. From September 2005 onwards, however, there was a marked upward trend in the rate of unemployment in the UK. From September 2005 to November the same year, the figure shot up from 4.8 to 5.2 per cent. The rate remained stable for a few months, but then rose sharply again, and had reached a peak of 5.7 per cent by July 2006.

source: http://takeielts.britishcouncil.org

2. The highlighted words in the description of the chart that you’ve just read are useful phrases for describing increases and decreases. Read the report again and find phrases from the text which mean…

1.went up and down frequently 2.did not change (2 phrases) 3. went up a little 4.went up very quickly (2 phrases) 5. arrived at its highest point 6.went up noticeably over a period 7.went down (2 phrases)8.went down gradually over a period

3. Describing increase and decrease: You can describe increases and decreases by using fractions to show the size of the change over a certain period. For example:

The cost of rents doubled in less than a year.

Birth rates have halved since the turn of the century.

By July, the price of petrol had fallen by a third.

The number of school leavers going on to university has risen by a quarter since 1980.

4.In the last task you learned some useful phrases for describing increases and decreases. There are also two useful sentence structures for doing this:

1 [noun phrase] + [verb] + [adverb] :For example: The unemployment rate rose rapidly.

The cost of living fell dramatically

2 [There is/are] + [noun phrase]: For example: There was a rise in unemployment.

There has been an increase in the cost of living

d. Finish each sentence below so that it means the same as the one given.

1. The price of oil rose sharply.

There…2 There is a noticeable increase in temperature from May onwards.


3. The number of people attending the theatre has fallen dramatically.


4. There had been a steady rise in DVD sales for the first six months of the year.

DVD sales…

5. There has been a rapid growth in the use of alternative energy sources.

The use of alternative energy sources…

6. The popularity of self catering holidays decreased significantly during the 1990s


4.The chart below compares monthly sales for two months from a fruit wholesaler. Check the title, the key and the axes so that you understand the chart. Write sentences about the changes in fruit sales from July to November. Use the words in the box:

table<>. <>. |<>.
p<>. a quarter a third doubled fell by halved rose by tripled |

The chart in the previous activity had very convenient numbers. However, in real life things aren’t quite so easy. The chart in the test is not likely to show figures that rise and fall by exact fractions, such as a half or a third. What you need to do is make approximations. For example, if real sales figures for oranges rose from 4000 kilos to 7850 kilos, you can say that orange sales almost doubled.

a) Here are some useful words and phrases for making approximations Match phrases with the same meaning

1. just over a around 2. approximately / nearly 3. just under / slightly more than

6. Now write sentences about the chart below, which shows changes in the quantities of imports of certain electronic goods. Again, use the words in the box:

table<>. <>. |<>.
p<>. a quarter a third doubled fell by halved rose by tripled just over approximately just under around nearly slightly more than |

7.Prepositions of time: Correct use of prepositions is also important. Here are some of the main prepositions you will need to use:

table<>. <>. |<>.
p<>. in [month / year / morning, afternoon etc]

at [9 o’clock, 10.30 am etc]

from..[a point in time]..to… [another point]

between…[a point in time]..and… [another


during [a period of time]

before [a point in time or a period of time]

after [a point in time or a period of time]

by [a point of time arrived at]

until [a point of time reached]

since [from a point in the past until now] |

8.Now complete each of these sentences with the correct preposition.

1 ……… January there was a noticeable rise in the number of people taking sick leave from work.

2 .Temperatures usually reach a peak ……… about 1 o’clock in the afternoon.

3 From 1997 ……… 2006 there was a steady increase in sales of organic produce.

4 .……… the recession, unemployment grew steadily.

5 .Televisions audience viewing figures rise dramatically ……… 6 o’clock in the evening.

6 .……… June sales figures were low, but later they began to increase rapidly.

7. The price of oil had shot up to $70 per barrel ……… August.

8. From November ……… the end of the year energy consumption continued to rise.

9. There has been a marked decrease in road accidents ……… the new laws were introduced in 2005.

9. Prepositions to describe increase and decrease:

You will also need to be careful when using prepositions with numbers. Simply changing the preposition can change the whole meaning of a sentence. For example, what’s the difference between these two sentences?

1) Newspaper circulation rose by 20,000 newspapers per month.

2) Newspaper circulation rose to 20,000 newspapers per month.

Sentence 1 describes the size of the increase. Perhaps newspaper circulation was already 40,000 per month, and there has been a 20,000 per month increase. The final figure will be 60,000 per month. Sentence 2 shows the point reached. Perhaps newspaper circulation had been 15,000 per month and it then rose by another 5,000 to reach 20,000 per month. Remember also that not all words for describing rise and fall will take a preposition, and the preposition will depend on whether you’re using the word as a verb or a noun.

p<>. See the table below for more details:

table<>. <>. |<>.
p<>. Verbs that take a preposition |<>.
p<>. Verbs that don’t take a preposition |<>.
p<>. Nouns that take a


| <>. |<>. p<>. rise to/by

increase to/by

fall to/by

drop to/by

shoot up to/by

plunge to/by

stay at

remain at

fluctuate between/around |<>.
p<>. reach |<>.
p<>. a rise of

an increase of

a fall of

a decrease of


p<>. Now look at the chart and complete the report below with a suitable preposition wherever needed:

The chart shows fluctuations in the price of crude oil over a thirty five year period, and clearly illustrates how oil prices are affected by world events. In general there has been an upward trend in the price of crude oil …….. 1970, when it was only $1.30 per barrel. The oil embargo of the early 1970s, however, caused the price to rise sharply …….. nearly $11 per barrel. The crisis ended soon afterwards, but the price remained …….. around $11 to $13 per barrel until 1979. The Iranian revolution of that year had a huge impact on oil prices, which shot up …….. $17 to reach …….. about $30 per barrel in the same year. The following Iran Iraq war caused a further increase, and the price reached …….. a peak …….. nearly $36 in 1980. From that point until 1985, the price fell steadily. However, from 1985 to 1986 the price suddenly plunged …….. $13. For the next few years the price fluctuated …….. $14, but with the invasion of Kuwait in 1990 there was a sudden rise …….. $5. The price quickly fell again and remained stable for most of the 1990s. Things changed once again at the end of the decade, and from 1999 to 2000 the price increased [11]…….. almost $10 per barrel. Despite a slight drop in 2000, the rise continued and by the end of the period, the price of crude oil had shot up …….. a peak of $50 per barrel.

p<>. Pie Chart – Comparison and contrast

Read the following information and draw a pie chart based on your understanding:

The pie chart shows the worldwide distribution of sales of Coca-Cola in the year 2000 and the graph shows the change in share prices between 1996 and 2001.In the year 2000, Coca-Cola sold a total of 17.1 billion cases of their fizzy drink product worldwide. The largest consumer was North America, where 30.4 per cent of the total volume was purchased. The second largest consumer was Latin America. Europe and Asia purchased 20.5 and 16.4 per cent of the total volume respectively, while Africa and the Middle East remained fairly small consumers at 7 per cent of the total volume of sales.

ref: [* http://ielts-pr.blogspot.com/2011/08/ielts-writing-task-1-bar-graphs-and-pie.html*]

p<>. Adjectives help in comparing : e.g Less than, more than, as.. as, the largest, the smallest, greater number, the largest percentage etc.

Here is a list of comparison conjunctions you can use for comparing:

table=. =. |=.
p<>. Short Conjunctions |=.
p<>. Longer Expressions | =. |=.
bq. Similarly,


…the same…

…the same as…


…, too.


As .. as


|=. p.

In the same way,

X is similar to Y in that (they)…

X and Y are similar in that (they)…

Like X, Y [verb]…

In like manner,

One way in which X is similar to Y is (that)…

Another way in which X is similar to Y is (that)…


Here are some contrast conjunctions that you can use:

table=. =. |=.
p<>. Short Conjunctions |=.
p<>. Subordinating Conjunctions | =. |=.
bq. However,

In contrast,

By contrast,

  • .., but*

  • .., yet*

Different/ differs from


|=. p.

On the other hand,

even though + [sentence]

although + [sentence]

whereas + [sentence]

unlike + [sentence]

while + [sentence]



p<>. Read the following paragraph and draw a pie chart based on the information. The pie-chart gives information on the world population figures in 2001. Overall, almost three-quarters of the world’s population live in Asia and Africa. Asia is by far the biggest region, with 3721 million people. The second largest area is Africa, with 813 million, less than a quarter of Asia’s population. Europe has three quarters of a billion people. Together, Latin America and North America have about 840 million. Finally, Australia and New Zealand have less than 31 million. As can be seen, the greatest concentration of the world’s population is in Asia, with Africa far behind.

p<>. Based on the pie chart drawn by you, fill the blanks in the paragraph:

The pie chart gives population…1. for different… 2..of the world., the..3… of the world's population live in Asia and Africa. The ..4…regions of the world in terms of population are Asia, Africa, and Europe. Asia has…5 ….60% of the world’s people,..6 ….3712 million. The …7.. biggest area is Africa. It …8.. 813 million, less than one-…9.. the size of Asia’s…10 population. Together, Europe, North and South America, and Oceania …11…just over quarter of the world’s population. Europe has 726 million, while North and South America account for 525 and 317…12…. Finally, …13..tiny population makes up less than one percent of the world total. In…14.., populations …15.. greatly by region, with Asia and Africa …16...the biggest proportion.

p<>. Tables and Charts: Useful expressions

The following are some useful expressions for describing Tables/ chart

According to the statistics/ table/ graph/ figures presented… It can be seen from the statistics that…As is shown / as can be seen … in the table

p<>. There are a number of different ways of expressing the same figure in English. For example, we can say ‘a half’, ‘one in two’ or ‘fifty per cent’ and they all mean the same. It’s a good idea to vary the way you express figures in your description of the table or chart. All the phrases below can be used to describe figures. Group them into phrases which mean the same.

table<>. <>. |<>.
p<>. a fifth a quarter a tenth a third just over sixty per cent just over thirty per cent one in five one in four one in ten one in three seventy five per cent ten per cent three out of four three quarters twenty five per cent twenty per cent two out of three two thirds |

p<>. Complete the description by choosing the best word or phrase ( quantifiers) for each gap.

The table shows how 1 [much/many] time people spend on certain daily activities. Not surprisingly, everybody surveyed spent 2 [a lot of/many] time sleeping. However, men spent slightly 3 [fewer/less] time sleeping than women did. After sleeping, the next most time consuming activity was housework, taking up 178 minutes per day, on average. Again, though, there was a marked difference between men and women, with women spending 4 [many/much] more minutes per day on this activity than men. In addition, a greater 5 [amount/number] of women than men reported that they spent time on housework and childcare. In contrast, men spent a greater 6 [amount/number] of time on their hobbies and games than women did. Very 7 [few/many] people surveyed spent much free time on entertainment and culture. For the 8 [majority/most] of people, free time was spent watching television. Almost nine out of ten people reported that they spent 9 [several/lots] hours watching TV every day.

19. Processes Description (Flow chart): Connectives and Useful Expressions

a. The following are some of the links we can use to show the sequence in which things happen:

e.g. flow chart description:

table=. =. |=.
p<>. At First

First of all

To begin with




At the same time









In the last stage

|=. p<>. The first step is

The first stage is

Begins with / Commences with

Before that/this

Prior to that/ this


After this

The next step is

In the next stage

In the following stage

Finishes with

Concludes with

The last step is |

Use present tense in process description: Examples are given the in the box below: table<>. <>. |<>. p<>. takes place is carried out occurs by means of using with the help of One method of … is to One of the ways of … is to |

p<>. The following are some useful expressions when describing processes:

p<>. step- one action in a series of actions.

p<>. stage – a point or period of time in a series of actions.

p<>. process- a series of steps ; a way in which something happens or is done

Procedure- the order of doing things.

E.g. In the wine making process, the procedure is as follows. The first step is to take the grapes from the vines to winery. Speed is essential at this stage.

p<>. Study the following passage and draw a flow – Chart.

The earth contains a large number of metals which are useful to man. One of the most important of these of Iron. The iron ore which we find in the earth is not pure. It contains some impurities which we must remove by smelting. The process of smelting consists of heating the ore in a blast furnace with coke and limestone and reducing it to metal. Blasts of hot air enter the furnace from the bottom and provide the oxygen which is necessary for the reduction of the ore. The ore becomes molten, and its oxides combine with carbon from a liquid slag. This floats on top of the molten iron, and passes out of the furnace through a tap. The metal which remains is pig iron.

We can melt this down again in another furnace – a cupola – with more coke and limestone, and tap it out into a ladle or directly into moulds. This is cast iron.

p<>. Transcode the following

The table shows how 1 [much/many] time people spend on certain daily activities. Not surprisingly, everybody surveyed spent 2 [a lot of /many] time sleeping. However, men spent slightly 3[fewer/less] time sleeping than women did. After sleeping, the next most time consuming activity was housework, taking up 178 minutes per day, on average. Again, though, there was a marked difference between men and women, with women spending 4 [many/much] more minutes per day on this activity than men. In addition, a greater 5 [amount/number] of women than men reported that they spent time on housework and childcare. In contrast, men spent a greater 6 [amount/number] of time on their hobbies and games than women did. Very 7 [few/many] people surveyed spent much free time on entertainment and culture. For the 8 [majority/most] of people, free time was spent watching television. Almost nine out of ten people reported that they spent 9 [several/lots] hours watching TV every day.


table<>. <>. |<>.

|<>. p<>. Men (total interviewed = 100) |<>. p<>. Women (total interviewed = 100) |<>. p<>. ALL | <>. |<>. p. |<>\3. p<>. Average Minutes per day (Number of people participating in activity) | <>. |<>. p<>. Activity |<>. p<>. 503

100 |<>.
p<>. 513

100 |<>.
p<>. 508 | <>. |<>.
p<>. Personal care i.e.

wash/dress |<>.
p<>. 41

97 |<>.
p<>. 52

98 |<>.
p<>. 47 | <>. |<>.
p<>. Housework

|<>. p<>. 126

85 |<>.
p<>. 215

96 |<>.
p<>. 173 | <>. |<>.
p<>. Entertainment and Culture |<>.
p<>. 6

5 |<>.
p<>. 6

6 |<>.
p<>. 6 | <>. |<>.
p<>. Hobbies and games

|<>. p<>. 26

26 |<>.
p<>. 16

22 |<>.
p<>. 21 | <>. |<>.
p<>. Watching TV |<>.
p<>. 161

88 |<>.
p<>. 137

87 |<>.
p<>. 148 | <>. |<>.
p<>. Childcare

|<>. p<>. 11


|<>. p<>. 28


p<>. 20

2.12. Connotations: The connotation of a word choice can change the meaning of a sentence considerably.Below are groups of words which are often used to describe people. What are the connotations of the words?

p<>. Childlike, Youthful, Childish, Young

p<>. Disabled, Crippled, Handicapped, Retarded

p<>. Relaxed, Laid-back, Lackadaisical, Easy-going

p<>. Slim, Skinny, Slender, Thin

p<>. Cheap, Frugal, Miserly, Economical

p<>. Young, Immature, Juvenile, Youthful

p<>. Inquisitive, Interested, Curious, Convivial

p<>. Confident, Secure, Proud, Egotistical

p<>. Lovely, Knockout, Beautiful, Stunning

p<>. Talkative, Conversational, Chatty, Nosy


UNIT III Aiming for the Skies

3.1 a. Brain storm: Make a list of strategies you follow for aiming for success in the examinations

3.2 Listen to your teacher and take won notes:

table<>. <>. |<>.
bq. 1. How do you allot time for study?

|<>. bq. First note down


2. Give more time to

| <>. |<>. bq. 2. Organize your study space |<>. p.

p<>. Spread and

p<>. Ensure &

p<>. Keep away time wasters like ,


| <>. |<>. bq. 3. Make charts |<>. p.

p<>. Prepare by

p<>. Revise by

p<>. Never

p<>. Go through to

| <>. |<>.
bq. 4. Explain your answers to others

|<>. p.

p<>. Use , & to explain

p<>. This enables you to

| <>. |<>.
bq. 5. Make study groups

|<>. bq. 1. Don’t give up


Clarify when you meet your friends

| <>. |<>. bq. 6. Develop a study routine |<>. bq. Study during your productive hours. |

3.1. C. Write a list of Dos and Don’ts for success mantra


3.2. ‘WH’ Questions:

bq. Basic Question Types: There are 3 basic types of question:

p<>. Yes/No Questions (the answer to the question is “Yes” or “No”)

p<>. Question Word Questions (the answer to the question is “Information”)

p<>. Choice Questions (the answer to the question is “in the question”)


bq. 1. Yes/No Questions:

table<>. <>. |<>.
p<>. auxiliary verb |<>.
p<>. subject |<>.
p<>. main verb |<>.
p. |<>.
p<>. Answer
Yes or No | <>. |<>.
p<>. Do |<>.
p<>. you |<>.
p<>. want |<>.
p<>. water? |<>.
p<>. Yes, I do.

| <>. |<>. p<>. Can |<>. p<>. you |<>. p<>. write? |<>. p. |<>. p<>. No, I can’t. | <>. |<>. p<>. Has |<>. p<>. she |<>. p<>. completed |<>. p<>. her work? |<>. p<>. Yes, she has. | <>. |<>. p<>. Did |<>. p<>. they |<>. p<>. finish |<>. p<>. the work? |<>. p<>. No, they didn’t. | <>. |<>\4. p<>. Exception! verb be simple present and simple past |<>. p. | <>. |<>. p. |<>. p<>. Is |<>. p<>. your sister |<>. p<>. Doing Engineering ? |<>. p<>. Yes, she is. | <>. |<>. p. |<>. p<>. Was |<>. p<>. Ram |<>. p<>. present? |<>. p<>. No, he wasn’t. |


bq. 2. Question Word Questions

table<>. <>. |<>.
p<>. Question word |<>.
p<>. Auxiliary verb |<>.
p<>. Subject |<>.
p<>. Main verb |<>.
p. |<>.
p<>. Answer
Information | <>. |<>.
p<>. Where |<>.
p<>. Do |<>.
p<>. You |<>.
p<>. work? |<>.
p. |<>.
p<>. In Chennai.

| <>. |<>. p<>. When |<>. p<>. Will |<>. p<>. we |<>. p<>. have |<>. p<>. our English class? |<>. p<>. at 1. 30 pm. | <>. |<>. p<>. Who(m) |<>. p<>. Did |<>. p<>. she |<>. p<>. see ? |<>. p. |<>. p<>. She saw her mother. | <>. |<>. p<>. Who |<>. p<>. Has |<>. p. |<>. p<>. finished |<>. p<>. the work? |<>. p<>. Aditya has finished the work. | <>. |<>. p<>. Who* |<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. p<>. came |<>. p<>. here? |<>. p<>. Ajitha came here. | <>. |<>. p<>. Why |<>. p<>. hasn’t |<>. p<>. John |<>. p<>. completed |<>. p<>. it? |<>. p<>. Because he can’t. | <>. |<>\5. p<>. Exception! verb be simple present and simple past |<>. p. | <>. |<>. p<>. Where |<>. p<>. Is |<>. p<>. Paris? |<>. p<>. In France. |<>. p. |<>. p. | <>. |<>. p<>. How |<>. p<>. Was |<>. p<>. your mom? |<>. p<>. Very well. |<>. p. |<>. p. |

*When who is subject there is normally no auxiliary verb in past simple and present simple.

bq. 3. Choice Questions

table<>. <>. |<>.
p<>. auxiliary verb |<>.
p<>. subject |<>\2.
p<>. main verb |<>.
p. |<>.
p<>. OR |<>.
p. |<>.
p<>. Ans
In the question | <>. |<>.
p<>. Do |<>.
p<>. You |<>\2.
p<>. Want |<>.
p<>. Pizza |<>.
p<>. or |<>.
p<>. burger? |<>.
p<>. pizza, please.

| <>. |<>. p<>. Will |<>. p<>. We |<>\2. p<>. meet |<>. p<>. Maths teacher |<>. p<>. or |<>. p<>. English teacher? |<>. p<>. English. | <>. |<>. p<>. Did |<>. p<>. She |<>\2. p<>. Go |<>. p<>. to Kashmir |<>. p<>. or |<>. p<>. Mumbai

Vacation |<>.
p<>. She went

to both places.

| <>. |<>\7. p<>. Exception! verb be simple present and simple past |<>. p. | <>. |<>. p. |<>\2. p<>. Is |<>. p<>. your car |<>. p<>. Maruti |<>. p<>. or |<>. p<>. Ford? |<>. p<>. It’s Ford. | <>. |<>. p. |<>\2. p<>. Were |<>. p<>. they |<>. p<>. Indian |<>. p<>. or |<>. p<>. American? |<>. p<>. Indian. | <>. |<>\7. p<>. We use question words to ask certain types of questions We often refer to them as WH words because they include the letters WH (for example WHy, HoW).

table<>. <>. |<>.
p=. Question Word |<>.
p=. Function |<>.
p=. Example | <>. |<>.
p<>. What |<>.
p<>. asking for information about something |<>.
p<>. What is your name? | <>. |<>.
p. |<>.
p<>. asking for repetition or confirmation |<>.
p<>. What? I can’t hear you.

You did what? | <>. |<>.
p<>. what…for |<>.
p<>. asking for a reason, asking why |<>.
p<>. What did you do that for? | <>. |<>.
p<>. When |<>.
p<>. asking about time |<>.
p<>. When did he leave? | <>. |<>.
p<>. Where |<>.
p<>. asking in or at what place or position |<>.
p<>. Where do they live? | <>. |<>.
p<>. Which |<>.
p<>. asking about choice |<>.
p<>. Which toy do you want? | <>. |<>.
p<>. who |<>.
p<>. asking what or which person or people (subject) |<>.
p<>. Who opened the door? | <>. |<>.
p<>. Whom |<>.
p<>. asking what or which person or people (object) |<>.
p<>. Whom did you see? | <>. |<>.
p<>. Whose |<>.
p<>. asking about ownership |<>.
p<>. Whose are thesebooks?
Whose turn is it? | <>. |<>.
p<>. Why |<>.
p<>. asking for reason, asking what…for |<>.
p<>. Why do you say that? | <>. |<>.
p<>. why don’t |<>.
p<>. making a suggestion |<>.
p<>. Why don’t I help you? | <>. |<>.
p<>. How |<>.
p<>. asking about manner |<>.
p<>. How does this work? | <>. |<>.
p. |<>.
p<>. asking about condition or quality |<>.
p<>. How was your exam? | <>. |<>.
p<>. how + adj/adv |<>.
p<>. asking about extent or degree |<>.
p<>. see examples below | <>. |<>.
p>. how far |<>.
p<>. distance |<>.
p<>. How far is Chennai from Bangalore? | <>. |<>.
p>. how long |<>.
p<>. length (time or space) |<>.
p<>. How long will it take? | <>. |<>.
p>. how many |<>.
p<>. quantity (countable) |<>.
p<>. How many books are there? | <>. |<>.
p=. how much |<>.
p<>. quantity (uncountable) |<>.
p<>. How much money do you have? | <>. |<>.
p>. how old |<>.
p<>. age |<>.
p<>. How old are you? | <>. |<>.
p<>. how come (informal) |<>.
p<>. asking for reason, asking why |<>.
p<>. How come I can’t see her? | |<>.


Adapted from: [+ http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/wh-question-words.htm+]

3.3. Frame questions to the following statements:

The story of an Indian Engineer: Creativity Undone:

1. In Class 6, he was mesmerised by how two “chemicals” could mix and form another new “chemical”.

2. He liked mathematics.

3. He wanted to be a chemical engineer from childhood, enjoyed talking to Chemistry teacher.

4. By the time he was in Class 8, he had started attending coaching classes for IIT-JEE.

5. He cracked the JEE in his first attempt and joined for a B. Tech. in Chemical Engineering at IIT.

6. His B. Tech. project was “out of the world”, according to his faculty guide.

7. In the campus recruitment, a corporate, offered him a six-figure salary for the position of Risks Analyst in USA.

8. He joined the job as his parents wanted him to have settled life than pursuing his interest in Chemistry.

9. He now has a penthouse in Manhattan, a 212 phone number, and an assortment of luxury sedans.

10. The only mistake he did was, taking up a job that pays him more money than the job he loves to do.

[+ http://newsthatmattersnot.com/2011/06/a-short-story-of-an-indian-engineer-a-talent-undone.html+]

3.3. Question Tags:

We use tag questions at the end of statements to ask for confirmation. They mean something like: ‘Am I right?’ or ‘Do you agree?’ They are very common in English. The basic structure is:

table<>. <>. |<>.
bq. Statement

|<>. bq. Question tag | <>. |<>. bq. + Positive statement, |<>. bq. – Negative tag? | <>. |<>. bq. She is beautiful, |<>. bq. Isn’t she? | <>. |<>. bq. – Negative statement, |<>. bq. + Positive tag? | <>. |<>. bq. You didn’t come yesterday, |<>. bq. Did you? |

bq. Positive Statement Tag Questions

Look at these examples with positive statements. You will see that most of the time, the auxiliary verb from the positive statement is repeated in the tag and changed to negative.

bq. Negative Statement Tag Questions

Look at these examples with negative statements. Notice that the negative verb in the original statement is changed to positive in the tag.

table<>. <>. |<>\8.
bq. Positive statement [+]

|<>\5. bq. Negative tag [-] |<>. bq. Notes: | <>. |<>\2. bq. subject |<>\2. bq. auxiliary |<>\2. bq. main verb |<>\2. p. |<>\2. bq. auxiliary |<>. bq. not |<>\2. bq. personal pronoun (same as subject) |<>. p. | <>. |<>\2. bq. I |<>\2. bq. am |<>\2. bq. teaching, |<>\2. p. |<>\2. bq. are |<>. bq. n’t |<>\2. bq. I ? |<>. p. | <>. |<>\2. bq. You |<>\2. bq. have |<>\2. bq. completed, |<>\2. p. |<>\2. bq. have |<>. bq. n’t |<>\2. bq. you? |<>. p. | <>. |<>\2. bq. You |<>\2. bq. do |<>\2. bq. like |<>\2. bq. English, |<>\2. bq. do |<>. bq. n’t |<>\2. bq. you? |<>. p. | <>. |<>\2. bq. You |<>\2. p. |<>\2. bq. like |<>\2. bq. English, |<>\2. bq. do |<>. bq. n’t |<>\2. bq. you? |<>. bq. You (do) like…* | <>. |<>. bq. e |<>\2. bq. will |<>\2. bq. sing, |<>\2. p. |<>\2. bq. wo |<>\2. bq. n’t |<>. bq. we? |<>\2. bq. won’t = will not | <>. |<>. bq. I |<>\2. bq. can |<>\2. bq. dance, |<>\2. p. |<>\2. bq. can |<>\2. bq. n’t |<>. bq. I? |<>\2. p. | <>. |<>. bq. We |<>\2. bq. must |<>\2. bq. pray, |<>\2. p. |<>\2. bq. must |<>\2. bq. n’t |<>. bq. we? |<>\2. p. | <>. |<>. bq. You |<>\2. bq. should |<>\2. bq. work |<>\2. bq. hard |<>\2. bq. should |<>\2. bq. n’t |<>. bq. you? |<>\2. p. | <>. |<>. p.


|<>\2. p. |<>\2. p.


|<>\2. bq. a North Indian, |<>\2. p.


|<>\2. p.


|<>. p.


|<>\2. bq. no auxiliary for main verb be present & past |

table<>. <>. |<>\6.
bq. Negative statement [-]

|<>\2. bq. Positive tag [+] | <>. |<>. p.


|<>. p.


|<>. p. |<>. p.

main verb

|<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. p.


|<>. bq. personal pronoun (same as subject) | <>. |<>. bq. It |<>. bq. is |<>. bq. not |<>. bq. working, |<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. bq. is |<>. bq. it? | <>. |<>. bq. We |<>. bq. have |<>. bq. scarcely |<>. bq. started |<>. p. |<>. bq. the work, |<>. bq. have |<>. bq. we? | <>. |<>. bq. You |<>. bq. do |<>. bq. n’t |<>. bq. come here |<>. p. |<>. bq. often, |<>. bq. do |<>. bq. you? | <>. |<>. bq. They |<>. bq. will |<>. bq. not |<>. bq. waste |<>. p. |<>. bq. water, |<>. bq. will |<>. bq. they? | <>. |<>. bq. They |<>. bq. wo |<>. bq. n’t |<>. bq. hit |<>. p. |<>. bq. the road, |<>. bq. will |<>. bq. they? | <>. |<>. bq. I |<>. bq. can |<>. bq. never |<>. bq. give |<>. p. |<>. bq. up, |<>. bq. can |<>. bq. I? | <>. |<>. bq. We |<>. bq. must |<>. bq. n’t |<>. bq. hurt |<>. p. |<>. bq. her, |<>. bq. must |<>. bq. we? | <>. |<>. bq. He |<>. bq. should |<>. bq. n’t |<>. bq. waste |<>. p. |<>. bq. time, |<>. bq. should |<>. bq. he? | <>. |<>. bq. You |<>. bq. wo |<>. bq. n’t |<>. bq. be |<>. p. |<>. bq. cunning, |<>. bq. will |<>. bq. you? | <>. |<>. bq. You |<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. bq. are |<>. bq. n’t |<>. bq. a South Indian, |<>. bq. are |<>. bq. you? | <>. |<>. bq. Jhansi |<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. bq. was |<>. bq. not |<>. bq. there, |<>. bq. was |<>. bq. she? |

Answering Tag Questions: How do we answer a tag question? Often, we just say ‘Yes’ or ‘No’. Sometimes we may repeat the tag and reverse it (They don’t live here, do they? Yes, they do).

Here are some more examples, with correct answers:

p<>. The earth goes round the sun, doesn’t it? Yes, it does.

p<>. The water is precious, isn’t it? Yes, it is.

p<>. The water purifier is working, isn’t it? No, it isn’t!

p<>. You don’t like rice, do you? Yes, I do!

p<>. The do lay roads before elections, don’t they? No, they don’t!

p<>. Students don’t waste time, do they? No, they don’t.

p<>. The English language has vowels and consonants, doesn’t it? Yes, it


bq. Tag Question Special Cases: Negative Adverbs:

The adverbs never, rarely, seldom, hardly, barely and scarcely have a negative sense. Even though they may be in a positive statement, the feeling of the statement is negative. We treat statements with these words like negative statements, so the question tag is normally positive. Look at these examples:

table<>. <>. |<>.
bq. Positive statement treated as negative statement

|<>. bq. Positive tag | <>. |<>. bq. The machine never works, |<>. bq. does it? | <>. |<>. bq. She rarely visits her, |<>. bq. does she? | <>. |<>. bq. I hardly understand her, |<>. bq. do I ? | <>. |<>. bq. I barely follow you , |<>. bq. do I? | <>. |<>. bq. It scarcely rains these days, |<>. bq. does it? |

bq. Imperatives

Sometimes we use question tags with imperatives (invitations, orders), but the sentence remains an imperative and does not require a direct answer. We use ‘won’t’ for invitations. We use ‘can, can’t, will, would’ for orders.

table<>. <>. |<>.

|<>. bq. Imperative + Question tag |<>. bq. Notes | <>. |<>. bq. Invitation |<>. bq. Please sit down , won’t you? |<>. bq. polite | <>. |<>/5. p.


|<>. bq. Open the door, can you? |<>. bq. quite friendly | <>. |<>. bq. Open the door, can’t you? |<>. bq. quite friendly (some irritation?) | <>. |<>. bq. Close the door, would you? |<>. bq. quite polite | <>. |<>. bq. Close it now, will you? |<>. bq. less polite | <>. |<>. bq. Don’t close, will you? |<>. bq. with negative imperatives only will

is possible



h4<>. [*
bq. Add tag questions to the following, will you?


p<. It is very warm now, ……

p<. It isn’t very warm, ………….

p<. You don’t remember them, ………..

p<. David is a nice boy, ……………….

p<. You can home, …………………

p<. You will stay in touch, ………………

p<. They are good, ………………….

p<. I am a fool to believe him, …………….

p<. I am not a member, ………………

p<. Nobody likes her, ………………

p<. Poor lady, nobody helped her, …………..

p<. We rarely meet these days …………….

p<>. He hardly finds time to read, ………..

p<>. Don’t go there………….

Acknowledgement: Notes on Parts of Speech, Sentence Pattern and question tag taken from: Nagini, P S et al (2005) “Excellence Through Communication, Shri Jai Publications. Chennai.


p<>. Definitions:

Machine: A device that applies force to accomplish an objective.

Block and Tackle: A variation of one of the basic machines; it uses the principle of a lever.

Prime Mover: A machine that converts energy from a natural source like water, wind, steam, or petroleum into mechanical energy or electricity. Most electric motors are not prime movers.

Foot – pound: Work is usually measured in terms of foot-pounds in the English-speaking countries. One foot-pound is a force of one pound through a distance of one foot in the direction of the force.

Torque : A force which produces torsion, a twisting stress or rotary motion.

Efficiency : The ratio between work output and energy input for a machine.

Power : The rate or speed at which work is performed.

Newton : The unit of force required to accelerate one kilogram one meter per second.

Joule : An international metric measure of energy ; one joule is approximately three-quarters of a foot-pound.

Watt : An international metric measure of power equal to one joule per second ; 746 watts is equal to one horsepower

Wind Turbine: is a device that converts kinetic energy from the wind, also called wind energy, into mechanical energy; a process known as wind power.

Kinetic energy: The energy possessed by a body because of its motion, equal to one half the mass of the body times the square of its speed

Wind wheel: a wheel rotated by the wind to drive a mechanism (as a windmill)

Energy: Energy is the capacity of a physical system to perform work. Energy exists in several forms such as heat, kinetic or mechanical energy, light, potential …

Fan: A device that uses motor-driven blades to circulate the air in a computer or other electronic system

Electricity: The physical phenomena arising from the behavior of electrons and protons that is caused by the attraction of particles with opposite charges and the repulsion of particles with the same charge


p<>. Reading for Comprehension

Read the passage given below entitled ‘Genetic Fingerprinting to answer the questions that follow:

3.6.a.Reading: Genetic Fingerprinting: The Sure-fire Identify Parade

Genetic fingerprinting has changed the course of crime detection. It is the most accurate method yet developed for identifying individuals. The probability against any two genetic fingerprints being the same by pure chance is greater than the number of people on earth. The technique can also prove paternity of children and is being used to control the breeding of rare animals.

Professor Alec Jeffreys, a British geneticist at Leicester University, discovered genetic fingerprinting in 1984. He was conducting research into DNA-the chemical substance in the nucleus of every living cell which determines a person’s individual characteristics, such as the colour of hair and eyes. The structure of DNA is different in everybody, with the exception of identical twins.

Professor Jeffreys discovered that within the DNA molecule there is a sequence of genetic information which is repeated many times along the structure of the DNA, which looks like an endless twisting ladder.

The length of the sequence, the number of times it is repeated, and its precise location within the DNA chain are unique to each individual. A process was developed to translate these sequences into a visual record. The finished picture, the genetic fingerprint, is a series of bars on the X-ray film, rather like the bar codes printed on food packets.

To obtain a DNA specimen, a scientist only needs a biological sample containing some human cells. This is usually blood, or hair, and only very small amounts are necessary.

Genetic fingerprinting is important in finding out the guilty. For example, a burglar who breaks a window may leave a blood sample behind on the glass. This can be used to create a genetic fingerprint. When police arrest a suspect, a blood sample can be taken from him and be compared. If it matches, he is the burglar. If it does not, he is innocent.

In a crime a killer was found when a man was heard to say that a workmate had asked him to take his place when the samples were being taken. Another man who had previously been accused of one of the murders was freed because his genetic fingerprint did not match those made from the scene-of-crime evidence.

Genetic fingerprinting can also determine who is the father of a child and resolve paternity disputes. A DNA strand is made up equally of the characteristics of each parent. By comparing the genetic fingerprints of mother and child, a scientist can say with certainty that the parts of the child’s fingerprint which do not match those of the mother must have come from its true father.

Another use is in bone marrow transplants which are given to people suffering from leukemia. Doctors can check whether the genetic fingerprint extracted from a patient after a transplant matches that of the donor. If it does, the transplant is successful and is producing healthy white blood cells. If it does not, the transplant is a failure. This allows the possibility of another transplant.

Zoologists can use genetic fingerprinting to control the breeding of rare animals and preserve species. They can compare genetic fingerprints taken from animals to ensure the inbreeding among endangered species, which is known to lead to weaker animals, is avoided.


genetic fingerprinting: the practice of analysing genetic patterns in order to identify individuals, especially people who have committed crimes (a gene is a part of a cell in a living thing which controls its physical characteristics, growth, and development; genes are passed on from one generation to another)

geneticist: a specialist in genetics, which is the scientific study of the ways in which different characteristics are passed on from each generation of living things to the next.

bar code: a pattern of thick and thin parallel lines printed on books, goods sold in shops, etc. A bar code contains coded information which a computer can make out.

bone marrow: a soft substance that fills the hollow part of a bone.

leukemia: a serious disease that causes the production of too many white cells in the blood

inbreeding: breeding among closely related people or animal


p<>. b. Present your answers after discussion.

p<>. (paragraph 1) According to the passage, is the probability of two genetic fingerprints being the same high or low? How will you support your answer?

p<>. (paragraph 2) Will the DNA structure of a pair of identical twins be identical or dissimilar? How can you tell?

p<>. (paragraph 4) How is it possible for geneticists to conclude that a piece of genetic information is that of a particular individual and not somebody else’s?

p<>. (paragraph 7) Imagine that there is a woman A who is the mother of child B. Woman A says that person X is the father of B, but X denies that he is the father of B. How can genetic fingerprinting determine whether X is telling the truth?

p<>. Read paragraph 8 of the passage once again to draw flow chart


p<>. Make a power point presentation in the class on how to make a power point presentation by looking up useful links online

p<>. Note Making

bq. Example: Read the following pas- sage on note making and write notes using the clues given in column A

table<>. <>. |<>.
bq. Column A

|<>. bq. Column B | <>. |<>. bq. Title: 2 Types of note making:

p<>. Note taking in the class

p<>. Note making while reading

p<>. advantages:




p<>. Format

p<>. Two ways of making notes



p<>. Advantages

p<>. Disadvantages


2.4. Advice


|<>. bq. Example of Linear notes:

p<>. Good note-making

p<>. Think before you write

p<>. Keep brief notes

p<>. Keep notes organised

p<>. Use your own words

p<>. Useful strategies

p<>. Write phrases not sentences

p<>. Use headings

p<>. Number points

p<>. Unhelpful strategies

p<>. Copying chunks and phrases

p<>. Writing more notes than you can use

| <>. |<>\2.
bq. This is only an example given. You can add more points if needed


Example: It is well known that there are basically two types of note making that a student will be faced with. While the first type involves taking down the notes in the class, the second type is done by a student when s/he learns a new topic area, especially when s/he reads a topic from different sources.

Writing notes is very useful to revise before the examination. It is observed by psychologists that writing once is equal to that of remembering something that is read for six times. So we usually observe that those who take and write notes, score well in the exams than those who

read and never prepare their own notes. There are also other advantages of taking notes. Note making allows a student to concentrate better. While revising the notes taken during a lecture, the student can make out what is understood and what is not understood.

Since every person has her / his way of taking notes at individual level, it should be remembered that noting relevant points under headings and sub headings is advisable. Leaving space in between is a wise idea as new points can be added in subsequent readings or when the new sources are referred. Typing the notes in word on personal computer/ lap top/ i pad/ tablet is also helpful as paper work is avoided and new additions can be done easily.

Never forget to jot down any references given in the class, so as to read them later. Sometimes it is better to underline the key phrases or use a highlighter pen. Finally, always ask the teacher for further explanation if there is some- thing you do not understand. Remember writing notes is an excellent method for success in examinations

Note making is done in two ways: linear notes and pattern method. In linear method, the information is reorganized in one’s own method and short hand type of writing. This allows a person to think analytically besides being easy to follow later. The disadvantage is, it needs more time and cannot be done when a person has short time to prepare. In summary, though it may sound like time consuming method, it is probably the most useful method for expressing complex ideas.

In the second type i.e pattern method, diagrams are used. Making diagrams helps a student to cover number of pages in a short place. This helps a stu- dent who remembers visuals better than written notes. If you are not a fan of remembering spellings, you can use this as it helps you to avoid mistakes while writing. But always remember to note down the source of information and references as sometimes you may need to go back to the main source for clarification.

Adapted from http://stud.carlisle.ac.uk/docs/Note–Making-tips.pdf

Abbreviations/short forms for note taking

table<>. <>. |<>.
bq. bet.

|<>. bq. – between |<>. p. |<>. bq.  |<>. bq. – therefore | <>. |<>. bq. orgn. |<>. bq. – organisation |<>. p. |<>. bq. etc |<>. bq. – etc ecetetra / and so on | <>. |<>. bq. req. |<>. bq. – require |<>. p. |<>. bq. i.e. |<>. bq. – that is | <>. |<>. bq. sym. |<>. bq. – symbol |<>. p. |<>. bq. e.g. |<>. bq. – example | <>. |<>. bq. adv. |<>. bq. – advantage |<>. p. |<>. bq. III |<>. bq. – Similar | <>. |<>. bq. ad. |<>. bq. – advertisement |<>. p. |<>. bq. Smb |<>. bq. – Somebody | <>. |<>. bq. govt. |<>. bq. – government |<>. p. |<>. bq. sth |<>. bq. – Something | <>. |<>. bq.  |<>. bq. – equivalent to |<>. p. |<>. bq. asst. |<>. bq. – assistant | <>. |<>. bq. eq. |<>. bq. – equation |<>. p. |<>. bq. appln |<>. bq. – application | <>. |<>. bq.  lar |<>. bq. – triangular |<>. p. |<>. bq. rly |<>. bq. – railway |


Hz – Hertz

N.S – Newton-Second

N.M.S. – Newton-Metre-Second N/m – Newton/Metre

M/s – Metre per second Pascal – Pa (N/m^^2^^)

mN – Millinewton

Units in SI Symbol

h4<>. [*
bq. The following passage describes ‘the classification of roads’ in two countries. Read the passage and make notes in the correct format with a title:

Source: http://comparativegeometrics.wordpress.com/2013/02/05/road-classification-in-india/ http://ntl.bts.gov/lib/23000/23100/23121/09RoadFunction.pdf

Functional Classification (FC) 1 – An FC 1 facility is any type of surface paved road. These roads may include surfaces consisting of bituminous asphalt and aggregate, hot-mix asphaltic concrete, porcine cement concrete or some combination of these types of improved surface courses; generally over- laying an aggregate base course of varying depths. In some ways it can be said that structured road networks have existed in India for almost 5,000 years. The Mohenjo-Daro urban settlement in the

Indus valley (estimated population about 35,000) had a rectangular road grid and a system of major and lesser roads. More recently the Nagpur Plan of 1943 proposed four classes of roads. National highways are the roads which would pass through states, and places having national importance for strategic, administrative and other purposes. State highways are the roads which would be the other main roads of a state. District roads are the roads which would take traffic from the main roads to the interior of the district. According to the importance, some are considered as major district roads and the remaining as other district roads. Village roads are those which would link the villages to the road system.

The U.S. DOT’s Federal Highway Adminis- tration (FHWA) classifies its Nation’s urban and rural roadways by road function. Each function class is based on the type of service the road pro- vides to the motoring public, and the designation is used for data and planning purposes. Design standards are tied to function class. Each class has a range of allowable lane widths, shoulder widths, curve radii, etc. The four major road

function classifications are: Interstates, Other Arterials, Collectors, and Local roads. The amount of mobility and land access offered by these road types dif- fers greatly.

Interstate System is the highest classification of roadways in the United States. These arterial roads provide the highest level of mobility and the high- est speeds over the longest uninterrupted distance. Interstates nationwide usu- ally have posted speeds between 55 and 75 mi/h. Collectors are major and minor roads that connect local roads and streets with arterials. Collectors pro- vide less mobility than arterials at lower speeds and for shorter distances. They balance mobility with land access. The posted speed limit on collectors is usu- ally between 35 and 55 mi/h. Other Arterials include freeways, multilane high- ways, and other important roadways that supplement the Interstate System. They connect, as directly as practicable, the Nation’s principal urbanized areas, cities, and industrial centers. Land access is limited. Posted speed limits on arterials usually range between 50 and 70 mi/h. Local roads provide limited mobility and are the primary access to residential areas, businesses, farms, and other local areas. Local roads, with posted speed limits usually between 20 and 45 mi/h, are the majority of roads in the U.S.


p<>. Read the following passage to prepare notes in the standard format:

An electrical engineer is someone who designs and develops new electrical equipment, solves problems and tests equipment. They work with all kinds of electronic devices, from the smallest pocket devices to large supercomputers. Electrical engineering deals with electricity, electro-magnetism and electronics.

Electrical engineers specialize in power supply and generation. They design, develop, test and supervise electrical equipment manufacturing. They have also been trained to handle responsibilities like wiring and lighting installations in buildings, automobiles and aircraft. What is great about being an electrical engineer is that the training is so extensive that graduates may land a job in many different industries such as construction, manufacturing and design. Moreover, electrical engineers may take part in development and research as assistants to scientists and other engineers. Many kinds of electronic equipment from portable music players to GPS devices pass through an electronic engineer’s hands. They come up with means to use electrical power to operate a certain product or improve its functions. Among the most challenging and in-demand tasks for electronic engineers today include developing construction plans for electrical lighting systems for skyscrapers, designing remote-controlled race cars and building technology for factories like robots that can perform welding.

Electronic engineers perform their duties in offices and laboratories but may also be sent to work sites for supervising and troubleshooting. This is especially true for those who work in companies that manufacture complex equipment. They spend about 40 hours per week at work, but they may work longer than this. A typical day for an electrical engineer varies depending on their employer. Those who work in government jobs may handle responsibilities in areas of research, development and electronic device evaluation that may cover systems for manufacturing, transportation, aviation and communication. Electrical engineers use design software and equipment in their projects.

Electrical engineers with a master’s degree or doctoral degree typically receive higher salaries than those who only obtained a bachelor’s degree. Like any other engineering career, salary rates depend on the employer, location, years of experience and educational background. Electrical engineers may undergo further training or education in order to qualify for a position that will enable them to supervise a team of engineers and technicians. It may also qualify them for management positions. It is important that electronic engineers enjoy what they are doing. This career field can be physically and intellectually challenging. This is why aspiring engineers should be sure about their decision.

3.11.Read the following passage to prepare notes with a suitable title:

Nuclear energy plays an important part in the development of human civilization. It is produced by nuclear fission or fusion. In 1954 a full fledged Nuclear Research Department was formed by Dr. Homi Baba, who laid the foundation of the Nuclear Power Programme. The atomic energy commission formulates programmes and policies and the department executes them.

Nuclear energy is useful in many ways. In the field of agriculture, nuclear waste is used as fertilizer to increase the yield. Nuclear radiation (short waves) applied to seeds, raises the yielding capacity of seeds. In the area of food preservation, perishable foodstuffs exposed to radiation are found to remain fresh beyond their normal shelf life. Small doses of radiation can be used to prevent sprouting and consequently, spoiling of onions and potatoes. Higher degrees of radiation (25-50 kilowatts) can be used to delay the ripening fruits like mangoes, bananas etc. Fish is also preserved for a long time using radiation.

In the field of medicine, nuclear energy in the form of radio isotopes can be used in medicine. Radio Cobalt is used for treating blood cancer. Radiation sources come from reactors. Radio isotopes are used in diagnosis, prevention of diseases, etc. Radio active iodine (1-131) is the most widely used substance in medicare. The thyroid gland in the neck of human being relatively concentrates iodine from the blood for hormone synthesis. To correct the functioning of thyroid gland, radioactive iodine is used. Radio activity can also be used for curing brain tumour. Recently, vaccine for sheep has been developed with the help of nuclear energy. All the MNR scans, catscans, sterilized surgical materials, industrial radiography, radio imaging and open organ surgery are all benefits derived from nuclear science which contributes to the health and welfare of human kind. Another use of nuclear energy is in the field of industry. Industries can make use of nuclear power for expanding their production. Nuclear energy is used in the generation of electricity – boil water, the steam thus produced can be used to turn (drive) the turbines for producing electricity. India stands eighth in the world in building nuclear power plants.

Nuclear power generation is pursued in in India for the past few decades. Nuclear Power generation was initiated in India in July 1969 with the commissioning of the Tarapur (Maharastra) Atomic Power Plant of 440 MW with the technical aid from the USA. The second atomic power plant was commissioned in August 1972 at Rana Pratap Sagar in Rajastan getting the technical expertise from Canada. Kalpakkam Power plant is also another one. Set up in 1957, BARC (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre) is a premier research institution of the country working in nuclear sciences and related fields. BARC provides the much needed R & D back up for the nuclear power programme and other units of the industry and mineral sector. This centre has also developed technologies in peaceful uses of atomic energy like application of radio isotopes in industry, medicine, and labelled compounds, high yielding crop varieties, preservation of spices and sea foods by radiation. In designing, building and running our own nuclear reactors, India stands eighth in the world. Nehru observed, “it is science alone that can solve the problems of hunger and poverty, and insecurity of a vast rich country inhabited by starving people”.

3.12.User Manual :Remember to use instructions and imperatives while preparing the manual. The following side headings with information should be included for a product user manaual

table<>. <>. |<>.
p=. User Manual for

Washing Machine

Majesty Pvt. Ltd

For product Users only



p<>. Product Description

p<>. Features

p<>. Safety Instructions

p<>. DOs

p<>. DON’Ts

p<>. [* Troubleshooting (Problems& Solutions) Service Advantage *]

User Manual Sample:

table<>. <>. |<>.
p=. Safety Manual for Using The Lab


Basic Rules for Working in a Lab

For Students


Faculty of Bio and Chemical Engineering



Safety Manual for Using the Lab


Knowing what you are doing in the laboratory means that you are helping to make sure that the Faculty is a safe place for all of us. As a graduate of the Faculty, at some stage you will probably be accountable for other people’s safety as well as your own. So it is important to acquire good habits right from the start. This manual describes the most important ground rules for working in the lab.

You are responsible

1.For being prepared and for reading the exercise instructions and safety instructions

p<>. For taking care of yourself and your fellow students

p<>. For keeping the lab tidy and dealing with waste correctly

p<>. For obeying the general guidelines for good practice in lab exercises

p<>. For understanding chemical hazard labels


p<>. You may only perform experiments approved by your instructors

p<>. You should have your own accident insurance

p<>. Accidents and near misses must always be reported to your instructor

Ground rules for lab work

How to dress

p<>. Your apparel must be suitable for lab work.

p<>. Your apparel must protect you and allow you to move freely

p<>. Use lab coats whenever necessary – see the exercise guidelines

p<>. Take your lab coat off when you leave the lab

p<>. Use goggles whenever necessary

p<>. Do not wear your goggles on your forehead: they are there to protect your eyes

p<>. Use gloves whenever necessary

p<>. Tie long hair back in the lab

p<>. Wear stable footwear

p<>. No loose sleeves, coats or scarves

p<>. No jewellery or watches on hands or wrists

p<>. Personal behaviour – Keep the lab tidy – A tidy lab is a safe lab:

p<>. No bags in the room (you may trip over them if they are left on the floor)

p<>. Always use the stipulated protective equipment

p<>. Do not eat or drink in the lab

p<>. Never use glass equipment for beverages or foods

p<>. Do not lick your fingers or pencil tips or similar

p<>. Do not apply lip salve and the like in the lab

p<>. Do not chew gum

p<>. Do not run or make sudden movements

p<>. Limit the formation of aerosols

p<>. Mouth suction is forbidden, always wash your hands when you have finished your exercise


In case of accident-

Know the location of Emergency exits, Water taps, Drench hoses, Eyewash bottles, Fire extinguishers, Fire blankets, the main gas valve, first aid kit, absorbents for chemical spills and the telephone.

3.13.Simple, Compound, Complex

Top of Form

Sentence Combinations: Sentences can be combined in different ways. For journalists, the most common combinations are simple sentencescompound sentences, and complex sentences:

p<>. Simple Sentence: One (subject + predicate)

p<>. Twenty Freeport citizens protested the ban against smoking.

p<>. [*Compound Sentence: *]Two complete sentences joined by a comma + coordinate conjunction (andor, nor, butforbecause, etc.)

p<>. Twenty Freeport citizens protested the smoking ban, but the newspaper failed to cover the story.

p<>. Complex Sentences : One complete sentence (also known as an independent or main clause) + 1 subordinate (or dependent ) clause (missing either a subject or a predicate; or introduced by a conjunctive adverb —  althoughhowevermoreover, etc.)

p<>. Although 20 Freeport citizens protested the smoking ban, the newspaperfailed to cover the story.

Identify the sentence type:

p<>. She brought a good thing.

p<>. What she brought was good.

p<>. She brought something and it was good.

p<>. The date on which we got freedom was 15^^th^^ August.

p<>. We got freedom on 15^^th^^ August.

p<>. We got freedom in the month of August and the date was 15^^th^^.

p<>. The bridge was constructed last year, but it was washed away in the floods this year.

p<>. The bridge that was constructed last year was washed away in the floods this year.

p<>. One year constructed bridge was washed away by floods.

p<>. The leaders we have today talk more than they work.

p<>. Today’s leaders talk more and they do less work.

p<>. Today’s leaders do more talk and do less work.

p<>. She has gone either for tea or has gone for lunch.

p<>. He had not studies well never the less he attended the exam.

p<>. She was both beautiful and intelligent.

I. Sentence Types: 1. Identify the clauses in the following sentences:

1. You make up a plan of where to meet your family after an earthquake.

2. If you’re in a car, stop the car and stay inside the car until the earthquake stops.

3. Stay away from beaches as Tsunamis sometimes hit after the ground has stopped shaking

4. If you’re at college or work, follow the emergency plan or the instructions of the person in charge.

5. On 11 July 2006, UK researchers have developed a new type of polymer scaffold support for growing cultured human skin cells.

1. B . Identify the type of sentence – Simple, Compound, Complex and rewrite by changing into other two types of sentences:

1. The safe spots in a room during an earth quake are inside walls, under sturdy tables, desks or archways and the danger spots are windows, mirrors, hanging objects, fireplaces and tall, unsecured furniture.

2. If you have children and elders in the family, you must help them to place themselves in safe locations.

3. Learning first and CPR is very helpful.

4. Those that live in earth quake prone areas should keep a list of emergency numbers and also must prepare a family emergency kit with supplies for at least 72 hours.

5. Elevators should not be used during an earth quake as they may stop mid way due to lack of electricity.

6. It is advisable to protect one’s head during an earth quake because head injuries may be fatal.

7. After the quake, do not move any seriously injured individuals unless they are in immediate danger.

8. In an emergency, purify water by straining through a paper towel or several layers of clean cloth and by boiling vigorously for at least six minutes.

9. Do not use the telephone unless there is a severe injury or fire to report.

10. Remember to stay calm and lend a hand to others in need.

1. C. Rewrite the sentences with the given sentence starter and identify the sentence type for each sentence you have rewritten:

Example: The student showed brilliant performance in the international competition and brought laurels to the University.

Ans: Because of his brilliant performance, the student brought laurels to the University.

Sentence type (of the sentence rewritten as answer): complex sentence

1. A single person couldn’t lift the machine because it was very heavy.

The machine was so ……………………………………………………………………………

2.The order arrived late but we were able to supply the goods on time.

Although ……………………………………………………………………………………….

3. All regarded that Though Edison was a fool.

All regarded……………………………

p<>. Since James Watt was a mechanical engineer, he conducted several experiments involving the use of steam.James Watt was a …………………………………………………………………




Bottom of Form


Unit IV: The Road to Success

4.1 a. Think /share

List out some tips for saving energy

4.1 B. Reading:

p<>. Read the newspaper report given below as quickly as you can and decide which of the following titles is best suited for it.

p<>. Rescue plane to land on tar road

h3<>. [*
bq. CM Expresses Shock Over Air Crash

h4<>. [*
bq. Bandmaster Falls from Aircroft

h4<>. [*
bq. 22 Feared Killed in IAF Plane Crash

Hyderabad, Dec. 24 an Indian Air Force (IAF) aircraft with 22 persons aboard crashed at Bukkapuram village, about 12, km from Ongole this evening, following a technical snag.

The aircraft, which took off from Tambaram airstrip in Chennai at 3.00 p.m. crashed just after the pilot, Captain Krishnan, informed the Chennai Air Traffic Control (ATC) about the failure of one of its engines.

One of the bodies was identified at the neighbouring Epury Village, official sources said. The body of an air force bandmaster fell from the aircraft when the plane was tumbling down, sources said.

The district administration, quoting Air Force sources, said efforts were on to fly in a relief-cum-search party from Chennai even as a team has left here by road.

All the passengers on board were feared killed and the mangled bodies were strewn all around the crash site, police sources said, adding that the chance of survivors was very “remote”.

The Director of Hyderabad Airport, Mr Asha Ram, told PTI that the aircraft, scheduled to land here at 4.23 p.m., hit a hillock before crashlanding into the fields.

“We started worrying about its fate when the pilot did not come into contact with our ATC. Later, we got a message from Chennai ATC about the tragedy,” he said.

The rescue plane, scheduled to arrive from Chennai, would be landing on the tar road near Buddagunta village, which is close to the accident site, official sources said.

Musical instruments of the Air Force band were found among the wreckage, the sources said, adding that police and revenue officials of Prakasham district were rushed to the spot.

Air Force sources here said the rescue helicopter could not take off from here due to poor light. But another team has left for the site by road and would be reaching the spot late in the night.

The disaster struck following failure of one of the engines. The ill-fated Avro was carrying Air Force personnel belonging to the Begumpet Air force Command.

4. 2 : Imagine that you have been asked by the Managing Director of the company that has manufactured AVRO HSO 748 to submit an internal report on the accident. You have to investigate the reasons and to make recommendations on improving the safety of the aircraft. Read the points given in the table.

table<>. <>. |<>.
p<>. Work in pairs

Here are some of the tasks that may be involved in writing a report.

If you were writing a report, which order would you do the tasks in? Number the items, leaving out any points you think are unimportant.

|<>. p<>. Consider the purpose of your report: who is it for, why it is needed, how it will be used.

Draft a working plan on a separate sheet of paper.

Write the body of the report.

Write the introduction: state the subject, state the purpose, summarize your findings.

State the aim and emphasis of the report briefly.

Collect all relevant material – notes, documents, etc.

Check your grammar, spelling, punctuation and style.

Read the text aloud to yourself, or, better, to someone else.

Decide what information is important and what is irrelevant.

Arrange the points of information in a logical sequence and in order of importance. Make rough notes.

Finally, if possible, let someone give constructive criticism by looking at your draft.

Decide where you might need illustrations or diagrams.

Write the conclusion (and recommendations)

Check your illustrations.

Summarize the report in a sentence.

Examine the draft. Does it do what the report is expected to do? |

► Do you have any other important points been left out which you think should be included?

4.3. Report on Industrial Visit :

These reports are formal in nature and therefore adopt a impersonal tone in writing. However as in all other reports, the reader is in focus. The style is formal and writing precise. The sub-headings in the report include the following.


p<>. Purpose of the visit, when and for how long

p<>. Preparatory measures : How did you travel, places visited and contact persons.

p<>. Details of the visit : Including the name of the industry, general details about it, such as, number of employees, their product, market share, financial status, people you contacted etc.

p<>. Critical observations.

p<>. Remarks / Recommendations.

1. Title Page (follow the format given for airlines accident)

2. Details of the report 3. Summary

4.4. Title Page

Draw the title page in your note book for the following report.

A Report on the Visit to Sango Factory at Ennore, Chennai, Tamil Nadu.

Introduction : A visit to the Sango factory at Ennore was undertaken to study their product, policy, R & D, marketing and other related issues. This industrial visit is part of the requirement for course completion for final year B.E / B. Tech, students. A one-day visit on 5th October, 2005 was organised. A bus trip to the factory from college made travel easy.

Detailed Report : The existing infrastructure including building, machines, number of employees for production and packaging seems sufficient. They use-state-of the-art machinery for processing the Sango drink. They strictly adhere to anti-pollution laws and there is sufficient availability of utilities and water. The community around the plant is pro-company as they have taken up several developmental measures for the welfare of the community. The workforce include enough skilled technicians and professionals. Most of the machines are imported. The factory has been in existence for the last ten years and the financial statements are encouraging. The company follows good economic sense and reuses much of their in-plant waste. Some they put right back into the production cycle (home scrap), some they sell to other industries (industrial scrap) and some they convert into by products.

Research and Development department is active developing new hardware and techniques – applicable to recycling or producing by-products from wastes. Shredders, grinders, air classifiers magnetic separators are all in use in industrial processes. More work can be done on other feasibility projects. Study is on to replace the paper sachets with metal cans. In comparison with paper sachets bottles, metal cans are less bulky to store, can be handled conveniently, lend themselves to eye-catching decoration and chill their contents rapidly. Metal cans are more expensive per unit but cheaper to ship.

Critical Observations : The visit was useful. It brought to light certain crucial element of

p<>. Plant management

p<>. Managing waste

p<>. Alternatives in packaging

p<>. Consumer / Retailer attitude in the production process.

Recommendation : It is felt that students need to take such industrial visits frequently to have a hands-on experience of the industrial set-up.


The students of __________ have visited the _______ company on _________. The company is located at ________________ km away from the college. It is __________ hours journey by bus. The company makes/manufactures _________. The products are marketed in __________ areas/states and its sales position is satisfactory / unsatisfactory. The company follows anti-pollution laws and helps the local residents by providing them employment, offering charity, promoting health and education. The research wing is doing commendable work. The company's future plans include ______.

[*(*]fill in the blanks in the summary from your understanding of the report).

Example: Feasibility Report

table<>. <>. |<>.

A Feasibility Report on the Introduction of New Electric Rice Cooker in South India

Submitted to the Vice President

Sony Households Ltd.

Submitted by the Product Manager

Chennai Division



A Feasibility Report on the Introduction of New Electric Rice Cooker in South India


To find out the feasibility of introducing the new product in South India and suggesting the appropriate time for releasing it into the market.


a. To find out the requirements of the consumers and also to check if the new product meets their expectations or not.

b. To submit a report on the various competitors in the field.

3.Time of Submitting the Report: within 30 days

4.Methodology of Conducting the Survey:

The following steps were taken before the study was taken up:

1. The Southern Region is divided into four divisions.

2. The Research wing along with marketing team has prepared questionnaires to the consumers, distributors and retail shop owners, to get feed back from various sources about the product requirements.

3. The services of a local agency – Consumer Track were used to collect data from the sources.

4. Consumers with various back grounds were invited through the agency and were shown the sample of the product and their reaction to it were recorded.

5. Data to be collected from the questionnaire by the market wing:

Ground Work:


p<>. Number of different types of electric cookers sold in the shops.

p<>. Which is the most popular one?

p<>. What is the reason for their popularity?

p<>. Are people happy with the existing products?

p<>. Are they looking for new products?

p<>. What kind of product they expect?

p<>. What will be the budget requirements?

6. Impact 1:

p<>. How will the suggestions affect the budget?

p<>. Does the company need to bring in technical experts for making the necessary changes?

p<>. How soon the product can be introduced into the market?

p<>. What could be the price?

7. Impact II:

p<>. Will the product be competitive?

p<>. Can the company attract experienced persons from other companies?

p<>. When should the company enter the market?

p<>. Will the new venture be profitable?

8. The Report: Though there are several products in the market, the company has to face competition from National and Panasonic. The products are well received because of their durability and service facilities available. The consumers are also recommended to buy these products by the sales men. When the consumers were approached for their opinion, the consumers expressed satisfaction with the products. They, however wish to have electric cooker for boiling pulses, as most of the electric cookers are rice cookers. Some homemakers preferred to have choice with colours to suit the kitchen furnishing. They wish that the new product to have a beeping sound after an hour after the automatic switch –off of cooking mode.

The budget can be as per the decisions taken in the past by the company, as no new changes are made to the product, except the color. However the feasibility of introducing automatic beeping sound needs to be looked into as it involves installing electronic sensors in the product.

9. Recommendations:

1. The product should be redesigned keeping in view of the changes to colour, addition of beeping sound

2. Similarly, the price should be competitive as the existing competitors have established their brand.

3. The product should be introduced during the festive season with offers to capture the market.

10. Single line Summary: The product will be well received by consumers with colour choice and automatic beeping sound.


Date: Place:


4.5. Instructions and Imperatives:

Write a short paragraph narrating a story / incident, which has greatly impressed you. Keep the following instructions in mind while writing, as they give you tips in improving your handwriting.

1. Easy to read: Handwriting is the reflection of a clear mind. “Illegible handwriting in a young man / woman is a sign of untidy and careless mind”. Do you agree with this opinion of Bell?

2. Distinctiveness: Each letter should have a character form of its own. It means ‘a’ should resemble ‘a’ not ‘e’ and ‘n’ should resemble ‘n’ not ‘u’ etc.

3. Simplicity: The writing should be simple. The letters should have no unnecessary parts, curls or strokes.

4. Spacing: Spacing is an essential feature for a beautifully written handwriting. The letters in a word should be properly spaced. The words in a line should be placed at an appropriate distance from each other. Similarly, the lines on a page should not be crowded too closely together. A harmonious spacing of letters, words and lines is very necessary.

5. Uniformity: Whatever style an individual adopts, it should be uniform in size, spacing, and alignment, particularly in the direction of strokes.

6. Size and shape: The size and shape of letters should be moderate and even.

7. Attractive: To make one’s handwriting attractive, the letters should be well formed, even in size, and suitably spaced and written in straight lines.

8. Speed: Good handwriting requires reasonable speed. It is not laboured in any way but done at a reasonable speed.

4.6.Instructions to the student

Exchange your notes – the incident or the story you have written with your friend. Give instructions on how your friend can improve his / her handwriting.

Remember – Use imperative sentences / or should statements.

The type of sentence you use to instruct others is called an imperative sentence. Imperative sentences start with a verb / an action word. While doing experiments in your laboratory, your instructor might use sentences like the ones listed below.

Don’t talk in the laboratory.

Students should wear coats in the laboratory.

Do not write anything in the record book now.

Be cautious while handling the fire.

Could you think of any instructions you come across every day given by your parents, elders or by your friends? An engineer must clearly understand the instructions given to him by his superiors and must convey the same to his subordinates. When you instruct others remember to start the sentence with a verb. Read some of the instructions given below:

1. Hold the convex lens in front of the white paper (imperative)


The convex lens should be held front of the white paper (should statement)

2. Calculate the amount of expansion, which will take place. (imperative)


bq. The amount of expansion, which will take place, should be calculated

(should statement)

Look at some of the instructions given above to improve reading habits and handwriting Change some of the should statements into imperative statements.

4.6. Change the following sentences into should statements


p<>. Take 50ml hydrochloric acid in a burette.

p<>. Fix the burette to a stand.

p<>. Add two drops of phenolphthalein as indicator.

p<>. Operate the new machine carefully.

p<>. Keep some instruments in the tool room.

p<>. Find out the zero error before using the screw gauge.

p<>. Allow the heated metal to cool down.

p<>. Clamp the metals together.

p<>. Check the floppy for virus.

p<>. Browse the net for details.

bq. 4.7. Instructions’ and ‘should’ Statements

Below is a set of instructions on ‘what to do’ in case of fire. Use them to write a paragraph explaining what to do when fire breaks out in an office block. Remember to use “should” in your sentences. Give a proper introduction and conclusion to your paragraph.

1. Break glass to sound alarm.

2. Dial 100 for emergency.

3. Inform fire service immediately.

4. Do not panic or create confusion.

5. Use the extinguisher provided in the corridors of the office.

6. Close doors and window to avoid spread of fire.

7. Leave the building by the nearest exit.

8. Use the sand pails if available.

9. Help the elderly and children if any.

10. Use stairs, not lifts.

4.8. Vocabulary focus : Abbreviations and Acronyms

Abbreviations are simply the shortening of words and expressions.


Some common abbreviations come from Latin:

e.g. for example, from exempli gratia

NB note well, from nota bene

i.e. that is, from id est

AD the year of Our Lord, used to count years since the birth the Christ,

from Anno Domini

Some come from shortened words:

bedsit: one room which is a bedroom and a sitting room

Sitcom: short for situational comedy (a kind of TV programme)

sci-fi : science fiction

Some are pronounced as individual letters:

EU European Union ID identity document

BC Before Christ, used to count years asap as soon as possible

before the birth of Christ

Some abbreviations are acronyms, i.e. they are formed from the first letters (or occasionally syllables) of a word or series of words and are pronounced as a word:

AIDS : Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

NATO : North Atlantic Treaty Organisation

Some can be pronounced both as an acronym and as individual letters:

VAT value-added tax

UFO unidentified flying object

Sometimes abbreviations can have more than one meaning.

AA Alcoholics Anonymous and the AA the Automobile Association

PC personal computer Police Constable

m metre, mile, million, male, married

p per, pence, page

Some abbreviations are particularly common in writing.

RSVP reply please (used on invitations, from French, repondez s’il vous plait)

PTO please turn over

FAQ frequently asked question (found mainly on websites)

These abbreviations are increasingly common in electronic text messages:

FYI for your information AFK away from keyboard LOL laughing out loud

BTW by the way R are C see U you EZ easy 4 for 2 to, too, two

4.8. 1. Task: What do these abbreviations stand for? Choose from the words in the box. Use each word once only.



Animals Educational International Organisation

Standard British Empire Mean Organisation Time Committee Fund Monetary Prevention Time Cruelty Greenwich Nations Royal United

Cultural Health Olympic Scientific World

Eastern International Order Society

4.8.2. Translate this mobile phone text message into standard English.

cu 4 at 3. OK? BTW K’s going 2 b here 2.

h1<>. [*
bq. Follow up: Quiz

The language and terminology connected with computers changes very quickly. If you want to keep up with it, read computer advertisement in newspapers and magazines, or visit the websites of well-known hardware and software manufacturers, and note any new vocabulary are other ways of learning new terminology.

ADC : Analog to digital converter

AI : Artificial Intelligence

ANSI : American National Standards Institute

APM : Advanced Power Management

ASAD : Association of shareware authors and Distributors

ASC II : American Standard code for Information / Interchange.

BIOS : Basic Input / output system

BBS : Bulletin Board Service

CAD / CAM : Computer Aided Design / Computer Aided Manufacturing

CADD : Computer Aided Design and Drafting

CAI : Computer Aided Instruction

CAL : Computer Augmented Learning

CDPD : Cellular Digital Packet Data

CGM : Colour Graphics Metalife

DDE : Dynamic Data Exchange

EBCDIC : Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code.

EDP : Electronic Data Processing

EFT : Electronic Funds Transfer

EGA : Enhanced Graphics Adaptor

EIS : Executive Information System

EISA : Extended Industry Standard Architecture

FDC : Floppy Disk Controller

FAT : File Allocation Table

FTP : File Transfer Protocol

GDI : Graphics Device Interface

GIF : Graphics Interchange Format

HLL : High Level Language

IDE : Integrated Drive Electronics

ISAM : Indexed Sequential Access Method

LCD : Liquid Crystal Display

MIDI : Musical Instrument Digital Interface

MIS : Management Information System

OCR : Optical Character Recognition

OLE : Object Linking and Embedding

PCL : Printed Control Language

WPG : Word Perfect Graphics

WYSIWYG : What you see is what you get

WMF : Windows Media File


p<>. Unity in Writing:

Topic Sentence: A topic sentence is a sentence that expresses the main idea of a paragraph. It always answers the questions “Who” or “What” the paragraph is about. Locating the topic sentence in a paragraph is one of the most important reading skills. So while writing an essay it is important to divide the paragraphs based on the topic sentences.

4.10.1. Read the following paragraphs, state the topic sentence, and underline the connectives

p<>. Chess is an ancient game. It’s invention has been ascribed at various times to the Greeks, Egyptians, Arabs, Persians and Indians. Today it is generally agreed that the original home of chess was India, where it was a popular game known by the name of chaturang. Sir William Jones, the great ideologist, gathered evidence which showed that the game was exported from India to Persia and not the other way about as claimed by some historians. The Arabs learnt the game from the Persians and called it shatranj. The next stage in the history of chess was its spread to the West. The Muslim conquerors brought it to Spain, and the Byzantines to Italy. From these countries it spread to France and then Scandinavia and England. Soon all Europe was playing the game. It was a recreation of the nobility who not only played the game but also patronised good players. But chess as it was played in those days was very different from the chaturang of India. The ‘minister’, who could move only two squares of the same colour became the Queen with greater power and freedom to move. Rules governing the Bishop, the Pawn and the King also changed. When, finally, castling was introduced, the old game virtually disappeared. Today chess is an international game. Teams from over 50 nations take part in the Olympiads which are held at regular intervals. The International Chess Federation, or FIDE (abbreviation for its French name, Federation Internationale des Echecs) is the body that controls these world events, enunciates and revises the rules of the game.

p<>. Once upon a time there was a tree in the forest which had thin, pointed leaves. It felt sad when it saw the large, green leaves of the other trees swaying and rustling in the wind. ‘How unlucky I am!’ it moaned. ‘If only God gave me leaves of gold, I could stand proud among my neighbours and shine with dazzling brilliance in the sun.’ The next morning the tree stood transformed. It had leaves of gold. It looked around at the other trees and saw how envious they were. But when night fell, a greedy man crept close to the tree and plucked all the golden leaves, put them into a sack and stole away. ‘Oh, how unlucky I am,’ the tree lamented again. ‘But perhaps I can have leaves made of glass. They will shine brighter than gold and no one will steal them.’ The next morning the tree was again transformed. When the rays of the sun fell on the tree, they were reflected in all directions. The tree felt proud of its leaves. But that night there was thunder and lightning, and the wind blew violently and shook the tree. All its glass leaves were broken. ‘Bad luck, again,’ sighed the tree. ‘Let me have beautiful green leaves like the other trees, but let mine be perfumed.’ This wish was granted too, and the next day the whole forest was filled with the sweet smell of its leaves. But within a few hours, goats from all around the forest gathered, drawn by the pleasant smell, and nibbled at the leaves until not a trace of green was left on the tree. ‘How foolish I have been,’ said the tree sadly. ‘My own leaves are best for me, not any other. I’ve learnt my lesson.’ The next day the tree stood covered once again with thin, pointed leaves. It felt as proud of its own leaves as the other trees felt of theirs.

4.10.b. The following paragraphs lack unity. Some parts of the paragraph are unrelated to the central idea. Strike out the sentence or sentences that do not belong to the paragraph.

p<>. Mahan had one passion in life – cricket. He read about cricket, he talked about cricket, he dreamed about cricket. He had pictures of cricketers on the walls of his room. He collected their autographs, and wrote to some of them. He didn’t care for football. Football is very popular in many parts of the world, and in Latin American countries, football is a part of the national life. People even attack umpires after football matches. Mohan left football, hockey and other plebeian games to his classmates. He considered cricket the king of games, a game fit for princes.

p<>. Tourists who return from India carry indelible memories of their visit to Agra, the city of the Taj Mahal. Taj Mahal by moonlight is one of the most beautiful sights in the world. On full moon day people flock to Agra to feast their eyes on this exquisite building which presents to their eyes a blend of beauty and poetry. They remember the glory of the Mughal Empire. They remember Shah Jahan, who erected this monument to love and dedicated it to the memory of his queen, Mumtaz. This architectural marvel is today one of the seven wonders of the world. There were seven wonders in the ancient world too, but many of them have disappeared.

4.10 C. Arrange the following sentences in the right order:

A. 1. One of the most destructive results will be the rise in sea levels, as the ice sheets and glaciers melt.

2. The effects of Global warming will be felt everywhere.

3. The IPCC was estimated that oceans may rise by as much as a metre by the end of next century.

4. The world map would took very different in 100 years time.

5. This would mean the total disappearance of entire island nations, and the flooding of coastal areas.


B. 1. Have we taken care of these as well as nature does us?

2. Of course, among others, it has also provided us with fossil fuel.

3. Nature has provided us with four basic things – land for food production, forests for wood, rain and oxygen cycles, water for drinking and irrigation and air for breathing.

4. One, we have used up our resources far much faster than nature can provide them for us; two we have polluted them to such an extent that we feel chocked.

5. Because we have done two awful things.

6. The answer is an obvious resounding but frustrating ‘no’.

p<>. What have we done with these?


Compound nouns are formed by joining two or three words to convey one single meaning. They express in short forms the meanings that will otherwise require quite a few words. Compound nouns can be formed from almost any combination of the parts of speech. For example they can be formed by joining a noun with another noun, a noun and an adjective, a noun and a verb, a gerund and a noun, and adverb and a noun, etc.

Noun + noun – steam engine, metal tube, television screen, head master

Noun + gerund – weight lifting, coal mining, letter writing, script writing

Gerund + noun – waiting list, flying object, washing machine, driving license

Adjective + noun – dark room, black board, frictional loss, silver ring

Noun + verb – sleep walk, lip read, land slide, earth quake, temperature drop

Verb + noun – pass port, run way, drive inn, waste disposal

Exercise – 1: Expand the following compound nouns:

1. frictional loss – loss caused by friction

2. metal tubes -

3. steam consumption -

4. machine operator -

5. heat transfer -

6. power house -

7. computer diagnosis -

8. roller mill -

9. information center -

10. petroleum product -

Exercise – 2: Find a noun that fits in the brackets to make two compound nouns

1. junk (food) poisoning – junk food, food poisoning

2. God ( ____ ) tongue –

3. air ( ____ ) oil –

4. junk ( ____ ) order –

5. income ( ____ ) inspector –

6. blood ( ____ ) cooker –

7. pen ( ____ ) board –

8. washing ( ____ ) oil –

9. side ( ____ ) event –

10. arm ( ____ ) room –

Note : Compound Nouns can be written as two words or they may written with a hyphen instead of space between words. Understanding both elements of the expression, will make the meaning clear. Usually the stress will be on the first part. The stressed parts are underline below:

The following compound nouns examples of common countable nouns. They are never used with an article.

Cotton wool / mail order / pocket money / birth control / hay fever

The following compound nouns are used only in Singular.

Mother tongue / labour force / greenhouse – effect / Sound barrier / brain drain / welfare state

The following compound nouns are used only in plural:

grass roots / luxury goods / race relations / road works / human rights / kitchen scissors / sunglasses / traffic lights

Exercise – 3: Complete the following networks with appropriate expressions

Exercise – 4 : Make sentences using the networks you have used

1. The ____________ _______________ is a specialist in software development.

2. The ____________ _______________ is broken.

3. The ____________ _______________ erased all documents

4. _______________ _______________ is what we are taught in the colleges.

Fill the blanks with appropriate compound nouns. Do not repeat the ones that are already given

1. _________ token 5. ________________ image

2. Sound _________ 6. __________ methods

3. Printing _____ 7. news ________________

4. _______application 8. Printing ___________

Note : In compound nouns, adjectives and nouns are placed in a specific order , which is represented in the following table:

table<>. <>. |<>.
p=. Number |<>.
p=. General |<>.
p=. Size |<>.
p=. Age |<>.
p=. Colour |<>.
p=. Nationality |<>.
p=. Substance |<>.
p=. Noun | <>. |<>.
p<>. Four |<>.
p=. - |<>.
p=. big |<>.
p=. - |<>.
p=. Grey |<>.
p=. - |<>.
p=. Wooden |<>.
p=. Planks | <>. |<>.
p<>. Three |<>.
p=. - |<>.
p=. Small |<>.
p=. Old |<>.
p=. - |<>.
p=. - |<>.
p=. Silver |<>.
p=. Bars | <>. |<>.
p<>. Five |<>.
p=. Smart rusted |<>.
p=. - |<>.
p=. Young |<>.
p=. - |<>.
p=. Indian |<>.
p=. - |<>.
p=. Women | <>. |<>.
p<>. Six |<>.
p=. - |<>.
p=. - |<>.
p=. Old |<>.
p=. - |<>.
p=. - |<>.
p=. Copper |<>.
p=. Plates | <>. |<>.

|<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. p=. books | <>. |<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. p=. Children | <>. |<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. p=. Pumps | <>. |<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. p.
p=. Printers

4.12.Reported speech

In technical and scientific writings while transforming direct speech into indirect speech or reported speech, care should be taken to make appropriate changes in the tense forms, pronouns, verbs or certain adverbials and demonstratives to show time and place. The following shows change that takes place in changing the direct speech into indirect speech.

(a) Changes in tense form:

table<>. <>. |<>.

|<>\4. h1<>. [* bq. Direct Speech *] |<>\2. p. |<>\3. h1<>. [* bq. Indirect Speech *] |<>. p. | <>. |<>. p<>. 1. |<>\4. p<>. Simple present |<>\2. p<>. - |<>\3. p<>. Simple past |<>. p. | <>. |<>. p. |<>\4. p<>. Eg : write / writes |<>\2. p. |<>\3. p<>. wrote |<>. p. | <>. |<>. p<>. 2. |<>\4. p<>. Present continuos |<>\2. p=. - |<>\3. p<>. Past continuos |<>. p. | <>. |<>. p. |<>\4. p<>. Eg : is / are writing |<>\2. p. |<>\3. p<>. was / were writing |<>. p. | <>. |<>. p<>. 3. |<>\4. p<>. Present perfect |<>\2. p=. - |<>\3. p<>. Past perfect |<>. p. | <>. |<>. p. |<>\4. p<>. Eg : has / have written |<>\2. p. |<>\3. p<>. had written |<>. p. | <>. |<>. p<>. 4. |<>\4. p<>. Present perfect cont. |<>\2. p=. - |<>\3. p<>. Past perfect cont. |<>. p. | <>. |<>. p. |<>\4. p<>. Eg : has / have been writing |<>\2. p. |<>\3. p<>. has been writing |<>. p. | <>. |<>. p<>. 5. |<>\4. p<>. Past tense |<>\2. p=. - |<>\3. p<>. Past perfect |<>. p. | <>. |<>. p. |<>\4. p<>. Eg : wrote |<>\2. p. |<>\3. p<>. had written |<>. p. | <>. |<>. p<>. 6. |<>\4. p<>. Past continuos |<>\2. p=. - |<>\3. p<>. Past perfect cont. |<>. p. | <>. |<>. p. |<>\4. p<>. Eg : was /were writing |<>\2. p. |<>\3. p<>. had been writing |<>. p. | <>. |<>. p<>. 7. |<>\4. p<>. Past perfect |<>\2. p=. - |<>\3. p<>. No change |<>. p. | <>. |<>. p. |<>\4. p<>. Eg : had written |<>\2. p. |<>\3. p<>. had written |<>. p. | <>. |<>. p<>. 8. |<>\4. p<>. will/shall/can/may/must |<>\2. p=. - |<>\3. p<>. would/should/could/might/must |<>. p. | <>. |<>\4. h1=. |<>\2. h1=. |<>\5. h4<>. | <>. |<>\2. h1<>. |<>. p. |<>. h1<>. |<>\2. h1<>. |<>\2. h2<. |<>. h1=. |<>\2. p. |

bq. Changes in Adverbials and Demonstratives

table=. =. |=.
h1=. Direct |=.
h1=. |=.
h1=. [*
bq. Indirect
*] |=.
h1=. |=.
h1=. [*
bq. Direct
*] |=.
h1=. |=.
h1=. [*
bq. Indirect
*] | =. |=.
h2=. [*
bq. this
*] |=.
p=. - |=.
p=. that |=.

|=. h2=. [* bq. tonight *] |=. p=. - |=. p=. that night | =. |=. h2=. [* bq. these *] |=. p=. - |=. p=. those |=. p. |=. h2=. [* bq. today *] |=. p=. - |=. p=. that day | =. |=. h2<. [* bq. here *] |=. p=. - |=. p=. there |=. p. |=. h2=. [* bq. last week *] |=. p=. - |=. p=. the previous week | =. |=. h2=. [* bq. now *] |=. p=. - |=. p=. then |=. p. |=. h2=. [* bq. tomorrow *] |=. p=. - |=. p=. the next day | =. |=. h2=. [* bq. ago *] |=. p=. - |=. p=. before / earlier |=. p. |=. h2=. [* bq. next week *] |=. p=. - |=. p=. the following week | =. |=. h2=. [* bq. thus *] |=. p=. - |=. p=. so |=. p.
h2<. [*
bq. yesterday *]
p=. -
p=. the previous day/
the day before

Apart from the above changes, there are a few more rules to be followed while changing direct speech into indirect speech or reported speech, which are as follows:

1. Remove the comma after the word ‘said’ and the quotation marks are removed.

2. The subordinating conjunction ‘that’ is introduced.

For example:

p=. Reported Speech

Exercise – 1: Change the following Direct Speech into Indirect Speech:

1. He said to his children, “Please leave me in peace.”

2. The doctor said to the patient, “Stop taking sugar.”

3. The captain said to the soldiers, “March forward.”

4. The girl said, “What a beautiful day!”

5. The customs officer said, “Please open your suitcases.”

6. The sales man said to me, “Read the instructions before you switch on the machine.”

7. The news is, “The Prime Minister arrived in the city.”

8. My mother said to me, “Is it raining now.”

9. The manager said, “I shall go to my native place tomorrow.”

10. Prem said, “I had gone to my uncle’s place for a few days.”

Group Activity:

Divide yourselves into groups of four each. One of you should imagine that you are a famous person – a writer, a sportsman, a film star, a singer, a dancer, etc. The second one is a reporter from a newspaper / magazine, who is going to conduct the interview. The third and fourth persons assist the interviewer by (a) taking down the interview and then (b) transforming it into reported speech. Then exchange your report with that of the neighbouring group. Let each group now rewrite the original interview.

Now let each group discuss the difference between its original version and the version prepared by the other group (Restrict yourselves to 5 questions during the interview).


UNIT V The Less Travelled road


p<>. Reading – Skimming for Information

Read the following sentences and guess what the unit may discuss down the road! Guess the meaning of the idioms from the dialogue:

A: Do you know the road to success? B: Yes, it is the less travelled road!

A: Shall we hit the road and do things differently to reach the road to success?

B: Sure, as Engineers we want to invent something down the road, but remem- ber that Rome is not built in a day. In the beginning, we may take a bump on the road. But don’t get disappointed by the difficulties, be patient, and take the high road. There is no short cut to success; maintaining professional ethics and honesty always pays in the future.


h4<>. [*
bq. Talk about this

p<>. How many meanings have you identified?

p<>. What are the common words in all the idioms?

5.3. Match the News paper headlines with the information given in the box:

table<>. <>. |<>.
bq. 1. Unsafe roads of Ahmedabad: 4 dead in 3 days

|<>. bq. a. Talks are under way on allowing access to more streets, as bicycle group criticises Transport Department for lack of planning on the issue

Cyclists might be able to ride on more Hong Kong roads if discussions between the government and a bicycle group bear fruit. The Hong Kong Cycling Alliance is talking to transport officials about removing bans at some locations including bridges, underpasses and flyovers. There are no specific laws banning bicycles from these places apart from signs erected by the Transport Department. But laws do prohibit bicycles using tunnels and highways

| <>. |<>. bq. 2. Indianapolis roads crumbling despite huge influx of infra- structure dollars: Water utility sale funding drying up |<>. bq. b. Seven years from now, every inch of Delhi’s roads will be gobbled up by vehicles and the city will come to a standstill for there won’t be any space left for vehicles to move. The number of vehicles – both cars and two-

wheelers – are rising at a rate of 8% per annum. For a city of 17 million, Delhi has close to eight million regis-

tered vehicles, more than that of Mumbai, Kolkata and Bangalore put together.Add to this the 1,400 new vehicles that are registered every day. While the number of vehicles has increased at an astonishing rate of 135.6% since 2000, the road network has increased by only 16.5%.The result: Traffic snarls are getting longer by the day.

| <>. |<>. bq. 3. Cyclists see open roads up ahead |<>. bq. c. Based on the success of roads laid with plastic waste, the government has planned to relay 1,100 km roads in rural and urban areas by mixing plastic waste with bitumen. Roads will also be repaired using plastic waste at a cost of Rs 50 crore, for which financial assistance will come from the environ- ment protection and renewable energy development fund. | <>. |<>. bq. 4. Tamil Nadu to lay 1,100 km plastic roads |<>. bq. d. Roads in the city are becoming more dangerous with each passing day. Proving this statement are the figures of death on road, caused by speeding drivers. Four persons died and two were critical injured in 5 accidents over last three days. | <>. |<>. bq. 5. Where all roads lead to chaos |<>. bq. e. The Call 6 Investigators have uncovered thousands of sections of crumbling roads in the heart of central Indiana, despite the city of Indianapolis spending an unprecedented amount of money on infrastructure in recent years. |

References:http://www.hindustantimes.com/India-news/NewDelhi/Where-all-roads-lead-to-chaos/ Article1-1055948.aspx


Electronic mail, also written as e-mail, is the way in which messages are passed from one computer user to another using a local network or by using modems over telephone lines. Usually, it takes only a few seconds or minutes for an e-mail to arrive at its destination. Since it is fast, economic, and reliable, these days e-mail is becoming very popular. Messages sent via e-mail are stored in electronic mailboxes until the recipient fetches them. The users have to check their electronic mailbox periodically to see if they have received any mail, although many systems alert when a mail is received. After reading the mail, the message can be stored in a [+ text file+], forwarded to other users, or deleted. Most email messages usually contain text, but one can also send non-text files, such as graphic images and sound files as attachments. Email accounts for a large percentage of the total traffic over the Internet. An email address is easily identified by the ‘@’ symbol, for instance [email protected], making identification of the domain it’s attached to much easier – in this case council.co.uk.

These days most of the office activities are now being undertaken by electronic and computer-based technology. As a result, business transactions are done in an extremely effective, low-cost and very fast way of communication. E-mail can be sent to one individual or simultaneously to several recipients at the same time. So a lot of time and effort is saved in producing formal or informal correspondences. A printed copy of the
e-mail can be printed out if there is a printer connected to the system. While composing an e-mail message there are a few netiquette to be followed, which are discussed here.

p<>. Type the correct e-mail address with the caps lock off as only correctly addressed e-mail is delivered within seconds.

p<>. Always write a subject heading. This will give the recipient a good idea of the contents of the message and makes for easier handling.

p<>. The computer automatically inserts the date and time. So it is important to keep the computer’s internal clock and date settings accurate, otherwise problems may be caused in trying to sort messages chronologically.

p<>. Emoticons can be used to show mood in the informal email messages. Some of the more common emoticons are:

happy >:-( – angry

(:-) – Big face sad

crying ;-) – wink

The tone of the mail has to be taken care of. If it is a formal mail, avoid short forms and use only formal words.

p<>. Make an effort to keep sentences short and simple and check the syntax.

p<>. Save copies of the sent mails for future references.

p<>. Finally only after confirming that the drafted mail is perfect, press the “send” symbol. It is not possible to stop or call back the sent mails. So check it and get it right first time.

A sample e-mail for composing is given for reference:

table<>. <>. |<>.

|<>. p<>. Insert addresses or names (separated by commas) | <>. |<>. p>. To: |<>. p<>. [email protected] | <>. |<>. p>. Cc: |<>. p<>. [email protected], [email protected] | <>. |<>. p>. Bcc: |<>. p<>. [email protected] | <>. |<>. p>. Subject: |<>. p<>. Project proposal | <>. |<>\2. p. |

A sample e-mail sent by a user is given for reference:

table<>. <>. |<>.
p>. From: |<>.
p<>. [email protected] | <>. |<>.
p>. To: |<>.
p<>. [email protected] | <>. |<>.
p>. Subject: |<>.
p<>. Proposal for German language course | <>. |<>.
p>. Date: |<>.
p<>. Wednesday, July 12, 2006 7:01 pm | <>. |<>.
p>. Attachments: |<>.
p<>. Proposal for German language course.doc(26K) | <>. |<>\2.


5.5.Write an email inviting a dignitary by converting the following snail mails , remember to include the points in bold:

p<. email inviting a dignitary:

1. Reason for invitation 2. Department Hosting

3. Date / Time 4. Topic 5. Arrangements Made.

1.Letter Inviting a Dignitary

K. Elangovan

Secretary, Computer Science Engineering Association

A.C. Engineering College

Chennai – 41


Mr. Prakash Raj

System Co-ordinator

Infosys India Ltd.,

Chennai – 119


On behalf of the Department of Computer Science Engineering Association of our College, I feel immensely happy to invite you to inaugurate the International Seminar on computer programming to be held at the college campus on 25.04. at 3 p.m.

It would be our privilege if you could deliver a lecture on ‘Computer Programming”.

After confirmation from you, we will make adequate arrangements for your transport and accommodation.

I request you to kindly acknowledge the receipt of this letter at the earliest.

Thanking you,

Yours sincerely,


5.6. Letter accepting the Invitation

It should have the following details:

1. Thanking for the invitation 2. Requirements 3.Accepting the offer

4. Expressing your convenient date & time 5. Accepting transport

Mr. S. Ramkumar

System Co-ordinator

Infosys India Ltd.,

Chennai – 119


Mr. K. Elangovan


Computer Science Engineering Association

A.C. Engineering College,

Chennai – 41

Dear Elangovan,

Thank you for your letter dated 22.03.20 inviting me to deliver a special lecture in your college. I gladly accept this offer. You can go ahead with your arrangements to hold the seminar on the proposed date. I will arrive by the transport facility provided by you.
I request you to arrange a writing board, LCD projector and a laptop to enable me to demonstrate the important points during my lecture (for power point presentation).

Thanking you,

Yours truly,


5.7.Letter declining the offer

It should have the following details:

1. Thanking for the invitation 2. Expressing sorry 3. Reason for declining the offer

Mr. S. Ramkumar

System Co-ordinator

Infosys India Ltd.,

Chennai – 119


Mr. K. Elangovan


Computer Science Engineering Association

A.C. Engineering College,

Chennai – 41

Dear Elangovan,

Thank you your letter dated 22.03.20 inviting me to deliver a special lecture in your college. I feel honoured by your invitation. But I regret to express my inability to accept the offer since I have an important meeting on the proposed date of the seminar. However I appreciate your enthusiasm and wish all success in your endeavour.

Thanking you,

Yours truly,




h4<>. [*
bq. Speaking: Speak for two minutes- Express your opinion on the necessity for huge spending on nuclear energy. Is it needed or not?

table<>. <>. |<>.
bq. In my view

I think that…

It seems to me that… I would argue that…

I do not believe that…

I am unconvinced that… I do not agree that…

|<>. bq. I don’t think

In my opinion,… If you ask me To my mind

I reckon:(what is likely to happen) I feel: (strong personal opinion)

If you ask me (disagree),

To be honest (with you) (rude), As far as I’m concerned

| <>. |<>. bq. Agreeing:

That’s exactly what I think. That’s a good point.

Quite right, I couldn’t agree more That’s just what I was thinking.

I agree entirely.

Yes, I’m all in favour of that.

|<>. bq. Disagree politely:

I see What you mean, but…….

I don’t think it’s such a good idea……. That’s true, but on the other hand….

I don’t quite agree because….. May be, but don’t you think… ?



h4<>. [*
bq. Expressing Point of View:

bq. Is Space Exploration Necessary? ‘YES!’

Professor Stephen Hawking, celebrated expert on the cosmological theories of gravity and black holes, believes that traveling into space is the only way humans will be able to survive in the long-term. He has said, “Life on Earth is at the ever-increasing risk of being wiped out by a disaster such as sudden global warming, nuclear war, a genetically engineered virus or other dangers

. I think the human race has no future if it doesn’t go into space.” Another of his famous quotes reiterates his position that we need to get off the planet relatively soon. “I don’t think the human race will survive the next 1,000 years unless we spread into space.”

bq. 5.9.a.Asking questions:

Work in pairs and answer the following questions:

p<>. Whose opinions are presented here?

p<>. What is his stand?

p<>. What are the reasons he gives for supporting his stand?

p<>. Does he give any reasonable data to support his stand?


h4<>. [*
bq. Read ‘ MIKE HESS’ views on space exploration and complete the

bq. outline:

Is Space Exploration that Necessary? ‘NO’


…With all of the debt, recession and financial/fuel/housing woes our country (and the world) is facing, is space exploration really necessary? Or, a more controversial opinion is it necessary at all?

While I’m all for scientific pioneering and learning as much as we can about the world we live in until we’re completely obliterated one

day, what has space exploration really done for us in the past, oh, 25 years

— totally excluding repair missions and satellite launches? Sure, we’ve seen photos of the surface of Mars and have done some other interesting things, but at the end of the day, is it worth all of the money (and I’ll have to mention the lives lost in shuttle tragedies along the way)? In the business here’s something called QPR: Quality to Price Ratio. For instance, if you can get a something from Portugal for $8 that acts like something that acts like a $30 in your country, that’s a QPR steal.

So, what I’m going at here is what’s the educational and human benefit of what we’re doing in space? Are the billions of dollars actually paying off in knowledge, or is it simply a matter of binge spending to fuel the ego of our country (and keep thousands of NASA employees, well, employed)? There’s a checks-and-balances … or at least there’s supposed to be … on government spending, so why not apply this to NASA? If the hundreds of millions of dollars being poured into a mission or the program itself aren’t worth the end game, I say all systems should’t be go. Keep that shuttle on the ground, and put the money into our schools where people really learn something valuable.

Adapted from http://trueslant.com/mikehess/2009/07/16/is-space-exploration-really-that-

bq. Step: 2. Prepare an Outline:


h4<>. [*
bq. Based on your understanding on ‘No to Nuclear Energy’, complete

bq. the following sheet in your note book:

Outline of Space Exploration is not necessary: Opinion:

Reason 1: Support: Reason 2: Support: Reason 3: Support:


bq. Step 3: Organise Your Ideas

p<>. Go through your worksheet on comparing opinions given in Indian news paper and Pakistani news paper on nuclear energy. Prepare a similar outline.

p<>. Use the sheet on arranging ideas given for ‘Space Exploration’ to organize your ideas in logical order.

Use conjunctions (discussed in Unit 1) for adding and contrasting ideas. While writing, coherence or unity is very important.

Stick to your logic and don’t argue against your opinion. To bring in cohesion conjunctions are neces- sary. You can even repeat some words, use pronouns to bring unity in your writing.

Don’t forget about the topic line. Every new idea needs a new paragraph. Don’t put too many ideas in the same paragraph.

Go ahead with your paper on a topic given by your teacher or the topic given for argumentative writing.

Finally, based on Step 7, edit your paper:

bq. Step 4: Write the First Draft

You are ready to write your first draft. You will need one paragraph for each reason that sup- ports your opinion. Be clear in your expression so that the reader understands your opinion.

bq. Step 5: Revise


h4<>. [*
bq. Exchange your paper with your partner. Outline your partner’s

bq. paper below

My Partner’s Paper

Opinion: Reason 1: Support: Reason 2: Support: Reason 3: Support:



h4<>. [*
bq. After you complete outlining your partner’s paper, ask each other

bq. the following questions:

p<>. What is the opinion expressed in the paper by your partner?

p<>. Has s/he given enough reasons to convince you?

p<>. Do all reasons support the main idea?

p<>. Has s/he given facts to support the reason?

p<>. Does the write up need any conjunctions, transitional words or phrases to make the points clear?

p<>. Is there anything difficult to understand?

p<>. Has the writer strongly supported his/ her stand?

bq. Step 6: Rewrite:


h4<>. [*
bq. Based on the feedback given by your partner, revise your paper. Change or add anything that you need to.












bq. Step 7: Edit Your Paper:


h4<>. [*
bq. Edit your paper based on the following instructions:

Instructions for Editing:

Look at every sentence –

p<>. Check whether every sentence has a subject and verb.

p<>. Check for any fragments.

p<>. Rewrite run-on sentences.

bq. [*

Look at the Verbs-

p<>. Ensure that all the verbs are in the correct tense.

p<>. See that all the verbs in the correct form.

p<>. Correct the verb if it does not agree with the subject.

Look at the punctuation and capitalization-

p<>. Place a comma in each compound sentence.

p<>. Place a comma only when they are needed in complex sentences.

Look at the words-

p<>. Write correct spelling to every word.

UNIT V: The Less Travelled Road

Reference: Singleton J.2004. Writers at Work: A Guide to Basic Writing. Cambridge University Press. USA


p<>. Presentation of Problems and Solutions

p<>. Work in groups; make a presentation to the class on the importance of laying proper roads for public safety, for efficient fuel management, and to prevent global warming. Support your stand by citing road accidents, by bringing examples where traffic snarls lead to wastage of fuel and carbon emission into the atmosphere. Make suggestions to overcome problems in this regard.

p<>. Present the problems the current and the future generations may face if existing water resources are not properly maintained. Arrive at solution to every problem presented. You can refer to some of the ideas given in Unit I.

p<>. Group work: Go through the table on ‘Problems Faced by Students’. Add problems like homesickness, friendship and peer pressure. Arrive at solutions on how a student can overcome them. Develop the ideas into an essay of 350 words. Refer to 5.3 for the steps in writing essay.

bq. Problems Faced by Students

table<>. <>. |<>.
bq. Problems

|<>. bq. Solution | <>. |<>. bq. Studies: College is challenging. For many it requires a much larger effort than high school did, and unlike most high schools, college packs about two years of classes into one |<>. bq. College students need to realize their limits while choosing their specializa- tion. While the purpose of college is to study and to further the education of an individual, that doesn’t mean students should study all the time. It is important to schedule time for fun outside of study, and to take study breaks to keep the mind fresh and clear. |


table<>. <>. |<>.
bq. Problems

|<>. bq. Solution | <>. |<>. bq. Money: With rise in costs, education is becoming costly as the government is spending less in the area. Many students opt for colleges of high stan- dard, paying high tuition fee. Hence, it is becoming increasingly harder for students to graduate debt-free. |<>. bq. More spending by the Government in the area of education is needed. Students can even do part time jobs to cover their

expenses. Concepts like earn while learn- ing should be encouraged.

| <>. |<>. bq. Job: Recession has caused huge dearth of jobs and naturally many students are unable to avail their desired jobs. |<>. bq. Decide what is important. Learn while in college and equip yourself for the job. Look at advertisements for job in your area and try to polish the skills that the

employer needs and even learn new skills.

| <>. |<>. bq. Further studies: Students who opt for further studies often get puzzled about which course to study and from which college. Because of the lack of proper guidance they often take hasty deci- sions in a hurry for which they have to repent later. |<>. bq. All these predicaments that are faced by students can only be resolved if every school and college recruits a qualified student counselor to guide the students in times of their problems. |

5.11.Creative writing:

p<>. Write PHRASE POEM  / MY YEAR IN ---- GRADE ~~ Reflect back on your year in _____ grade. Think of short phrases describing special events that you have enjoyed. Write a "phrase poem" about your experiences.


My first day in college

Certificates in back pack

Fear and tension

Controlling emotions

Tears rolling form my mom’s eyes

Big hugs

Dads encouraging smiles

Smiling at new faces

Eating together

Sharing news

Wondering about roommates

New lessons and wild experiments

p<>. I DON’T UNDERSTAND POEM Begin this poem with the words “I don’t understand.” Write a poem that lists several things you don’t understand about the world, yourself, or other people. These can be serious or silly things. End your poem with something you DO understand.


I don’t understand why I need to be treated like a kid

I don’t understand why I can’t eat what I like

I don’t understand why I have to sleep early

I don’t understand why my father calls me everyday

But most of all I don’t understand what all this fuss is about

But I do understand they love me and miss me a lot !

(Do not copy these poems, please brainstorm to come up with your own ideas)

Task 1 : go to the link http://www.shadowpoetry.com/resources/wip/types.html

Find one example poem of a Haiku and a Cinquain style of poem.  Print them out

p<>. CINQUAIN - a five-line poem consisting of five, usually unrhymed lines containing two, four, six, eight and two syllables.  

[_Line 1 – One word title                                    _]

Line 2 – Two descriptive words

Line 3 – Three action words

Line 4 – Four feeling words

Line 5 – one word, which answers the question, “When I think of the title, I think of…?” Example


Sleek dark

Calculating working programming

Thinking moving sensing


p<>. Couplet - a two-line poem with a simple rhyming pattern. Couplets are often silly.

[_Line of poetry that rhymes with line 2           _]

Line of poetry that rhymes with line 1


My English teacher wants me to use my imagination

So I can get into conversation

And so I can brainstorm

And write a poem from a discussion

p<>. Diamonte - a diamond-shaped poem of seven lines that is written using parts of speech.  The Diamonte is a form similar to the Cinquain.

[_Line 1: Noun or subject _]

Line 2: Two Adjectives

Line 3: Three ‘ing’ words

Line 4: Four words about the subject

Line 5: Three ‘ing words

Line 6: Two adjectives

Line 7: Synonym for the subject



Noisy, hot

writing speaking imagining

knowledge, scholarly, friendship, rivalry

wondering, sleeping, laughing, mingling studying

happy content


[+ http://www.mnelsonhome.com/Poetry%20ex/15_forms_of_poetry.htm+]


p<>. Simile and Metaphor

Create a quote or a poster using examples given below:

p<>. Life is like a box of chocolate you never know what you are going to get?” – Forrest Gump

p<>. Life is like a roller coaster it’s full of _][_ups and downs _][_but its your choice to scream or enjoy the ride.” – unknown

p<>. “Life is like a camera. Focus on what’s important, capture the good times, develop from the negatives, and if things don’t work out. Take another shot” – Unknown

p<>. Life is an art. Paint your dreams.” – unknown

p<>. “Life is a story. Make yours the Best seller’ – unknown

p<>. Life is a dance, you learn as you go. Sometimes you lead. Don’t worry about what you don’t know.” – unknown

5.13 Follow up: Arrange the following sentences in the right order:

Unit III:

Listening Script “How do you allot time for study?

p<>. First note how many exams you have, and the date of each exam. Then organize your study accordingly. Give more study time to the areas that are lengthy and difficult, and those that have less time to prepare during the exam time.

p<>. Organize your study space ––

Make sure you have enough space to spread out your textbooks and notes. Seeing your books spread out motivates you to read. Ensure that you have proper lighting and a comfortable place to sit and study. Do not keep all dis- tractions like your mobile phone, lap top that tempt you to chat on face book and play games and watch you tube.

p<>. Make chart –––

Write notes for whatever you read. Revise by looking at your notes. You can draw flow chart, table or any method to revise key points. Before exams do not read anything new, but revise all that you have studied. Go through old question papers to check your study preparation and the type of questions that will be asked.

p<>. Explain your answers to others –––

Use your parents, brothers and sisters to your advantage. Explain answers to them. That will help you to get it clear in your head. If you find it difficult to explain, perhaps you need to do a bit more study. But at least you won’t turn up to the exam and realize you don’t know the answer to a question!

p<>. Organize study groups with friends –––

You may have questions that your friends can answer or vice versa. Your social life doesn’t have to be non-existent during study times. Grab a pizza and your textbooks and get studying with your mates. So you socialize and study.

p<>. Develop a study routine that works for you.

If you study better in the morning, then start early before taking a break at lunchtime. Do something mindless in the afternoon and then start studying again in the evening if you know you’re more productive at night.


Additional Notes for University exams and Assignments:

Project Proposal


table<>. <>. |<>.
bq. Project Proposal On the

Feasibility of Using Solar Panels on Cars to Power the Onboard Air Conditioning Unit.


In part of the fulfillment of Degree


Submitted to

Department of Automobile Engineering

Sathyabama University


Research Supervisor



Submitted by Albina

Dept of Automobile Engineering

Reg No.2348643

Sathyabama University

15th October 2015




Project Proposal On the

Feasibility of Using Solar Panels on Cars to Power the Onboard Air Conditioning Unit.


To: Dr. Augustine

From: Albina, Student

Date: 15th October 2015

Subject: Project Proposal

Proposed Area of the Topic: The proposed project analyzes the feasibility of utilizing solar panels on the roofs of cars in order to provide power for the onboard air conditioning (AC) unit.

Purpose: The project will consist of several phases, the first being an investigation into the variety of AC units that are used in different cars and how much power is required for each of them. The second phase will look into the available types of solar panel technology and how the theoretical power generation of each of these technologies compares to the power required for each AC unit. The following phase will survey sunlight and available power across the United States to determine which areas of the country would represent the worst case scenario. The next phase will determine if additional onboard batteries are required during nighttime travel, cloudy days, or periods of excessive usage. The final phase will compile results from the previous phases to determine if this design is feasible.


Nearly every car manufacturing today comes standard with air conditioning. Air conditioning process is demonstrated by the refrigeration cycle .


The power to run the car’s onboard air conditioner normally comes from the battery which is recharged by the alternator which is in turn connected to the car’s crankshaft. Therefore the more the air conditioner is used the more gasoline is being burned to produce electricity. The electricity to run the air conditioning could instead come from a “green” source such as solar panels. This represents a fuel savings to the vehicle owner and fewer greenhouse gases introduced into the atmosphere. Global warming has become a hot topic in the forefront of modern day science and politics. Research furthering non-fossil fuel energy technology has been steadily increasing and consumers view these “green” energy technologies as opportunities to both reduce their carbon footprints as well as save money.

Theoretical framework: This project will determine if it is feasible to supply the energy required to run a car’s air conditioning unit from solar panels mounted on the car’s roof. This alternate energy source would represent a fuel savings to the consumer and a slightly smaller reliance on fossil fuels as a whole. Solar panels, or possibly a solar paint could be used to charge a battery or battery chain which is then in turn used to power the air conditioning on demand. Various solar cell technologies will be analyzed to determine which is the most suitable for this specific application.


Major Phases

1.Investigation into the variety of AC units that are used in different cars and how much power is required for each of them

2.Available types of solar panel technology and how the theoretical power generation of each of these technologies compares to the power required for each AC unit

3.Survey sunlight and available power across India to determine which areas of the country would represent the worst case scenario. The incident angle of the sunlight on the solar panel and the average amount of sunlight play heavily into the energy storage required in the form of batteries

4.Determine if additional onboard batteries are required during nighttime travel, cloudy days, or periods of excessive usage

5.Compile results from the previous phases to determine if this design is feasible. If it is not feasible determine what sort of changes are necessary and find the one which is the most realistic to improve upon.


Prepare proposal by 15th October

Complete literature review by 25th October

Install Instruments by 1st November

Complete fieldwork by 31st November

Complete analysis by 10th December Give presentation on 11th December

Complete final report by 15th December

Limitations: The resources that will be required to complete this project include:

 Microsoft Office, including Word, Excel and PowerPoint

 Published Papers available online via the Cole Library

 Various Textbooks and Class Notes

 Google Books and Google Scholar.

Delimitations: The study will be made only with the help of Air conditioning Technology Services, The centre for Solar Technology and Automobile Safety Services. It is expected that enough power can be generated by solar panels on space available on the roof of the car to meet the demands of all air conditioners studied.

References: Rajan T . Energy Science Principles, Technologies, and Impacts; Oxford; 2007

USER MANUAL: acknowledgment: Notes of Dr Shilaja CL, Dept of English, Sathyabama University, distributed to students and posted online at university website

table=. =. |=.
bq. User Manual for



Reverse Osmosis Water Purification System

Majesty Pvt. Ltd


For product Users only




User Manual for AQUA FRESH


Product Description

Aqua Fresh RO system removes almost all hardness, toxic heavy metals and other chemical contaminants to the water safe to drink and cook. It uses a unique purification process to revive the taste of water lost due to heavy metal contaminants like arsenic, lead and mercury. It provides microbiologically safe water besides chemically potable water by reducing even pesticides from various sources that contaminate water.


p<>. Aqua Fresh RO system has an eight litre storage capacity

p<>. Compact transparent storage tank to see the level of purified water

p<>. filter cartridges that are easily replaceable

p<>. Weight sensor control to avoid overflow of water

p<>. Closed Storage Tank to protect the water from dust

p<>. Auto Reject Water to avoid water wastage

p<>. Inbuilt auto flush system to clean RO membrane for durability

Safety Instructions


p<>. Change filters regularly for clean water

p<>. Drain the water in the tank after if not used more than two days

p<>. Discard the first filling of the water from storage tank after cleaning

p<>. Wipe the inside of the tank with a soft cloth


p<>. Do not place any heavy or sharp object on the top of the purifier

p<>. Do not pull or push the water dispensing lever with excessive force.

p<>. Do not tilt the purifier more than 10 degrees.

p<>. Do interchange the inlet and outlet of the filter.

p<>. Do not install the purifier where water or rain could leak into it(Outdoor etc)


[* Troubleshooting (Problems& Solutions) *]

1. What to when the water tastes bad?

Initially clean the storage tank and dispose of water. If the purified water still tastes bad call our service department to change filters.

2. What to do when too much or too little water being purified?

Either the Filters may be clogged or damaged. Check the water flow from tap, and call the service personnel.

3. What’s the quickest way to stop water leakage?

After checking the inside of the product, close the tap water valve, unplug the power cord and call our service department if trouble persists.

Service Advantage

The service contract entitles some attractive benefits:

p<>. One year warranty for the product

p<>. An option of entering into an annual Maintenance service

p<>. Routine maintenance service every four months during the term

p<>. Replaced of all parts except for the glassware’s, if damaged during the contract period

p<>. A vast network of service centers manned by experienced service representative

Technical Definitions:

Bearing: The part of a machine within which a rotating or sliding shaft is held. Bell crank: A pivoting double lever used to change the direction of applied motion. Cam : A mechanical device consisting of an eccentric or multiply curved wheel mounted on a rotating shaft used to produce variable or reciprocating motion in another engaged part. Clevis: A U-shaped piece with holes used as a fastening device which allows rotational motion. Collar: A cylindrical feature on a part fitted on a shaft used to prevent sliding (axial) movement. Collet: A cone – shaped sleeve used for holding circular or rod like pieces in a lathe or other machine. Coupling: A device used to connect two shafts together at their ends for the purpose of transmitting power. Fillet: A rounded surface filling the internal angle between two intersection surfaces Fixture: A device used to hold a workpiece while manufacturing operations are performed upon that work piece Gage: A device used for determining the accuracy of specified manufactured parts by direct comparison. Accelerometer. A device that measures the acceleration to which it is subjected and develops a signal proportional to it. Acceleration Servosystem. A servo-system that controls the acceleration (rate of change in velocity) of a load. Accumulator. A register that both stores a number and adds to other numbers loaded into the register. AC generator. [Alternator] A rotating machine that converts mechanical energy into alternating current. Acorn Tube. A small tube, used in low power uhf circuits, with closely spaced electrodes and no base. Balanced Amplifier. An amplifier with two identical branches connected to operate in opposite phase, with their input and outputs connections balanced to ground. Hamming Code . An error-detecting and error-correcting binary code, used in data transmission, that can detect all single- and double-bit errors and correct all single-bit errors. Joystick. A peripheral device used with personal computers to translate physical movement in two axis into electrical signals used by the computer. Junction Box. A box with a cover that serves the purpose of joining different runs of wire or cable and provides space for the connection and branching of the enclosed conductors. Junction Diode. A two-terminal device containing a single crystal of semi-conducting material that ranges from P-type at one terminal to N-type at the other. Keyboard. A peripheral device used with a personal computer which allows data entry.

Instructions and Recommendations: Rewrite the following instructions into into should statements: (an example and clues are given for better understanding)

Example: 1. Get in or out of the bus only when it comes to a complete halt.

One should get in or out of the bus when it comes to a complete halt

2. Don’t run after a bus, which has already left the stop.- (One should not run after the bus…….)

3. Get ready to alight before your stop arrives. (One should get ready to alight the bus before …..)

4. Never board or get out of the bus intersections. ( one should not …)

5. Form a queue for getting into the bus leaving way for people to get down. ( One should form …)

6. Look out for vehicles coming from behind while getting down.

7. Don’t keep your elbow or head out of the window. 8. Don’t lean out of the bus to wave. You could hit a pole. 9. Walk on the pavement 10. Keep to the extreme left of the road Use subways; though long, they are absolutely safe. 12. Avoid crossing suddenly. 13. Don’t walk on road dividers. 14. Follow traffic, signals properly 15. Avoid playing on the roads

Assignment I:

Fill the blanks with right form of the verb: ( Tenses)

p<>. You ……………….. ( work) hard today.

p<>. The company I work for ………….. ( not do) well this year.

p<>. I …………………….. ( work) hard for exams.

p<>. He …….. always …. ( complain).

p<>. We …..( invite) them to the party but they ( decide) not to come.

p<>. Police …….. ( arrest) somebody in connection with a theft.

p<>. …… he …..yet? Yes he …….. already ( leave).

p<>. …… you my sister? No, I ………….. today, but I …. her yesterday (see).

p<>. I ………………………. ( talk) to my friend about the problem and she agrees with me.

p<>. It ………………………. ( rain ) for two hours.

p<>. Malini ……………. ( work) here since 1999.

p<>. I …………………… ( teach) English for ten years.

p<>. My hands are dirty. I ….. ( repair ) the car. The car is ok now. I ….( repair ) it.

p<>. He ………. in hospital since Monday.

p<>. I …..always ……..( live) in cities.

p<>. When I ( go) home yesterday, I found that someone…. (broke) into the flat.

p<>. When …… (enter) the library, Sarah….. already …….( return) the book.

p<>. Later in the programme, I ……..( talk ) to the Cabinet Ministry.

p<>. Don’t call me between 8-9pm, we ….. (have) dinner then.

p<>. The water … ( boil) at 100 degrees Celsius.

p<>. There ____________ (be) a gradual increase in production over the last 10 years.

p<>. Enormous oil deposits ______ (find) under the surface of earth.

p<>. The farmers complained that they _________ (be) unable to raise the crops.

p<>. Since there was no pollination in the apple trees and there ______ (be) no fruit.

p<>. From the economic point of view, solar cookers ______ (be) the ideal working.

Choose the right verb: ( concord)

p<>. One of my ……. ( friend/ friends, is/ are ) out of station.

p<>. The boys who were near Director’s room ( want/ wants) OD to attend a seminar.

p<>. There ( are/ is ) many children in the park.

p<>. There ( is / are ) a book on the table.

p<>. My father and my guardian ( wants/ want ) me to got to US for studies.

p<>. The poet and philosopher ( is/ are ) no more.

p<>. Ten rupees ( is/ are ) not a big amount.

p<>. Fairy Tales (was/ were ) written by Roget Mary.

p<>. A crowd of people ( is/ are ) moving towards the border.

p<>. Little of the furniture ( are / is ) broken.

p<>. The pair of scissors ( has/ have ) been lost.

p<>. Stationery ( costs/ cost) a lot these days.

p<>. Most of the Indians ( are / is ) poor.

p<>. Most of the traffic ( moves/ move ) fast.

p<>. The news ( is / are ) good.

p<>. Some of the money ( is / are ) lost. Some of the people involved in the robbery ( are/ is ) caught.

p<>. Every one in the class ( has/ have ) to submit the assignment.

p<>. Indian team ( has/ have ) played well. So India (has / have) won the match by 9 wickets.

p<>. Mangalam, as well as his brothers, (visit/ visits) the town everyday.

p<>. They together with their son, (are/ is )coming tomorrow.

p<>. Neither the man nor the women ( have / has ) given the right reply.

p<>. Not only the girl but also the boys ( are/ is ) well dressed.

p<>. Not only the books, but the note book (have/ has) been given.

Change to impersonal passive voice whenever necessary: ( voice)

p<>. Some one built this house in 1951.

p<>. Do they clean this room every day?

p<>. They cancelled all flights due to fog.

p<>. People don’t use this road much.

p<>. How do people learn languages?

p<>. Do not tamper with the machines.

p<>. Somebody is using my mail

p<>. Everyone likes English class.

p<>. Has anyone shown you what to do?

p<>. How much will they pay you for your work?

p<>. They have postponed the meeting.

p<>. I dint realize that somebody was recording our conversation.

p<>. They can build a new bridge to divert the traffic.

p<>. I don’t like people telling me what to do.

p<>. Don’t invite them to the party.

Fill the blanks with correct conjunctions:

p<>. He is rich…. treats all as his brothers.

p<>. She is …. a scholar … a teacher.

p<>. I know …. you are honest.

p<>. … I entered the class I heard the bell ring.

p<>. She left the hall …. the before the function started.

p<>. The machine stopped ……some technical fault.

p<>. I joined the course…..improve my skills.

p<>. ————- I heard him calling you, I reported immediately.

p<>. Suja has to attend the workshop at Salem tomorrow, --------- she is leaving this evening.

p<>. ———— our fax machine is not working, we rented the fax from an outsider.

Complete the following with indicators of purpose:

p<>. I am working hard …. To do well in the exams.

p<>. I have taken notes … doing well in the exams.

p<>. …………. to do well in the exams I am working hard.

p<>. I will work hard … … I can do well in the exams.

p<>. … of working hard is to do well in the exams.

Fill the blanks with the prefix that has the meaning given as a clue next to each word:

1 ------ sonic = less than, under

2. ------ continental = across

3 -------- violet = beyond a certain limit

Write opposites by using the right prefixes.

4.  Do you think my friend is an obedient son? No I’m sure he is ___________.

5.  Is my handwriting legible? No, I find it quite ___________.


Frame questions to the following statements:

p<>. Bayless, with a team at Ohio University, created a photo bioreactor.

p<>. America is the largest contributor to global warming than any other country.

p<>. The gases coming from power plants, traffic jams and industrial smog is causing our ozone to disappear.

p<>. The Department of Energy is only considering Yucca Mountain as a possible storage site for nuclear waste.

Parts of Speech:

A. Read the text below. Use the word given within the brackets to form a word that fits in the space in the same line. First one is given as an example.

Ans: 0 argument (argue)

1. Construction workers in Surrey have found themselves in an argument (argue) over a cherry tree. The ___1____ (build), who have been working for several weeks on a new ___2___ (industry) centre, have been given instructions to chop down the tree to provide ____3______ (addition) car parking facility.. However, the 4____ (reside) argue that it would only provide space for one more car.

2. ……1….(Save) the environment is not an issue anymore. It is a……2…… (survive) truth. Individuals, …3…..(organize) and governments need to come together and join hands to protect what is left of our planet so that the future is not …4…(wipe) out before it’s time for curtain call.

5 . B. Correct Verb Form : Choose the right verb from the options given below. An example is provided

1. National Environment Engineering Research Institute 0 that fourteen important rivers of India have been highly polluted. The main pollutants of these rivers …1…..animal carcasses, open drains and effluents from industry Mr. K. K. Mahajan of the Department of Environment 2 that toxic effluents from industries such as chemicals, metallurgy and fertilizers 3 into the Periyar, the largest river in Kerala. So is the case of the Cauvery in T.N. A.P Mills alone 4 4500 gallons of toxic waste every day into River Godawari.

Example: 0 – a. reported

0.a. reported b. suggested c. promised d. called

1. a. are b . were c. was d. is

2. a. cries b. disclosed c. feels d. states

3. a. get b. flow c. carry d. spills

4. a. dumps b. put c. give d. provide

2. Increasing number of organizations ……1….. (form) to prevent the planet from premature extinction. More and more corporates …2….. (join) the race to save the planet. We can simply begin by buying recycled products for your office, home or school. The greater the demand for recycled products, the more companies will be encouraged…3 …( add )recycled material to their products. Let us reuse what we would easily…4…. ( thrown) away and conserve for a future.

Reported Speech:

A. Fill the blanks in the following sentences by using the reporting verbs given in italics ( One extra verb is given):

1. advised 2. ordered 3. invited 4. Refused 5. Begged

1. “Please, please, turn down the volume!”

The passenger ……… him to turn the volume down.

2. “I’ll give you a lift to the factory.”

Manjusha ……… to give her colleague lift to the factory.

3. The teacher said to her student, “You need to study harder.”

She ……… him to study harder.

4. Raju said, “I won’t allow you to use my technical persons anymore.”

Raju ……… to let him use his technical persons anymore .

B. Rewrite the following sentences by changing into reported speech:

1. The teacher says, “The metric system is one of the most common systems of measurement.”

2. The team lead told his co-workers, “This programme must be completed tomorrow.”

3. The teacher asked the students, “Have you all submitted your record note books?”

4. Looking at his telescope, Hans Lippershey said “Oh! What a great invention!”

5. “Meet me in the Department tomorrow” the HOD said

6. My supervisor said, “Let us inspect the machines today”

7. Albert Einstein says, “Try not to become a man of success but a man of value”.

8. The Supervisor told the workers, “Be careful in handling the machinery. We need it to complete the work tomorrow.”

9. She said, “Would you like to visit our factory for industrial visit?”

10. The passenger said, “Could you keep your mobile in silent mode as we all are sleeping?”

Framing Questions: Write appropriate question for the statements given below:

1. Wheels and pulleys are used by ancient humans.

2. Coal , gas and oil are called fossil fuels, owing to their formulation by the fossilization of substances over hundreds of years.

3. The early humans had discovered that fire had several uses, such as providing heat to keep oneself warm, cooking food as well as heating it.

4. Yes, it is [_ possible to make power plants achieve more than 30% fuel energy _] . Modern natural gas- fired plants (Combined Cycle Gas Turbines) have an efficiency of almost 60%.

5.The average distance (the mean distance) between the Earth and the Sun is about 150 million kilometers (93 million miles).

6. It is estimated that there are from 100 billion to 400 billion stars in our Milky Way galaxy alone.

7. A thermocouple produces a tiny voltage proportional to the temperature difference between two junctions where dissimilar metals meet.

8 . A computer is a machine for manipulating data according to a list of instructions – a program

9. The ability of most humanoid apes to learn new patterns of behavior surprises the scientists.

10. During an earth quake, most casualties result from partial building collapse, falling objects and debris, like toppling chimneys, ceiling plaster and light fixtures.

Punctuation :

A. Read the following lines and rewrite by using the correct punctuation (underline wherever punctuation marks are used). (4x ½ = 2)

1. instead Chambers 1988 suggests the importance of the genetic influence in determining the antecedents

2. it was found however that most of the liquid could not be absorbed

3. all of these books are to be catalogued the ones on geology natural history philosophy and scientific method

4. the car left the road rolled down the bank turned over several times hit a free and then burst into flames.

VI. Contextual Guessing:

p<>. A. Make Contextual Guessing of the meaning of words in bold in column A and match with their meanings in column B. An extra option is given in B.


table<>. <>. |<>.
bq. A

1. Are you…..? Yes, I’m famished.

2. Is she an ……..girl? Yes, she’s absolutely brilliant.

3. Your little boy looks……. Yes, he’s worn out.

4. Did you think the sentence was….? Yes, I thought it was appropriate.

|<>. p=. B

a. fair

b. intelligent

c. gorgeous

d. hungry

e. tired |

6. B. Read the following sentences and choose the right answer by guessing from the context:

1. Hurricanes and tornadoes are treacherous. Only a very foolish person would go out during that kind of weather. What does treacherous probably mean?

1) exciting 2) dangerous 3) delirious 4) safe

2. Many ships have vanished during hurricanes. No survivors from the lost ships have ever been found. What does vanished probably mean?

1) arrived 2) departed 3) returned 4) disappeared

3. I took the tome off the shelf and opened it to page 94. Then I began to read. What does tome probably mean?

1) some food 2) a bad dream 3). a CD 4) a book

4. You can trust the salesmen at that store because they always conduct business in an aboveboard manner. What does an aboveboard probably mean?

1) honestly, openly 2) sneaky, dishonest 3) horrible, repugnant 4) strange, unusual 

5. Padma has so many friends because she is a gregarious person. What does ] [_probably mean?]

1) introverted, self-contained,2) shy, quite 3) friendly, outgoing, 4) rude, hostile.

6. This virus has really sapped my energy. I get tired just walking across the room. I hope to get better soon because I need to return to work.  What does sap probably mean?
1) give, increase 2) make slow 3) take away, drain 4) enhance

7. Some people think that discussing the dangers of cigarette smoking obscures the real issue. They believe the real issue is that smokers are discriminated against. What does obscure probably mean?
1) to shorten  2) to challenge  3) to make obvious 4) to hide, concealed.

8. The accountant clerks are responsible to check for false signatures, thus they needed to verify all cheques with the original signature before paying the money. What does false probably mean?
p. 1. fake 2. true 3. original 4. imposter

VII. Confusing words:

p<>. Choose the correct word (1 or 2 given in the brackets) for each of the following sentences:

1. . Read the contract carefully to detect a hidden…….. ( 1.claws / 2.clause).

2. They are planning to ……. out the project in stages. (1.faze / 2. phase)

3. This is a serious ……..of security! (1. breach / 2. breech)

4. He plowed right …..the other team’s defensive line….(1. through / 2. threw)

5. “Are you buying Christmas cards…..? It’s only September!” (1. all ready / 2. already).

6“She …..her new invention to display in the exhibition.” (1.brought / 2. bought)

7. She was so….. that she fell asleep………….. (1. boring /2 bored)

8. I always feel so lonely when we’re…………. (1. a part / 2 apart).

Part B

1. CHECKLIST: Change the following statements into questions:

1. All the original copies of the certificates have been filed.

2.There are extra copies of passport size photographs?

3.There are enough cyclostyled copies of birth certificate, appointment letter, income tax form filed .

4.All the papers are arranged in order.

5.I have enclosed copy of the passport.

6. I have filed the reference letters.

7. The ticket is booked.

8. The print out of the email is taken.

9. The hotel has been booked.

10. The address of the company has been noted down along with contact numbers.

2. Write a ten item checklist for people living in earth quake prone areas on steps to be taken before an earth quake occurs.

3. Write a ten item checklist for a person planning to purchase a new mobile phone.


1. Assume that you have decided to a mini project on checking the quality of water supplied for drinking to the residents of your area by the metro/ municipality. In the process of doing the project, you may have to meet the water supply in charge and enquire the source of the water supplied. You may visit the water source and observe the surrounding areas to check if any industry/ residents around are casing any pollution. You may need to check the water supplied to the houses to check if any pollution is caused in the water pipes. Using these ideas, write a proposal for the project in an appropriate format.

2. Imagine that you are part of a team preparing a proposal to survey the rising level of pollution in your city. Write a project proposal in the correct format.

3. Write a report on an industrial visit in the correct format with a title page.

4.Write a feasibility report on introducing a new product into the market. You can decide a product of your choice and decide details like the name of the company, name of the product etc. Draw the title page, and provide introduction along with the detailed report that includes your observations, suggestions along with the summary.

4. Error Detection:

Correct the mistakes in the following sentences:

p<>. “It was a blunder mistake.”

p<>. “It would have been more better.”

p<>. “Why don’t he get married?”

p<>. I want two Xeroxes of this card.”

p<>. “Your hairs are looking silky today.”

p<>. “My shirt is lose.”

p<>. “One of my friend lives in Kolkata.”

p<>. “I didn’t cried when I saw the movie.”

p<>. I bought new furnitures for the bedroom.

p<>. Please bring along the film equipments!

p<>. Display the datas in a graph.

p<>. Did you see the deers in the forest?

p<>. There were many pretty womans at the party!

p<>. What were the different criterias for joining?

p<>. I’m interested in misunderstood phenomenas.

p<>. Every Sunday, I take headbath.

p<>. I sended that parcel.

p<>. I will call you today night.

p<>. Can I have your name?

p<>. Can I go to thewashroom? Can I come in ?

p<>. Please return my book back. Could you repeat that last line again?

p<>. I, my sister and Deepa went to the mall

p<>. The fish aquarium is very large.

p<>. The dance ballet was lovely.

p<>. I could not able to do it, sir.

p<>. “He said me to go.” “Please on the fan!” “He is my cousin brother.”

p<>. “He has eaten a mango yesterday.”

p<>. “He is loving himself!”

p<>. “I am standing on the bus stop.”

p<>. I am quiet certain that I paid the fee.

p<>. I could hear quite music in the distance.

p<>. Did you go their as well?

p<>. There going to the office tomorrow.

p<>. The concerned person is not there.

p<>. We discussed about the project.

p<>. Anyways, afterwards we went to the party.

p<>. I practice cricket every morning.

p<>. Practise makes perfect.

p<>. There was a tough contest among Australia and South Africa.

p<>. The prize will be divided between the three groups.

p<>. I haven’t found it nowhere.

p<>. . He didn’t do nothing at office!

p<>. One of my student wanted a book.

p<>. The examinations are preponed.

p<>. Everybody are going there.

5. Summarize the following project proposal ( only a part of it is given):

To: Dr. Viswanadham From: Vignesh, Student Date: 1 September 20.. Subject: Project Proposal

Proposed Research Topic: A Survey of the Air Pollution in Chennai City in the Month of October

Purpose: In this project, a survey of the air pollution levels in busy areas of Chennai will be made by installing instruments like……………at CBD (Central Business District areas like T Nagar, Purasavakam, Paris).A study of pollution levels in the morning, afternoon and evening will be made and the data will be compared. Particular attention will be paid to those areas which have same pollution level through out the day. Such a study should give insights into the reasons for pollution, pollutants and how they can be arrested etc. Also, the study will help in comparing the data with other cities of India.

Background: The study will be conducted by a team within areas under the Pollution Control Division in Chennai City. Pollution Control Division has split the city into four zones- East, West, North and South, each of which is responsible for observation of air pollution levels. This particular team formed by the student includes four students. They are assigned to an area around Chennai. They start each day with a brief (15-45 minute meeting) on an agreed agenda, often just gathering around the back of a truck for their meeting. Once the team members decide to move to their assigned site, they note down the pollution levels at various parts of the day and make a comparison with other days. Observation of the climate also will be made as it will affect the pollution levels. For example on a rainy day the dust level will be less and this will be reported in the data.

Scope: The study will be carried out for four weeks, from 1^^st^^ to 31st October. The observations will be made at 5am, 9am, 12 .30pm, 4pm and at 9pm. The timings are those hours when the traffic will be less (early morning) and also when one finds peak hour traffic.

Theoretical framework: Mostly the instruments provided by the University for the study will be used besides seeking the help of Pollution Control Board, Chennai. The focus is on generating data at key points specified above and to compare with those hours when there is less traffic. The intention is to find out if air population is caused by more vehicles on the roads or not. If yes, what is the contribution of Vehicular pollution? Statistical tools will be used to analyze and interpret the data. Interviewing the road users, traffic control authorities also will validate the study.


1. Conduct a literature review on Air Pollution

2. Choosing the right instruments and installing them at areas agreed upon with Pollution Control Board, Chennai.

3. Meet team members regularly to clarify and provide insight into observations made..

4. Undertake an analysis of the field notes and interview notes, using statistical tools..

5. Write a project report that combines an understanding of the relevant study and previous research with the results of my study.


Prepare proposal by 15^^th^^ September Complete literature review by 25^^th^^ September

Install Instruments by 1^^st^^ October Complete fieldwork by 31^^st^^ October

Complete analysis by 10^^th^^ November Give presentation on 11^^th^^ November

Complete final report by 15^^th^^ November

Limitations: Time constraints of the semester require less time than may be ideal for a survey. By doing the study based on ………… instruments and those recording of Pollution Control Board only at chosen hours for four weeks, there are bound to be some effects on the study. Since the study is conducted in the rainy season the level of Dust in the air will be minimal.

Delimitations: The study will not be conducted at all hours of the day but only at stated timings. The study will be made only at busy areas of Chennai city.

References: http://www.lums.lancs.ac.uk/phd/PhDproposal/

Assignment on Reported Speech Name: Roll no:

Task 1: Fill the blanks in the second column with appropriate words using the clue given:

table=. =. |=.
p=. Direct speech |=.
p=. Indirect speech | =. |=.
p=. He said ‘I live in Chennai’.

|=. p=. He said t he lived in…… | =. |=. p=. He said, ‘ I am cooking dinner now ‘ |=. p=. He said t he w cooking dinner . | =. |=. p=. He said, ‘ I have visited Delhi twice.’ |=. p=. He said t he had visited …….twice. | =. |=. p=. He said, ‘ I went to Kerala last week.’ |=. p=. He said t he h gone to the week b | =. |=. p=. He said , ‘I had already eaten’. |=. p=. He said t he h already eaten. | =. |=. p=. He said, ‘I am going to find a new job’. |=. p=. He said t he w going to find a new job. | =. |=. p=. He said, ‘I will give Jaya a call’. |=. p=. He said t he w give J a call. | =. |=. p=. He said, ‘I have been working on that project for over two weeks’. |=. p=. He said t he h been working on that project for over two weeks. | =. |=. p=. He said, ‘I can come tonight ‘. |=. p=. He said t he c come t night . | =. |=. p=. He said, ‘I may buy a new car.’ |=. p=. He said t he m buy a new car . | =. |=. p=. He said, ‘I might go to Trichy.’ |=. p=. He said t he m go to . | =. |=. p=. He said, ‘I must give Kalyani a call.’ |=. p=. He said t he h to give K   a call.  | =. |=. p=. He said, ‘I have to give Kalyani a call.’ |=. p=. He said t he  h to give Kalyani a call.  | =. |=. p=. He said, ‘I should see a doctor’. |=. p=. He said t he s see a doctor. |

Task 2 A:

table<>. <>. |<>.
p<>. You met your friend Anushka after a long time.

Here is what she said to you.

|<>. p<>. Tell your mother what Anushka said to you. Use reported speech. | <>. |<>. p<>. 1 .My parents are fine.

2 .I am doing Engineering now.

3. I want to go for further studies in future.

4.We have shifted to Chennai last year

5. I can’t come to your hose today.

6. I am going to Delhi tomorrow.

7. I will phone you when I come back.

|<>. p. |

*Note: It is not always necessary to change the verb in Reported speech. If you report a situation that has not changed, you do not need to change the verb to the past( Of course you can also change the verb as per the rules taught in the class, as both are correct).

Task 2 B:

1. ‘Where do you live?’ Anushka a……. me.

2. ‘Who is your favorite singer?’ She a…….

3. ‘Are you married ?’ She a……..

4. ‘Has your father retired yet?’ She enq…….

5. ‘What about going to the beach?’ She sug……..

6. ‘You should use a cap as it is very hot. .’ She ad……..

7. How handsome you are!

Task 2 C: You friend Sunil said all this to your bench mate Rajan . All the sentences are in direct speech. Change them to reported speech: Use the following reporting verbs:

requested ….. suggested …. wondered (if/ whether) … asked … ordered

p<>. Don’t waste your time waiting for me.

p<>. Please help me to complete the work.

p<>. Could you please tell me the answer?

p<>. Do you think I will be sent out of the class if I don’t complete the work?

p<>. Please slow down.

p<>. Don’t worry, Rajan.

p<>. Don’t take my book.

Task D: Identify who would have said the following sentences to your brother and report them to your friend.

table<>. <>. |<>.
p<>. Direct speech |<>.
p<>. Reported Speech | <>. |<>.
p<>. 1. Submit the assignment tomorrow.

2. Don’t use internet too much

3. Don’t waste your time on face book.

4. Stop the TV now.

5. Develop the habit of reading as it improves your English language.

6. Why dint you come to college yesterday?

7. Please bring the news paper.

8. Have you completed the assignment I gave last week?

9. How beautiful your handwriting is!

|<>. p. |

Ref: Murphy Raymond (2004) Murphy’s English Grammar Cambridge Uni Press. Chennai

[+ http://www.tolearnenglish.com/exercises/exercise-english-2/exercise-english-3041.php+]

Assignment on Sentence types1: Identify the following sentences as simple, compound and complex and rewrite as per the directions without changing the meaning:

p<>. “To succeed, you must first be willing to fail.”( change to complex sentence)


p<>. “It is our attitude at the beginning of a difficult task which, more than anything else, affect s it’s successful outcome”.( change to complex)

Your attitude

p<>. “The gem cannot be polished without friction, nor man perfected without trials.” ( change to simple)


p<>. “It’s easy to be a critic, but being a doer requires effort, risk, and change “. ( change to complex)

If one is a doer,

p<>. Remember, you can earn more money, but when time is spent is gone forever ( change to complex).

If time

p<>. The first requisite of success is the ability to apply your physical and mental energies to one problem without growing weary.” ( change to compound)

To be successful,

p<>. There is no achievement without goals. ( change to complex)


p<>. “People with goals succeed because they know where they’re going.” ( change to compound)

Successful people have

p<>. I find it fascinating that most people plan their vacation with better care than they do their lives.( change to compound)

Most people plan their

p<>. You must have long term goals to keep you from being frustrated by short term failures.”( change to compound )

You must

p<>. “Go for the moon. If you don’t get it, you’ll still be heading for a star.”( change to simple)

Without going

p<>. Decide what you want, decide what you are willing to exchange for it. ( change to complex)


p<>. We all have two choices; We can make a living or we can design a life( change to compound)

The two choices we have are – either to

p<>. By recording your dreams and goals on paper, you set in motion the process of becoming the person you most want to be (change to simple).

To be successful

p<>. You’ll never achieve your dreams if they don’t become goals. ( change to compound)

Goals are ……………. and so

Assignment – I


p<>. Before the fire engine ________ (arrive) the fire __________ (destroy) the whole building.

p<>. The experiment _________ (begin) a few months ago.

p<>. Garden Cooper, a Mayor in the American Air Force, ______ (go) into space in 1963.

p<>. A house _______ (built) after secure foundations ________ (lay)

p<>. The plane __________ (fly) 300 km high when one of its engines went out

p<>. A decade ago the most vehement opposition to computerization…………. (come) from people who……(believe)that it leads to unemployment.

p<>. In future, the houses _________(erect) with new technologies.

p<>. At Chernobyl, the accident [+ ____ ____ ] (occur) while the operators [ _____ +] (carry) out a test on the turbo generator.

p<>. The community type hybrid solar cooker [+ ____ ____ +] (consist) of wooden box with a steel tray inside.

p<>. The plane [+ ___ ______ +] (fly) 300 km high, when one of its engines went out.


Identify whether the sentence is expressed in active or passive voice and change to the other voice.

p<>. A machine uses physical efforts, forces and work to get a job done.

p<>. A machine receives input from an energy source and transforms it into output in the form of mechanical or electrical energy.

p<>. At this time, the Department of Energy is only considering Yucca Mountain as a possible storage site for nuclear waste.

p<>. In a new study, a team of scientists have found evidence for saltwater flows on Mars.

Change the following sentences into impersonal passive voice:

p<>. After studying various different varieties, the scientists discovered that MeSiCl~3 ~could, under certain conditions, form a highly hydrophobic coating on silicon wafers.

p<>. Scientists have applied this coating to water-repellent fabrics.

p<>. At this time, the Department of Energy is only considering Yucca Mountain as a possible storage site for nuclear waste.

p<>. We weld two metal plates together.

p<>. They have performed the operation successfully.

p<>. He promoted new ideas in his company.

p<>. They dissolve the gold in aqua regia.

p<>. The mechanics are using thin grease as a lubricant in ball bearings.


p<>. The insurance company hopes that neither the architect nor the construction firm (are held,/is held) liable.

p<>. In the past three months, a new series of low-priced computers (has been released,/have been released).

p<>. What criteria_______ (has / have) been employed in the selection of the crew members?

p<>. A financial support program apart from the scholarships given to the students _________ (has / have) been put into practice this year.

p<>. The number of students who register in these courses_________ (changes / change) every year.

p<>. Either the passengers or the driver ________(is/ are) wrong.

p<>. Few ________(know/ knows) the name of this restaurant.

p<>. A pair of sun glasses —-usually more expensive than reading glasses.

p<>. Everything, including my new pair of trousers, ———-dirty.

p<>. No one in this class ——going to graduate this semester.

p<>. People who live in this small town ——-famous for their hospitality.

p<>. Outside the house there (was / were) two men in gray waiting in the dark.

p<>. Many Chinese (goes / go) to the US to study in universities.

p<>. Parapsychological phenomena (attracts / attract) many people .

p<>. Economic crises occurring almost every year (has / have) hindered the development of the country.

p<>. A financial support program apart from the scholarships given to the students (has / have) been put into practice this year.


IV. Cloze test: (test of vocabulary) Fill the blanks with appropriate words given in the options. An example ( 0) is given

Throughout the ages, birds have been a source of wonder to all who have (0) ----- their soaring flight or listened to their sweet song. (1) ----- a group, birds are (2) ----- they are the only animals covered (3) ----- feathers. This evolutionary development (4) ----- birds from all other animals.

Example: Answer 0. d

0. A.) verified b) supported c) claimed d) observed e) warned

1. a) Like b) Just c) Still d) Another e) As

2. a). unique b) common c) mundane d) indifferent e)mediocre

3. a). by b) on c) with d) as e) into

4. a). has been separated b) separates c) separated d) was separated e) separating


2. The postal service is the government agency (1) ----- handles the mail. Its job is (2) ----- letters and packages to people and businesses all over the world. Its goal is to see that your mail gets to its destination (3) ----- possible. People (4) ----- the postal service to deliver important letters and even valuables,(5) ----- time and to the right person.

1. a. the fact that b. whether c. of which d. that e. in that

2. a. being delivered b. to be delivered c. to have delivered d. having delivered, e. to deliver

3. a. less quickly b. too quickly c. so quickly that d. as quickly as e. the most quickly

4. a. back out b. check out c. come in d. figure out e. rely on

5. a. to b. for c. at d. on e. over

V. AFFIXES: Add suitable prefixes/suffixes according to the given meaning of the prefix.

An example is given: Example: 0. …… collegiate= between colleges Ans : intercollegiate)

1. ------ gamy (many marriages) 2. ------ edible = not suitable to eat.

3. ------ structure (above the structure) 4.Techno------ (fear of technology)

5. ------ sonic (less than, under ) 6. ------ continental (across)

7 -------- violet (beyond a certain limit)

Complete the following sentences by using the right prefixes. An example is given below:

p<>. That man is locking the door. No he isn’t He’s unlocking it.

p<>. Do you think my friend is an obedient son? No I’m sure he is ___________.

p<>. Is my handwriting legible? No, I find it quite ___________.

Write noun forms to the following words:

1 manage 2. Following 3. Use 4. Write

Use the right idiom given in the help box to fill up the space:

table<>. <>. |<>.
p<>. see red green fingers black list feeling blue |

p<>. “What’s the matter with you. Are you ……………………………?

p<>. “When people are cruel to animals, it really makes me……………………”

p<>. “Everything grows in her garden. She definitely has …………………….”

p<>. “We won’t be invited to their party this year – we’re on their……………….”



Join the following sentences by using appropriate conjunctions:

p<>. INSAT 3A was built by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). The ISRO uses it to communicate and also for weather imaging.

p<>. The page you are looking for is currently unavailable. The Web site might be experiencing technical difficulties.

p<>. The machine stopped ……some technical fault.

p<>. I joined the course…..improve my skills.

p<>. ————- I heard him calling you, I reported immediately.

p<>. Suja has to attend the workshop at Salem tomorrow, --------- she is leaving this evening.

p<>. ———— our fax machine is not working; we rented the fax from an outsider.


VII. Write technical definitions to the following:

1. Engineering 2. Technology 3. Profession 4. Bionics 5. Rocketry 6. Sink 7. Source

Write 50 words with their definitions by collecting 10 definitions from each of your subject areas like Physics, Chemistry, Bio Medical or Bio Information technology, Computer Science, Cell biology etc.

VIII. Trans coding:

table<>. <>. |<>.
p<>. Activity |<>.
p<>. Average minutes per day |<>.
p<>. Person 1 |<>.
p<>. Person 2 |<>.
p<>. Myself | <>. |<>.
p<>. Sleep |<>.

|<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. p. | <>. |<>. p<>. Personal care i.e. Wash /dress |<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. p. | <>. |<>. p<>. Housework / Room cleaning |<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. p. | <>. |<>. p<>. Entertainment and culture |<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. p. | <>. |<>. p<>. Hobbies and games |<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. p. | <>. |<>. p<>. Watching TV |<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. p. | <>. |<>. p<>. Education |<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. p. |<>. p. | Interview two people and find out how much they spend on each activity and fill the gaps in the table below. Complete the gaps for myself first and approach the others . Write a short paragraph using comparatives. p.

IX. Rearrange the sentences:

p<>. This sounds good, but is it practical in reality?

p<>. We know that they are responsible for many problems ranging from global warming to ozone depletion, and there is no doubt that they have a devastating effect on animal and plant life on Earth.

p<>. In spite of years of scientific research, no-one really knows how much damage human beings are doing to their environment.

p<>. The latest buzz word in the continuing debate about the environment is ‘sustainable management’ – that means using plants and animals for our own benefit, but ensuring that enough are left alive to guarantee the survival of the species.


Assignment – II:

I . A. Fill up the blanks with suitable verb forms.

Nuclear power plants _______ ( be) different from conventional electricity generating plants. In the fueled plants, fossil fuel __________(burn) to produce heat. But the fuel used in nuclear plants, being radioactive, ____(be) critically dangerous and the waste materials are hazardous. The nuclear wastes released by the nuclear reactor also _______( emit) radiations if not properly stored.


B. Choose answers to blanks in the following sentences from the box given below. Just write the answer with numbering.

An example is given. It is not necessary to write full sentence:

table<>. <>. |<>.
p<>. is said will work is buys will get started sell |

Example: What …0….about Rdio these days? Ans : 0 . is said

Rdio, the music streaming service -----1----- by a co-founder of Skype, -----2----- getting into video. New and current subscribers of a $10-a-month unlimited music plan from Rdio (AR-dee-oh) -----3----- $25 to spend in the new digital store for video, called Vdio (VEE-dee-oh).The content -----4----- on personal computers and Apple's iPad for now. It's opening at first to users in the U.S. and Britain.

II . A. Identify the parts of speech of the BOLD words in the following sentences.

1.The mechanization of work has a REVOLUTIONARY effect on the lives of the people.

2.Increasing numbers of young women are choosing to continue their education BEYOND the undergraduate level.

3. There is currently a system where marketers and advertisers are able to tap into satellites, and broadcast commercials and advertisements DIRECTLY to cell phones, unsolicited by the phone’s user.

4. Podcasting is a way to record presentations, either audio, video, or screencast, and make THEM available over the web.

B. Read the passage and write answers by changing the words in brackets to the right form. Please do not write full passage and write answer with number. Follow the example that is given.

Example: Mobile devices are becoming a primary source of -0-(communicate).

Ans: 0 . Communication

Cisco today released the Cisco Customer Experience Report focused on health care. The –1– (find) from the survey conducted globally –2– ( indicate) a growing shift in consumer’s –3– ( expect) on medical services in India. It also examined perceptions of consumers and health care –4– (decide) makers (HCDMs) on patient experience in health care.


III. Identify the sentence type (simple /compound/complex)

p<>. Virtual microscopy is a technology that allows learners to pan, adjust magnification, and even focus digital microscopy slides.

p<>. We can prove that the earth is round

p<>. HTML is the dominant format for Web distribution but requires a fair bit of technical expertise.

p<>. Due to the devising of a new method for super heating steam the efficiency increases.

IV. Choose a confusable word from the brackets below to fill each space

p<>. Since the global ice melts at the (1)_________( poles/polls) wild life is suffering.

p<>. The use of pesticides is (2)________( immortal/ immoral) because it harms the environment.

p<>. Pay is (3)_______when there is greater competition to(4) ____people. hire/higher)

p<>. “I always (accept / except) good advice.”

p<>. I teach every day (accept / except) Sunday(s).”

p<>. “I need someone to give me some (advice / advise).”

p<>. “I (advice / advise) everybody to be nice to their teacher.”

V. Rewrite the following sentences as directed.

p<>. Since a coat of red oxide paint was not given, the lamp post rusted quickly (into compound)

p<>. We came across a place where a peasant lived . (into simple)

p<>. How sweet and soft is the new born baby! (into assertive sentence)

p<>. His intelligence helped him to tackle the problem (into complex).

p<>. Science is the reasoned investigation and technology is the application of math, science, and the arts for the benefit of life. (Change to complex)

p<>. The engineer designed the new machine and got a patent for it (Change to simple).

VI. The following box contains expression which people use in different situations. Match the situation in Column A with that of expressing one’s opinion in Column B

table<>. <>. |<>.
h5<>. A

h5<>. B

| <>. |<>.
h5<>. 1. expressions for asking someone’s opinion

2. give our own opinions
3. to soften something which might upset other people
4. to introduce apologetic refusals and bad news

h5<>. A. In my opinion, she is sick.

B. Ghosts don’t exist. At least, I have never seen one.

C. I am afraid I forgot to post the letters.
D. ‘How do you see the situation?’



VII. How do you politely respond in the following situations-?

1. A friend asks what you would like to drink. Which is the correct response?

a. Yes, please b. I like coffee, please c. I’d like some coffee, please.

2. You want to invite a friend for a movie.  What should you say?

a. Would you like a movie? b. Do you like go movie?

c. Would you like to see a movie?

3. Somebody is introduced to you and he shakes hand by saying “ How do you do? How do you respond to the greeting?

a.. How do you do? b. I am fine, thank you c. How are you?

4. You have just made some chocolate cake and want to offer some to your friend. What should you ask?

a.. You like chocolate cake? b. Do you like some chocolate cake?

c. Would you like some chocolate cake?


VIII. A. Read the following and guess the meanings of the words underlined from the context

1. What does “eaves” mean in the sentences below?

Some birds had built a nest up in the eaves of our house. Houses in the mountains have

wide eaves so the snow will not pile up against the windows.

2. What does the word “particle” mean in the sentence below?

John was so hungry that he didn’t leave a single particle of the muffin on the plate.

B. Read the following and guess the meanings of the words underlined

1.After the heavy rains, the stream became murky; in fact, the water was so cloudy you couldn’t see the bottom.

a) full b) muddy c) clear

2.The coach takes every opportunity to censure his players, and he ignores every opportunity to praise them.

a) criticize b) disapprove c) comment

3. The lovely egret is in danger of extinction because clothing manufacturers use their long, beautiful tail feathers to make ladies’ hats

a) a small animal b) a type of squirrel c) a type of bird

4. The hill was too arduous for us to climb

a) strenuous b) heavy c) steep

IX. Change the following sentences into reported speech.

p<>. Charles said to the teacher “I didn’t have time to do my homework.”

p<>. The Principal says, “The young people of today are tomorrow’s leaders.”

p<>. Do you know how to operate a computer ?” asked the personnel officer.

p<>. “Don’t push !” the conductor said to the passengers who were boarding the bus.

p<>. 1. “Meet me in the department tomorrow,” the Professor said.

p<>. 2. “Don’t worry about the exams. Work hard,” my mother said.

X. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate forms of the verb.

Verb Noun Adjective

a) Integrate ___________ ___________

b) ________ employment ___________

bq. XI . Frame questions, to which the bold italicized words are the answers .

p<>. Computers are found everywhere in the town.

p<>. The latest machine is installed in the Shoe factory

p<>. Gold ornaments are made by skilled crafts people

p<>. The convocation will be held next Tuesday.

p<>. A Cassegrain telescope is a wide-angle reflecting telescope with a concave mirror that receives light and focuses an image.

p<>. 2. A correcting plate (a lens) was added in 1930 by the Estonian astronomer and lens-maker Bernard Schmidt (1879-1935).


XII. A. Edit and Punctuate the following passage

1.Following a period of very heavy rainfall water levels has risen dramatically. Mountain rivers have already flooded hundred of villages. The moment water levels rise above ‘danger level’ the people from the areas bordering the rivers are vacated. Tonight an emergency talk force set up by our country will implement a possible aid plan for the flooded areas. All rescu operations and rescue teams have been sent to the more affected regions .

2. if I was president I will make helth care more afoardable


XIII. A. Write a Report on your recent Industrial visit to IGCAR, Kalpakkam expressing your interest and experience in about 150 words and submit it to your Department HOD.

B. Write a Report on an Industrial visit in the correct format. Your report should have a title page and the report should include introduction, details, your observations and recommendations.

C. Write a Proposal of your Project on the prevention of frequent accidents at OMR Road, Chennai.

XIV. Prepare a list of eight instructions that is to be followed by a student to improve/ his / her skills in speaking English language.

B. Prepare a checklist of 10 items to construct a spacious, comfortable, modern house.[Points in mind : Area, Approval of the area, blue print, finance nature of the house, cement, foundation, pipeline, chimney, paint, drainage outlet, compound wall, plantation of trees, furniture & crockery]


XV. Read the passage on “ Study a Balance of the 4 Key Skills (Listening, Speaking, Reading, Writing)” and answer the questions that follow:

Most students want to communicate better in English. If this is one of your goals, it is important to strike a balance of the four major skills. Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing are the main (macro) skills you need to communicate in any language. Being very good at only one of these skills will not help you to communicate fluently. For example you need to be able to read well before you can write well. You also need to be able to listen before you can speak. It helps to think of these communicative skills in two groups.

INput : Listening (in through your ears) and Reading (in through your eyes) OUTput: Speaking (out through your mouth). Writing (out through your hand) .

Input and output don’t necessarily go in a specific order. Sometimes you speak first and then you listen. Sometimes you write about something you hear. During communication, the person you are communicating with uses one of the opposite skills. Therefore, in order to understand each other, everyone must be skillful in all four areas.

Each of these main skills has micro skills within them. For example, pronunciation is a type of speaking skill that must be practiced in order to improve communication. Spelling is a skill that makes understanding the written word easier. Grammar and vocabulary are other micro skills. Micro doesn’t mean they are unimportant. Macro skills such as listening are very general, while micro skills are more specific.

For the best results, create an agenda that combines all four areas of study. Allow one type of studying to lead into another. For example, read a story and then talk about it with a friend. Watch a movie and then write about it. This is what teachers in an English class would have you do, right? Take active part in classroom interaction.

How to learn LISTENING

Listen to the radio. Don’t always have a pen in hand. Sometimes it helps to just listen. Watch English TV but remember that much of what you hear on TV is slang. Watch movies Choose ones with subtitles, or one from ESLNotes.com (provides useful notes on popular movies). Use Internet listening resources. Every day there are more and more places to listen to English online.

How to learn SPEAKING and pronunciation:

Talk to yourself. Talk about anything and everything. Do it in the privacy of your own home. If you can’t do this at first, try reading out loud until you feel comfortable hearing your own voice in English.

Record your own voice. This might make you feel very uncomfortable, but it will help you find your weak pronunciation points. Listen to yourself a few days later. Which sounds do you have difficulty hearing?

Use the telephone. Participate in class. Learn common idioms. Recognize that teachers are trained to understand you. When you get out into the real world, average people will have a more difficult time understanding you unless you practice speaking slowly and with proper pronunciation in the class.

How to learn READING and vocabulary:

Read something every day – Children’s books, simplified readers (Penguin), newspapers, magazines, Internet sites, novels, and much more. Read what interests you. Remember that you learn better when you are enjoying it. Read at the appropriate level. You want to learn new vocabulary, but you also want to understand what you are reading. If you are looking up every word in the dictionary then, the reading is too difficult. Always have an English-English dictionary nearby. It is a bad habit to always rely on a translation dictionary or electronic dictionary. Think of your English-English dictionary as your life line. Use online dictionaries when you are using the Internet. Record vocabulary in a personal dictionary. Keep this notebook separate from other work. Record vocabulary in alphabetical order (an English address book works well because it has letters of the alphabet). Record the other parts of speech (sometimes there is more than one). Write a sample sentence for yourself (don’t use the one from the dictionary). Review your personal dictionary (especially new entries) every night before bed.

How to learn WRITING and spelling:

Keep a diary/journal. Don't always pay attention to grammar. Free- writing can be very useful. It can show you that writing is fun. Have fun with the language. Write e-mails in English Stay in contact with teachers or other students. Rewrite your local news in English.

This is another exercise that can be done on a daily basis. Remember that regular activities are the best ones. Grammar is for communication. Sometimes students get obsessed with grammar. This is especially true for students who grew up with strict grammar schooling. Remember that you only study grammar in order to communicate. Practice with a few exercises, then write an essay or have a conversation and try to use your new tools. Isolate your weak points. Don’t waste time on grammar exercises that you already understand just because they are easier for you. Concentrate on grammar that is difficult for you. If you are unsure of where your problems are, write a few short essays or paragraphs and ask the teacher to circle repeated errors. Then you can look up your problem and practice it. Teach grammar points to a friend. Find a friend who studies at a lower level than you. Teaching will force you to remember the rules and to understand them properly. Try preparing a worksheet for your friend.

Q. State whether the following statements are true or false:

p<>. Reading and listening are the input to the brain for learning speaking and writing.

p<>. Micro skills are not essential to improve macro skills of language.

p<>. Language is improved by practice.

p<>. A dictionary helps us to know meaning only. We must use internet resources to know the pronunciation and part of speech.

p<>. Group study is not useful to learn grammar as grammar is not important for learning key communication concepts.

Q. In questions 6 to 10 pick the odd answer: Choose the option that is not relevant to the other choices

6. To improve communicative skills a student should understand that-

a. reading improves writing b. Listening improves speaking

c. Looking up dictionary for every word helps in reading

d. teaching friends help in improving grammar

7. To improve listening in English

a. Student should listen to English songs b. listen to resources from the net

c. watch the films with subtitles d. Note down whatever the speaker says

8. To improve writing skills

a. Must learn punctuation and spelling b. maintain a diary in English

c. Identify one’s difficulties in writing.

d. should attend classes to be perfect in English Grammar

9. To develop your vocabulary-

a. note words in an address book

b. Look up unknown words in electronic or translation dictionary.

c. Go through your personal dictionary before sleeping

d. learn everyday idioms

10. To speak effectively-

a. talk to yourself about in privacy b. Improve pronunciation by listening.

c. read articles and essays on topics and speak about them and record yourself

d. Avoid speaking outside the class and speak to the teacher as s/he can understand you better


Model Question Paper

PART – A (10 × 2 = 20)

Answer All the Questions

1. Make verbs from the following by adding suitable suffixes

a. active b. length c. intense d. sympathy

2. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb given in the bracket

When the old man _____ (go), I _____ (run) to my father who _____ (stand) outside and _____ (ask) him what the stranger’s name was.

3. Write the passive form for the following sentences

a. The existing uranium reserves in the country can support a pressurized heavy water reactor program.

b. The Government of India has issued a Technology Policy statement in which they have spelt out India’s technology policy.

4. Rewrite the paragraph with proper subject verb agreement

A good book, with good stories, expose children to worlds beyond their own. It possesses the power to excite their imagination and draw them into these worlds, allowing them to experience vicariously what they may never go through in their real lives.

5. Write the hyponyms for the words given

a. Elasticity b. Petrol

6. Change into reported speech

a. He said to me, “You don’t have to stay in here with me, if it bothers you”.

b. She commented, “My tour cannot do much good”.

7. Add proper question tag for the following sentences

a. I am ready. b. Raghav is planning to buy a car.

8. Write polite expressions for the following statements

a. Tell us what do you mean by ‘green technology’?

b. Which subject are you teaching?

9. Fill in the blanks with suitable modal verbs

a. As you live in a hostel, you _____ be missing your home.

b. You _____ to inform the parents about the malpractice.

10. Fill in the blanks with words – lose, loose

If your networking is _____, you will definitely _____customers.

Answer All the Questions PART – B (5 × 12 = 60)

11. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages in using a power point presentation.


Fill the blanks with appropriate words

We obtain rice husk from rice_____. We produce it in such a _____ quantity that its _____ sometimes becomes a problem. People _____ most of it as _____ and live stock litter. When it is _____ to store, we burn it. When this is _____ in the open or under controlled _____ in a furnace, it leaves a _____ in the form of a highly reactive _____.

12. Imagine that you are the safety engineer of a car manufacturing factory. A fire accident has occurred in the factory and one of the workers has been badly hurt. Your general manager has asked you to send him a detailed report on the accident. Prepare a report accordingly.


A multinational car manufacturer has plans to set up a factory at Chennai, Tamil Nadu. The CEO of the company has asked you to prepare a report on the suitability of the place. Write a technical report on the market, labour, transport facilities etc., available in Chennai city.

13. Read the following passage and answer the questions given below

A decade ago, the most vehement opposition to computerization came from people who believed that it would lead to unemployment. The hue and cry was based on the argument that computers would aggravate the unemployment situation by taking jobs away from human beings.

However, the year 2001 tells a different story. The cause of unemployment is not a matter of too few jobs for too many people. There are many people without work and yet countless jobs that need to be done. It is imperative that India – with its population crossing the one billion mark – fulfils the basic requirements of the poor and homeless improve its infrastructure and yet be on par with global standards of technology.

It has been established that the computerization of an economy increases its efficiency and productivity while bringing about savings in cost, funds are generated and additional employment is created. But the paradox of India is its millions of poor people lacking the basic means of survival even while the rest of the world recognizes the invaluable worth of its technological industry.

India’s track record in the field of technology is now well known. There is a great demand for software professionals from India. At the same time there is a great deal of foreign investment in the technology sector.

Computers are now extensively employed in private and government sectors like banks, hotels, airlines, media, multinational business houses, Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited (VSNL) supports infrastructure for most nationalized banks, small scale industries and for the individual user as well. Many of these companies use networking systems like Wide Area Network (WAN) and Local Area Network (LAN) extensively. More recently in India, GenPact and Office Tiger have gone to the extent of maintaining their own lease lines to enhance business. Another feature in communication in multinational businesses and media houses have is the intranet facility which links their offices globally. Nuclear and defence establishments use super are created for a particular kind of industry, tailored to meet their special needs. Schools and other educational institutions have introduced computers to manage vast accounts of data. Software packages are created for a particular kind of industry, tailored to meet their special needs. Schools and other educational institutions have introduced computers as a subject. Private institutions that train students in programming are thriving because of the demand for more and more computer analysts and programmers. More than 70,000 computer professionals graduate every year.

India has also got well and truly caught up in the Internet revolution. Cyber cafes have sprouted up in nooks and crannies in towns and cities across the country. The Indian IT industry is aggressively pursuing Internet and e-commerce opportunities. Indian firms design multimedia content for Hollywood animation movies. Technology parks have been set up in the metro cities because India is considered the top destination for software outsourcing.

The question now is no longer whether computers are here to stay, but how much they contribute to the development of a country. Calamities such as droughts, floods and earthquakes are a reminder that these problems have to be addressed.

A. Skim the text and answer:

1. Say whether the text is (a) Argumentative (b) Imaginative © Narrative

Give justification for your choice

2. The aim of the author is

a. to compare the computer revolution with the Industrial Revolution

b. to suggest a solution to the problem of unemployment

c. to describe the benefits of computerization

3. Substitute one word from the text for the following words:

a. specially made

b. to increase in strength or amount

c. loud protest, or expression of alarm


B. Answer the following:

1. What is the paradox mentioned in the text?

2. State the examples of the use of the computers that are given in the text?

3. What is Internet Revolution?

4. Substitute one word from the text for the following words:

a. forceful b. to develop well and be successful

14. Write a resume for the following advertisement in “The Hindu”, dated 21.12.2010

HUNDAI, the pioneer in the automobile industry requires Deputy Manager

Imagine that you are an M.E graduate with 15 years of experience in a private concern and apply for the post.


As the organizing secretary for the event ‘Word Hunt’ in your Tech Fest, invite the editor of ‘Deccan Chronicle’ to be the chief guest and judge the event.

15. Write a project proposal for building a pick and place robot to a government funding agency.


Write a project proposal for fabricating a battery operated car to an automobile industry.

16. Study the following Pie Chart/ Bar Diagram and write a paragraph on it.











A Course Book In English for Engineers

English for Engineers includes materials by a teacher who used them for teaching English in Science and Technology contexts in India. Exercises and activities are developed by using content from online sources. The author has written to the concerned for permission to use the images for teaching English, but if any objection raised, materials will be modified or removed. The materials are not used for commercial purpose.

  • Author: Pushpa Nagini Sripada
  • Published: 2017-05-03 09:20:42
  • Words: 39960
A Course Book In English for Engineers A Course Book In English for Engineers